WorldWideScience

Sample records for sperm perfusion fsp

  1. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion for non-tubal infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Marjoribanks, Jane; Farquhar, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a common treatment for couples with subfertility that does not involve the fallopian tubes. It is used to bring the sperm close to the released oocyte. Another method of introducing sperm is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). Fallopian tube sperm

  2. The comparison between Intrauterine Insemination and Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion Using FAST® System in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Peivandi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH with intrauterine insemination (IUI is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP. This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG. Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45 to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45 to undergo FSP using FAST system. Results: The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%, whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05. Conclusion: FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility.

  3. Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and F. redolens f.sp. dianthi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Dreven, van F.; Krijger, M.C.; Waalwijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

  4. Friction stir processing (FSP: refining microstructures and improving properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNelley, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FSP is reviewed as an allied technology of friction stir welding (FSW and additional considerations such as processing pattern and step over distance are introduced. The application of FSP to continuously cast AA5083 material in the as-cast condition is described and the extent of grain refinement and homogenization of microstructure is documented. The FSP-induced superplastic response of this material is compared to the response of conventionally processed AA5083 and the improved ductility of the FSP material is related to grain refinement and microstructure homogenization.

    Se revisa el procesado por fricción batida (FSP como un aliado tecnológico de la soldadura por fricción batida (FSW y se introducen consideraciones adicionales tales como el patrón de procesado y el paso en función de la distancia. Se describe la aplicación de FSP al material AA5083 por colada continua en la condición de colada y se documenta el grado de afino de grano y homogeneización de la microestructura. La respuesta de superplasticidad inducida por FSP se compara con la respuesta de la aleación AA5083 procesada convencionalmente y la mejora de ductilidad del material FSP se relaciona con el afino de grano y la homogeneización de la microestructura.

  5. (FSP) of Al–TiC in situ composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An Al-5 wt% TiC composite was processed in situ using K2TiF6 and graphite in Al melt and subjected to FSP. Processing parameters for FSP were optimized to get a defect free stir zone and homogenize the particle distribution. It was found that a rotation speed > 800 rpm is needed. A rotation speed of 1000 rpm and a ...

  6. FLOW TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE FSP-1 EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Jones, Warren F.; Marcum, Wade; Weiss, Aaron; Howard, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversions fuel development team is focused on developing and qualifying the uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy monolithic fuel to support conversion of domestic research reactors to low enriched uranium. Several previous irradiations have demonstrated the favorable behavior of the monolithic fuel. The Full Scale Plate 1 (FSP-1) fuel plate experiment will be irradiated in the northeast (NE) flux trap of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This fueled experiment contains six aluminum-clad fuel plates consisting of monolithic U-Mo fuel meat. Flow testing experimentation and hydraulic analysis have been performed on the FSP-1 experiment to be irradiated in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A flow test experiment mockup of the FSP-1 experiment was completed at Oregon State University. Results of several flow test experiments are compared with analyses. This paper reports and shows hydraulic analyses are nearly identical to the flow test results. A water velocity of 14.0 meters per second is targeted between the fuel plates. Comparisons between FSP-1 measurements and this target will be discussed. This flow rate dominates the flow characteristics of the experiment and model. Separate branch flows have minimal effect on the overall experiment. A square flow orifice was placed to control the flowrate through the experiment. Four different orifices were tested. A flow versus delta P curve for each orifice is reported herein. Fuel plates with depleted uranium in the fuel meat zone were used in one of the flow tests. This test was performed to evaluate flow test vibration with actual fuel meat densities and reported herein. Fuel plate deformation tests were also performed and reported.

  7. Sperm competition, sperm numbers and sperm quality in muroid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-03-25

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An "overall sperm quality" parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and

  8. Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...

  9. Scientific and computational challenges of the fusion simulation project (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W M

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP). The primary objective is to develop advanced software designed to use leadership-class computers for carrying out multiscale physics simulations to provide information vital to delivering a realistic integrated fusion simulation model with unprecedented physics fidelity. This multiphysics capability will be unprecedented in that in the current FES applications domain, the largest-scale codes are used to carry out first-principles simulations of mostly individual phenomena in realistic 3D geometry while the integrated models are much smaller-scale, lower-dimensionality codes with significant empirical elements used for modeling and designing experiments. The FSP is expected to be the most up-to-date embodiment of the theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing a reliable ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, the fusion energy science application goal to produce high-fidelity, whole-device modeling capabilities will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond, together with the associated multicore algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative device involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics

  10. Intermittent fasting up-regulates Fsp27/Cidec gene expression in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-03-01

    Fat-specific protein of 27 kDa (FSP27) is a novel lipid droplet protein that promotes triacylglycerol storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). The regulation of the Fsp27 gene expression in WAT is largely unknown. We investigated the nutritional regulation of FSP27 in WAT. The effects of intermittent fasting (48 d, eight cycles of 3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), caloric restriction (48 d), fasting-refeeding (3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), and fasting (3 d) on mRNA expression of FSP27, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ2), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and M isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (a positive control for PPARγ activation) in epididymal WAT and on serum triacylglycerol, insulin, and leptin levels were determined in Wistar rats. We also determined the effects of PPARγ activation by rosiglitazone or pioglitazone on FSP27 mRNA levels in primary rat adipocytes. Long-term intermittent fasting, in contrast to other dietary manipulations, significantly up-regulated Fsp27 gene expression in WAT. Moreover, in rats subjected to intermittent fasting, serum insulin levels were elevated; PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA expression in WAT was increased, and there was a positive correlation of Fsp27 gene expression with PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA levels. FSP27 mRNA expression was also increased in adipocytes treated with PPARγ agonists. Our study demonstrates that the transcription of the Fsp27 gene in adipose tissue may be induced in response to nutritional stimuli. Furthermore, PPARγ2, C/EBPα, and insulin may be involved in the nutritional regulation of FSP27. Thus intermittent fasting, despite lower caloric intake, may promote triacylglycerol deposition in WAT by increasing the expression of genes involved in lipid storage, such as Fsp27. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Fusarium oxysporum fsp lycopersici races 1, 2 and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Sequence analysis of genomic fragments from the intergenic spacer region from three isolates of. Fusarium oxysporum fsp lycoperisci and fsp radicis lycopersici was carried out using the big dye terminator sequencing procedure. Two conditions of the DNA templates were also evaluated for their influence on the outcome of ...

  12. Biolistic transformation of the obligate plant pathogenic fungus, Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S.K.; Knudsen, S.; Giese, H.

    1995-01-01

    Particle gun acceleration appears to be a possible way to transform mycelium cells of obligate plant parasites growing on host surfaces, GUS expression was obtained in E. graminis f.sp. hordei cells after bombardment with the GUS gene under the control of the E. graminis f.sp. hordei beta...

  13. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  14. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  15. Scientific and computational challenges of the fusion simulation program (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) - a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  16. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  17. Syntactic and FSP Aspects of Fronting as a Style Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libuše Dušková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines contextual and emphatic fronting in academic prose, fiction narrative and fiction dialogue in order to ascertain whether the types of fronting can serve as a style marker. The differences in the distribution and their effect on style are assumed to be connected with the respective FSP structures: in emphatic fronting the fronted element is the rheme, whereas in contextual fronting it is the diatheme. Hence emphatic fronting displays a prominent deviation from the basic distribution of communicative dynamism, whereas contextual fronting achieves agreement with it. As compared with the unmarked postverbal ordering, emphatic fronting intensifies the emphatic/emotional character of the content being expressed, which is a feature of speech, while contextual fronting serves as a direct link with what precedes, hence contributes to textual cohesion, which is a characteristic of academic prose, with fiction narrative presumably occupying an intermediate position. The results of the study show more types of fronting with diversified structures and less clear-cut relations between the types of frontings and the examined text sorts.

  18. Identifikasi Ras Fisiologis Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense Berdasarkan Sifat Kompatibel secara Vegetatif dan Pembentukan Bahan Volatil

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Arif; Suryanti, Suryanti; Sumardiyono, Christanti

    2002-01-01

    Race characterization of F. oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyd. & Hans. by determining disease reaction is difficult because the result may be biased due to the variability of growing condition. This study is aimed to identify physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in banana plantation in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta by examining the relation of the fungal pathogen isolates. The identification of physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was b...

  19. Low Sperm Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the fluid (semen) you ejaculate during an orgasm contains fewer sperm than normal. A low sperm ... ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of emerging out of the tip of ...

  20. Ascidian Sperm Lysin System

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi, Sawada; Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University

    2002-01-01

    Fertilization is a precisely controlled process involving many gamete molecules in sperm binding to and penetration through the extracellular matrix of the egg. After sperm bind to the extracellular matrix (vitelline coat), they undergo the acrosome reaction which exposes and partially releases a lytic agent called "lysin" to digest the vitelline coat for the sperm penetration. The vitelline coat sperm lysin is generally a protease in deuterostomes. The molecular mechanism of the actual degra...

  1. Genome size variation in the pine fusiform rust pathogen Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme as determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire L Anderson; Thomas L Kubisiak; C Dana Nelson; Jason A Smith; John M Davis

    2010-01-01

    The genome size of the pine fusiform rust pathogen Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf) was determined by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained, intact haploid pycniospores with haploid spores of two genetically well characterized fungal species, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici, as size standards. The Cqf haploid genome...

  2. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  3. Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951

  4. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  5. Effects of Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici toxins on pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.; Franken, J.; Witsenboer, H.M.A.; Hille, J.; Dons, J.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of the phytotoxic compounds (AAL-toxins) isolated from cell-free culture filtrates of Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici on in vitro pollen development were studied. AAL-toxins inhibited both germination and tube growth of pollen from several Lycopersicon genotypes. Pollen from

  6. Intensitas dan Luas Serangan Beberapa Isolat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi pada Jahe Gajah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawati Cahyaningrum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginger is one of the spices and medicinal commodities which is cultivated in Indonesia. One of the obstacles encountered in the cultivation of ginger is the rhizome rot disease which is mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. zingiberi Trujillo. This study is aimed to know the growth ability and virulence level of the isolates on ginger rhizome and plants. The research was conducted in the laboratory and in the screen house by using Complete Random Design consisted of 10 treatments and 4 replications. The parameters observed were growth ability of F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi, rhizome rot disease symptoms, incubation period, extensive decay and weight difference of the rhizomes. The results showed that F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi which was stored for 4 years in sterile soil medium was still capable to cause damage to the rhizome and plants. Incubation periods of rhizome decay and plant symptoms were from 3 to 11.5 and 55.5 to 68.5 days, respectively. The most virulent isolate was MSO1 with extensive decay of rhizome and the wilting intensity were 108.95 mm2 dan 33.88%, respectively.   Intisari Jahe merupakan salah satu komoditas rempah dan obat yang banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Salah satu kendala yang dihadapi dalam budidaya jahe adalah adanya gangguan penyakit busuk rimpang yang disebabkan (terutama oleh Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. zingiberi Trujillo. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji daya tumbuh dan virulensi isolat F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi pada rimpang dan tanaman jahe gajah. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium dan di rumah kasa menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok Lengkap (RAKL yang masing-masing terdiri dari 10 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati meliputi daya tumbuh F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi, gejala penyakit busuk rimpang, masa inkubasi, luas pembusukan dan selisih bobot basah rimpang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi yang telah di simpan 4 tahun dalam medium tanah

  7. SUPPRESSION ABILITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT DERIVED FROM MARINE BIOTA AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate suppression ability of marine biota extracts against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae of vanilla stem rot. Samples were collected at intertidal zones and in the depth of 1-7 m from seven beaches in Bali. Screening of active compounds of biota extracts were conducted using inhibition zone of well diffusion method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. The extract was tested in-vitro in PDA medium using completely randomized design with three replicates. The methanolic extract of Aglaophenia sp. was able to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. vanillae effectively, with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of 0.05 %. The extract inhibited colony growth diameter and total mycelial dry weight.

  8. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by lipid droplet enlargement through Fsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Kwon, Woo Young; Kim, Yeon A; Oh, Yoo Jin; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Mi Hwa; Bae, Ju Yong; Kim, Jong-Min; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Although epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) lead to insulin resistance, the mechanism underlying PCBs-induced insulin resistance has remained unsolved. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo effects of PCB-118 (dioxin-like PCB) and PCB-138 (non-dioxin-like PCB) on adipocyte differentiation, lipid droplet growth, and insulin action. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with PCB-118 or PCB-138 during adipocyte differentiation. For in vivo studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered PCB-118 or PCB-138 (37.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and we examined adiposity and whole-body insulin action. PCB-118 and PCB-138 significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and increased the lipid droplet (LD) size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mice, both PCBs increased adipose mass and adipocyte size. Furthermore, both PCBs induced insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Expression of fat-specific protein 27 (Fsp27), which is localized to LD contact sites, was increased in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. Depletion of Fsp27 by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of LD enlargement and attenuation of insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, attenuated insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the reduced expression of Fsp27 protein and LD size. This study suggests that PCB exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by LD enlargement through Fsp27.

  10. Identifikasi Ras Fisiologis Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Berdasarkan Sifat Kompatibel Secara Vegetatif dan Pembentukan Bahan Volatil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Race characterization of F. oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith Snyd. & Hans. by determining disease reaction is difficult because the result may be biased due to the variability of growing condition. This study is aimed to identify physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in banana plantation in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta by examining the relation of the fungal pathogen isolates. The identification of physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs. The research was conducted in The Laboratory of Mycology Faculty of Agriculture GMU on March to November 2000. Observation of heterokarion formed by the mutant of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense on selective medium was carried out in order to identify the compatibility of two different fungal isolates. Nitrate non utilizing (nit mutants obtained without mutagen were used as the label. Nit mutant obtained from the same wild type isolates could form heterokarion on minimal agar medium containing NaNO3 as nitrogen source. Eleven isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense have been isolated from several cultivars of banana. Vegetative compatibility tests showed that of 11 eleven isolates, there were six different group VCGs where four of them formed volatile compound in rice medium whereas two of them did not. Key words: Fusarium wilt, F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs

  11. Daily Sperm Production, Gonadal and Extra-Gonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    animals fed diets 2 and 3 were similar to the control animals but they were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those fed ... Keywords: Prebiotics, probiotics, rabbits, sperm reserves, sperm production. ... Materials and methods .... In: Handbook of.

  12. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    -term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...

  13. Grape juice concentrate alleviates epididymis and sperm damage in cadmium-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Celina de A; Cuquetto-Leite, Livia; do Nascimento da Silva, Emanueli; Thomazini, Bruna F; Cordeiro, Gabriel da S; Predes, Fabrícia de S; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of long-term grape juice concentrate (GJC) consumption conferring a protective effect against cadmium (Cd)-induced damage to the epididymis, completely preserving sperm profile, was evaluated here for the first time in the scientific literature. Male Wistar rats (n = 6/per group) received an intraperitoneal Cd injection (1.2 mg/Kg) at age 80 days and GJC (2 g/Kg) by gavage from 50 days until 136 days old. Groups receiving either Cd or GJC were added. An intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.9%) and water by gavage was administered in the absence of treatment with Cd or GJC. Animals were anaesthetized and exsanguinated at 136 days; the vas deferens, left testis and epididymis were removed; and perfusion continued with fixative. The right epididymis was collected for morphological analysis. Cd had a devastating effect demonstrated by reduced sperm count in testes and epididymis, sperm production and normal sperm count, besides increased epididymis sperm transit time and completely disorganized morphology. These alterations were attributed to higher Cd levels in the testes and a lipid peroxidation (LP) process. Consumption of GJC plus Cd intoxication was effective, reducing metal accumulation and LP. Consequently, we could identify a preserved sperm profile, with improvement in testis and epididymis sperm count, normal sperm structure and sperm transit time. Moreover, GJC extends its protective effect to the epididymis, allowing complete re-establishment of its morphology, ensuring successful sperm maturation process. In conclusion, our study indicates long-term GJC as a promising therapy against reproductive chemical intoxication injury damage, preserving sperm prior to ejaculation. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  14. A Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei BAC library - contig building and microsynteny studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Wu, B.; Giese, H.

    2002-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, containing 12,000 clones with an average insert size of 41 kb, was constructed. The library represents about three genome equivalents and BAC-end sequencing showed a high content of repetitive sequences, making...... contigs, at or close to avirulence loci, were constructed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed from BAC-end sequences to link the contigs to the genetic maps. Two other BAC contigs were used to study microsynteny between B. graminis and two other ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa...

  15. Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Scaggiante, Marta; Rasotto, Maria B

    2002-07-23

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm reserves according to the level of sperm competition, defined as the probability that the sperm of two males compete for fertilizing a given set of ova. Substantial evidence from numerous animal taxa suggests that, at the individual level, sperm expenditure increases when the risk of sperm competition is greater. In contrast, according to the "intensity model" of sperm competition [Parker, G. A., Ball, M. A., Stockley, P. & Gage, M. J. G. (1996) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 263, 1291-1297], when more than two ejaculates compete during a given mating event, sperm expenditure should decrease as the number of competing males increases. Empirical evidence supporting this prediction, however, is still lacking. Here we measured sperm expenditure in two gobiid fishes, the grass (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) and black goby (Gobius niger), in which up to six sneakers can congregate around the nest of territorial males and release their sperm when females spawn. We show that, in accordance with theory, sneaker males of both species release fewer sperm as the number of competitors increases.

  16. Experimental Study and Response Surface Methodology for Investigation of FSP Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weglowski Marek Stanisław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono wpływ predkosci obrotowej i przesuwu narzedzia oraz siły docisku na moment obrotowy działajacy na narzedzia w procesie tarciowej modyfikacji z mieszaniem materiału (FSP. Do wyznaczenia zaleznosci pomiedzy momentem a predkosciami obrotowa i przesuwu oraz siła docisku wykorzystano metode powierzchni odpowiedzi. Wykorzystano modele liniowy i kwadratowy uwzgledniajace interakcje pomiedzy parametrami wejsciowymi. Lepsze dopasowanie zapewnił model kwadratowy. Wyniki badan wykazały, iz wzrost predkosci obrotowej narzedzia powoduje zmniejszenie momentu działajacego na narzedzie, natomiast wzrost predkosci przesuwu i siły docisku powoduje wzrost momentu. Badania były przeprowadzone na odlewniczym stopie aluminium AlSi9Mg. Badania metalograficzne ujawniły, ze zastosowanie procesu FSP powoduje rozdrobnienie ziarna oraz redukcje porowatosci w obszarze mieszania. Wyrazna segregacja Si i Fe w materiale rodzimym została wyeliminowana, a rozkład pierwiastków jest bardziej jednorodny.

  17. Enhancing lutein productivity of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using light-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Lutein, one of the main photosynthetic pigments, is a promising natural product with both nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, light-related strategies were applied to enhance the cell growth and lutein production of a lutein-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3. The results demonstrate that using white LED resulted in better lutein production efficiency when compared to the other three monochromatic LEDs (red, blue, and green). The lutein productivity of S. obliquus FSP-3 was further improved by adjusting the type of light source and light intensity. The optimal lutein productivity of 4.08 mg/L/d was obtained when using a TL5 fluorescent lamp at a light intensity of 300 μmol/m(2)/s, and this performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Moreover, the time-course profile of lutein accumulation in the microalga shows that the maximal lutein content and productivity were obtained at the onset of nitrogen depletion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resolving kinematic redundancy with constraints using the FSP (Full Space Parameterization) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Tulloch, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    A solution method is presented for the motion planning and control of kinematically redundant serial-link manipulators in the presence of motion constraints such as joint limits or obstacles. Given a trajectory for the end-effector, the approach utilizes the recently proposed Full Space Parameterization (FSP) method to generate a parameterized expression for the entire space of solutions of the unconstrained system. At each time step, a constrained optimization technique is then used to analytically find the specific joint motion solution that satisfies the desired task objective and all the constraints active during the time step. The method is applicable to systems operating in a priori known environments or in unknown environments with sensor-based obstacle detection. The derivation of the analytical solution is first presented for a general type of kinematic constraint and is then applied to the problem of motion planning for redundant manipulators with joint limits and obstacle avoidance. Sample results using planar and 3-D manipulators with various degrees of redundancy are presented to illustrate the efficiency and wide applicability of constrained motion planning using the FSP approach

  19. Sperm head's birefringence: a new criterion for sperm selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Ferraretti, Anna P; Baccetti, Baccio

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of birefringence in human sperm heads and apply polarization microscopy for sperm selection at intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Prospective randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Società Italiana Studi Medicina della Riproduzione, Bologna, Italy. A total of 112 male patients had birefringent sperm selected for ICSI (study group). The clinical outcome was compared with that obtained in 119 couples who underwent a conventional ICSI cycle (control group). The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was evaluated before and after treatment in relation to the sperm sample quality. Embryo development and clinical outcome in the study group were compared with those in the controls. Proportion of birefringent sperm heads, rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was significantly higher in normospermic samples when compared with oligoasthenoteratospermic samples with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction samples. Although fertilization and cleavage rates did not differ between the study and control groups, in the most severe male factor condition (oligoasthenoteratospermic with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction), the rates of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation were significantly higher in the study group versus the controls. The analysis of birefringence in the sperm head could represent both a diagnostic tool and a novel method for sperm selection.

  20. Perfusion dyssynchrony analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiribiri, A.; Villa, A.D.M.; Sammut, E.; Breeuwer, M.; Nagel, E.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We sought to describe perfusion dyssynchrony analysis specifically to exploit the high temporal resolution of stress perfusion CMR. This novel approach detects differences in the temporal distribution of the wash-in of contrast agent across the left ventricular wall. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  1. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  2. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  3. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires......-sited ethnography drawing on ethnographic research including observations and interviews from fertility clinics and sperm banks in Denmark during 2002/2003 and 2011- 2013, legislative documents and websites of fertility clinics and sperm banks. The presentation is methodologically inspired by Adele Clarke...

  4. Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici in substrates and roots by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Ferrocino, I; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne fungus that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of plant species. Basil is recognized as an ecological niche for Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici (FOB) and this fungus is now present in most countries where basil is cultivated. The rapid identification of the species affecting basil plants is necessary to define a successful method for crop protection. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR method for the rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici in substrates. The specificity of the primers used was tested using the DNA extracted directly from substrate samples. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici was artificially inoculated with decreasing amounts in a commercial substrate (sphagnum peat moss) and in a mixture with 40% of municipal compost, after steam disinfestation. Basil seeds (cv. Fine verde) were sown in pots that were laid on a bench in the greenhouse. At time 0 and after 7, 14 and 21 days from the inoculation, substrate and root samples were collected and prepared for microbial analysis and for the DNA extraction. DNA extraction was carried out using NucleoSpin Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel, Germany). PCR amplification for the specific detection was carried out using primer sets Bik 1 (5'-ATT CAA GAG CTA AAG GTC C-3') and Bik 4 (5'-TTT GAC CAA GAT AGA TGC C-3') for the first PCR, while primers Bik 1 + Bik 2 (5'-AAA GGT AGT ATA TCG GAG G-3') for the nested PCR to increase detection sensitivity. Disease incidence was also assessed 21 days after seeding. The results showed the presence of amplified fragments of the expected size when the concentration of F. oxysporum f.sp. basilici was at least 3.5 Log CFU g(-1) by using DNA extract directly from substrate, before roots were infected by the pathogen. The detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici by PCR method developed in this study is certainly simple and fast and can be useful for its reliable detection in substrate samples, but not to guarantee that

  5. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  6. Management of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense (Foc-TR4) from banana by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, W.T.

    2014-01-01

    Applied Plant Research in Lelystad has, commissioned by Gert Kema, Plant Research International (PRI) and leader of the Panama Project, performed a trial to measure the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) with a ‘Herbie” product against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc; TR 4),

  7. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-11

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

  8. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples

  9. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic relatedness of Trichoderma isolates antagonistic against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi inflicting carnation wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, V; Sharma, Vivek; Ananthapadmanaban

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-eight isolates of Trichoderma belonging to four different species were screened in vitro for their antagonistic ability against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt. Three different levels of antagonism observed in dual plate assay were further confirmed by cell-free culture filtrate experiments. Isolates showing class I level of antagonism produced maximum lytic enzymes, chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases. Genetic variability of 25 selected isolates was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique and the amplified products were correlated for their level of antagonism. Unweighed pair-group method with arithmetical averages cluster analysis revealed prominent inter-and intraspecific genetic variation among the isolates. Based on their genetic relationship, the isolates were mainly distributed into 3 major groups representing T. atroviride, T. pseudokoningii and T. harzianum, with 20-35% interspecific dissimilarity. However, the polymorphism shown by the isolates did not correlate to their level of antagonism.

  11. Extracción del ADN de Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    Sixta T. Martínez; Carlos Y. Soto

    2010-01-01

    Se estudia la utílización de dos métodos para la extracción del ADN del Fusarium o.xy.sporum f.sp. Dianthi. En los dos métodos la pared del hongo se rompió con nitrógeno líquido, uno de ellos empleó como solución extractora bromuro de cetiltrimetil amonio (BCTA) y el otro una solución de sacarosa con altas concentraciones de protcasa y EDTA. Para la desproteinización ambos métodos utilizaron soluciones de fcnol-clorofonno y enzimas proteolítícas. El ADN obtenido se digirió con enzimas d...

  12. Superplastic forming of 7475 Al sheet after friction stir processing (FSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, M.; Bingel, W.H.; Fuller, C. [Rockwell Scientific Co., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Barnes, A.J. [Superform USA, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since the invention of friction stir welding (FSW) in 1991, an increasing number of successful applications have been found for this unique solid-state welding technique. More recently, attention has been given to utilizing the mechanics of friction stirring to thermo-mechanically modify the microstructure of aluminum alloys to create or enhance superplasticity. Until now, superplasticity induced by friction stir processing (FSP) has only been demonstrated in small samples and evaluated by hot tensile elongation testing. The present work describes what we believe to be the first biaxial testing and full size component superplastic forming of friction stir processed aluminum sheet. The remarkable formability demonstrated in these 'first time' trials is described in detail. (orig.)

  13. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand, 18F-SP203, to image metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Simeon, Fabrice G.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro; Hatazawa, Jun; Mozley, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new PET ligand, 3-fluoro-5-(2-(2- 18 F-(fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile ( 18 F-SP203), is a positron emission tomographic radioligand selective for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of 18 F-SP203 in humans and to determine from the distribution of radioactivity in bone structures with various proportions of bone and red marrow whether 18 F-SP203 undergoes defluorination. Whole-body images were acquired for 5 h after injecting 18 F-SP203 in seven healthy humans. Urine was collected at various time points. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. After injecting 18 F-SP203, the two organs with highest radiation exposure were urinary bladder wall and gallbladder wall, consistent with both urinary and fecal excretion. In the skeleton, most of the radioactivity was in bone structures that contain red marrow and not in those without red marrow. Although the dose to red marrow (30.9 μSv/MBq) was unusually high, the effective dose (17.8 μSv/MBq) of 18 F-SP203 was typical of that of other 18 F radiotracers. 18 F-SP203 causes an effective dose in humans typical of several other 18 F radioligands and undergoes little defluorination. (orig.)

  14. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  15. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  16. Hyaluronic acid binding ability of human sperm reflects cellular maturity and fertilizing potential: selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Gabor; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Jakab, Attila; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Sati, G Leyla; Cayli, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    The current concepts of sperm biochemical markers and the central role of the HspA2 chaperone protein, a measure of sperm cellular maturity and fertilizing potential, are reviewed. Because HspA2 is a component of the synaptonemal complex, low HspA2 levels and increased frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies are related in diminished maturity sperm. We also suggest a relationship between HspA2 expression in elongating spermatids and events of late spermiogenesis, such as cytoplasmic extrusion and plasma membrane remodeling that aid the formation of the zona pellucida binding and hyaluronic acid binding sites. The presence of hyaluronic acid receptor on the plasma membrane of mature sperm, coupled with hyaluronic acid coated glass or plastic surfaces, facilitates testing of sperm function and selection of single mature sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The frequencies of sperm with chromosomal disomy are reduced approximately fourfold to fivefold in hyaluronic acid selected sperm compared with semen sperm, comparable to the increase in such abnormalities in intracytoplasmic sperm injection offspring. Hyaluronic acid binding also excludes immature sperm with cytoplasmic extrusion, persistent histones, and DNA chain breaks. Hyaluronic acid mediated sperm selection is a novel technique that is comparable to sperm zona pellucida binding. Hyaluronic acid selected sperm will also alleviate the risks related to intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization with sperm of diminished maturity that currently cause worldwide concern.

  17. Methods of sperm vitality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-01-01

    Sperm vitality is a reflection of the proportion of live, membrane-intact spermatozoa determined by either dye exclusion or osmoregulatory capacity under hypo-osmotic conditions. In this chapter we address the two most common methods of sperm vitality assessment: eosin-nigrosin staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, both utilized in clinical Andrology laboratories.

  18. Relationship between sperm parameters and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Chaichian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: With the adventure of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, great progresses have developed in the treatment of infertility. Concentration on the properties of male’s gamete has been encouraged by the increasing concerns about the causes of ICSI failure. We hence conducted this study to investigate the probable association of sperm parameters with ISCI outcome. Methods: A total of 523 couples referred to Isfahan Fertility and Sterility Center from January 2007 to June 2008 for ICSI. Semen analysis was performed before ICSI procedure according to the WHO criteria. Patients were assigned into successful ICSI (case and failed ICSI (control groups. Sperm parameters were then compared between the 2 groups. Results: One hundred and six patients (20% had successful ICSI results (case group compared with 417 couples (80% with undesirable ICSI outcomes (control group. Among evaluated factors, sperm agglutination (p = 0.007, sperm concentration (p = 0.043, leukocytospermia (p = 0.026 and head abnormality of sperm (p = 0.019 showed statistically significant differences between two groups with differing ICSI results. None of the other semen parameters revealed significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that some sperm parameters are associated with desirable ICSI outcome. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal.

  19. Sperm whale clicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.

    2000-01-01

    . A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not supported by published data for sperm whale clicks ~source levels of 180 dB re 1 mPa and little, if any......In sperm whales ~Physeter catodon L. 1758! the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey @in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 ~1972!, pp. 397–417# ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex......, directionality!. Either the theory is not borne out or the data is not representative for the capabilities of the sound-generating mechanism. To increase the amount of relevant data, a five-hydrophone array, suspended from three platforms separated by 1 km and linked by radio, was deployed at the slope...

  20. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  1. Parameter optimization and evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of nanographene reinforced Al 6060 surface composite using FSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanamanohar, V.; Appalachari, D. Gireesh Chandra

    2018-04-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as a promising technique for making surface composites. FSP can improve surface properties such as hardness, strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, fatigue life and formability without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The literatures reported that FSP can produces very fine equiaxed and homogeneous grain structure for different Al alloys. Al 6060 is heat treatable alloy which has high thermal and electrical properties than remaining Al alloys. Al 6060 is being used where high rate of heat exchange is needed i.e. engine cylinders, heat exchangers etc. As derived from the carbon materials, like graphene and CNTs dissipates heat rapidly that improves the life of the engine cylinders and heat exchangers. In this work, nanographene is reinforced in the Al 6060 using friction stir processing at different rotational speeds, traverse speeds, and at constant load and tool tilt angle. After processed, the effect of process parameters on microstructure of the surface composite was investigated. The SEM studies shows that the FSP produces very fine and homogenous grain structure and it is observed that smaller grain size structure is obtained at lower traverse speed and higher rotational speeds. Significant improvement in ultimate tensile strength(22.9%) and hardness (22.44%) when compared friction stir processed plate at 1400 rotational speed and 20mm/min traverse speed with base Al 6060 plate. Coefficient of thermal expansion test of nanographene reinforced Al 6060 shows 7.33% decrease in its coefficient of thermal expansion as graphene has tendency to reduce the anisotropic nature.

  2. Association of sperm apoptosis and DNA ploidy with sperm chromatin quality in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Reda Z; Sharma, Rakesh K; Said, Tamer M; Erenpreiss, Juris; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-04-01

    To examine the relationship among sperm apoptosis, sperm chromatin status, and DNA ploidy in different sperm fractions. Prospective study. Reproductive research center in a tertiary care hospital. Sperm prepared by density gradient were evaluated for sperm count, motility, apoptosis, and sperm chromatin assessment. Sperm count, sperm motility, toluidine blue (TB) results, DNA fragmentation index (%DFI), high DNA stainability, DNA cytometry, and early and late apoptosis. Sperm motility was related to late apoptotic and subhaploid apoptotic sperm (r = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively). The sperm %DFI showed significant correlation with late apoptotic and subhaploid sperm (r = 0.62 and 0.68). TB-stained sperm were significantly correlated with late apoptotic sperm (r = 0.51). Significantly higher proportions of haploid sperm and light blue TB-stained sperm were seen in mature compared with immature fractions. Even in semen samples with low %DFI, semen processing results in a lower incidence of nuclear immaturity and subhaploidy, but the incidence of late apoptotic sperm remains unchanged. Therefore, simultaneous evaluation of apoptosis and sperm chromatin status is important for processing sperm in assisted reproductive procedures.

  3. Two-Nozzle Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) Synthesis of CoMo/Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin; Pham, David K.; Brorson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and the hydrodenitrogenation activity improved from 70 to 90 % relative activity. This suggests that better promotion of the active molybdenum sulfide phase was achieved when using two-nozzle FSP synthesis, probably due to less formation of the undesired phase CoAl2O4, which makes Co unavailable for promotion.......Two-nozzle frame spray analysis (FSP) synthesis of CoMo/Al2O3 where Co and Al are sprayed in separate flames was applied to minimize the formation of CoAl2O4 observed in one-nozzle flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis and the materials were characterized by N2-adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and catalytic performances in hydrotreating. By varying the flame mixing distances (81–175 mm) the amount of CoAl2O4 could be minimized. As evidenced by UV–vis spectroscopy, CoAl2O4 was detected only...

  4. The Role of Friction Stir Processing (FSP Parameters on TiC Reinforced Surface Al7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aluminum alloys are very promising for structural applications in aerospace, military and transportation industries due to their light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent resistance to corrosion. In comparison to unreinforced aluminum alloys, aluminum/aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic phases exhibit higher strength and hardness, improved tribological characteristics. A novel surface modifying technique, friction stir processing (FSP, has been developed for fabrication of surface composite with an improved performance. The effect of FSP parameters such as number of passes, direction of each pass, sealed or unsealed groove on microstructure was investigated. In this work, nano-particles of TiC (2% in weight were added to aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 to produce a functional surface. Fixed parameters for this AA7075 alloy were used; rotation speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 300 mm/min and pin penetration of 2.8 mm. Optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM were employed to study the microstructure of the fabricated surface composites. The results indicated that the selected FSP parameters influenced the area of surface composite, distribution of TiC particles and micro-hardness of the surface composites. Finally, in order to evaluate rate wear the pin on disk test was carried out.

  5. Improving protein production of indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E by photobioreactor design and cultivation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Po-Jen; Tan, Chung Hong; Lo, Yung-Chung; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Show, Pau Loke; Lin, Chih-Hung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Fish meal is currently the major protein source for commercial aquaculture feed. Due to its unstable supply and increasing price, fish meal is becoming more expensive and its availability is expected to face significant challenges in the near future. Therefore, feasible alternatives to fish meal are urgently required. Microalgae have been recognized as the most promising candidates to replace fish meal because the protein composition of microalgae is similar to fish meal and the supply of microalgae-based proteins is sustainable. In this study, an indigenous microalga (Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E) with high protein content was selected, and its feasibility as an aquaculture protein source was explored. An innovative photobioreactor (PBR) utilizing cold cathode fluorescent lamps as an internal light source was designed to cultivate the FSP-E strain for protein production. This PBR could achieve a maximum biomass and protein productivity of 699 and 365 mg/L/day, respectively, under an optimum urea and iron concentration of 12.4 mM and 90 μM, respectively. In addition, amino acid analysis of the microalgal protein showed that up to 70% of the proteins in this microalgal strain consist of indispensable amino acids. Thus, C. vulgaris FSP-E appears to be a viable alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  7. Extracción del ADN de Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta T. Martínez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la utílización de dos métodos para la extracción del ADN del Fusarium o.xy.sporum f.sp. Dianthi. En los dos métodos la pared del hongo se rompió con nitrógeno líquido, uno de ellos empleó como solución extractora bromuro de cetiltrimetil amonio (BCTA y el otro una solución de sacarosa con altas concentraciones de protcasa y EDTA. Para la desproteinización ambos métodos utilizaron soluciones de fcnol-clorofonno y enzimas proteolítícas. El ADN obtenido se digirió con enzimas de restricción EcoRI y Hindlll. Se corroboró que cl ADN estaba libre de los contaminantes más frecuentes en hongos, como proteínas y carbohidratos por medio de ultracentrifugación en cloruro de cesio (CsCI. La extracción con BCTA presentó los mejores rendimientos.

  8. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  9. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  10. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  11. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  12. Isolated limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rosalyn; Chantier, Nariane

    1994-12-08

    Growing concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma has brought about a need for information on this disorder and the treatment available. Isolated limb perfusion is a relatively new technique used in only a few hospitals. An increased knowledge base will lead to a better understanding of the nursing care required and to a more in-depth care plan.

  13. Sperm competition selects for sperm quantity and quality in the Australian Maluridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

    2011-01-25

    When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype.

  14. Penggunaan Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biokontrol Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Cabai Merah (Capsicum annuum L. yang Disebabkan Oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANINDA OKTAVIA RAHARINI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to find out Streptomyces bacteria at Bukit Jimbaran, to inhibitionpotency of Streptomyces sp. to pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, and to find outantifungal activity of Streptomyces filtrate to F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici in chili (Capsicum annuumL. plants. Streptomyces sp. isolation was done by platting method with selective media YMA (ISP4.Identification of Streptomyces sp. used Bergey’s book entitled Manual Determinative Bacteriology.Test inhibition against F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and in vivo test used by dying the roots of the chili(C.annuum L. plant with F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and after 30 seconds the roots were dying withStreptomyces sp. culture, furthermore sterile soil on polybag watered by F.oxysporum f.sp. capsicispore and Streptomyces sp. culture at the same time. The result found five isolates Streptomyces sp.with different morphological. The antagonis test showed Streptomyces sp. 4 had ability (82% againstFusarium, Streptomyces sp.1 (72%, Streptomyces sp.2 (64%, Streptomyces sp.3 (76%, andStreptomyces sp. 5 (32%. All Streptomyces suppressed the growth of Fusarium on chili plants inglass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.4 suppressed Fusarium wilt disease in chili from 80% in controlto 8%.

  15. Short communication Relationship between sperm plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matshidiso MB. Masenya

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... observed between sperm plasma membrane integrity and fertility. There was a weak positive correlation between normal sperm morphology and conception rate (r = 0.11). Additionally ..... been approved by all of us. Authors' ...

  16. Variation in sperm morphology among Afrotropical sunbirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omotoriogun, T. C.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bowie, R. C. K.; Sedláček, O.; Hořák, D.; Ottosson, U.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2016), s. 155-166 ISSN 0019-1019 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : comparative analysis * Nectariniidae * phylogenetic signal * sperm competition * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2016

  17. What use is an infertile sperm? A comparative study of sperm-heteromorphic Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Freckleton, Robert P; Snook, Rhonda R

    2007-01-01

    Sperm size and number are important determinants of male reproductive success. The genus Drosophila exhibits a remarkable diversity of sperm production strategies, including the production of multiple sperm morphs by individual males, a phenomenon called sperm heteromorphism. Sperm-heteromorphic ......Sperm size and number are important determinants of male reproductive success. The genus Drosophila exhibits a remarkable diversity of sperm production strategies, including the production of multiple sperm morphs by individual males, a phenomenon called sperm heteromorphism. Sperm......-heteromorphic Drosophila species in the obscura group produce large numbers of infertile "parasperm" in addition to fertile eusperm. Parasperm have been hypothesized to perform a number of roles in place of fertilization, predominantly focused on their potential function in postcopulatory sexual selection. However...

  18. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  19. Bioenergetics of mammalian sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods.

  20. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  1. Microfluidic single sperm entrapment and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Berendsen, Johanna Theodora Wilhelmina; Berendsen, J.T.W.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    Selection of healthy spermatozoa is of crucial importance for the success rates of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Although sperm selection for ART procedures is predominantly based on sperm motility, successful

  2. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  3. Social imaginaries, sperm and whiteness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    media coverage of these new families, this article explores contemporary constructions of race, especially whiteness, and gender, and shows how imaginaries of Vikings, genes and white superiority circulate in British media and among British mothers. The article illustrates how a racial discourse, which......This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...

  4. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  5. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sabeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions

  6. Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2007-07-01

    Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.

  7. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yoko; Shaw, Paul; Fujiwara, Eiji; Shiba, Kogiku; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-08-10

    Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  8. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiba Kogiku

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm. Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external, whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  9. Sperm competition and reproductive mode influence sperm dimensions and structure among snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Giojalas, Laura C; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    2009-10-01

    The role of sperm competition in increasing sperm length is a controversial issue, because findings from different taxa seem contradictory. We present a comparative study of 25 species of snakes with different levels of sperm competition to test whether it influences the size and structure of different sperm components. We show that, as levels of sperm competition increase, so does sperm length, and that this elongation is largely explained by increases in midpiece length. In snakes, the midpiece is comparatively large and it contains structures, which in other taxa are present in the rest of the flagellum, suggesting that it may integrate some of its functions. Thus, increases in sperm midpiece size would result in more energy as well as greater propulsion force. Sperm competition also increases the area occupied by the fibrous sheath and outer dense fibers within the sperm midpiece, revealing for the first time an effect upon structural elements within the sperm. Finally, differences in male-male encounter rates between oviparous and viviparous species seem to lead to differences in levels of sperm competition. We conclude that the influence of sperm competition upon different sperm components varies between taxa, because their structure and function is different.

  10. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Differential gene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) challenged with the fusiform rust fungus, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrietta Myburg; Alison M. Morse; Henry V. Amerson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Dudley Huber; Jason A. Osborne; Saul A. Garcia; C. Dana Nelson; John M. Davis; Sarah F. Covert; Leonel M. van Zyle

    2006-01-01

    Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme is the pathogen that incites fusiform rust disease of southern pine species. To date, a number of host resistance genes have been mapped. Although genomic mapping studies have provided valuable information on the genetic basis of disease interactions in this pine-rust pathosystem, the interaction...

  12. Genetic variation in Danish populations of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei: estimation of gene diversity and effective population size using RFLP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, C.; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1996-01-01

    Genetic variation of the barley powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) was estimated in three Danish local populations. Genetic variation was estimated from the variation amongst clones of Egh, and was therefore an estimate of the maximum genetic variation in the local populations...

  13. Brain perfusion: computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Within recent years, the broad introduction of fast multi-detector computed tomography (CT) systems and the availability of commercial software for perfusion analysis have made cerebral perfusion imaging with CT a practical technique for the clinical environment. The technique is widely available at low cost, accurate and easy to perform. Perfusion CT is particularly applicable to those clinical circumstances where patients already undergo CT for other reasons, including stroke, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and radiotherapy planning. Future technical developments in multi-slice CT systems may diminish the current limitations of limited spatial coverage and radiation burden. CT perfusion imaging on combined PET-CT systems offers new opportunities to improve the evaluation of patients with cerebral ischaemia or tumours by demonstrating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Yet CT is often not perceived as a technique for imaging cerebral perfusion. This article reviews the use of CT for imaging cerebral perfusion, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and draws comparisons between perfusion CT and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  14. No evidence of trade-offs in the evolution of sperm numbers and sperm size in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourmente, M; Delbarco Trillo, J; Roldan, E R S

    2015-10-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection, in the form sperm competition, has influenced the evolution of several male reproductive traits. However, theory predicts that sperm competition would lead to trade-offs between numbers and size of spermatozoa because increased costs per cell would result in a reduction of sperm number if both traits share the same energetic budget. Theoretical models have proposed that, in large animals, increased sperm size would have minimal fitness advantage compared with increased sperm numbers. Thus, sperm numbers would evolve more rapidly than sperm size under sperm competition pressure. We tested in mammals whether sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers and size, and whether there is a trade-off between these traits. Our results showed that sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers in eutherian and metatherian mammals. There was no evidence of a trade-off between sperm numbers and sperm size in any of the two mammalian clades as we did not observe any significant relationship between sperm numbers and sperm size once the effect of sperm competition was taken into account. Maximization of both numbers and size in mammals may occur because each trait is crucial at different stages in sperm's life; for example size-determined sperm velocity is a key determinant of fertilization success. In addition, numbers and size may also be influenced by diverse energetic budgets required at different stages of sperm formation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Perfusion CT in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Bernd; Roether, Joachim; Fiehler, Jens; Thomalla, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  16. Analysis of limited fertility in intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by electroejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Masaya; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Takeyama, Masami; Kondoh, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims:  We correlated findings in semen from patients with ejaculatory dysfunction with results of in vitro fertilization using their electroejaculated sperm. Methods and Results:  Electroejaculation was carried out in six patients with the above‐mentioned criteria for a total of eight times. Sperm was obtained in six attempts. Intracytoplasmic injection of these sperm was performed in 156 eggs. Sixty‐seven eggs were fertilized; most of these were injected with motile sperm. Two women became pregnant, both after injection with motile sperm. As previously reported, electroejaculated sperm showed low motility and a low fertilization rate, but even motile sperm had a low fertilization rate. Conclusion:  The results of the present study suggest the importance in fertilization of undetermined factors in addition to sperm motility. (Reprod Med Biol 2004; 3: 9–12) PMID:29662380

  17. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  18. Sperm competition, immunity, selfish genes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Wedell, N

    2008-10-01

    Sperm competition is widespread and has played an important role in shaping male reproductive characters such as testis size and numbers of sperm produced, and this is reflected in the rapid evolution of many reproductive genes. Additionally, sperm competition has been implicated in the rapid evolution of seminal fluids. However, our understanding of the molecular basis of many traits thought to be important in sperm competition is rudimentary. Furthermore, links between sperm competition and a range of issues not directly related to reproduction are only just beginning to be explored. These include associations between sperm competition and selfish genes, immunity and diseases such as cancer.We briefly review these topics and suggest areas we consider worthy of additional research.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance of perfused tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpen, M.D.; Allison, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of perfusion on the NMR signal observed in NMR imaging is studied in a phantom and in two isolated perfused canine lungs. It is observed that perfusion in tissue has little effect on longitudinal relaxation times. Transverse relaxation rates are observed to correlate linearly with rates of perfusion, in accordance with a model presented. (author)

  20. Quantitative lung perfusion evaluation using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Fischer, Andre; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI. The Fourier decomposition (FD) method is a noninvasive method for assessing ventilation- and perfusion-related information in the lungs, where the perfusion maps in particular have shown promise for clinical use. However, the perfusion maps are nonquantitative and dimensionless, making follow-ups and direct comparisons between patients difficult. We present an approach to obtain physically meaningful and quantifiable perfusion maps using the FD method. The standard FD perfusion images are quantified by comparing the partially blood-filled pixels in the lung parenchyma with the fully blood-filled pixels in the aorta. The percentage of blood in a pixel is then combined with the temporal information, yielding quantitative blood flow values. The values of 10 healthy volunteers are compared with SEEPAGE measurements which have shown high consistency with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI. All pulmonary blood flow (PBF) values are within the expected range. The two methods are in good agreement (mean difference = 0.2 mL/min/100 mL, mean absolute difference = 11 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-FD = 150 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-SEEPAGE = 151 mL/min/100 mL). The Bland-Altman plot shows a good spread of values, indicating no systematic bias between the methods. Quantitative lung perfusion can be obtained using the Fourier Decomposition method combined with a small amount of postprocessing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of nitrogen source availability and bioreactor operating strategies on lutein production with Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Xie, Youping; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the type and concentration of nitrogen sources on the cell growth and lutein content of an isolated microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 were investigated. With batch culture, the highest lutein content (4.61 mg/g) and lutein productivity (4.35 mg/L/day) were obtained when using 8.0 mM calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source. With this best nitrogen source condition, the microalgae cultivation was performed using two bioreactor strategies (namely, semi-continuous and two-stage operations) to further enhance the lutein content and productivity. Using semi-continuous operation with a 10% medium replacement ratio could obtain the highest biomass productivity (1304.8 mg/L/day) and lutein productivity (6.01 mg/L/day). This performance is better than most related studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of aeration on composting of date palm residues contaminated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroune, K; Bouakka, M; Hakkou, A

    2005-01-01

    Composting of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) residues contaminated with Fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis, causal agent of the vascular wilt (Bayoud) of the date palm, has been achieved. The effect of the aeration of the piles by manual turning has been studied. The maintenance of an adequate humidity of 60%-70%, necessary to the good progress of the composting process, required the contribution of 11.4 L of water/kg of the dried residues. The evolution of the temperatures in the three piles presents the same phases. A latency phase, followed after 2-3 d of composting by a thermophilic phase, which lasts about 24 d, where the temperature remains elevated between 50 and 70 degrees C. Then a cooling phase that takes about 15 d, during which the temperatures fall to values between 25 and 35 degrees C, near room temperature. Fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis is eliminated completely during the thermophilic phase of composting, and increasing frequencies of turning accelerate its disappearance to a certain extent. On the other hand, pH remained steady and relatively basic oscillating between 8.2 and 8.7. Ninety percent (90%) of the the date palm residues are composed exclusively of organic matters. The total nitrogen represents only 0.4%. The contribution of manure decreases the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from 115 to 48 in the initial mixture. After 80 d of composting and according to the frequency of return up, there is a reduction of the granulometry of the substratum, the C/N ratio (from 29% to 44%), the organic matter (from 15% to 23%), the total volume (from 25% to 35%), and of the dry weight of the swaths (from 16% to 24%). On the other hand there is an increase in total nitrogen rate (from 20% to 40%) and in the mineral matter (from 23% to 35%).

  3. Hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy: Evaluation with perfusion CT and perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.L.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Lutz, R.J.; Chang, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is planar hepatic artery perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS). Planar HAPS was performed with 2 mCi of [99mTc] macroaggregated albumin infused at 1 ml/min and compared with single photon emission CT (SPECT) HAPS and with a new study, CT performed during the slow injection of contrast material through the HAI catheter (HAI-CT). Thirteen patients underwent 16 HAI-CT studies, 14 planar HAPS studies, and 9 SPECT HAPS studies. In 13 of 14 studies (93%) HAI-CT and planar HAPS were in complete agreement as to the perfusion pattern of intrahepatic metastases and normal liver. In nine studies where all modalities were performed, the findings identified by HAI-CT and planar HAPS agreed in all cases, whereas the results of two SPECT scans disagreed with the other studies. With respect to perfusion of individual metastases, 14 of 14 HAI-CT studies, 12 of 13 planar HAPS studies, and 9 of 9 SPECT HAPS studies correctly demonstrated the perfusion status of individual lesions as indicated by the pattern of changes in tumor size determined on CT obtained before and after the perfusion studies. Hepatic artery infusion CT was superior for delineation of individual metastases, particularly small lesions, and for the evaluation of nonperfused portions of the liver. Planar HAPS detected extrahepatic perfusion in four patients, and this was not detected by HAI-CT. We conclude that HAI-CT and scintigraphy are complementary techniques. Hepatic artery infusion CT has advantages for the evaluation of intrahepatic perfusion, and planar HAPS is superior to HAI-CT for the detection of extrahepatic perfusion

  4. Varicocele Negatively Affects Sperm Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Albani, Denise; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of varicocele on oxidative stress, sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm morphology, and semen parameters. A total of 20 patients with varicocele and 20 normozoospermic subjects without varicocele (control group) were recruited from a medical center for reproductive biology. The levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites and seminal lipid peroxides were assessed for both control and varicocele subjects. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was measured by sperm chromatin dispersion test. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. In this study, varicocele patients were compared with men without varicoceles. Oxidative stress was observed in the serum and seminal fluid of varicocele patients. These patients showed an increase of 59% (P <.05) in serum reactive oxygen metabolites and a 3-fold increase in the level of sperm lipid peroxides. A parallel and significant increase (a 2-fold increase; P <.05) in the degree of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was also observed. Varicocele patients showed a 27% decrease (P <.05) in mitochondrial respiratory activity in comparison to the control group. A 32% increase (P <.05) in sperm midpiece defects and a 41% decrease (P <.05) in sperm concentration and motility were also observed. Men with varicocele have increased markers of oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial respiratory activity. These results correlated with abnormalities in semen parameters. For morphology, these correlated with midpiece defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, N; Kamangar, P Bahrami; Azadbakht, M; Amini, A; Amiri, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the abnormalities in sperm after exposure to hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure acting on the cells is one of the fundamental environmental mechanical forces. Disorders of relationship between the cells and this mechanical force, such as when pressure varies beyond physiological limits, can lead to disease or pathological states. Sperm exposed to different range of hydrostatic pressure within male reproductive system and after entering the female reproductive system. Sexually mature male NMRI mice, 8-12 weeks-old were sperm donors. Sperms were separated from the caudal epididymis and maintained in Ham's F-10 culture medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and divided into control and treatments. Sperm suspensions in the treatments were placed within pressure chamber and were subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure of 25, 50 and 100 mmHg (treatment I, II and III) above atmospheric pressure for 2 and 4 h. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability were assessed and compared with control. Results showed that hydrostatic pressure dependent on ranges and time manner reduced sperm quality due to adverse effect on viability, motility , morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability in all of treatments, especially after 4h (phydrostatic pressure reduces sperm quality as a consequence of adverse effects on sperm parameters and may cause male infertility or subfertility (Tab. 5, Ref. 5).

  6. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  7. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

  8. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure

  9. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process.

  10. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency is positively correlated with human sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Provenzano, Sara Pinto; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    To correlate sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency with variations in sperm motility and with sperm morphologic anomalies. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically-treated sperm cells. A possible relationship among sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm motility, and morphologic anomalies was investigated. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was positively correlated with sperm motility and negatively correlated with the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. Moreover, midpiece defects impaired mitochondrial functionality. Our data indicate that an increase in sperm motility requires a parallel increase in mitochondrial respiratory capacity, thereby supporting the fundamental role played by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in sperm motility of normozoospermic subjects. These results are of physiopathological relevance because they suggest that disturbances of sperm mitochondrial function and of energy production could be responsible for asthenozoospermia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  13. Mitochondrial PKA mediates sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Rashel; Breitbart, Haim

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of ATP to power sperm motility. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has been proposed as a major regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted analyzer, protein detection by western blotting, membrane potential by tetramethylrhodamine, cellular ATP by luciferase assay and localization of PKA by immuno-electron microscopy. Bicarbonate is essential for the creation of mitochondrial electro-chemical gradient, ATP synthesis and sperm motility. Bicarbonate stimulates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of two 60kDa proteins identified as Tektin and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by respiration inhibition and phosphorylation could be restored by glucose in the presence of bicarbonate. However, this effect of glucose cannot be seen when the mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger was inhibited indicating that glycolytic-produced ATP is transported into the mitochondria and allows PKA-dependent protein phosphorylation inside the mitochondria. Bicarbonate activates mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) which catalyzes cAMP production leading to the activation of mitochondrial PKA. Glucose can overcome the lack of ATP in the absence of bicarbonate but it cannot affect the mitochondrial sAC/PKA system, therefore the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the 60kDa proteins does not occur in the absence of bicarbonate. Production of CO2 in Krebs cycle, which is converted to bicarbonate is essential for sAC/PKA activation leading to mitochondrial membrane potential creation and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albani Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. These data all indicate that Sp17 is widely distributed in humans, expressed not only in germinal cells and in a variety of somatic tissues, but also in neoplastic cells of unrelated origin. Methods Sp17 expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy on spermatozoa. Results Here, we demonstrate the ultrastructural localization of human Sp17 throughout the spermatozoa flagellar fibrous sheath, and its presence in spermatozoa during in vitro states from their ejaculation to the oocyte fertilization. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of Sp17 in regulating sperm maturation, capacitation, acrosomal reaction and interactions with the oocyte zona pellucida during the fertilization process. Further, the high degree of sequence conservation throughout its N-terminal half, and the presence of an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP-binding motif within this region, suggest that Sp17 might play a regulatory role in a protein kinase A-independent AKAP complex in both germinal and somatic cells.

  15. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...

  16. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....

  17. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  18. Fungal cell wall polymer based nanoparticles in protection of tomato plants from wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, M; Charles, R Einstein

    2015-11-20

    Cell wall polymer (chitosan) was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. They were cross linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to synthesize nanoparticles (CWP-NP). The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, DLS, SEM, XRD and NMR analyses. The isolated CWP-NP exhibit antifungal activity under in vitro condition. The foliar application of the CWP-NP to tomato plants challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici showed delay in wilt disease symptom expression and reduce the wilt disease severity. Treated plants also showed enhanced yield. These results suggested the role of the CWP-NP in protecting tomato plants from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Office-based sperm concentration: A simplified method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Semen samples from 51 sperm donors were used. Following swim-up separation, the sperm concentration of the retrieved motile fraction was counted, as well as progressive motile sperm using a standardised wet preparation. The number of sperm in a 10 μL droplet covered with a 22 × 22 mm coverslip was ...

  20. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Damiano; Eid, Marwen; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Jin, Kwang Nam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Tesche, Christian; Mangold, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  1. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Latina (Italy); Eid, Marwen [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  2. Lung perfusion scintigraphy by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    The initial study reports the characteristic performance using lung segmental phantom filled in Tc-99m pertechnetate. To evaluate the segmental defect in lung perfusion scintigraphy, we applied Bull's-eye analysis in addition to planar image set. Bull's-eye analysis especially facilitated the interpretation in both middle and lower lobes. Subsequently, to evolute the clinical application of Bull's-eye analysis, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed on 10 normal subjects and 60 patients with several pulmonary diseases. Of interest, Bull's-eye analysis, however, encouraged the interpretation in both lower lobes. To calculate the extention and severity of perfusion defect, the present study describes Bull's-eye analysis. Quantitative scoring showed higher in patients with lung cancer than those with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study focus that Bull's-eye analysis can be useful for evaluating perfusion in patients with a couple of pulmonary diseases. (author)

  3. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-02-03

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment.

  4. Biological control of wilt disease complex on tomato crop caused by Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by Verticillium leptobactrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji-Hedfi, Lobna; Regaieg, Hajer; Larayedh, Asma; Chihani, Noura; Horrigue-Raouani, Najet

    2017-09-23

    The efficacy of Verticillium leptobactrum isolate (HR1) was evaluated in the control of root-knot nematode and Fusarium wilt fungus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Five concentrations of V. leptobactrum (HR1) isolate were tested for their nematicidal and fungicidal activities against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in vitro. Laboratory trials showed that mycelium growth inhibition of Fusarium wilt fungus was correlated to the increase of the concentration of culture filtrate. All dilutions showed efficiency in reducing the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The greatest nematicidal activity was observed at 50, 75, and 100% filtrate dilutions. The egg hatching percentage reached 42%, and the juvenile's corrected mortality registered 90% for the above treatments. In greenhouse experiment, the biocontrol agent fungus enhanced significantly tomato growth components (height and weight of plant and root). The multiplication rate of root-knot nematode and the Fusarium wilt disease incidence declined significantly with soil application of V. leptobactrum as with chemical treatments. The isolate HR1 was efficient to control wilt disease complex caused by M. javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

  5. Tolerance to environmental desiccation in moss sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    • Sexual reproduction in mosses requires that sperm be released freely into the environment before finding and fertilizing a receptive female. After release from the male plant, moss sperm may experience a range of abiotic stresses; however, few data are available examining stress tolerance of moss sperm and whether there is genetic variation for stress tolerance in this important life stage. • Here, we investigated the effects of environmental desiccation and recovery on the sperm cells of three moss species (Bryum argenteum, Campylopus introflexus, and Ceratodon purpureus). • We found that a fraction of sperm cells were tolerant to environmental desiccation for extended periods (d) and that tolerance did not vary among species. We found that this tolerance occurs irrespective of ambient dehydration conditions, and that the addition of sucrose during dry-down improved cell recovery. Although we observed no interspecific variation, significant variation among individuals within species in sperm cell tolerance to environmental desiccation was observed, suggesting selection could potentially act on this basic reproductive trait. • The observation of desiccation-tolerant sperm in multiple moss species has important implications for understanding bryophyte reproduction, suggesting the presence of a significant, uncharacterized complexity in the ecology of moss mating systems. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging identifies early perfusion abnormalities in diabetes and hypertension : Insights from a multicenter registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Tesche, Christian; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Pugliese, Francesca; Bamberg, Fabian; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: To identify patients with early signs of myocardial perfusion reduction, a reference base for perfusion measures is needed. Objective: To analyze perfusion parameters derived from dynamic computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

  7. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: ben@pks.mpg.de, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  8. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F

    2008-01-01

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  9. Sperm origins and concentration do not impact the clinical outcomes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cen; Zhou, Ze-Hong; Zheng, Dan-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Jin; Lian, Ying; Qiao, Jie

    2018-05-25

    In the present study, we evaluated the impact of sperm origins and concentration on the clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1201 ICSI cycles were retrospectively analyzed for male azoospermia or oligozoospermia between January 2015 and December 2015 in the Peking University Third Hospital. Patients were divided into three groups (Group 1 vs Group 2/3; surgically extracted sperm vs ejaculated sperms): Group 1 included 343 ICSI cycles and Group 2 analyzed 388 cycles on semen with sperm concentration cycles with sperm concentration between 5 × 10 6 ml -1 and 15 × 10 6 ml -1 (mild oligozoospermia group). Fertilization rates, clinical pregnancy rates, and live birth rates were analyzed and compared among groups of different semen origins and concentrations on the oocyte retrieval day. Group 2 showed a lower fertilization rate than Group 3 (62.9% ± 21.6% vs 66.8% ± 22.1%,Pcycles.

  10. Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates.

  11. Effect of corn steep liquor on lettuce root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae) in hydroponic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Yufita D; Kano, Kazuki; Widiastuti, Ani; Fukahori, Masaru; Kawasaki, Shizuka; Eguchi, Yumi; Misu, Hideyuki; Odani, Hiromitsu; Zhou, Songying; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Shinohara, Makoto; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that organic fertilisers have a suppressive effect on the pathogens of plants grown under hydroponic systems. Furthermore, microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity to diseases have been observed in organic hydroponic systems. This study evaluated the effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) on controlling lettuce root rot disease [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL)] in a hydroponic system. The effect of CSL and Otsuka A (a chemical fertiliser) on the inhibition of FOL in terms of mycelial growth inhibition was tested in vivo. Addition of CSL suppressed FOL infection rates. CSL inhibited FOL infection by 26.3-42.5% from 2 days after starting incubation. In comparison, Otsuka A inhibited FOL growth by 5.5-19.4%. In addition, four of 10 bacteria isolated from the nutrient media containing CSL exhibited inhibition zones preventing FOL mycelial growth. We found that CSL suppressed FOL in lettuce via its antifungal and biostimulatory effects. We suggest that activation of beneficial microorganisms present in CSL may be used to decrease lettuce root rot disease and contribute to lettuce root growth. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Sperm immobilization by dental focus microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linossier, A; Thumann, A; Bustos-Obregon, E

    1982-01-01

    Focal infections and their ability to produce alterations in different tissues have been in dispute for long time. The purpose of this work was to observe "in vitro" the effect of an Escherichia coli filtrate obtained from open pulpar necrosis on human sperm motility. It was observed that the E. coli filtrate produced a loss in sperm motility. The immobilizating factor was studied and characterized as a heat-stable, resistant to lyophilization and non-dializable substance, which could via blood stream reach the male reproductive system and affect sperm motility.

  13. Automatic assessment of cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsson, Henrik B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on Active Appearance Models (AAM) is applied for automatic registration of myocardial perfusion MRI. A semi-quantitative perfusion assessment of the registered image sequences is presented. This includes the formation of perfusion maps for three parameters; maximum up...

  14. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  15. Milk proteins interact with goat Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins and decrease their binding to sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p  0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.

  16. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  17. Use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in men with high sperm DNA fragmentation: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Garrido, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval.

  18. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  19. Intracellular pH in sperm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca(2+) channel; Slo3, a K(+) channel; the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.; Gadê lha, H.; Smith, D.J.; Blake, J.R.; Kirkman-Brown, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian

  1. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  2. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  4. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging without contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjoerg; Schick, Fritz; Boss, Andreas; Schraml, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina F.; Claussen, Claus D.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of magnetic resonance imaging techniques providing perfusion-related contrast weighting without administration of contrast media are reported and analysed systematically. Especially common approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging allowing quantitative assessment of specific perfusion rates are described in detail. The potential of ASL for perfusion imaging was tested in several types of tissue. After a systematic comparison of technical aspects of continuous and pulsed ASL techniques the standard kinetic model and tissue properties of influence to quantitative measurements of perfusion are reported. For the applications demonstrated in this paper a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation approach followed by true fast imaging with steady precession (true FISP) data recording was developed and implemented on whole-body scanners operating at 0.2, 1.5 and 3 T for quantitative perfusion measurement in various types of tissue. ASL imaging provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of tissue perfusion rates in vivo. Images recorded from kidney, lung, brain, salivary gland and thyroid gland provide a spatial resolution of a few millimetres and sufficient signal to noise ratio in perfusion maps after 2-5 min of examination time. Newly developed ASL techniques provide especially high image quality and quantitative perfusion maps in tissues with relatively high perfusion rates (as also present in many tumours). Averaging of acquisitions and image subtraction procedures are mandatory, leading to the necessity of synchronization of data recording to breathing in abdominal and thoracic organs. (orig.)

  5. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gallego-Calvo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001. No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05. After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05. These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer.

  6. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Calvo, L.; Gatica, M.C.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Guzmán, J.L.; Zarazaga, L.

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001). No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05). After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05). These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer. (Author)

  7. Confocal fluorescence microscopy in a murine model of microdissection testicular sperm extraction to improve sperm retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan P; Lowe, Greg J; Kavoussi, Parviz K; Steers, William D; Costabile, Raymond A; Herr, John C; Shetty, Jagathpala; Lysiak, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction markedly improves the sperm retrieval rates in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. However, localizing sperm foci can be time-consuming and it is not always successful. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy offers the advantage of rapid in vivo detection of fluorescently labeled sperm in the seminiferous tubules. After establishing the feasibility of fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy to identify antibody labeled sperm in vivo C57/B6 mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of busulfan to induce azoospermia. During spermatogenesis reestablishment at approximately 16 weeks the mice were anesthetized and the testes were delivered through a low midline incision. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled antibody to intra-acrosomal protein Hs-14 was injected retrograde into a single murine rete testis. The testes were imaged in vivo with fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy and sperm foci were detected. The respective seminiferous tubules were excised and squash prepared for immunofluorescence microscopy. Sperm foci were identified in the testis injected with fluorescently tagged antibody by in vivo fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy. The contralateral control testis of each mouse showed no specific signal. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the excised tubules provided morphological confirmation of the presence of labeled sperm with an absence in controls. Findings were consistent in the feasibility portion of the study and in the busulfan model of nonobstructive azoospermia. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy was feasible during microdissection testicular sperm extraction in an azoospermic mouse model to identify fluorescently labeled sperm in vivo. Translation to the clinical setting could decrease operative time and improve the sperm harvest rate. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  9. Lifestyle influences human sperm functional quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica Ferreira; Joana Vieira Silva; Vladimiro Silva; Antnio Barros; Margarida Fardilha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of acute lifestyle changes on human sperm functional quality.Methods:In the academic festivities week, young and apparently healthy male students who voluntarily submit themselves to acute lifestyle alterations(among the potentially important variations are increase in alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco consumption and circadian rhythm shifts) were used as a model system.Sperm samples were obtained before and after the academic week and compared by traditional semen analysis(n=54) and also tested for cleavedPolyADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) protein, an apoptotic marker(n=35).Results:Acute lifestyle changes that occurred during the academic week festivities(the study model) resulted both in a significant reduction in sperm quality, assessed by basic semen analysis(decrease in sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, progressive and non-progressive motility and increase in sperm morphological abnormalities) and by an increase in the expression of the apoptotic marker, cleavedPARP, in the ejaculate.Conclusions:Acute lifestyle changes have clear deleterious effects on sperm quality.We propose cleavedPARP as a novel molecular marker, valuable for assessing spermquality in parallel with the basic semen analysis method.

  10. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in sperm traits in scorpionflies (Mecoptera : Panorpidae): Consequences of larval history and seasonality on sperm length and sperm transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Andreas; Engels, Sierk; Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of seasonality, larval food availability and larval rearing density on sperm length, sperm transfer rates and body size in the bivoltine scorpionfly Panorpa vulgaris. Males of the first annual generation were larger and had larger sperm. Comparing individuals of two summer

  12. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in c...

  13. Origin, Migration Routes and Worldwide Population Genetic Structure of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Angélique; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.; Enjalbert, Jérôme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of large-scale population structure of pathogens enable the identification of migration patterns, diversity reservoirs or longevity of populations, the understanding of current evolutionary trajectories and the anticipation of future ones. This is particularly important for long-distance migrating fungal pathogens such as Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), capable of rapid spread to new regions and crop varieties. Although a range of recent PST invasions at continental scales are well documented, the worldwide population structure and the center of origin of the pathogen were still unknown. In this study, we used multilocus microsatellite genotyping to infer worldwide population structure of PST and the origin of new invasions based on 409 isolates representative of distribution of the fungus on six continents. Bayesian and multivariate clustering methods partitioned the set of multilocus genotypes into six distinct genetic groups associated with their geographical origin. Analyses of linkage disequilibrium and genotypic diversity indicated a strong regional heterogeneity in levels of recombination, with clear signatures of recombination in the Himalayan (Nepal and Pakistan) and near-Himalayan regions (China) and a predominant clonal population structure in other regions. The higher genotypic diversity, recombinant population structure and high sexual reproduction ability in the Himalayan and neighboring regions suggests this area as the putative center of origin of PST. We used clustering methods and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to compare different competing scenarios describing ancestral relationship among ancestral populations and more recently founded populations. Our analyses confirmed the Middle East-East Africa as the most likely source of newly spreading, high-temperature-adapted strains; Europe as the source of South American, North American and Australian populations; and Mediterranean-Central Asian populations as the origin of

  14. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Louise; Kos, Snjezana; Beijer, Cornelis; Brinkman, Jacoline W; van der Horst, Frans A L; van den Hoven, Leonie; Kieslinger, Dorit C; van Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, Netty J; Wolthuis, Albert; Hendriks, Jan C M; Wetzels, Alex M M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. University hospital. A total of 1,166 couples visiting the fertility laboratory for their first IUI episode, including 4,251 IUI cycles. None. Sperm morphology, total progressively motile sperm count (TPMSC), and number of inseminated progressively motile spermatozoa (NIPMS); odds ratios (ORs) of the sperm parameters after the first IUI cycle and the first finished IUI episode; discriminatory accuracy of the multivariable model. None of the sperm parameters was of predictive value for pregnancy after the first IUI cycle. In the first finished IUI episode, a positive relationship was found for ≤4% of morphologically normal spermatozoa (OR 1.39) and a moderate NIPMS (5-10 million; OR 1.73). Low NIPMS showed a negative relation (≤1 million; OR 0.42). The TPMSC had no predictive value. The multivariable model (i.e., sperm morphology, NIPMS, female age, male age, and the number of cycles in the episode) had a moderate discriminatory accuracy (area under the curve 0.73). Intrauterine insemination is especially relevant for couples with moderate male factor infertility (sperm morphology ≤4%, NIPMS 5-10 million). In the multivariable model, however, the predictive power of these sperm parameters is rather low. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward microfluidic sperm refinement: continuous flow label-free analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports upon the development of a microfluidic setup to detect and sort sperm cells from polystyrene beads label-free and non-invasively. Detection is performed by impedance analysis. When sperm cells passed the microelectrodes, the recorded impedance (19.6 ± 5.7 Ω) was higher

  16. Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Peter; Binet, Monique T; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Doyle, Christopher J; Williamson, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    Broadcast spawning marine invertebrates are susceptible to environmental stressors such as climate change, as their reproduction depends on the successful meeting and fertilization of gametes in the water column. Under near-future scenarios of ocean acidification, the swimming behaviour of marine invertebrate sperm is altered. We tested whether this was due to changes in sperm mitochondrial activity by investigating the effects of ocean acidification on sperm metabolism and swimming behaviour in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. We used a fluorescent molecular probe (JC-1) and flow cytometry to visualize mitochondrial activity (measured as change in mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP). Sperm MMP was significantly reduced in ΔpH -0.3 (35% reduction) and ΔpH -0.5 (48% reduction) treatments, whereas sperm swimming behaviour was less sensitive with only slight changes (up to 11% decrease) observed overall. There was significant inter-individual variability in responses of sperm swimming behaviour and MMP to acidified seawater. We suggest it is likely that sperm exposed to these changes in pH are close to their tipping point in terms of physiological tolerance to acidity. Importantly, substantial inter-individual variation in responses of sperm swimming to ocean acidification may increase the scope for selection of resilient phenotypes, which, if heritable, could provide a basis for adaptation to future ocean acidification. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Sperm depletion as a consequence of increased sperm competition risk in the European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Pateman-Jones, C.; Zieba, G.; Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2009), s. 1227-1233 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * European bitterling * mating system * sexual conflict * sexual selection * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2009

  18. Variation in sperm morphometry and sperm competition among barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laskemoen, T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Cepák, J.; De Lope, F.; Hermosell, I. G.; Johannessen, L. E.; Kleven, O.; Marzal, A.; Mousseau, T. A.; Moller, A. P.; Robertson, R. J.; Rudolfsen, G.; Saino, N.; Vortman, Y.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2013), s. 301-309 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Barn swallow * Extrapair paternity * Hirundo rustica * Sperm competition * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2013

  19. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  20. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  1. The Effect of Glyphosate on Human Sperm Motility and Sperm DNA Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Anifandis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the active ingredient of Roundup®, which is one of the most popular herbicides worldwide. Although many studies have focused on the reproductive toxicity of glyphosate or glyphosate-based herbicides, the majority of them have concluded that the effect of the specific herbicide is negligible, while only a few studies indicate the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 0.36 mg/L glyphosate on sperm motility and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF. Thirty healthy men volunteered to undergo semen analysis for the purpose of the study. Sperm motility was calculated according to WHO 2010 guidelines at collection time (zero time and 1 h post-treatment with glyphosate. Sperm DNA fragmentation was evaluated with Halosperm® G2 kit for both the control and glyphosate-treated sperm samples. Sperm progressive motility of glyphosate-treated samples was significantly reduced after 1 h post-treatment in comparison to the respective controls, in contrast to the SDF of glyphosate-treated samples, which was comparable to the respective controls. Conclusively, under these in vitro conditions, at high concentrations that greatly exceed environmental exposures, glyphosate exerts toxic effects on sperm progressive motility but not on sperm DNA integrity, meaning that the toxic effect is limited only to motility, at least in the first hour.

  2. Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    Initial success in sperm cryopreservation came at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50-plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while despite work in some 200 species with well over 200 published reports, cryopreservation of aquatic species sperm remains essentially a research activity with little commercial application. Most research has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmonids, carps, and catfishes, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a handful of studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes, such as zebrafish, and in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, the lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models, or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally

  3. Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    are able to fertilize close to 100 per cent of the eggs and that the average sperm use per egg is very low, but increases with queen age. The robustness of stored sperm was found to decrease with years of storage, signifying that senescence affects sperm either directly or indirectly via the declining...... glandular secretions or deteriorating sperm-storage organs. We evaluate our findings with a heuristic model, which suggests that the average queen has sperm for almost 9 years of normal colony development. We discuss the extent to which leaf-cutter ant queens have been able to optimize their sperm...

  4. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  5. Myocardial perfusion modeling using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, it is shown that it is possible to quantify myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance imaging in combination with gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Previously, a simple model and method for measuring myocardial perfusion using an inversion recovery...... turbo-FLASH (fast low-angle shot) sequence and Gd-DTPA has been presented. Here, an extension of the model is presented taking into account fast and slow water exchange between the compartments, enabling the calculation of the unidirectional influx constant (Ki) for Gd-DTPA, the distribution volume...... of Gd-DTPA (lambda), the vascular blood volume (Vb), and the time delay through the coronary arteries (delta T). The model was evaluated by computer simulation and used on experimental results from seven healthy subjects. The results in the healthy volunteers for a region of interest placed...

  6. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  8. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  9. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  10. Endocannabinoids and Human Sperm Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Zolese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acylethanolamides (NAEs are naturally occurring signaling lipids consisting of amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Usually they are present in a very small amounts in many mammalian tissues and cells, including human reproductive tracts and fluids. Recently, the presence of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, the most characterised member of endocannabinoids, and its congeners palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and oleylethanolamide (OEA in seminal plasma, oviductal fluid, and follicular fluids was demonstrated. AEA has been shown to bind not only type-1 (CB1 and type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptors, but also type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1, while PEA and OEA are inactive with respect to classical cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 but activate TRPV1 or peroxisome proliferator activate receptors (PPARs. This review concerns the most recent experimental data on PEA and OEA, endocannabinoid-like molecules which appear to exert their action exclusively on sperm cells with altered features, such as membrane characteristics and kinematic parameters. Their beneficial effects on these cells could suggest a possible pharmacological use of PEA and OEA on patients affected by some forms of idiopathic infertility.

  11. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Leigh W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.

  12. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  13. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  14. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Nitrate assimilation pathway (NAP): role of structural (nit) and transporter (ntr1) genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Lucia; Camara Almiron, Jesus; Rodriguez Carrillo, Patricia Lizett; Olivares Medina, Cindy Nayely; Bravo Ruiz, Gustavo; Romo Rodriguez, Pamela; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gutierrez Corona, Felix; Roncero, M Isabel

    2018-04-01

    The tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici possesses the capability to use nitrate as the only nitrogen source under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and to activate virulence-related functions when cultivated in the presence of nitrate, but not in ammonium. The genome of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici encodes three paralogs nitrate reductase (NR) genes (nit1, nit2 and nit3) and one predicted ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans high-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NtrA and NtrB, named ntr1. We set out to clarify the role of nit1, nit2, nit3 and ntr1 genes in nitrate assimilation and in the virulence of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that only nit1, nit2 and ntr1 are expressed at significant levels during growth in nitrate as the only nitrogen source. Targeted deletion of nit1 and ntr1, but not of nit2 or nit3, severely impaired growth of F. oxysporum on nitrate as nitrogen source, indicating that Nit1 and Ntr1 proteins are involved in nitrate assimilation by the fungus; biochemical analysis of nit mutants indicated that Nit1 and Nit2 enzymes contribute to about 50 and 30% of the total NR activity, respectively. In addition, a spontaneous chlorate-resistant mutant derived from F. oxysporum 4287, denoted NitFG, was characterized, showing inability to grow in nitrate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and low levels of NR activity, in spite of its increased transcription levels of nit1 and nit2 genes. Tomato plant infection assays showed that NitFG and ∆ntr1 mutants induced an earlier death in tomato plants, whereas the single mutants ∆nit1, ∆nit2 and ∆nit1∆nit2 double mutant showed a mortality rate similar to the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that the Nit1 and Ntr1 proteins are important for nitrate assimilation of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and that this metabolic process is not essential for the virulence of

  16. Sperm Donation and the Right to Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallich, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.

  17. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% ... gonadotrophin (HCG) 5000 ID was given when the average size of three ... have a normal sperm count and motility but have lower than normal ...

  18. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben

    2018-01-01

    . Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI...... inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous...... flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA.Results: Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed...

  19. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  20. Short communication Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leyland Fraser

    Short communication. Sperm DNA ... (Received 21 January 2017; Accepted 28 February2017; First published online 8 March 2017) ... This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage.

  1. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. in 't Veld; F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); H.F. de France; P.L. Pearson; M.H. Pieters; R.J. van Kooij

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn infertile couple was referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of primary infertility and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) in the male. It was observed that although the sperm cells presented with an unusual head size and multiple

  2. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  3. Effect of an isotonic lubricant on sperm collection and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Malvezzi, Helena; Sharma, Rakesh

    2013-05-01

    To assess the influence of an isotonic lubricant used during sperm sample collection on [1] ease of collection and [2] resultant sperm quality. Paired randomized cross-over design. Tertiary hospital. Healthy men over 18 years old with normal semen analysis as per World Health Organization 2010 guidelines. Collection of semen sample from 22 subjects by masturbation with or without the use of Pre-Seed personal lubricant. Qualitative survey results and quantitative sperm function outcomes were measured to determine resultant sperm quality and collection experience with and without Pre-Seed lubricant. The qualitative questionnaire results showed that 73% of donors prefer the semen collection process with the isotonic lubricant and 55% recommended the use of lubricant in their everyday collection. The motility, viability, membrane integrity, levels of reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity, and percentage of DNA damage in collected semen samples were not affected by the use of the lubricant. More donors prefer, and find it easier, to collect semen samples with the use of the lubricant. The isotonic lubricant Pre-Seed did not compromise sperm quality as evaluated in an array of sperm assays, suggesting its safe use in fertility patients as required during sperm collection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sperm DNA fragmentation in boars is delayed or abolished by using sperm extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llano, Begoña; Enciso, María; García-Casado, Pedro; Sala, Rubén; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    The semen quality of seven young adult boars was assessed for percentages of sperm motility, normal acrosomes, abnormal sperm, cells positive to sHOST (short Hipoosmotic Swelling Test), HPNA cells (sHOST Positive with Normal Acrosome cells) and the percentage of sperm heads, which exhibited DNA fragmentation using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCD). These parameters were analysed in sperm samples both undiluted and diluted using a commercial extender and stored at 15 degrees C for 21 days. Results showed that semen quality decreases faster in the undiluted semen samples from day 0 to day 7 compared to diluted semen samples that remained with a high quality up to day 11. The undiluted semen exhibited a low DNA fragmentation index (DFI) during the first days and then a significant increase from day 7 up to day 21. This increase in the DFI coincided with the lowest levels of the other semen quality parameters. On the contrary, the samples diluted in the commercial extender showed very low levels of DNA fragmentation in all boars during the preservation period. When the evolution of DNA fragmentation was analysed in the undiluted samples, differences were found among boars. These differences were not shown in the samples diluted in the extender where the basal DFI remained stable during the 21 days. The main conclusion of this study was that some sperm extenders delay or partially prevent sperm DNA fragmentation.

  5. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Sundskard, Martin M; Jonassen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 90...... perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass appears to improve postoperative oxygenation in patients with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution does not seem to improve postoperative oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER...

  6. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone...... testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....

  7. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  8. Evolutionary genetics and ecology of sperm-dependent parthenogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Vrijenhoek, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Sperm-dependent (or pseudogamous) forms of parthenogenetic reproduction occur in a wide variety of animals. Inheritance is typically clonal and matroclinous (of female descent), but sperm are needed to initiate normal development. As opposed to true parthenogenesis (i.e., sperm-independent

  9. Effect of 4-nonylphenol on the sperm dynamic parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a compound that causes endocrine disruption and affects sperm quality of mammals and fish. However, the effects of NP on the sperm and fertilization rate of amphibians remain unknown. This study investigates the in vivo and in vitro effects of NP on the sperm dynamic parameters and fertilization ...

  10. Sperm storage and duration of fertility in female ostriches ( Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region. Fertilisation ...

  11. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a nu...

  12. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM. To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  13. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173.275... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed...

  14. Good Quality - the Routinization of Sperm Banking in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    Good Quality is an assemblage ethnography of how sperm banking came to be routinized in China. Based on 8 years of episodic fieldwork at China’s oldest and largest sperm bank in Changsha, Hunan province, the book meticulously chronicles how, beginning in the early 1980s, a unique style of sperm b...

  15. Postmortem sperm procurement: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, S E; Seftel, A D; Resnick, M I

    1999-06-01

    Postmortem sperm procurement with subsequent artificial insemination has become a technically feasible method for posthumous conception. A variety of legal questions exist involving the rights and relationships of the deceased, his family and his issue. We addressed these questions and designed a workable protocol for postmortem sperm procurement. MEDLINE, WESTLAW and LEXIS medical literature, and case law searches were conducted. United States and international case law, United States (federal and state) statutes, Uniform Law Commissions Acts, and law review commentaries and articles were reviewed. While postmortem sperm procurement is being requested throughout the United States, no standard protocol or procedural guidelines have been established by federal or state statute. Furthermore, the courts have not yet addressed this specific scenario in reported case law. Statutes and case law do address related factual scenarios and issues, including property rights in human bodies, rules governing transplantation of human organs/body parts, rights of parties in in vivo sperm bank donations and responsibilities of parents to the conceptus of artificial insemination. A workable protocol can be established by analyzing case law and statutes addressing factually similar scenarios. Urologists must focus on the express intent of the decedent and limit any postmortem sperm retrieval to the specific requests made by the decedent. Decedent requests should be documented in writing. The decedent must be competent and of majority age. In the absence of decedent expressed affirmative directive calling for sperm retrieval, no other relative or guardian may authorize this retrieval. Issues regarding the legitimacy and inheritance rights of the conceptus will most consistently be addressed when explicitly provided for in the will of the decedent.

  16. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  17. Effect of transfection and co-incubation of bovine sperm with exogenous DNA on sperm quality and functional parameters for its use in sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, María Elena; Sánchez-Villalba, Esther; Delgado, Andrea; Felmer, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the capacity of sperm to bind exogenous DNA and transfer it into the oocyte during fertilization. In bovines, the progress of this technology has been slow due to the poor reproducibility and efficiency of the production of transgenic embryos. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different sperm transfection systems on the quality and functional parameters of sperm. Additionally, the ability of sperm to bind and incorporate exogenous DNA was assessed. These analyses were carried out by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and motility parameters were also evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Transfection was carried out using complexes of plasmid DNA with Lipofectamine, SuperFect and TurboFect for 0.5, 1, 2 or 4 h. The results showed that all of the transfection treatments promoted sperm binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA, similar to sperm incorporation of DNA alone, without affecting the viability. Nevertheless, the treatments and incubation times significantly affected the motility parameters, although no effect on the integrity of DNA or the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed. Additionally, we observed that transfection using SuperFect and TurboFect negatively affected the acrosome integrity, and TurboFect affected the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm. In conclusion, we demonstrated binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA by sperm after transfection and confirmed the capacity of sperm to spontaneously incorporate exogenous DNA. These findings will allow the establishment of the most appropriate method [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF)] of generating transgenic embryos via SMGT based on the fertilization capacity of transfected sperm.

  18. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  19. Severe Fertility Effects of sheepish Sperm Caused by Failure To Enter Female Sperm Storage Organs in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Tomaru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, mature sperm are transferred from males to females during copulation, stored in the sperm storage organs of females, and then utilized for fertilization. Here, we report a gene named sheepish (shps of Drosophila melanogaster that is essential for sperm storage in females. shps mutant males, although producing morphologically normal and motile sperm that are effectively transferred to females, produce very few offspring. Direct counts of sperm indicated that the primary defect was correlated to failure of shps sperm to migrate into the female sperm storage organs. Increased sperm motion parameters were seen in the control after transfer to females, whereas sperm from shps males have characteristics of the motion parameters different from the control. The few sperm that occasionally entered the female sperm storage organs showed no obvious defects in fertilization and early embryo development. The female postmating responses after copulation with shps males appeared normal, at least with respect to conformational changes of uterus, mating plug formation, and female remating rates. The shps gene encodes a protein with homology to amine oxidases, including as observed in mammals, with a transmembrane region at the C-terminal end. The shps mutation was characterized by a nonsense replacement in the third exon of CG13611, and shps was rescued by transformants of the wild-type copy of CG13611. Thus, shps may define a new class of gene responsible for sperm storage.

  20. Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biofungisida Patogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc. Snyd. et Hans. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURI MANDAN SARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to isolate Streptomyces sp. of soil Udayana University campus in theBukit-Jimbaran, to obtain the most effective Streptomyces sp. which is effective in inhibit the growth ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and to test response of tomato plants with Streptomyces sp.culture against Fusarium wilt desease. Implementation phases of the research consisted of isolation andidentification of Streptomyces sp, test the inhibition against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and in vivotest used by dyeing the roots of the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum with Fusarium spores andafter 30 seconds the roots were dyeing Streptomyces culture. Furthermore, sterile soil in polybagwatered by Fusarium spores and Streptomyces culture at the same time. Based on morphologicalcharacteristic it found five isolates of Streptomyces sp.. The antagonist test showed Streptomyces sp.1 had ability (75% against Fusarium, Streptomyces sp 2 (68,3%, Streptomyces sp. 3 (71,6%,Streptomyces sp. 4 (63,3%, and Streptomyces sp. 5 (21,6%. All Streptomyces suppressed thegrowth of Fusarium on tomato plants in glass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.3 suppressed Fusariumwilt disease in tomato from 88% in control to 20%.

  1. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.; Kos, S.; Beijer, C.; Brinkman, J.W.; Horst, F.A. van der; Hoven, L. van den; Kieslinger, D.C.; Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, N.J.; Wolthuis, A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. SETTING: University

  2. Boundaries of Ethics, Sperm on the Border –The Globalization of Danish Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    as sperm donation in parliamentary debates, and in the media, often raises ethical questions. This presentation inquires into how the bending of boundaries by “inappropriate parents”, fertility travelers, private sperm banks and fertility clinics have been part in negotiating the changes of the legislation......’s situational analysis based on Anselm Strauss’ social world arena theory. Furthermore, I draw theoretically on Karen Barad and Donna Haraway’s notion of diffractive readings. I use their understanding of accountability to question and intervene in the doing of ethics in practice......., relatedness and family by politicians and bioethicists, in the parliament and in the media. I will argue that the globalization of Danish sperm is a story of combined subversive acts by women and men using the technologies, sperm banks and private fertility clinics. I will explore what the labeling...

  3. Sperm storage induces an immunity cost in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Armitage, Sophie A O; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    Ant queens are among the most long-lived insects known. They mate early in adult life and maintain millions of viable sperm in their sperm storage organ until they die many years later. Because they never re-mate, the reproductive success of queens is ultimately sperm-limited, but it is not known...... what selective forces determine the upper limit to sperm storage. Here we show that sperm storage carries a significant cost of reduced immunity during colony founding. Newly mated queens of the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica upregulate their immune response shortly after completing their nest burrow...

  4. Improving sperm banking efficiency in endangered species through the use of a sperm selection method in brown bear (Ursus arctos) thawed sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel-Lopez, L; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Álvarez, M; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C; Peña, F J; Morrell, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2017-06-26

    Sperm selection methods such as Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) have been demonstrated to be a useful tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to increase the efficiency of other artificial reproductive techniques in several species. This procedure could help to improve the quality of genetic resource banks, which is essential for endangered species. In contrast, these sperm selection methods are optimized and focused on farm animals, where the recovery task is not as important as in endangered species because of their higher sperm availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate two centrifugation methods (300 x g/20 min and 600 x g/10 min) and three concentrations of SLC media (Androcoll-Bear -80, 65 and 50%) to optimise the procedure in order to recover as many sperm with the highest quality as possible. Sperm morphology could be important in the hydrodynamic relationship between the cell and centrifugation medium and thus the effect of sperm head morphometry on sperm yield and its hydrodynamic relationship were studied. The samples selected with Androcoll-Bear 65% showed a very good yield (53.1 ± 2.9) although the yield from Androcoll-Bear 80% was lower (19.3 ± 3.3). The latter showed higher values of motility than the control immediately after post-thawing selection. However, both concentrations of colloid (65 and 80%) showed higher values of viable sperm and viable sperm with intact acrosome than the control. After an incubation of 2 h at 37 °C, the samples from Androcoll-Bear 80% had higher kinematics and proportion of viable sperm with intact acrosome. In the morphometric analysis, the sperm selected by the Androcoll-Bear 80% showed a head with a bigger area which was more elongated than the sperm from other treatments. We conclude that sperm selection with Androcoll-Bear at either 65% or 80% is a suitable technique that allows a sperm population with better quality than the initial sample to be obtained. We recommend the

  5. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul

    2010-01-01

    mlh(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success rate...

  6. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  8. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  9. Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dua A; Vaidya S

    1996-01-01

    Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

  10. Study of Sperm Parameters and Sperm Fertility in Mice were Exposed to Tamoxifen during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Soleimanirad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tamoxifen is steroidal drug, which mainly treats breast cancer and also used to stimulate ovulation. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of sperm parameters and fertility of mice whose mothers had received tamoxifen during pregnancy. Methods: In this study, 30 female and 15 male mice of NMRI were selected for mating. After mating female mice were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (control and second group (experimental. All of which contained 15 mice. From the day 13th day of pregnancy, experimental group has received tamoxifen with the dosage of 5 mg/kg for 7 days. After childbirth of the mated mice, male infants were selected. After reaching the age of puberty (6-8Weeks, adult mice were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation. After take sperm, sperm parameters (count, normality and motility, and sperm fertility was performed. In this study SPSS software and statistical t-test was used (p <0.001. Results: Studies showed that sperm parameters and sperm fertilization were significantly different. The number of sperm in the control group was 83.50±28.20 million, and in the experimental group was 60±14.14 million. There was a decrease in average sperm count in the experimental group compared with the control group (p <0.001. Our findings from in vitro fertilization culture media showed that embryos formation and oocyte disruption between control and experimental groups significantly different (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that tamoxifen exposure during development can cause histological changes in the seminiferous tubules, which can lead to infertility.

  11. Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

  12. Sperm quality but not relatedness predicts sperm competition success in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlis, Marion; Rahn, Anna K; Bakker, Theo C M

    2015-04-26

    Mating between close relatives often leads to a reduction of an individual's fitness, due to an increased expression of deleterious alleles. Thus, in many animal taxa pre- as well as postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms have evolved. An increased risk of inbreeding and hence a loss of genetic variation may occur during founder events as in most cases only few individuals establish a new population. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a small externally fertilizing fish species subject to strong sperm competition. Sticklebacks inhabit both marine and freshwater environments and anadromous populations have repeatedly established new genetically less diverse freshwater populations. Previous studies showed that anadromous sticklebacks strongly suffer from inbreeding depression and when given the choice females prefer to mate with unrelated males. The present study aimed to address whether there exists a postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanism solely based on sperm-egg interactions in sperm competition experiments. We used F1 individuals that originated either from a large, genetically heterogeneous anadromous population or from a small, genetically less diverse freshwater population. For each population, eggs of two different females were in vitro fertilized by the same two males' sperm in a paired study design. In the main experiment one male was the female's full-sib brother and in the control experiment all individuals were unrelated. The results revealed that fertilization success was independent of relatedness in both populations suggesting a general lack of a postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanism. Instead, male quality (i.e. sperm morphology) predicted paternity success during competitive fertilization trials. In sticklebacks, there is no evidence for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Sperm morphology predicted paternity instead, thus sperm quality traits are under strong sexual selection, presumably driven by the

  13. Influence of Post-Mortem Sperm Recovery Method and Extender on Unstored and Refrigerated Rooster Sperm Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-02-01

    Many post-mortem sperm collection techniques have been described for mammalian species, but their use in birds is scarce. This paper compares the efficacy of two post-mortem sperm retrieval techniques - the flushing and float-out methods - in the collection of rooster sperm, in conjunction with the use of two extenders, i.e., L&R-84 medium and Lake 7.1 medium. To determine whether the protective effects of these extenders against refrigeration are different for post-mortem and ejaculated sperm, pooled ejaculated samples (procured via the massage technique) were also diluted in the above extenders. Post-mortem and ejaculated sperm variables were assessed immediately at room temperature (0 h), and after refrigeration at 5°C for 24 and 48 h. The flushing method retrieved more sperm than the float-out method (596.5 ± 75.4 million sperm vs 341.0 ± 87.6 million sperm; p < 0.05); indeed, the number retrieved by the former method was similar to that obtained by massage-induced ejaculation (630.3 ± 78.2 million sperm). For sperm collected by all methods, the L&R-84 medium provided an advantage in terms of sperm motility variables at 0 h. In the refrigerated sperm samples, however, the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages of viable sperm, and had a greater protective effect (p < 0.05) with respect to most motility variables. In conclusion, the flushing method is recommended for collecting sperm from dead birds. If this sperm needs to be refrigerated at 5°C until analysis, Lake 7.1 medium is recommended as an extender. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Changes in Sperm Motility and Capacitation Induce Chromosomal Aberration of the Bovine Embryo following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoku Kato

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI has become the method of choice to treat human male infertility. One of the outstanding problems associated with this technique is our current lack of knowledge concerning the effect of sperm capacitation and motility upon the subsequent development of oocytes following ICSI. In the present study, we first examined the capacitation state of sperm exhibiting normal motility, along with sperm that had been activated, and examined the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by these sperm types upon embryogenesis following bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF and ICSI. Data showed that activated sperm reduced the chromosomal integrity of IVF/ICSI embryos at the blastocyst stage, while capacitated sperm produced ROS in capacitation media. Secondly, we treated sperm with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP, a chemical known to uncouple cell respiration within the mitochondria, and investigated the effect of this treatment upon blastocyst formation and chromosomal integrity at the blastocyst stage. Activated sperm in which the mitochondria had been treated with CCCP reduced levels of chromosomal aberration at the blastocyst stage following ICSI, by reducing mitochondrial activity in activated sperm. In conclusion, these findings suggest that capacitated sperm exhibiting activated motility induced chromosomal aberration during development to the blastocyst stage following ICSI. The injection of sperm exhibiting normal motility, or activated sperm in which mitochondrial activity had been reduced, improved the quality of ICSI-derived embryos. Therefore, the selection of sperm exhibiting progressive motility may not always be better for early embryo development and fetal growth following human ICSI, and that the use of a bovine model may contribute to a deeper understanding of sperm selection for human ICSI embryo development.

  15. Vitrification of neat semen alters sperm parameters and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Adib, Maryam; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali

    2014-05-06

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of neat semen vitrification on human sperm vital parameters and DNA integrity in men with normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Semen samples were 17 normozoospermic samples and 17 specimens with abnormal sperm parameters. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Then, the smear was provided from each sample and fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Vitrification of neat semen was done by plunging cryoloops directly into liquid nitrogen and preserved for 7 days. The samples were warmed and re-evaluated for sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity. Besides, the correlation between sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation was assessed pre- and post vitrification. Cryopreserved spermatozoa showed significant decrease in sperm motility, viability and normal morphology after thawing in both normal and abnormal semen. Also, the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after vitrification compared to fresh samples in normal (24.76 ± 5.03 and 16.41 ± 4.53, P = .002) and abnormal (34.29 ± 10.02 and 23.5 ± 8.31, P < .0001), respectively. There was negative correlation between sperm motility and sperm DNA integrity in both groups after vitrification. Vitrification of neat ejaculates has negative impact on sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity, particularly among abnormal semen subjects. It is, therefore, recommend to process semen samples and vitrify the sperm pellets.

  16. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  17. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-03-19

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm.

  18. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priya S; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S; Patil, Ashalata D; Gune, Anita R

    2013-07-01

    Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of "round cells" in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  19. Cryopreservation of mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO G. SANCHES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2 , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10% and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min−1 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05 was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2 with DMSO ( 10% and cooling rate of -60°C.min−1 ( P < 0.05 . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper.

  20. Atypical centrioles are present in Tribolium sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, E L; Jo, Kyoung; Ha, Andrew; Royfman, Rachel; Zinn, Ashtyn; Krishnamurthy, Malathi; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2017-03-01

    Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster , we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote. Whether the sperm of other insects has a second centriolar structure is unknown. Here, we characterized spermiogenesis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Electron microscopy suggests that Tribolium has one microtubule-based centriole at the tip of the axoneme and a structure similar to the PCL, which lacks microtubules and lies in a cytoplasmic invagination of the nucleus. Immunostaining against the orthologue of the centriole/PCL protein, Ana1, also recognizes two centrioles near the nucleus during spermiogenesis: one that is microtubule-based at the tip of the axoneme, suggesting it is the centriole; and another that is more proximal and appears during early spermiogenesis, suggesting it is the PCL. Together, these findings suggest that Tribolium sperm has one microtubule-based centriole and one microtubule-lacking centriole. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ricci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  2. Changing rooster sperm membranes to facilitate cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation damages rooster sperm membranes. Part of this damage is due to membrane transitioning from the fluid to the gel state as temperature is reduced. This damage may be prevented by increasing membrane fluidity at low temperatures by incorporating cholesterol or unsaturated lipids into t...

  3. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  4. Life after Death. Sperm, Property, and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Willum Adrian, Stine

    A tragic workplace accident led in 2010 to the death of Mark Edwards. Subsequently, his wife Joycelyn Edwards requested for the New South Wales Superior Court´s permission to extract sperm posthumous from her husband. She got the permission and one year later, the Court decided to grant her acces...

  5. Psychosocial counselling in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance

  6. Brain Perfusion Changes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Mazilu, C.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Codorean, I.; Bajenaru, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the latest advances in medical treatment and neuro critical care, patients suffering spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) still have a very poor prognosis, with a greater mortality and larger neurological deficits at the survivors than for ischemic stroke. Many authors have shown that there are many mechanisms involved in the pathology of SICH: edema, ischemia, inflammation, apoptosis. All of these factors are affecting brain tissue surrounding hematoma and are responsible of the progressive neurological deterioration; most of these damages are not revealed by anatomical imaging techniques. The aim of our study was to asses the role of brain perfusion SPECT in demonstrating perfusion changes in SICH patients. Method: 17 SICH pts were studied. All pts underwent same day CT and brain SPECT with 99mTcHMPAO, 24h-5d from onset of stroke. Results: 14/17 pts showed a larger perfusion defect than expected after CT. In 2 pts hematoma diameter was comparable on CT and SPECT; 1pt had quasinormal aspect of SPECT study. In pts with larger defects, SPECT revealed a large cold spot with similar size compared with CT, and a surrounding hypo perfused area. 6/17 pts revealed cortical hyper perfusion adjacent to hypo perfused area and corresponding to a normal-appearing brain tissue on CT. In 3 pts we found crossed cerebellar diaskisis.In 2 pts we found cortical hypo perfused area in the contralateral cortex, with normal appearing brain tissue on CT. Conclusions: Brain perfusion SPECT revealed different types of perfusion changes in the brain tissue surrounding hematoma. These areas contain viable brain tissue that may be a target for future ne uroprotective strategies. Further studies are definitely required to demonstrate prognostic significance of these changes, but we can conclude that brain perfusion SPECT can play an important role in SICH, by early demonstrating functional changes responsible of clinical deterioration, thus allowing prompt

  7. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ros-Santaella

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF or bad freezers (BF at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006. The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001. Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  8. A new approach to sperm preservation based on bioenergetic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P; Feltmann, A J

    2010-04-01

    To date, attempts to preserve chicken sperm have been based on a trial-and-error experimental approach. The present work outlines the development of an alternative approach based on empiricism and bioenergetic theory. In previous work, we found fowl sperm motility to be dependent on mitochondrial calcium cycling, phospholipase A(2), and long-chain fatty acids as an endogenous energy source. It is noteworthy that fowl sperm reside within the sperm storage tubules (SST) of the oviduct over an interval of days to weeks after insemination. In this regard, a model for in vivo sperm storage was developed and tested in additional previous research. Sperm penetration of the SST, sperm residence within the SST, and sperm egress from the SST can be explained in terms mitochondrial function. Understanding sperm function and longevity in terms of bioenergetics presented the possibility that sperm could be inactivated by disrupting mitochondrial calcium cycling and could thereby be preserved. However, this possibility also posed a problem: maintenance of the inner membrane potential of the mitochondrion within inactivated sperm. This report describes a series of experiments in which fowl sperm were inactivated by treatment with the calcium chelator tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and then reactivated by treatment with calcium ions. The effect of tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid on mitochondrial calcium cycling was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. When treated sperm were cooled to 10 degrees C, inactivated sperm could be reactivated throughout a 5-h storage interval. When stored sperm were held for 3 h before reactivation and insemination, fertility was 88% of the control. Storage did not affect hatchability. In summary, short-term storage was realized by manipulating mitochondrial function. We propose that 1) complex V consumes ATP within inactivated sperm and, by doing so, maintains

  9. In vitro assessment of some sperm function following exposure to levonorgestrel in human fallopian tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanny Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism of action of levonorgestrel (LNG as emergency contraception (EC remains a subject of debate and its effect on sperm function has been only partially explained. The aim of this study was to assess whether LNG at a similar dose to those found in serum following oral intake for EC could affect spermatozoa when exposed to human fallopian tubes in vitro. Methods Fifteen mini-laparotomies were performed, the side on which ovulation occurred was recorded, and both tubes were removed and perfused with a suspension containing 1 × 10(6 motile spermatozoa, with or without LNG. Following 4-hour incubation, the tubes were sectioned to separate the isthmus and the ampulla. Each segment was flushed and the material was evaluated to quantify the number of motile sperm, the number of spermatozoa adhering to the oviductal epithelium and the acrosome reaction (AR rate. Results The addition of LNG did not significantly alter the number of recovered motile spermatozoa either at the isthmus or at the ampulla, nor did it have any effect on the number of recovered spermatozoa adhered to the human tubal epithelium. Furthermore, LNG did not affect the AR rate. No significant differences were found even when the side on which ovulation occurred was taken into account. Conclusions In a similar dose to that observed in serum following oral intake for EC, LNG had no effect on the number of motile spermatozoa recovered from the human fallopian tubes in vitro, on their adhesion to the tubal epithelium, distribution or AR rate. The possible effect of LNG as EC on sperm function remains poorly understood.

  10. Decline of semen quality among Chinese sperm bank donors within 7 years (2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen from 5210 sperm bank donors was analyzed and trends in semen quality were evaluated at Shandong Human Sperm Bank between 2008 and 2014. After 2-7 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count were performed. There were significant declining trends in semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count. Our results indicate that the quality of semen in this cohort of sperm donors had decreased during the study period.

  11. Vasoactive mediators and splanchnic perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P M; Bulkley, G B

    1993-02-01

    To provide an overview of the splanchnic hemodynamic response to circulatory shock. Previous studies performed in our own laboratory, as well as a computer-assisted search of the English language literature (MEDLINE, 1966 to 1991), followed by a selective review of pertinent articles. Studies were selected that demonstrated relevance to the splanchnic hemodynamic response to circulatory shock, either by investigating the pathophysiology or documenting the sequelae. Article selection included clinical studies as well as studies in appropriate animal models. Pertinent data were abstracted from the cited articles. The splanchnic hemodynamic response to circulatory shock is characterized by a selective vasoconstriction of the mesenteric vasculature mediated largely by the renin-angiotensin axis. This vasospasm, while providing a natural selective advantage to the organism in mild-to-moderate shock (preserving relative perfusion of the heart, kidneys, and brain), may, in more severe shock, cause consequent loss of the gut epithelial barrier, or even hemorrhagic gastritis, ischemic colitis, or ischemic hepatitis. From a physiologic standpoint, nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass, a controlled form of circulatory shock, has been found experimentally to significantly increase circulating levels of angiotensin II, the hormone responsible for this selective splanchnic vasoconstriction. While angiotensin II has been viewed primarily as the mediator responsible for the increased total vascular resistance seen during (and after) cardiopulmonary bypass, it may also cause the disproportionate decrease in mesenteric perfusion, as measured in human subjects by intraluminal gastric tonometry and galactose clearance by the liver, as well as the consequent development of the multiple organ failure syndrome seen in 1% to 5% of patients after cardiac surgery.

  12. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S.; Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    1996-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p 0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  13. Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowski, B.; Haenggi, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Beck, A.; Aurich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The development of a computerized method which allows a direct quantitative comparison of perfusion parameters. The display should allow a clear direct comparison of brain perfusion parameters in different vascular territories and over the course of time. The analysis is intended to be the basis for further evaluation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The method should permit early diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm. Materials and Methods: The Angiotux 2D-ECCET software was developed with a close cooperation between computer scientists and clinicians. Starting from parameter images of brain perfusion, the cortex was marked, segmented and assigned to definite vascular territories. The underlying values were averages for each segment and were displayed in a graph. If a follow-up was available, the mean values of the perfusion parameters were displayed in relation to time. The method was developed under consideration of CT perfusion values but is applicable for other methods of perfusion imaging. Results: Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images allows an immediate comparison of these parameters and follow-up of mean values in a clear and concise manner. Values are related to definite vascular territories. The tabular output facilitates further statistic evaluations. The computerized analysis is precisely reproducible, i. e., repetitions result in exactly the same output. (orig.)

  14. The effects of male age on sperm analysis by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Liliane FI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the influence of age on sperm quality, as analysed by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME. Methods Semen samples were collected from 975 men undergoing evaluation or treatment for infertility. Sperm cells were evaluated at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast optics. Two forms of spermatozoa were considered: normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV, defined as vacuoles occupying > 50% of the sperm nuclear area. At least 200 spermatozoa per sample were evaluated, and the percentages of normal and LNV spermatozoa were determined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: Group I, less than or equal to 35 years; Group II, 36-40 years; and Group III, greater than or equal to 41 years. Results There was no difference in the percentages of normal sperm between the two younger (I and II groups (P >0.05. The percentage of normal sperm in the older group (III was significantly lower than that in the younger (I and II groups (P P >0.05. The percentage of LNV spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older group (III than in the younger (I and II groups (P P P Conclusion The results demonstrated a consistent decline in semen quality, as reflected by morphological evaluation by MSOME, with increased age. Considering the relationship between nuclear vacuoles and DNA damage, these age-related changes predict that increased paternal age should be associated with unsuccessful or abnormal pregnancy as a consequence of fertilisation with damaged spermatozoa. Given that sperm nuclear vacuoles can be evaluated more precisely at high magnification, these results support the routine use of MSOME for ICSI as a criterion for semen analysis.

  15. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  16. Glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in mouse LDHC-null sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott; London, Robert E; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrated previously that a knockout (KO) of the lactate dehydrogenase type C (Ldhc) gene disrupted male fertility and caused a considerable reduction in sperm glucose consumption, ATP production, and motility. While that study used mice with a mixed genetic background, the present study used C57BL/6 (B6) and 129S6 (129) Ldhc KO mice. We found that B6 KO males were subfertile and 129 KO males were infertile. Sperm from 129 wild-type (WT) mice have a lower glycolytic rate than sperm from B6 WT mice, resulting in a greater reduction in ATP production in 129 KO sperm than in B6 KO sperm. The lower glycolytic rate in 129 sperm offered a novel opportunity to examine the role of mitochondrial respiration in sperm ATP production and motility. We observed that in media containing a mitochondrial substrate (pyruvate or lactate) as the sole energy source, ATP levels and progressive motility in 129 KO sperm were similar to those in 129 WT sperm. However, when glucose was added, lactate was unable to maintain ATP levels or progressive motility in 129 KO sperm. The rate of respiration (ZO2) was high when 129 KO or WT sperm were incubated with lactate alone, but addition of glucose caused a reduction in ZO2. These results indicate that in the absence of glucose, 129 sperm can produce ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, but in the presence of glucose, oxidative phosphorylation is suppressed and the sperm utilize aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect.

  17. Oviductal extracellular vesicles (oviductosomes, OVS) are conserved in humans: murine OVS play a pivotal role in sperm capacitation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathala, Pradeepthi; Fereshteh, Zeinab; Li, Kun; Al-Dossary, Amal A; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    Are extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the murine oviduct (oviductosomes, OVS) conserved in humans and do they play a role in the fertility of Pmca4-/- females? OVS and their fertility-modulating proteins are conserved in humans, arise via the apocrine pathway, and mediate a compensatory upregulation of PMCA1 (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1) in Pmca4-/- female mice during proestrus/estrus, to account for their fertility. Recently murine OVS were identified and shown during proestrus/estrus to express elevated levels of PMCA4 which they can deliver to sperm. PMCA4 is the major Ca2+ efflux pump in murine sperm and Pmca4 deletion leads to loss of sperm motility and male infertility as there is no compensatory upregulation of the remaining Ca2+ pump, PMCA1. Of the four family members of PMCAs (PMCA1-4), PMCA1 and PMCA4 are ubiquitous, and to date there have been no reports of one isoform being upregulated to compensate for another in any organ/tissue. Since Pmca4-/- females are fertile, despite the abundant expression of PMCA4 in wild-type (WT) OVS, we propose that OVS serve a role of packaging and delivering to sperm elevated levels of PMCA1 in Pmca4-/- during proestrus/estrus to compensate for PMCA4's absence. Fallopian tubes from pre-menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy were used to study EVs in the luminal fluid. Oviducts from sexually mature WT mice were sectioned after perfusion fixation to detect EVs in situ. Oviducts were recovered from WT and Pmca4-/- after hormonally induced estrus and sectioned for PMCA1 immunofluorescence (IF) (detected with confocal microscopy) and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reproductive tissues, luminal fluids and EVs were recovered after induced estrus and after natural cycling for western blot analysis of PMCA1 and qRT-PCR of Pmca1 to compare expression levels in WT and Pmca4-/-. OVS, uterosomes, and epididymal luminal fluid were included in the comparisons. WT and Pmca4-/- OVS were analyzed for the presence of known PMCA4 partners

  18. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for perfusion quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, during bolus passage of a paramagnetic contrast agent, is used world-wide to obtain parameters that reflect the pathological state of tissue. Abnormal perfusion occurs in diseases such as stoke and tumour. Consequently, perfusion quantication could have signi cant...... clinical value both in diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies. One approach for perfusion quanti cation involves using the contrast mechanism that a ects the transverse relaxation rates of the magnetization, R2 or R 2 , since this provides the most pronounced effect. However, the linearity between...

  19. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SODIUM CHLORIDE STRESSED TOMATO PLANT GROWTH IN SOIL INFESTED WITH FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. LYCOPERSICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIZK, M.A.; BOTROS, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of saline stress and/or gamma radiation on the tomato seedlings development, mycelial growth and sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum. Irradiation of the fungus ameliorated the detrimental effect of salinity and improved the percentage of seedlings emergence and increased the root and shoot lengths and dry weight of tomato seedlings. Also, coupling salinity with irradiation significantly increased the mycelial growth in soil and biomass gain of Fusarium oxysporum up to 2 kGy, above which the growth and sporulation were hardly affected and completely suppressed at 5 kGy. On the other hand, exposure of the tomato seeds up to 4 Gy counteracted the suppressive effect of salinity and increased the growth parameters in presence or absence of the fungus. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici appeared to be tolerant to salinity up to 4.8 EC (millimohse) and highly sensitive to irradiation dose 5 kGy.

  20. Evaluation of Lasting Effects of Heat Stress on Sperm Profile and Oxidative Status of Ram Semen and Epididymal Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Rose dos Santos Hamilton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperatures lead to an increase of testicular metabolism that results in spermatic damage. Oxidative stress is the main factor responsible for testicular damage caused by heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate lasting effects of heat stress on ejaculated sperm and immediate or long-term effects of heat stress on epididymal sperm. We observed decrease in motility and mass motility of ejaculated sperm, as well as an increase in the percentages of sperm showing major and minor defects, damaged plasma and acrosome membranes, and a decrease in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated group until one spermatic cycle. An increased enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of stressed cells were observed in ejaculated sperm of the treated group. A decrease in the percentage of epididymal sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in the treated group. However, when comparing immediate and long-term effects, we observed an increase in the percentage of sperm with low mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, testicular heat stress induced oxidative stress that led to rescuable alterations after one spermatic cycle in ejaculated sperm and also after 30 days in epididymal sperm.

  1. An immunological approach of sperm sexing and different methods for identification of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Kumar Yadav

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm has been practiced for selection of desired sex of offspring to increase the profit in livestock industries. At present, fluorescence-activated cell sorter is the only successful method for separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm. This technology is based on the differences in DNA content between these two types of sperm and has been commercialized for bovine sperm. However, this technology still has problems in terms of high economic cost, sperm damage, and lower pregnancy rates compared to unsorted semen. Therefore, an inexpensive, convenient, and non-invasive approach for sperm sexing would be of benefit to agricultural sector. Within this perspective, immunological sperm sexing method is one of the attractive choices to separate X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm. This article reviews the current knowledge about immunological approaches, viz., H-Y antigen, sex-specific antigens, and differentially expressed proteins for sperm sexing. Moreover, this review also highlighted the different methods for identification of X- and Y-sperm.

  2. Perfusion-induced changes in cardiac contractility depend on capillary perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, M A; Heslinga, J W; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1998-02-01

    The perfusion-induced increase in cardiac contractility (Gregg phenomenon) is especially found in heart preparations that lack adequate coronary autoregulation and thus protection of changes in capillary pressure. We determined in the isolated perfused papillary muscle of the rat whether cardiac muscle contractility is related to capillary perfusion. Oxygen availability of this muscle is independent of internal perfusion, and perfusion may be varied or even stopped without loss of function. Muscles contracted isometrically at 27 degrees C (n = 7). During the control state stepwise increases in perfusion pressure resulted in all muscles in a significant increase in active tension. Muscle diameter always increased with increased perfusion pressure, but muscle segment length was unaffected. Capillary perfusion was then obstructed by plastic microspheres (15 microns). Flow, at a perfusion pressure of 66.6 +/- 26.2 cmH2O, reduced from 17.6 +/- 5.4 microliters/min in the control state to 3.2 +/- 1.3 microliters/min after microspheres. Active tension developed by the muscle in the unperfused condition before microspheres and after microspheres did not differ significantly (-12.8 +/- 29.4% change). After microspheres similar perfusion pressure steps as in control never resulted in an increase in active tension. Even at the two highest perfusion pressures (89.1 +/- 28.4 and 106.5 +/- 31.7 cmH2O) that were applied a significant decrease in active tension was found. We conclude that the Gregg phenomenon is related to capillary perfusion.

  3. Sperm Impairment by Sperm Agglutinating Factor Isolated from Escherichia coli: Receptor Specific Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranjeet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier work done in our laboratory, we have been able to isolate a sperm agglutinating strain of Escherichia coli from the semen sample of a male attending infertility clinic. Further, factor responsible for sperm agglutination (SAF was isolated and purified, and, using SAF as a tool, corresponding SAF binding receptor from human spermatozoa has been purified. Characterization of SAF and SAF binding receptor using MALDI-TOF showed homology to glutamate decarboxylase and MHC class I molecule, respectively. Coincubation of SAF with spermatozoa not only resulted in spermagglutination but could also compromise other sperm parameters, namely, Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity and apoptosis. Intravaginal administration of SAF could lead to infertility in Balb/c mice. SAF induced impairment of sperm parameters, and infertility was observed to be due to interaction of SAF with sperm surface receptor component as, when purified receptor was introduced, receptor completely inhibited all the detrimental effects induced by SAF. From these results, it could be concluded that interaction of SAF with spermatozoa is receptor mediated.

  4. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  5. Proteins associated with critical sperm functions and sperm head shape are differentially expressed in morphologically abnormal bovine sperm induced by scrotal insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadi, H.A.S.; Riemsdijk, van E.L.C.; Dance, A.L.; Rajamanickam, G.D.; Kastelic, J.P.; Thundathil, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n = 3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in

  6. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  7. [Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Sui; Liu, Jian-jun; Xu, Xin-yun; Huang, Hai-yan; Gong, Chun-mei; Hu, Gong-hua; Liu, Qing-cheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Hong, Wen-xu; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xin-feng; Yuan, Jian-hui; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2013-11-01

    To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats. Sperms of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L in vitro. Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms, and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm motilities in 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly compared with that in control group (P trichloroethylene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (Ptrichloroethylene groups and control group (Ptrichloroethylene can reduce sperm motility and increase the aberration rate and apoptosis rate of sperms in male SD rats.

  8. Some Reflections on Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ebner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI allows proper fertilization in most cases of male sub fertility, it is one of the most unphysiological techniques in assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Thus, over the last decade, researchers have tried to improve sperm observation with higher-resolution microscopy techniques such as the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI technique. In order to identify literatures for this review, the PubMed database was searched from 2000 onwards using the terms IMSI, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME and sperm vacuole. Approximately 10 years after the introduction of the MSOME and IMSI procedures, several questions related to the prevalence, origin, location, and clinical consequences of sperm vacuoles have not yet been clarified. It seems that IMSI as a routine application is not state of the art and the only confirmed indications for IMSI are recurrent implantation failure following ICSI and severe male factor.

  9. Sperm as microswimmers - navigation and sensing at the physical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, Ulrich B.; Alvarez, Luis

    2016-11-01

    Many cells and microorganisms have evolved a motility apparatus to explore their surroundings. For guidance, these biological microswimmers rely on physical and chemical cues that are transduced by cellular pathways into directed movement - a process called taxis. Only few biological microswimmers have been studied as detailed as sperm from sea urchins. Sperm and eggs are released into the seawater. To enhance the chances of fertilization, eggs release chemical factors - called chemoattractants - that establish a chemical gradient and, thereby, guide sperm to the egg. Sea urchin sperm constitute a unique model system for understanding cell navigation at every level: from molecules to cell behaviours. We will outline the chemotactic signalling pathway of sperm from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata and discuss how signalling controls navigation in a chemical gradient. Finally, we discuss recent insights into sperm chemotaxis in three dimensions (3D).

  10. Method-related estimates of sperm vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Trevor G; Hellenkemper, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of methods that estimate viability of human spermatozoa by monitoring head membrane permeability revealed that wet preparations (whether using positive or negative phase-contrast microscopy) generated significantly higher percentages of nonviable cells than did air-dried eosin-nigrosin smears. Only with the latter method did the sum of motile (presumed live) and stained (presumed dead) preparations never exceed 100%, making this the method of choice for sperm viability estimates.

  11. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - possibilities of diagnosing CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonevska, A.

    1998-01-01

    A reviewing the diagnostic methods used in the intricate process of evaluating CAD patients in a attempt to establish the role played by radionuclide methods in the diagnostic strategy is done. The perfusion cardiotropic radiopharmaceuticals used and the various methods of evaluating myocardial are discussed. Although 210 Tl-chloride is the most widely used myocardial perfusion agent, recently 99m Tc-MIBI is proposed as an alternative because of its advantages. Myocardial perfusion assessment is done by various techniques depending on the specific aim, each of them having its proper advantages and shortcomings. The inference is reached that regardless of the routine practical implementation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and comprehensive studies along this line in course, there are problems still not well enough clarified awaiting solution

  12. Regional myocardial perfusion of cardioplegic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugene, J.; Lyons, K.P.; Ott, R.A.; Gelezunas, V.L.; Chang, C.W.; Kowall, M.G.; Haiduc, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    We compared the regional myocardial perfusion of blood cardioplegic solution (BCP) and crystalloid cardioplegic solution (CCP) in 14 mongrel dogs. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established at 28 degrees C, and a hydraulic occluder was placed around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In group 1 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were ligated; in group 2 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were left in situ. After the aorta was clamped, BCP and CCP were alternately perfused at 200 ml/min. The occluder was inflated to produce moderate, severe, and critical LAD stenosis, and regional perfusion was measured by xenon-133 washout with the Silicon Avalanche Radiation Detector. BCP infusion produced a consistently higher aortic pressure, but CCP flow was better than BCP flow under all conditions, particularly without coronary collaterals. Regional myocardial perfusion of CCP is superior to BCP

  13. MRI of pulmonary perfusion; MRT der Lungenperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Risse, F.; Semmler, W. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Lung perfusion is a crucial prerequisite for effective gas exchange. Quantification of pulmonary perfusion is important for diagnostic considerations and treatment planning in various diseases of the lungs. Besides disorders of pulmonary vessels such as acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, these also include diseases of the respiratory tract and lung tissue as well as pulmonary tumors. This contribution presents the possibilities and technical requirements of MRI for diagnostic work-up of pulmonary perfusion. (orig.) [German] Die Perfusion der Lunge ist eine entscheidende Voraussetzung fuer einen effektiven Gasaustausch. Die Bestimmung der Lungenperfusion ist bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen der Lunge fuer Diagnostik und Therapieplanung bedeutsam. Hierzu zaehlen neben Erkrankungen der Lungengefaesse wie akute Lungenembolie und pulmonale Hypertension ebenso Erkrankungen der Atemwege, des Lungengeruests und Lungentumoren. In diesem Beitrag werden die Moeglichkeiten und technischen Voraussetzungen der MRT zur Diagnostik der Lungenperfusion dargestellt. (orig.)

  14. Vicarious audiovisual learning in perfusion education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Thomas E; Holt, David W

    2010-12-01

    Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video.These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW stand-alone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today's perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent.

  15. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-01-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise

  16. Measurement of myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T.; Jensen, L.T.; Larsson, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved rapidly. Recent developments have made non-invasive quantitative myocardial perfusion measurements possible. MRI is particularly attractive due to its high spatial resolution and because it does not involve ionising radiation. This paper reviews...... myocardial perfusion imaging with MR contrast agents: methods, validation and experiences from clinical studies. Unresolved issues still restrict the use of these techniques to research although clinical applications are within reach Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/8...

  17. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  18. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parallel Evolution of Sperm Hyper-Activation Ca2+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jacob C; Phadnis, Nitin

    2017-07-01

    Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence. Here, we use a comprehensive phylogenomic approach to investigate the selective pressures on these sperm hyper-activation channels. First, we find that the entire CatSper complex evolves rapidly under recurrent positive selection in primates. Second, we find that pkd2 has parallel patterns of adaptive evolution in Drosophila. Third, we show that this adaptive evolution of pkd2 is driven by its role in sperm hyper-activation. These patterns of selection suggest that the evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery is driven by sexual conflict with antagonistic ligands that modulate channel activity. Together, our results add sperm hyper-activation channels to the class of fast evolving reproductive proteins and provide insights into the mechanisms used by the sexes to manipulate sperm behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. More Pitfalls with Sperm Viability Staining and a Viability-Based Stress Test to Characterize Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Eckel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sperm viability (SV, the proportion of live sperm in a sample, is a widely applied measure of sperm quality but few studies test its robustness. At least three reasons make SV problematic as a surrogate for sperm quality. First, reviewing the ecological literature revealed that previously identified methodological pitfalls have not been overcome, including low cross-study standardization of protocols, inadequate statistical treatment, and unaccounted for within-sample heterogeneity. Second, SV is affected by biological variation such as between species, reproductive organs, or sperm age cohorts. Third, the proportion of live sperm extracted from males appears more related to male than to sperm quality in the sense of the future performance of sperm. We propose an alternative method to assess sperm quality by characterizing the temporal decrease of SV in a stressor medium and illustrate in two species, the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster how some common methodological pitfalls may be circumvented. Our data empirically support the well-known but little-considered facts that (i non-blind measurements may alter SV and (ii that SV frequently have non-significant repeatability within one sample. (iii Cross-sectional sampling of ejaculates showed that this heterogeneity even masked a biological pattern—the sperm stratification within males. We show (iv that this shortcoming can be overcome by following the temporal decline of SV of a sperm subsample in a stress test. Finally, (v comparing the staining pattern of sperm between Cimex and Drosophila, we found that in the latter, the visibility of sperm is substantially delayed (30 min when sperm density is high. We show that this delay in stained sperm visibility was, however, not biased toward dead or live sperm. To measure sperm quality, we advocate analyzing the temporal decline in SV in a stressor medium over current protocols that use SV per se and

  1. Sperm density required for inducing gynogenetic haploidy in scallop Chlamys nobilis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    Experiments conducted for standardizing sperm density for artificial insemination and inducing gynogenesis by ultra-violet rays irradiated sperms in Chlamys nobilis showed that 10:1 ratio of sperms to eggs, gave maximum rate of fertilization...

  2. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.

  3. Quantitative perfusion imaging in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, F.G.; Gaa, T.; Zimmer, F.; Ong, M.M.; Riffel, P.; Hausmann, D.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Weis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recognized for its superior tissue contrast while being non-invasive and free of ionizing radiation. Due to the development of new scanner hardware and fast imaging techniques during the last decades, access to tissue and organ functions became possible. One of these functional imaging techniques is perfusion imaging with which tissue perfusion and capillary permeability can be determined from dynamic imaging data. Perfusion imaging by MRI can be performed by two approaches, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. While the first method uses magnetically labelled water protons in arterial blood as an endogenous tracer, the latter involves the injection of a contrast agent, usually gadolinium (Gd), as a tracer for calculating hemodynamic parameters. Studies have demonstrated the potential of perfusion MRI for diagnostics and also for therapy monitoring. The utilization and application of perfusion MRI are still restricted to specialized centers, such as university hospitals. A broad application of the technique has not yet been implemented. The MRI perfusion technique is a valuable tool that might come broadly available after implementation of standards on European and international levels. Such efforts are being promoted by the respective professional bodies. (orig.) [de

  4. Insulin degradation products from perfused rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, W.C.; Hamel, F.G.; Liepnieks, J.; Peavy, D.; Frank, B.; Rabkin, R.

    1989-01-01

    The kidney is a major site for insulin metabolism, but the enzymes involved and the products generated have not been established. To examine the products, we have perfused rat kidneys with insulin specifically iodinated on either the A14 or the B26 tyrosine. Labeled material from both the perfusate and kidney extract was examined by Sephadex G50 and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In perfusate from a filtering kidney, 22% of the insulin-sized material was not intact insulin on HPLC. With the nonfiltering kidney, 10.6% was not intact insulin. Labeled material from HPLC was sulfitolyzed and reinjected on HPLC. By use of 125 I-iodo(A14)-insulin, almost all the degradation products contained an intact A-chain. By use of 125 I-iodo(B26)-insulin, several different B-chain-cleaved products were obtained. The material extracted from the perfused kidney was different from perfusate products but similar to intracellular products from hepatocytes, suggesting that cellular metabolism by kidney and liver are similar. The major intracellular product had characteristics consistent with a cleavage between the B16 and B17 amino acids. This product and several of the perfusate products are also produced by insulin protease suggesting that this enzyme is involved in the degradation of insulin by kidney

  5. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  6. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  7. Response of midpiece vesicles on human sperm to osmotic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V; Chantler, Eric; Uggerhøj, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Medium but not after washing in seminal plasma. There was an inverse relationship between medium osmolality and both MPV-bearing sperm incidence and MPV diameter. However, initial osmolality in semen from different donors did not correlate with incidence of MPV-bearing sperm. Furthermore, a direct...... relationship was observed in semen as osmolality increased with time. No correlation existed between progressive motility and semen osmolality. Progressive motility and the amplitude of lateral head displacement were significantly reduced in sperm with an MPV (three out of four semen samples, 26-32 sperm...

  8. Sperm quality in New Zealand: Is the downward trend continuing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Mary A; Peek, John; Valiapan, Sumithra

    2015-10-16

    To investigate whether the decline in sperm concentration in New Zealand sperm donors observed from 1987 to 2007 continued in the period 2008-2014. A retrospective study from 2008 to 2014. The first semen sample of 285 men presenting as sperm donors in Auckland and Wellington was analysed for sperm concentration, seminal fluid volume and the percentage of motile sperm. These results were compared to results from 1987 to 2007 from the same clinics. The decline in semen volume and sperm concentration observed between 1987 and 2007 did not continue in 2008-2014. Sperm concentration decreased from 1987 until some time between 1997 and 2001, and has remained stable at an average of 62x106/ml between 2001 and 2014. Sperm motility declined significantly (8%) in the period 2008-2014, but there was no significant change over the total period studied, between 1987 and 2014. After a decline between 1987 and sometime during 1997-2001, the sperm concentration in men presenting as donors remained unchanged between 2002 and 2014, suggesting semen quality has not changed in New Zealand men over the last decade.

  9. Sperm-Hybrid Micromotor for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Magdanz, Veronika; Schwarz, Lukas; Hebenstreit, Franziska; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2018-01-23

    A sperm-driven micromotor is presented as a targeted drug delivery system, which is appealing to potentially treat diseases in the female reproductive tract. This system is demonstrated to be an efficient drug delivery vehicle by first loading a motile sperm cell with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride), guiding it magnetically, to an in vitro cultured tumor spheroid, and finally freeing the sperm cell to deliver the drug locally. The sperm release mechanism is designed to liberate the sperm when the biohybrid micromotor hits the tumor walls, allowing it to swim into the tumor and deliver the drug through the sperm-cancer cell membrane fusion. In our experiments, the sperm cells exhibited a high drug encapsulation capability and drug carrying stability, conveniently minimizing  toxic side effects and unwanted drug accumulation in healthy tissues. Overall, sperm cells are excellent candidates to operate in physiological environments, as they neither express pathogenic proteins nor proliferate to form undesirable colonies, unlike other cells or microorganisms. This sperm-hybrid micromotor is a biocompatible platform with potential application in gynecological healthcare, treating or detecting cancer or other diseases in the female reproductive system.

  10. Gold-standard for computer-assisted morphological sperm analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Violeta; Garcia, Alejandra; Hitschfeld, Nancy; Härtel, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Published algorithms for classification of human sperm heads are based on relatively small image databases that are not open to the public, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. We describe a gold-standard for morphological sperm analysis (SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS), a dataset of sperm head images with expert-classification labels in one of the following classes: normal, tapered, pyriform, small or amorphous. This gold-standard is for evaluating and comparing known techniques and future improvements to present approaches for classification of human sperm heads for semen analysis. Although this paper does not provide a computational tool for morphological sperm analysis, we present a set of experiments for comparing sperm head description and classification common techniques. This classification base-line is aimed to be used as a reference for future improvements to present approaches for human sperm head classification. The gold-standard provides a label for each sperm head, which is achieved by majority voting among experts. The classification base-line compares four supervised learning methods (1- Nearest Neighbor, naive Bayes, decision trees and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) and three shape-based descriptors (Hu moments, Zernike moments and Fourier descriptors), reporting the accuracy and the true positive rate for each experiment. We used Fleiss' Kappa Coefficient to evaluate the inter-expert agreement and Fisher's exact test for inter-expert variability and statistical significant differences between descriptors and learning techniques. Our results confirm the high degree of inter-expert variability in the morphological sperm analysis. Regarding the classification base line, we show that none of the standard descriptors or classification approaches is best suitable for tackling the problem of sperm head classification. We discovered that the correct classification rate was highly variable when trying to discriminate among non-normal sperm

  11. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...

  12. Mass spectrometry profiling of oxysterols in human sperm identifies 25-hydroxycholesterol as a marker of sperm function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zerbinati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a main lipid component of sperm cell that is essential for sperm membrane fluidity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction. Recent data obtained in bovine sperm showed that sperm capacitation is associated to the formation of oxysterols, oxidized products of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to profile oxysterol content in human semen, and to investigate their potential role in sperm pathophysiology. Among the 12 oxysterols analyzed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC resulted the most represented in normozoospermic samples, and its concentration positively correlated with spermatozoa number. We detected Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for 25-HC production, in human spermatozoa at the level of the neck and the post acrosomal area. Upon incubation with spermatozoa, 25-HC induced calcium and cholesterol transients in connection with the acrosomal reaction. Our results support a role for 25-HC in sperm function.

  13. Effect of Vitrification on Sperm Parameters and Apoptosis in Fertile Men

    OpenAIRE

    M Adib; M Ramezani; MA Khalili

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Today, cryopreservation of the human sperm is a common technique for treating infertility. It has been indicated that cryopreservation by different methods decrease the sperm motility and viability in fertile men, but still effect of freezing of the sperm by vitrification method have not been evaluated on sperm parameters and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification of sperm of fertile men on different sperm parameters (motility, m...

  14. Implementing an open-access CASA software for the assessment of stallion sperm motility: Relationship with other sperm quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Munerato, Mauro; Yeste, Marc; Galeati, Giovanna; Spinaci, Marcella; Tamanini, Carlo; Mari, Gaetano; Bucci, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Setting an open-access computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) may benefit the evaluation of motility in mammalian sperm, especially when economic constraints do not allow the use of a commercial system. There have been successful attempts to develop such a device in Zebra fish sperm and the system has been used in very few studies on mammalian spermatozoa. Against this background, the present study aimed at developing an open-access CASA system for mammalian sperm using the horse as a model and based upon the Image J software previously established for Zebra fish sperm. Along with determining the sperm progressive motility and other kinetic parameters (such as amplitude of lateral head displacement), the "results" window was adjusted to simplify subsequent statistical analyses. The path window was enriched with colored sperm trajectories on the basis of the subpopulation they belong to and a number that allowed the sperm track to be associated to the sperm motility data shown in the "results" window. Data obtained from the novel plugin (named as CASA_bgm) were compared with those of the commercial CASA Hamilton-Thorn IVOS Vers.12, through Bland Altman's plots. While the percentage of total and progressive motile sperm, VCL, VAP, VSL, LIN and STR and ALH were in agreement with those obtained with the commercial system, BCF significantly differed between the two systems probably due to their settings. Interestingly, a positive and significant correlation between the percentages of total motile sperm evaluated through CASA_bgm and those showing high mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by JC-1 staining was found. In conclusion, CASA_bgm ImageJ plugin could be useful and reliable for stallion sperm motility analysis and it is our aim to apply this system to other mammalian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The predictive value of parameters of clinical presentations for sperm yield in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia receiving microdissection testicular sperm extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Ku

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Clinical presentations or phenotypes can be used as predictive factors for successful sperm retrieval during mTESE in patients with NOA. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and cases with UDT history have a higher chance of sperm retrieval. Initial testicular needle biopsy, if available, can provide valuable information about chances of sperm retrieval. Hypospermatogenesis predicts high sperm yield rate, and LMA can have best upgrade results of sperm yield after mTESE.

  16. Regional cortical hyper perfusion on perfusion CT during postical motor deficit: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Postictal neurologic deficit is a well-known complication mimicking the manifestation of a stroke. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Todd's paralysis correlating with reversible postictal parenchymal changes on perfusion CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this case, perfusion CT and MR imaging were helpful in the differential diagnosis of stroke-mimicking conditions.

  17. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump : Functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Maathuis, M. H. J.; Hart, N. A. 't; Bellekom, A. A.; Hofker, H. S.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Verkerke, G. J.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Verdonck, P.; Ploeg, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2006-01-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion,

  18. An automatic system to study sperm motility and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda Z; Nascimento, Jaclyn M; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Botvinick, Elliot L; Berns, Michael W

    2008-08-01

    An integrated robotic laser and microscope system has been developed to automatically analyze individual sperm motility and energetics. The custom-designed optical system directs near-infrared laser light into an inverted microscope to create a single-point 3-D gradient laser trap at the focal spot of the microscope objective. A two-level computer structure is described that quantifies the sperm motility (in terms of swimming speed and swimming force) and energetics (measuring mid-piece membrane potential) using real-time tracking (done by the upper-level system) and fluorescent ratio imaging (done by the lower-level system). The communication between these two systems is achieved by a gigabit network. The custom-built image processing algorithm identifies the sperm swimming trajectory in real-time using phase contrast images, and then subsequently traps the sperm by automatically moving the microscope stage to relocate the sperm to the laser trap focal plane. Once the sperm is stably trapped (determined by the algorithm), the algorithm can also gradually reduce the laser power by rotating the polarizer in the laser path to measure the trapping power at which the sperm is capable of escaping the trap. To monitor the membrane potential of the mitochondria located in a sperm's mid-piece, the sperm is treated with a ratiometrically-encoded fluorescent probe. The proposed algorithm can relocate the sperm to the center of the ratio imaging camera and the average ratio value can be measured in real-time. The three parameters, sperm escape power, sperm swimming speed and ratio values of the mid-piece membrane potential of individual sperm can be compared with respect to time. This two-level automatic system to study individual sperm motility and energetics has not only increased experimental throughput by an order of magnitude but also has allowed us to monitor sperm energetics prior to and after exposure to the laser trap. This system should have application in both the

  19. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  20. Human sperm degradation of zona pellucida proteins contributes to fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.

  1. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Jacobsen Lauvås, Anna; Christensen, Preben; Vogel, Ulla; Sørig Hougaard, Karin; Goericke-Pesch, Sandra

    2018-01-31

    Semen quality parameters are potentially affected by nanomaterials in several ways: Inhaled nanosized particles are potent inducers of pulmonary inflammation, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. Small amounts of particles may translocate from the lungs into the lung capillaries, enter the systemic circulation and ultimately reach the testes. Both the inflammatory response and the particles may induce oxidative stress which can directly affect spermatogenesis. Furthermore, spermatogenesis may be indirectly affected by changes in the hormonal milieu as systemic inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model. Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous nanomaterials were investigated by intratracheally instilling sexually mature male NMRI mice with four different carbonaceous nanomaterials dispersed in nanopure water: graphene oxide (18 μg/mouse/i.t.), Flammruss 101, Printex 90 and SRM1650b (0.1 mg/mouse/i.t. each) weekly for seven consecutive weeks. Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA. Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed sustained inflammatory response in the nanoparticle-exposed groups one week after the last instillation. No significant changes in epididymal sperm parameters, daily sperm production or plasma testosterone levels

  2. Perfusion MRI in CNS disease: current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Le-Huu, M.; Stieltjes, B.; Tengg, H. von; Weber, M.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Today there are several indications for cerebral perfusion MRI. The major indications routinely used in increasing numbers of imaging centers include cerebrovascular disease, tumor imaging and recently psychiatric disorders. Perfusion MRI is based on the injection of a gadolinium chelate and the rapid acquisition of images as the bolus of contrast agent passes through the blood vessels in the brain. The contrast agent causes a signal change; this signal change over time can be analysed to measure cerebral hemodynamics. The quality of brain perfusion studies is very dependent on the contrast agent used: a robust and strong signal decrease with a compact bolus is needed. MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA) is the first of a new class of paramagnetic MR contrast agents with a weak affinity for serum proteins. Due to the interaction of Gd-BOPTA with serum albumin, MultiHance presents with significantly higher T1- and T2-relaxivities enabling a sharper bolus profile. This article reviews the indications of perfusion MRI and the performance of MultiHance in MR perfusion of different diseases. Previous studies using perfusion MRI for a variety of purposes required the use of double dose of contrast agent to achieve a sufficiently large signal drop to enable the acquisition of a clear input function and the calculation of perfusion rCBV and rCBF maps of adequate quality. Recent studies with Multi-Hance suggest that only a single dose of this agent is needed to cause a signal drop of about 30% which is sufficient to allow the calculation of high quality rCBV and rCBF maps. (orig.)

  3. Towards microfluidic sperm refinement : impedance-based analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    The use of high quality semen for artificial insemination in the livestock industry is essential for successful outcome. Insemination using semen with a high number of sperm cells containing morphological defects has a negative impact on fertilization outcome. Therefore, semen with a high number of

  4. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of reacted spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna P; Crippa, Andor; Lappi, Michela; Capitani, Serena; Baccetti, Baccio

    2010-02-01

    To verify clinical outcome after injection of spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction (reacted spermatozoa) vs. those still having an intact acrosome (nonreacted spermatozoa). Prospective, randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Italian Society for the Study of Reproductive Medicine, Bologna, Italy. According to a prospective randomization including 71 couples with severe male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed under polarized light that permitted analysis of the pattern of birefringence in the sperm head. Twenty-three patients had their oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa, 26 patient's oocytes were injected with nonreacted spermatozoa, and in 22 patients both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa were injected. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed under polarized light to selectively inject acrosome-reacted and acrosome-nonreacted spermatozoa. Rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. There was no effect on the fertilizing capacity and embryo development of either type of sperm, whereas the implantation rate was higher in oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa (39.0%) vs. those injected with nonreacted spermatozoa (8.6%). The implantation rate was 24.4% in the group injected with both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa. The delivery rate per cycle followed the same trend. Spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction seem to be more prone to supporting the development of viable ICSI embryos. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A sterile sperm caste protects brother fertile sperm from female-mediated death in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Snook, Rhonda R

    2008-01-01

    antispermicidal mechanisms have been definitively identified. One such adaptation may be the enigmatic infertile sperm morphs or "parasperm" produced by many species, which have been hypothesized to protect their fertile brother "eusperm" from spermicide [2, 3]. Here, we show that female Drosophila pseudoobscura...

  6. Cryopreservation of European catfish Silurus glanis sperm: Sperm motility, viability and hatching success of embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajšhans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2005), s. 250-261 ISSN 0011-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178; GA AV ČR IBS5045314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : fish * sperm * aquaculture Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2005

  7. [An automatic system controlled by microcontroller for carotid sinus perfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X L; Wang, M Y; Fan, Z Z; He, R R

    2001-08-01

    To establish a new method for controlling automatically the carotid perfusion pressure. A cheap practical automatic perfusion unit based on AT89C2051 micro controller was designed. The unit, LDB-M perfusion pump and the carotid sinus of an animal constituted an automatic perfusion system. This system was able to provide ramp and stepwise updown perfusion pattern and has been used in the research of baroreflex. It can insure the precision and reproducibility of perfusion pressure curve, and improve the technical level in corresponding medical field.

  8. Sperm-macrophage interaction in the mouse: a quantitative assay in vitro using 111indium oxine-labeled sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.L.; Weinberg, J.B.; Haney, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The role of reproductive tract macrophages in contraception and reproductive failure has become widely recognized. However, in vitro analysis of sperm phagocytosis by macrophages has relied upon a semi-quantitative method of sperm counting that is of limited accuracy and reproducibility. We have developed an assay using murine sperm labeled with 111 indium oxine, and results indicate the labeling to be rapid and efficient. Incorporation of 111 indium into sperm increased the dose and sperm concentration and reached 90% maximal uptake after 15 min incubation, with maximal uptake occurring at 30 min. No decrease in sperm motility was noted with levels of oxine in excess of those required for significant labeling. Maximal labeling efficiency occurred in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% adult bovine serum (ABS) producing significantly less uptake. Label dissociation was detectable in PBS at room temperature, but at 37 degrees C in DMEM + 10% ABS, loss of label occurred at a rate of 23.5%/h. Addition of labeled sperm to murine macrophage monolayers under optimal conditions resulted in uptake of 111 indium by macrophages, while free label was unincorporated. Results indicated assay specificity for macrophage-limited uptake, with insignificant label uptake by nonphagocytic murine fibroblasts and better sensitivity than sperm counting. Macrophages from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-infected mice resulted in a decrease in sperm uptake. Female macrophages showed greater capacity for sperm uptake than those of the male mouse. These initial studies demonstrated the utility of this model system in enhancing the understanding of sperm-macrophage interaction in the female reproductive tract

  9. Comparison of semen variables, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins in two male layer breeder lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Shanmugam; T R, Kannaki; A, Vinoth

    2016-09-01

    Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mens, T. E.; Joensen, U. N.; Bochdanovits, Z.; Takizawa, A.; Peter, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Szecsi, P. B.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Weiler, H.; Rajpert-de Meyts, E.; Repping, S.; Middeldorp, S.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS

  11. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a well known herb, Phyllanthus amarus on the sperm characteristics in male albino rats was studied. This was an investigation of the age-long claim by the locales in the rural communities in the southern states of Nigeria where this plant is consumed religiously that it affects sperm quality, hence sexual potency ...

  12. Cephalopods in the diet of sperm whales caught commercially off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection from stomach contents of 30 sperm whales Physeter catodon comprised a total of 46 cephalopods belonging to six families. Nine species were identified, including Ommastrephes bartramii, which is recorded for the first time in the diet of sperm whales caught off South Africa, and Todarodes filippovae, which has ...

  13. The effect of sperm morphology and testicular spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the correlation between sperm morphology groups (strict criteria) and testicular spermatozoa, and day 2 and 3 embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cases. Methods. A retrospective study was done of 2 402 IVF and ICSI-fertilised embryos classified as ...

  14. Evidence for decreasing sperm count in African population from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This meta-analysis, following our previous reports those documented an overall 57% diminution in mean sperm concentration around the globe over past 35 years and 32.5% decline in past 50 years in European population, attempts to report the declining trend of sperm concentrations in African population ...

  15. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm

  16. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  17. ROLE OF APOPTOSIS IN THE EVALUATION OF SPERM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results In the fertile men (control group), none of the sperms was positive for DNA strand breaks, while in the oligozoospermic patients 0.9 0.7% of the sperms were positive for DNA strand breaks. This result was statistically highly ... dans les traitements avancés de fertilisation. African Journal of Urology Vol.8(1) 2002: 6-12 ...

  18. A sperm competition model for the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 14 (2013), s. 1709-1730 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * alternative mating tactics * mating system * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm motility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2013

  19. Heritability of sperm length in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; de Jong, Gerdien; Schmid-Hempel, Regula

    2006-01-01

    estimates of narrow sense heritability of sperm length in a social insect, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. In spite of a balanced and straightforward rearing design of colonies, and the possibility to replicate measurements of sperm within single males nested within colonies, the analysis proved...

  20. Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid peroxidation following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen in different extenders. The comet assay was used to measure the extent of sperm DNA damage in a cryoprotectant-free extender or in cryoprotectant-based extenders after single ...

  1. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation.

  2. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  3. A Study of Anti-Sperm Antibodies among Infertile Subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) can interfere with sperm functions and fertility and may be found in the blood, lymph or local secretions such as seminal and cervico-vaginal fluids in both men and women. Objective: to evaluate the contribution of ASA to infertility in male and female subjects investigated for ...

  4. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  5. Bending the law and crossing borders choosing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    In recent years, Denmark has become a European destination for couples and single women wanting sperm donation. One reason is that the current regulation is liberal in the sense that it enables single women and lesbians to be treated. Since neither private sperm banks nor clinics run by midwifes...

  6. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2011-01-01

    , especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition...

  7. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI offers the possibility to directly detect the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI allows differentiating between reversible and fixed myocardial perfusion defects. • The combination of coronary CT angiography and dual-energy sCTMPI can improve the ability of CT to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery disease. - Abstract: Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  8. Standardized perfusion value of the esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion parameter values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric-Stefanovic, A., E-mail: avstefan@eunet.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Saranovic, Dj., E-mail: crvzve4@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Sobic-Saranovic, D., E-mail: dsobic2@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Masulovic, D., E-mail: draganmasulovic@yahoo.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Artiko, V., E-mail: veraart@beotel.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Standardized perfusion value (SPV) is a universal indicator of tissue perfusion, normalized to the whole-body perfusion, which was proposed to simplify, unify and allow the interchangeability among the perfusion measurements and comparison between the tumor perfusion and metabolism. The aims of our study were to assess the standardized perfusion value (SPV) of the esophageal carcinoma, and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion measurements: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) of the same tumor volume samples, which were obtained by deconvolution-based CT perfusion analysis. Methods: Forty CT perfusion studies of the esophageal cancer were analyzed, using the commercial deconvolution-based CT perfusion software (Perfusion 3.0, GE Healthcare). The SPV of the esophageal tumor and neighboring skeletal muscle were correlated with the corresponding mean tumor and muscle quantitative CT perfusion parameter values, using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r{sub S}). Results: Median SPV of the esophageal carcinoma (7.1; range: 2.8–13.4) significantly differed from the SPV of the skeletal muscle (median: 1.0; range: 0.4–2.4), (Z = −5.511, p < 0.001). The cut-off value of the SPV of 2.5 enabled discrimination of esophageal cancer from the skeletal muscle with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. SPV of the esophageal carcinoma significantly correlated with corresponding tumor BF (r{sub S} = 0.484, p = 0.002), BV (r{sub S} = 0.637, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.432, p = 0.005), and SPV of the skeletal muscle significantly correlated with corresponding muscle BF (r{sub S} = 0.573, p < 0.001), BV (r{sub S} = 0.849, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.761, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We presented a database of the SPV for the esophageal cancer and proved that SPV of the esophageal neoplasm significantly differs from the SPV of the skeletal muscle, which represented a sample of healthy

  9. Association between obesity and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraju, G A; Teppala, S; Prathigudupu, K; Kalagara, M; Thota, S; Kota, M; Cheemakurthi, R

    2018-04-01

    There is awareness of likelihood of abnormal spermatozoa in obese men; however, results from previous studies are inconclusive. Advances in computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) enable precise evaluation of sperm quality and include assessment of several parameters. We studied a retrospective cohort of 1285 men with CASA data from our infertility clinic during 2016. Obesity (BMI ≥30) was associated with lower (mean ± SE) volume (-0.28 ± 0.12, p-value = .04), sperm count (48.36 ± 16.51, p-value = .002), concentration (-15.83 ± 5.40, p-value = .01), progressive motility (-4.45 ± 1.92, p-value = .001), total motility (-5.50 ± 2.12, p-value = .002), average curve velocity (μm/s) (-2.09 ± 0.85, p-value = .001), average path velocity (μm/s) (-1.59 ± 0.75, p-value = .006), and higher per cent head defects (0.92 ± 0.81, p-value = .02), thin heads (1.12 ± 0.39, p-value = .007) and pyriform heads (1.36 ± 0.65, p-value = .02). Obese men were also more likely to have (odds ratio, 95% CI) oligospermia (1.67, 1.15-2.41, p-value = .007) and asthenospermia (1.82, 1.20-2.77, p-value = .005). This is the first report of abnormal sperm parameters in obese men based on CASA. Clinicians may need to factor in paternal obesity prior to assisted reproduction. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: sperm whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Physeter_macrocephal...us_L.png Physeter_macrocephalus_NL.png Physeter_macrocephalus_S.png Physeter_macrocephal...us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NS ...

  11. Methods useful for evaluation of human sperm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubátová, Alena; Čapková, Jana; Pěknicová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, Issue Supplement s1 (2012), s. 27-27 ISSN 1046-7408. [13th International Symposium for Immunology of reproduction "From the roots to the tops of Reproductive Immunology". 22.06.2012-24.06.2012, Varna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : human sperm * immunofluorescence test * human seminal plasma proteins * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  12. Chelidonium majus and its effects on uterine contractility in a perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Julian; Geisler, Klaudija; Strahl, Olga; Grundtner, Philipp; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf

    2013-07-01

    The herbal agent celandine is thought to have mainly spasmolytic effects, but in the uterus it is regarded as promoting contractions, which can offer promising and innovative options for optimizing artificial reproduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of celandine on the uterine muscle, using a perfusion model of swine uteri. Sixteen swine uteri were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Celandine (Chelidonium, Paverysat; Johannes Bürger Ysatfabrik Ltd., Bad Harzburg, Germany) was administered at increasing dosages. Intrauterine pressure (IUP) was recorded using an intrauterine double-chip microcatheter (Urobar 8 DS-F, Raumedic, Rehau AG & Co., Rehau, Germany). Differences in pressure (ΔP) and area under the curve (ΔAUC) after drug administration in the uterine body and uterine horn in the various dilution series were noted. A paired Student's t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups, with significance set at P<0.05. A significant initial increase in uterine activity was visible at each dosage. Inhibition of uterine activity was seen over longer periods of 5 and 10 min, particularly for a medium-dose range of 1-2mg/ml. At a dosage of 2mg/ml in particular, celandine almost always led to significant values. Following intra-arterial administration in a swine uterus perfusion model, celandine initially causes a significant increase in contractility, which is followed over time by a relaxation phase. This suggests interesting hypotheses on whether Chelidonium majus might be used to promote targeted sperm transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sperm count. Do we need a new reference value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Maya, Walter

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the sperm count in fertile men, general population, and infertile men in different regions of the world. Sperm counts were recorded according to their fertility status, proven fertility, men recruited from an andrology/infertility clinic, or healthy men. The average of sperm count in the different studies is lower in infertile men that in fertile men (p>0.001) and in the general population (p>0.001). Based on this analysis the normal sperm count is about 65 million per mL. Using these reference value, only the 25% of the studies in infertile men are above this value, and the 75% studies with fertile men (>65 x 106 sperm/mL).

  14. Sperm proteins in teleostean and chondrostean (sturgeon) fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Hulak, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Sperm proteins in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of teleostean and chondrostean have evolved adaptations due to the changes in the reproductive environment. Analysis of the composition and functions of these proteins provides new insights into sperm motility and fertilising abilities, thereby creating possibilities for improving artificial reproduction and germplasm resource conservation technologies (e.g. cryopreservation). Seminal plasma proteins are involved in the protection of spermatozoa during storage in the reproductive system, whereas all spermatozoa proteins contribute to the swimming and fertilising abilities of sperm. Compared to mammalian species, little data are available on fish sperm proteins and their functions. We review here the current state of the art in this field and focus on relevant subjects that require attention. Future research should concentrate on protein functions and their mode of action in fish species, especially on the role of spermatozoa surface proteins during fertilisation and on a description of sturgeon sperm proteins.

  15. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fedder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.

  16. Shape and shear guide sperm cells spiraling upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Dunkel, Jorn; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2014-11-01

    A major puzzle in biology is how mammalian sperm determine and maintain the correct swimming direction during the various phases of the sexual reproduction process. Currently debated mechanisms for sperm long range travel vary from peristaltic pumping to temperature sensing (thermotaxis) and direct response to fluid flow (rheotaxis), but little is known quantitatively about their relative importance. Here, we report the first quantitative experimental study of mammalian sperm rheotaxis. Using microfluidic devices, we investigate systematically the swimming behavior of human and bull sperm over a wide range of physiologically relevant shear rates and viscosities. Our measurements show that the interplay of fluid shear, steric surface-interactions and chirality of the flagellar beat leads to a stable upstream spiraling motion of sperm cells, thus providing a generic and robust rectification mechanism to support mammalian fertilization. To rationalize these findings, we identify a minimal mathematical model that is capable of describing quantitatively the experimental observations.

  17. Human sperm steer with second harmonics of the flagellar beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Alvarez, Luis; Jikeli, Jan F; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2017-11-10

    Sperm are propelled by bending waves traveling along their flagellum. For steering in gradients of sensory cues, sperm adjust the flagellar waveform. Symmetric and asymmetric waveforms result in straight and curved swimming paths, respectively. Two mechanisms causing spatially asymmetric waveforms have been proposed: an average flagellar curvature and buckling. We image flagella of human sperm tethered with the head to a surface. The waveform is characterized by a fundamental beat frequency and its second harmonic. The superposition of harmonics breaks the beat symmetry temporally rather than spatially. As a result, sperm rotate around the tethering point. The rotation velocity is determined by the second-harmonic amplitude and phase. Stimulation with the female sex hormone progesterone enhances the second-harmonic contribution and, thereby, modulates sperm rotation. Higher beat frequency components exist in other flagellated cells; therefore, this steering mechanism might be widespread and could inspire the design of synthetic microswimmers.

  18. Impaired Sperm Maturation in Rnase9 Knockout Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Nguyen, Edward B.; Herlea-Pana, Oana M.; Alvau, Antonio; Salicioni, Ana M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribonuclease, RNase A family, 9 (RNASE9) is a ribonuclease A superfamily member that is expressed only in the epididymis. It is a small, secreted polypeptide, it lacks ribonuclease activity, and its function(s) is unknown. However, epididymis-specific expression suggests a role in sperm maturation. We generated Rnase9−/− mice to study RNASE9 function in vivo. We confirm that RNASE9 expression is restricted to the epididymis. Within the epididymis, RNASE9 is first detected in midcaput, persists through the distal caput and corpus, and wanes in the cauda. Rnase9−/− mice are born at the expected Mendelian ratio, have normal postnatal growth and development, and have no outwardly apparent phenotype. Spermatogenesis is normal, and Rnase9-null sperm are morphologically normal. Rnase9−/− males have normal fertility in unrestricted mating trials, and fertilization rates in in vitro fertilization assays are indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Visual observations coupled with analyses of sperm velocities shortly after swim out from the corpus shows that motility of Rnase9-null sperm is significantly impaired. However, no differences between wild-type and Rnase9-null sperm are detected by computer-assisted sperm analysis 10–90 min after sperm isolation from the corpus or cauda. Assessment of capacitation-dependent signaling pathways in Rnase9-null sperm showed that, while levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were normal, there was decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrates upon capacitation compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, RNASE9 is dispensable for fertility, but the absence of RNASE9 during epididymal transit results in impaired sperm maturation. PMID:24719258

  19. Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matrika D; Cooper, Amber R; Jungheim, Emily S; Lanzendorf, Susan E; Odem, Randall R; Ratts, Valerie S

    2013-09-01

    Sperm banking is an effective method to preserve fertility, but is not universally offered to males facing gonadotoxic treatment in the United States. We compared the disposition and semen parameters of cryopreserved sperm from individuals referred for sperm banking secondary to a cancer diagnosis to those of sperm from men banking for infertility reasons. We performed a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 1118 records from males who presented to bank sperm at Washington University between 1991 and 2010. We collected and analyzed demographics, semen parameters, and disposition of banked sperm. Four hundred and twenty-three men with cancer and 348 banking for infertility reasons attempted sperm cryopreservation in our unit during the specified time period. The most prevalent cancers in our cohort were testicular (32%), lymphoma (25%), and leukemia (11%). Patients with leukemia had the lowest pre-thaw counts and motility. Most cancer patients (57%) who banked elected to use, transfer to another facility, or keep their specimens in storage. The remaining samples were discarded electively (34%) or following death (8%). Overall semen parameters were similar between the cancer and infertility groups, but demographics, ability to bank a sample, azoospermia rates, length of storage, current banking status, and use of banked sperm differed significantly between the two groups. The majority of cancer patients who banked survived their cancer and chose to continue storage of banked samples. Cancer patients were more likely than infertility patients to use or continue storage of banked samples. Our study provides evidence that sperm banking is a utilized modality of fertility preservation in patients with a myriad of cancer diagnoses and should be offered to all men facing gonadotoxic therapies. Further work is needed to determine where disparities in access to sperm banking exist to improve the potential for future fertility in these males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  20. Evolutionary Modeling Predicts a Decrease in Postcopulatory Sperm Viability as a Response to Increasing Levels of Sperm Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif

    Sperm competition has been found to have a strong influence on the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits. Theoretical models have shown that, with increasing levels of sperm competition, males are predicted to increase ejaculate investment, and there is ample empirical evidence

  1. Mouse Y-Encoded Transcription Factor Zfy2 Is Essential for Sperm Head Remodelling and Sperm Tail Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, Nadege; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; Decarpentrie, Fanny; Longepied, Guy; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Burgoyne, Paul S.; Mitchell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A previous study indicated that genetic information encoded on the mouse Y chromosome short arm (Yp) is required for efficient completion of the second meiotic division (that generates haploid round spermatids), restructuring of the sperm head, and development of the sperm tail. Using mouse models

  2. Impacts of ocean acidification on sperm develop with exposure time for a polychaete with long lived sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna L; Ellis, Robert P; Urbina, Mauricio A; Mourabit, Sulayman; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-08-01

    The majority of marine invertebrate species release eggs and sperm into seawater for external fertilisation. Seawater conditions are currently changing at an unprecedented rate as a consequence of ocean acidification (OA). Sperm are thought to be particularly vulnerable to these changes and may be exposed to external environmental conditions for variable periods of time between spawning and fertilisation. Here, we undertook a mechanistic investigation of sperm swimming performance in the coastal polychaete Arenicola marina during an extended exposure to OA conditions (pH NBS 7.77, 1000 μatm pCO 2 ). We found that key fitness-related aspects of sperm functioning declined faster under OA conditions i.e. impacts became apparent with exposure time. Sperm swimming speed (VCL), the number of motile sperm and sperm path linearity all dropped significantly after 4 h under OA conditions whilst remaining constant under ambient conditions at this time point. Our results highlight the importance of sperm exposure duration in ocean acidification experiments and may help towards explaining species specific differences in response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns of sperm damage in Chernobyl passerine birds suggest a trade-off between sperm length and integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermosell, I. G.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Moller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2013), s. 20130530 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : acrosome * radiation * sperm evolution * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.425, year: 2013

  4. Sperm Na+, K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activity: A preliminary study of comparison of swim up and density gradient centrifugation methods for sperm preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Larasati, Manggiasih D.; Asmarinah, Mansur, Indra G.

    2018-02-01

    As one of the treatment for infertility, the success rate of Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is still relatively low. Several sperm preparation methods, swim-up (SU) and the density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) are frequently used to select for better sperm quality which also contribute to IUI failure. Sperm selection methods mainly separate the motile from the immotile sperm, eliminating the seminal plasma. The sperm motility involves the structure and function of sperm membrane in maintaining the balance of ion transport system which is regulated by the Na+, K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase enzymes. This study aims to re-evaluate the efficiency of these methods in selecting for sperm before being used for IUI and based the evaluation on sperm Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities. Fourteen infertile men from couples who underwent IUI were involved in this study. The SU and DGC methods were used for the sperm preparation. Semen analysis was performed based on the reference value of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010. After isolating the membrane fraction of sperms, the Na+, K+-ATPase activity was defined as the difference in the released inorganic phosphate (Pi) with and without the existence of 10 mM ouabain in the reaction, while the Ca2+-ATPase was determined as the difference in Pi contents with and without the existence of 55 µm CaCl2. The prepared sperm demonstrated a higher percentage of motile sperm compared to sperm from the whole semen. Additionally, the percentage of motile sperm of post-DGC showed higher result than the sperm from post-SU. The velocity of sperm showed similar pattern with the percentage of motile sperm, in which the velocity of prepared sperm was higher than the sperm from whole semen. Furthermore, the sperm velocity of post-DGC was higher compared to the sperm from post-SU. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity of prepared sperm was higher compared to whole semen, whereas Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the post DGC was higher than post SU. The Ca2

  5. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van; Zaknun, John J.; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon; Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina; Bal, C.S.; Dondi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  7. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  8. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, A.N.; Valle, V.M.; Montoya, M.J.; Eskenazi, E.S.; Montiel, M.L.; Cueto, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  10. Cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundley, Kshama; Chowdhury, D.; Lele, V.R.; Lele, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Twelve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients were studied by SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging 1 hour post injection of 15 mCi of 99m Tc-ECD under ideal conditions with a triple head gamma camera (Prism 3000 X P LEUHR), fanbeam collimators followed by Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination (FMMSE) and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) staging on the same day. All 12 patients were male, in the age range of 23-45 y (mean 31 y). The infected status was diagnosed by ELISA (10 patients) or Western blot (5 patients). The interval between diagnosis and imaging ranged from 1 month - 35 months (mean 15.3 months). Two patients were alcoholic and 2 were smokers. None of them had CNS disorder clinically. ADC staging and FMMSE could be performed in 4 patients. Two patients were normal (stage 0) and 2 were subclinical (stage 0.5) on ADC staging. FMMSE revealed normal or near normal status (mean score 35; maximum score 36). Cerebral perfusion images were interpreted simultaneously by 3 observers blind towards history and examination using semi-quantitative and quantitative methods by consensus. It revealed multiple areas of hypoperfusion, viz. temporal (11 patients (91 %), parietal 10 patients (83%), frontal 9 patients (75%, pre and post central gyrus 7 patients (58%), occipital 6 patients (50%) cingulate gyrus and cerebellum 5 patients (41%) and thalamic in 2 patients (16%). Hyper perfusion in caudate nuclei was noted in 10 patients (83%). The study reveals presence of multiple perfusion abnormalities on cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients who have normal/near normal mental status suggesting precedence of perfusion abnormality over clinically apparent mental deficit

  11. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 ± 8.5%, range:3 ∼ 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 ± 42.7%, range:-217 ∼ -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome

  12. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 {+-} 8.5%, range:3 {approx} 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 {+-} 42.7%, range:-217 {approx} -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome.

  13. Sperm DNA quality evaluated by comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay in stallions after unilateral orchiectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, R; Varner, D D; Bissett, W; Blanchard, T L; Teague, S R; Love, C C

    2015-09-15

    Unilateral orchiectomy (UO) may interfere with thermoregulation of the remaining testis caused by inflammation surrounding the incision site, thus altering normal spermatogenesis and consequently sperm quality. Two measures of sperm DNA quality (neutral comet assay and the sperm chromatin structure assay [SCSA]) were compared before UO (0 days) and at 14, 30, and 60 days after UO to determine whether sperm DNA changed after a mild testis stress (i.e., UO). The percent DNA in the comet tail was higher at 14 and 60 days compared to 0 days (P comet tail measures (i.e., length, moment, migration) were higher at all time periods after UO compared to 0 days (P comet assay and the SCSA, which was not identified using traditional measures of sperm quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Localized accumulation of cytosolic calcium near the fused sperm is associated with the calcium- and voltage-dependent block of sperm entry in the sea urchin egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonnet, Pedro I; Mohri, Tatsuma; McCulloh, David H

    2017-10-01

    Interaction of the sperm and egg depolarizes the egg membrane, allowing the sperm to enter; however, if the egg membrane is not allowed to depolarize from its resting potential (e.g., by voltage-clamp), the sperm will not enter. Previous studies demonstrated that sperm entry into sea urchin eggs that are voltage-clamped at negative membrane potentials is regulated both by the egg's membrane potential and a voltage-dependent influx of calcium into the egg. In these cases, electrical or cytoplasmic continuity (sperm-egg membrane fusion) occurs at negative membrane potentials, but subsequent loss of cytoplasmic continuity results in failure of sperm entry (unfusion). The work presented herein examined where, in relation to the sperm, and when, in relation to the sperm-induced electrophysiological events, the egg's calcium influx occurs, and how these events relate to successful or failed sperm entry. When sperm entered the egg, elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) began near the fused sperm on average 5.9 s after sperm-egg membrane fusion. Conversely, when sperm failed to enter the egg, [Ca 2+ ] i elevated near the site of sperm-egg fusion on average 0.7 s after sperm-egg membrane fusion, which is significantly earlier than in eggs for which sperm entered. Therefore, the accumulation of calcium near the site of sperm-egg fusion is spatially and temporally consistent with the mechanism that may be responsible for loss of cytoplasmic continuity and failure of sperm entry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Coronary Disease; Echocardiography; Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial; Hemodynamics; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Myocardial Perfusion Imaging; Perfusion; Predictive Value of Tests; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Positron Emission Tomography; Multidetector Computed Tomography; Echocardiography, Stress; Coronary Angiography

  16. Origin and evolution of chromosomal sperm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirín-López, José M; Ausió, Juan

    2009-10-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, DNA compaction is achieved through its interaction with histones, constituting a nucleoprotein complex called chromatin. During metazoan evolution, the different structural and functional constraints imposed on the somatic and germinal cell lines led to a unique process of specialization of the sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs) associated with chromatin in male germ cells. SNBPs encompass a heterogeneous group of proteins which, since their discovery in the nineteenth century, have been studied extensively in different organisms. However, the origin and controversial mechanisms driving the evolution of this group of proteins has only recently started to be understood. Here, we analyze in detail the histone hypothesis for the vertical parallel evolution of SNBPs, involving a "vertical" transition from a histone to a protamine-like and finally protamine types (H --> PL --> P), the last one of which is present in the sperm of organisms at the uppermost tips of the phylogenetic tree. In particular, the common ancestry shared by the protamine-like (PL)- and protamine (P)-types with histone H1 is discussed within the context of the diverse structural and functional constraints acting upon these proteins during bilaterian evolution.

  17. Impacts on transfer of the sperm of helicoverpa Armigera by irradiation (L. noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Wang Huasong; Song Jiaxiang

    2001-01-01

    Gamma irradiation did not influence the quantity of the eupyrene sperm bundles in duplex and that of the eupyrene sperm in spermatophore, but affected the maturing of eupyrene sperm bundles. When males were given sterilizing dose of 400 Gy, the quantity and the activity of the eupyrene sperm in the spermatheca were reduced significantly (P < 0.05)

  18. Improved visualization of delayed perfusion in lung MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, Frank; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Semmler, Wolfhard; Puderbach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The investigation of pulmonary perfusion by three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was proposed recently. Subtraction images are generated for clinical evaluation, but temporal information is lost and perfusion defects might therefore be masked in this process. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple analysis strategy and classification for 3D-DCE-MRI perfusion datasets in the lung without omitting the temporal information. Materials and methods: Pulmonary perfusion measurements were performed in patients with different lung diseases using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with a time-resolved 3D-GRE pulse sequence. 25 3D-volumes were acquired after iv-injection of 0.1 mmol/kg KG Gadolinium-DTPA. Three parameters were determined for each pixel: (1) peak enhancement S n,max normalized to the arterial input function to detect regions of reduced perfusion; (2) time between arterial peak enhancement in the large pulmonary artery and tissue peak enhancement τ to visualize regions with delayed bolus onset; and (3) ratio R = S n,max /τ was calculated to visualize impaired perfusion, irrespectively of whether related to reduced or delayed perfusion. Results: A manual selection of peak perfusion images is not required. Five different types of perfusion can be found: (1) normal perfusion; (2) delayed non-reduced perfusion; (3) reduced non-delayed perfusion; (4) reduced and delayed perfusion; and (5) no perfusion. Types II and IV could not be seen in subtraction images since the temporal information is necessary for this purpose. Conclusions: The analysis strategy in this study allows for a simple and observer-independent visualization and classification of impaired perfusion in dynamic contrast-enhanced pulmonary perfusion MRI by using the temporal information of the datasets.

  19. New Geographical Insights of the Latest Expansion of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 Into the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jun Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the most popular and most exported fruit and also a major food crop for millions of people around the world. Despite its importance and the presence of serious disease threats, research into this crop is limited. One of those is Panama disease or Fusarium wilt. In the previous century Fusarium wilt wiped out the “Gros Michel” based banana industry in Central America. The epidemic was eventually quenched by planting “Cavendish” bananas. However, 50 years ago the disease recurred, but now on “Cavendish” bananas. Since then the disease has spread across South-East Asia, to the Middle-East and the Indian subcontinent and leaped into Africa. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4 in “Cavendish” plantations in Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. A combination of classical morphology, DNA sequencing, and phenotyping assays revealed a very close relationship between the Foc TR4 strains in the entire Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, which is increasingly prone to intensive banana production. Analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms enabled us to initiate a phylogeography of Foc TR4 across three geographical areas—GMS, Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East revealing three distinct Foc TR4 sub-lineages. Collectively, our data place these new incursions in a broader agroecological context and underscore the need for awareness campaigns and the implementation of validated quarantine measures to prevent further international dissemination of Foc TR4.

  20. Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauschild, M.

    1988-11-01

    The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e + e - -collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of σ-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.) [de

  1. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha L Upasani

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62 and wilt-resistant (Digvijay chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.

  2. A rapid genotyping method for an obligate fungal pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, based on DNA extraction from infected leaf and Multiplex PCR genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjalbert Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST, an obligate fungal pathogen causing wheat yellow/stripe rust, a serious disease, has been used to understand the evolution of crop pathogen using molecular markers. However, numerous questions regarding its evolutionary history and recent migration routes still remains to be addressed, which need the genotyping of a large number of isolates, a process that is limited by both DNA extraction and genotyping methods. To address the two issues, we developed here a method for direct DNA extraction from infected leaves combined with optimized SSR multiplexing. Findings We report here an efficient protocol for direct fungal DNA extraction from infected leaves, avoiding the costly and time consuming step of spore multiplication. The genotyping strategy we propose, amplified a total of 20 SSRs in three Multiplex PCR reactions, which were highly polymorphic and were able to differentiate different PST populations with high efficiency and accuracy. Conclusion These two developments enabled a genotyping strategy that could contribute to the development of molecular epidemiology of yellow rust disease, both at a regional or worldwide scale.

  3. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  4. Automatic Detection of Myocardial Boundaries in MR Cardio Perfusion Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Luuk; Breeuwer, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases often result in reduced blood perfusion of the myocardium (MC). Recent advances in MR allow fast recordingof contrast enhanced myocardial perfusion scans. For perfusion analysis the myocardial boundaries must be traced. Currently this is done manually. In this paper a method

  5. Male crickets adjust ejaculate quality with both risk and intensity of sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh W; Denholm, Amy; Jackson, Chantelle; Levy, Esther; Madon, Ewa

    2007-10-22

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should increase their expenditure on the ejaculate with increasing risk of sperm competition, but decrease their expenditure with increasing intensity. There is accumulating evidence for sperm competition theory, based on examinations of testes size and/or the numbers of sperm ejaculated. However, recent studies suggest that ejaculate quality can also be subject to selection by sperm competition. We used experimental manipulations of the risk and intensity of sperm competition in the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. We found that males produced ejaculates with a greater percentage of live sperm when they had encountered a rival male prior to mating. However, when mating with a female that presented a high intensity of sperm competition, males did not respond to risk, but produced ejaculates with a reduced percentage of live sperm. Our data suggest that males exhibit a fine-tuned hierarchy of responses to these cues of sperm competition.

  6. Identification Male Fertility Through Abnormalities Sperm Based Morphology (Teratospermia) using Invariant Moment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Chairani, R.; Seniman; Rahmat, R. F.; Abdullah, D.; Napitupulu, D.; Setiawan, M. I.; Albra, W.; Erliana, C. I.; Andayani, U.

    2018-03-01

    Sperm morphology is still a standard laboratory analysis in diagnosing infertility in men. Manually identification of sperm form is still not accurate, the difficulty in seeing the form of the invisible sperm from the digital microscope image is often a weakness in the process of identification and takes a long time. Therefore, male fertility identification application system is needed Through sperm abnormalities based on sperm morphology (teratospermia). The method used is invariant moment method. This study uses 15 data testing and 20 data training sperm image. That the process of male fertility identification through sperm abnormalities based on sperm morphology (teratospermia) has an accuracy rate of 80.77%. Use of time to process Identification of male fertility through sperm abnormalities Based on sperm morphology (teratospermia) during 0.4369 seconds.

  7. Role of WNT signaling in epididymal sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ji-Xin; Li, Jian; Wang, Yu-Qian; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Su-Ren; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2018-02-01

    Spermatozoa maturation, a process required for spermatozoa to acquire progressive motility and the ability to fertilize ova, primarily occurs in the caput and corpus of the epididymis. Despite considerable efforts, the factor(s) promoting epididymal sperm maturation remains unclear. Recently, WNT signaling has been implicated in epididymal sperm maturation. To further investigate WNT signaling function in epididymal sperm maturation, we generated Wntless conditional knockout mice (Wls cKO), Wls flox/flox ; Lcn5-Cre. In these mice, WNTLESS (WLS), a conserved membrane protein required for all WNT protein secretion, was specifically disrupted in the principal cells of the caput epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that WLS was significantly reduced in the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice. In the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice, WNT 10A and WNT 2b, which are typically secreted by the principal cells of the caput epididymis, were not secreted. Interestingly, sperm motility analysis showed that the WLS deficiency in the caput epididymidis had no effect on sperm motility. Moreover, fertility tests showed that Wls cKO male mice had normal fertility. These results indicate that the disruption of WLS in principal cells of the caput epididymidis inhibits WNT protein secretion but has no effect on sperm motility and male fertility, suggesting that WNT signaling in the caput epididymidis may be dispensable for epididymal sperm maturation in mice.

  8. Sperm from sneaker male squids exhibit chemotactic swarming to CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Alvarez, Luis; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujiwara, Eiji; Iwata, Yoko; Mohri, Tatsuma; Inaba, Kazuo; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Ochi, Hiroe; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kotzur, Nico; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Baba, Shoji A

    2013-05-06

    Behavioral traits of sperm are adapted to the reproductive strategy that each species employs. In polyandrous species, spermatozoa often form motile clusters, which might be advantageous for competing with sperm from other males. Despite this presumed advantage for reproductive success, little is known about how sperm form such functional assemblies. Previously, we reported that males of the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri produce two morphologically different euspermatozoa that are linked to distinctly different mating behaviors. Consort and sneaker males use two distinct insemination sites, one inside and one outside the female's body, respectively. Here, we show that sperm release a self-attracting molecule that causes only sneaker sperm to swarm. We identified CO2 as the sperm chemoattractant and membrane-bound flagellar carbonic anhydrase as its sensor. Downstream signaling results from the generation of extracellular H(+), intracellular acidosis, and recovery from acidosis. These signaling events elicit Ca(2+)-dependent turning behavior, resulting in chemotactic swarming. These results illuminate the bifurcating evolution of sperm underlying the distinct fertilization strategies of this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05423.001 PMID:25789512

  10. Characterization of Na+K+-ATPase in bovine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Katie D; Buhr, Mary M

    2012-04-15

    Existing as a ubiquitous transmembrane protein, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase affects sperm fertility and capacitation through ion transport and a recently identified signaling function. Functional Na(+)K(+)-ATPase is a dimer of α and β subunits, each with isoforms (four and three, respectively). Since specific isoform pairings and locations may influence or indicate function, the objective of this study was to identify and localize subunits of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in fresh bull sperm by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using antibodies against α1 and 3, and all β isoforms. Relative quantity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in head plasma membranes (HPM's) from sperm of different bulls was determined by densitometry of immunoblot bands, and compared to bovine kidney. Sperm and kidney specifically bound all antibodies at kDa equivalent to commercial controls, and to additional lower kDa bands in HPM. Immunofluorescence of intact sperm confirmed that all isoforms were present in the head region of sperm and that α3 was also uniformly distributed post-equatorially. Permeabilization exposing internal membranes typically resulted in an increase in fluorescence, indicating that some antibody binding sites were present on the inner surface of the HPM or the acrosomal membrane. Deglycosylation of β1 reduced the kDa of bands in sperm, rat brain and kidney, with the kDa of the deglycosylated bands differing among tissues. Two-dimensional blots of β1 revealed three distinct spots. Based on the unique quantity, location and structure Na(+)K(+)-ATPase subunits in sperm, we inferred that this protein has unique functions in sperm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling a tethered mammalian sperm cell undergoing hyperactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, M.P.

    2012-09-01

    The beat patterns of mammalian sperm flagella can be categorised into two different types. The first involves symmetric waves propagating down the flagellum with a net linear propulsion of the sperm cell. The second, hyperactive, waveform is classified by vigorous asymmetric waves of higher amplitude, lower wavenumber and frequency propagating down the flagellum resulting in highly curved trajectories. The latter beat pattern is part of the capacitation process whereby sperm prepare for the prospective penetration of the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg. Hyperactivation is often observed to initiate as sperm escape from epithelial and ciliary bindings formed within the isthmic regions of the female oviducts, leading to a conjecture in the literature that this waveform is mechanically important for sperm escape. Hence, we explore the mechanical effects of hyperactivation on a tethered sperm, focussing on a Newtonian fluid. Using a resistive force theory model we demonstrate that hyperactivation can indeed generate forces that pull the sperm away from a tethering point and consequently a hyperactivated sperm cell bound to an epithelial surface need not always be pushed by its flagellum. More generally, directions of the forces generated by tethered flagella are insensitive to reductions in beat frequency and the detailed flagellar responses depend on the nature of the binding at the tethering point. Furthermore, waveform asymmetry and amplitude increases enhance the tendency for a tethered flagellum to start tugging on its binding. The same is generally predicted to be true for reductions in the wavenumber of the flagellum beat, but not universally so, emphasising the dynamical complexity of flagellar force generation. Finally, qualitative observations drawn from experimental data of human sperm bound to excised female reproductive tract are also presented and are found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Modelling a tethered mammalian sperm cell undergoing hyperactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, M.P.; Kirkman-Brown, J.C.; Connolly, T.J.; Gaffney, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The beat patterns of mammalian sperm flagella can be categorised into two different types. The first involves symmetric waves propagating down the flagellum with a net linear propulsion of the sperm cell. The second, hyperactive, waveform is classified by vigorous asymmetric waves of higher amplitude, lower wavenumber and frequency propagating down the flagellum resulting in highly curved trajectories. The latter beat pattern is part of the capacitation process whereby sperm prepare for the prospective penetration of the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg. Hyperactivation is often observed to initiate as sperm escape from epithelial and ciliary bindings formed within the isthmic regions of the female oviducts, leading to a conjecture in the literature that this waveform is mechanically important for sperm escape. Hence, we explore the mechanical effects of hyperactivation on a tethered sperm, focussing on a Newtonian fluid. Using a resistive force theory model we demonstrate that hyperactivation can indeed generate forces that pull the sperm away from a tethering point and consequently a hyperactivated sperm cell bound to an epithelial surface need not always be pushed by its flagellum. More generally, directions of the forces generated by tethered flagella are insensitive to reductions in beat frequency and the detailed flagellar responses depend on the nature of the binding at the tethering point. Furthermore, waveform asymmetry and amplitude increases enhance the tendency for a tethered flagellum to start tugging on its binding. The same is generally predicted to be true for reductions in the wavenumber of the flagellum beat, but not universally so, emphasising the dynamical complexity of flagellar force generation. Finally, qualitative observations drawn from experimental data of human sperm bound to excised female reproductive tract are also presented and are found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Enhancement of mouse sperm motility by trophinin-binding peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trophinin is an intrinsic membrane protein that forms a complex in the cytoplasm with bystin and tastin, linking it microtubule-associated motor dynein (ATPase in some cell types. Previously, we found that human sperm tails contain trophinin, bystin and tastin proteins, and that trophinin-binding GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide enhanced motility of human sperm. Methods Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine trophinin protein in mouse spermatozoa from wild type mouse, by using spermatozoa from trophinin null mutant mice as a negative control. Multivalent 8-branched GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide or GWRQ-MAPS, was chemically synthesized, purified by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Effect of GWRQ-MAPS on mouse spermatozoa from wild type and trophinin null mutant was assessed by a computer-assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Results Anti-trophinin antibody stained the principal (central piece of the tail of wild type mouse sperm, whereas the antibody showed no staining on trophinin null sperm. Phage particles displaying GWRQ bound to the principal piece of sperm tail from wild type but not trophinin null mice. GWRQ-MAPS enhanced motility of spermatozoa from wild type but not trophinin null mice. CASA showed that GWRQ-MAPS enhanced both progressive motility and rapid motility in wild type mouse sperm. Conclusions Present study established the expression of trophinin in the mouse sperm tail and trophinin-dependent effect of GWRQ-MAPS on sperm motility. GWRQ causes a significant increase in sperm motility.

  14. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A.C.; Calegaro, J.U.M.

    1982-01-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized. (author) [es

  15. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas ov...

  16. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A C; Calegaro, J U.M. [Fundacao Hospitalar do Distrito Federal, Distrito Federal (Brazil). Unidade de Medicina Nuclear

    1982-07-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized.

  17. Acid perfusion test in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    An acid perfusion test, isotope scanning, endoscopy, and esophageal biopsy were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. A positive acid perfusion test within 30 min (APT) and within 5 min (TAPT) was found in 70.2% and 37.6% of the patients, respectively. A positive APT was found significantly more often in patients with than without endoscopic esophagitis, whereas a positive TAPT was found significantly more often in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with moderate symptoms, and in a significantly higher proportion of patients with than without GER by scintigraphy. Neither the APT nor the TAPT showed any dependency on the presence of histologic esophagitis. Most (97%) patients with a negative acid perfusion test, in addition to typical symptoms, also presented with scintigraphic, endoscopic, or histologic evidence of GER disease. Although it shows that the acid perfusion test, particularly when early positive, may serve as a weak predictor of the severity of GER disease, the present study gives little support to the test's clinical usefulness.

  18. Nuclear cardiology: Myocardial perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seldin, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion studies continue to be a major focus of research, with new investigations of the relationship of exercise-redistribution thallium imaging to diagnosis, prognosis, and case management. The redistribution phenomenon, which seemed to be fairly well understood a few years ago, is now recognized to be much more complex than originally thought, and various strategies have been proposed to clarify the meaning of persistent defects. Pharmacologic intervention with dipyridamole and adenosine has become available as an alternative to exercise, and comparisons with exercise imaging and catheterization results have been described. Thallium itself is no longer the sole single-photon perfusion radiopharmaceutical; two new technetium agents are now widely available. In addition to perfusion studies, advances in the study of ventricular function have been made, including reports of studies performed in conjunction with technetium perfusion studies, new insights into cardiac physiology, and the prognostic and case-management information that function studies provide. Finally, work has continued with monoclonal antibodies for the identification of areas of myocyte necrosis. 41 references

  19. Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2002-01-01

    The quantification of perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) requires deconvolution to obtain the residual impulse response function (IRF). In this work, a method using the Gaussian process for deconvolution (GPD) is proposed. The fact that the IRF is smooth is incorporated...

  20. Volume perfusion CT imaging of cerebral vasospasm: diagnostic performance of different perfusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Afat, Saif; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mueller, Marguerite; Wiesmann, Martin; Brockmann, Carolin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Schubert, Gerrit Alexander [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Bier, Georg [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Marc A. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Mainz, Department of Neuroradiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different volume perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of cerebral vasospasm compared to angiographic findings. Forty-one datasets of 26 patients (57.5 ± 10.8 years, 18 F) with subarachnoid hemorrhage and suspected cerebral vasospasm, who underwent VPCT and angiography within 6 h, were included. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the presence and severity of vasospasm on perfusion maps on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting <50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting >50 % of vascular territory). A third neuroradiologist independently assessed angiography for the presence and severity of vasospasm on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting < 50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting > 50 % of vessel diameter). Perfusion maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time to drain (TTD) were evaluated regarding diagnostic accuracy for cerebral vasospasm with angiography as reference standard. Correlation analysis of vasospasm severity on perfusion maps and angiographic images was performed. Furthermore, inter-reader agreement was assessed regarding findings on perfusion maps. Diagnostic accuracy for TTD and MTT was significantly higher than for all other perfusion maps (TTD, AUC = 0.832; MTT, AUC = 0.791; p < 0.001). TTD revealed higher sensitivity than MTT (p = 0.007). The severity of vasospasm on TTD maps showed significantly higher correlation levels with angiography than all other perfusion maps (p ≤ 0.048). Inter-reader agreement was (almost) perfect for all perfusion maps (kappa ≥ 0.927). The results of this study indicate that TTD maps have the highest sensitivity for the detection of cerebral vasospasm and highest correlation with angiography regarding the severity of vasospasm. (orig.)

  1. Immature germ cells in semen ? correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Priya S.; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S.; Patil, Ashalata D.; Gune, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. Aim: The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in se...

  2. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S Patil

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  3. Protease in sturgeon sperm and the effect of protease inhibitors on sperm motility and velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alavi, S.M.H.; Postlerová, Pavla; Hatef, A.; Pšenička, M.; Pěknicová, Jana; Inaba, K.; Ciereszko, A.; Linhart, O.

    october, č. 40 (2014), s. 1393-1398 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosome * AGB * Electron microscopy * Sperm motility * TPCK Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.622, year: 2014

  4. Detectable perfusion changes in MAG3 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuter, B.; Bernar, A.; Roach, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of 120 MBq 99m Tc-MAG 3 instead of 600 MBq 99m Tc-DTPA in renal imaging has degraded the images obtained during the perfusion phase. An increase of the minimum detectable change (MDC) in blood flow (BF) would also be expected. In transplant patients, renal BF is an important factor in patient management and the MDC should be small to allow early detection of reduced perfusion. We determined the mean and coefficient of variation (CoV: standard deviation/mean) of three renal perfusion indices as a function of counts in the time-activity curves (TACs). Transplant patients were given a dose of about 300 MBq of 99m Tc-MAG3 and images acquired at 8 fps for 60s. TACs made up from 8, 4, 2 or I images per second allowed calculation of renal perfusion indices as if doses of 300, 150, 75 and 38 MBq had been administered. Perfusion indices based on area under the TACs up to the arterial peak (API), the maximum slopes of the TACs (SPI) and the maximum slope of renal TAC and height of arterial TAC (BPI) were calculated by our routine renal software package. As the administered dose decreased, the CoV rose for all indices, least for BPI and most for API. BPI CoV increased from ∼10% at 300 MBq to 20% at 75 MBq, but API CoV rose from 6% to 46%. Mean BPI was stable over the dose range, but mean API showed a systematic increase of about 50% over the 300 MBq result. We conclude that at 120 MBq the MDC (expressed as 2*CoV) in BF is 30-60%, whereas at 600 MBq it may be as low as 10%, allowing earlier confident detection of a change in BF. The BPI was the preferred perfusion index as its mean value changed little and it had the least CoV at lower activities. The data also imply that relative kidney perfusion in the one individual will be much less accurate with 120 MBq of MAG 3

  5. Perfusion vector - a new method to quantify myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images: a simulation study with validation in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minarik, David; Senneby, Martin; Wollmer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) largely relies on visual assessment by the physician of the localization and extent of a perfusion defect. The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of the perfusion vector as a new objective quantitative method...

  6. Leukocytospermia and sperm preparation - a flow cytometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perticarari Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes represent the predominant source of reactive oxygen species both in seminal plasma and in sperm suspensions and have been demonstrated to negatively influence sperm function and fertilization rate in assisted reproduction procedures. Peroxidase test is the standard method recommended by WHO to detect semen leukocytes but it may be inaccurate. The aims of this study were (i to compare the efficiency of swim-up and density-gradient centrifugation techniques in removing seminal leukocytes, (ii to examine the effect of leukocytes on sperm preparation, and (iii to compare flow cytometry and peroxidase test in determining leukocyte concentration in semen using a multiparameter flow cytometric method. Methods Semen samples from 126 male partners of couples undergoing infertility investigations were analyzed for leukocytospermia using standard optical microscopy and flow cytometry. Sixty-nine out of 126 samples were also processed using simultaneously the swim-up and density-gradient centrifugation techniques. A multiparameter flow cytometric analysis to assess simultaneously sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm apoptosis, and leukocyte concentration was carried out on neat and prepared sperm. Results Both sperm preparation methods removed most seminal leukocytes. However, the concentration of leukocytes was significantly lower after swim-up compared to that after density-gradient centrifugation preparation. Leukocytes concentration, either initial or in prepared fractions, was not correlated with sperm parameters (optical microscopy and flow cytometry parameters after semen processing. There was no correlation between leukocyte concentration in the ejaculate and sperm recovery rate, whereas a significant correlation was found between the concentration of the residual leukocytes in prepared fractions and viable sperm recovery rate. Although the overall concordance between the flow cytometry and the optical

  7. Association between chronic pain and the sperm motion characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    significantly higher in the processed sample of the CP group. This study demonstrated that chronic pain does not affect the sperm morphology, total concentration and motility based on conventional analysis but has significant influence at the level of sperm motion kinetics which could prove to be clinically...... stimulation, it can be speculated that the observed difference in sperm kinematic parameters could be related to the alterations in serum sex hormone levels emanating from the chronic pain. Further studies are required to explain the possible mechanism of action of chronic pain on male fertility....

  8. Trigonellae Semen Enhances Sperm Motility and the Expression of the Cation Sperm Channel Proteins in Mouse Testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Rim Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects during spermatogenesis can lead to a reduction in sperm motility and cause male infertility. The cation channels of sperm (CatSper play a role in the regulation of hyperactivated sperm motility in mouse testes. The effect of Trigonellae Semen (TS on the male reproductive system and CatSper protein in mouse testes during spermatogenesis was examined. C57BL/c mice were divided into the following five groups: normal, cyclophosphamide- (CP- only treated (control group, and three groups treated with varying concentrations of TS with CP (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg TS and 100 mg/kg CP. Real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and a testosterone immunoassay were performed to assess CatSper protein levels in the five groups. Additionally, sperm cell counts and motility were examined. Results indicate that sperm motility and sperm counts increased in the TS treated groups in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. CatSper levels were also significantly higher in the TS treated groups compared to that of the control group (p<0.001. Therefore, TS treatment could enhance sperm function by promoting spermatogenesis and the expression of CatSper proteins in mouse testes.

  9. Testicular sperm is superior to ejaculated sperm for ICSI in cryptozoospermia: An update systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-No; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Wu, Chien-Chih

    2018-05-18

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is well established and provides patients with severely impaired sperm quality with an opportunity to father a child. However, previous studies do not clearly indicate whether male with cryptozoospermia should use testicular sperm or ejaculated sperm for ICSI. The newest systematic review of this topic also gave a controversial conclusion that was based on incorrect pooling result. Moreover, two clinical studies published after the systematic review. In the present update systematic review and meta-analysis, a comprehensive citation search for relevant studies was performed using the Cochrane library databases, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 2017. The search returned 313 records, in which six studies were included in quantitative synthesis. These studies involved 578 male infertility patients who had undergone 761 ICSI cycles. The risk ratios favour fresh testicular sperm for good quality embryo rate (1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.005), implantation rate (95% CI 1.02-2.26, P = 0.04), and pregnancy rate (RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.20-2.52, P = 0.004). In conclusion, the existing evidence suggests that testicular sperm is better than ejaculated sperm for ICSI in male with cryptozoospermia.

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kinji; Ogai, Toshihiro; Katori, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; 1) at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 2) 100 msec before the R wave, and 3) 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery. In all patients with anterior myocardial infarction, low perfusion was observed at the infarcted portion compared to the non-infarcted myocardium. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction, this low perfusion area was not observed because right coronary angiography was not subjected to DSA in this study. (J.P.N.)

  11. Basic consideration of diffusion/perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Ishii, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microscopic motion of biological system such as molecular diffusion of water and microcirculation of blood in the capillary network (perfusion) has been proposed to cause signal attenuation as an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Quantitative imaging of the IVIM phenomenon was attempted to generate from a set of spin-echo (SE) sequences with or without sensitization by motion probing gradient (MPG). The IVIM imaging is characterized by a parameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which is an integration of both the diffusion and the perfusion factor on voxel-by-voxel basis. Hard ware was adjusted to avoid image artifact mainly produced by eddy current. Feasibility of the method was tested using bottle phantom filled with water at different temperature and acetone, and the calculated ADC values of these media corresponded well with accepted values of diffusion. The method was then applied to biological system to investigate mutual participation of diffusion/perfusion on the ADC value. The result of tumor model born on nude mouse suggested considerable participation of perfusion factor which immediately disappeared after sacrificing the animal. Meanwhile, lower value of sacrificed tissue without microcirculation was suggested to have some restriction of diffusion factor by biological tissue. To substantiate the restriction effect on the diffusion, a series of observation have made on a fiber phantom, stalk of celory with botanical fibers and human brain with nerve fibers, in applying unidirectional MPG along the course of these banch of fiber system. The directional restriction effect of diffusion along the course of fiber (diffusion anisotrophy) was clearly visualized as directional change of ADC value. The present method for tissue characterization by diffusion/perfusion on microscopic level will provide a new insight for evaluation of functional derangement in human brain and other organs. (author)

  12. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  13. Tamoxifen is a potent antioxidant modulator for sperm quality in patients with idiopathic oligoasthenospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Jing, Jun; Feng, Yu-Ming; Yao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To explore the new mechanisms of tamoxifen (TAM) in the treatment for patients with idiopathic oligoasthenospermia-antioxidation. In a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 120 cases of idiopathic oligoasthenospermia were enrolled and randomly assigned to the indomethacin group (n = 60) treated with indomethacin (25 mg, bid) and TAM group (n = 60) treated with TAM (10 mg, bid) for 3 months. Before and after treatment, we evaluated semen parameters, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), seminal plasma MDA and TAC, spermatozoa intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), sperm succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The independent t test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to compare the variables between and within two groups. In the indomethacin group, the percentage of progressive motile sperms, total motility, sperm MMP, and ATP content were increased significantly after 3-month treatment (P sperm count, sperm concentration, the percentage of progressive motile sperms, total motility, serum and seminal plasma TAC, sperm MMP, and ATP content were significantly improved or increased (P sperm count, sperm concentration, serum TAC, seminal plasma TAC, spermatozoa intracellular ROS, and sperm SDH activity. TAM treatment can significantly improve sperm quality, which is achieved through alleviating oxidative stress, improving sperm mitochondrial functionality, and subsequently increasing sperm motility.

  14. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

    2007-08-01

    Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size.

  15. Ventilation and perfusion display in a single image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.J.P. de; Botelho, M.F.R.; Pereira, A.M.S.; Rafael, J.A.S.; Pinto, A.J.; Marques, M.A.T.; Pereira, M.C.; Baganha, M.F.; Godinho, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of ventilation and perfusion display onto a single image is presented. From the data on regions of interest of the lungs, three-dimensional histograms are created, containing as parameters X and Y for the position of the pixels, Z for the perfusion and colour for local ventilation. The perfusion value is supplied by sets of curves having Z proportional to the local perfusion count rate. Ventilation modulates colour. Four perspective views of the histogram are simultaneously displayed to allow visualization of the entire organ. Information about the normal ranges for both ventilation and perfusion is also provided in the histograms. (orig.)

  16. Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kang, Young Kang

    2008-01-01

    It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: 62.9±6.9 y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M: 15, F: 40, mean age: 61.4±9.2 y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed 99m Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal cerebral blood

  17. Activation of free sperm and dissociation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) of an endangered viviparous fish, Xenotoca eiseni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yang, Huiping; Torres, Leticia; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of sperm motility activation for viviparous fishes has been limited to study of several species in Poeciliidae, and the dissociation of sperm bundles is even less understood. The goal of this study was to use the endangered Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model to investigate the activation of sperm from viviparous fishes by study of free sperm and spermatozeugmata (unencapsulated sperm bundles). The specific objectives were to evaluate the effects of: (1) osmotic pressure and refrigerated storage (4 °C) on activation of free sperm, (2) osmotic pressure, ions, and pH on dissociation of spermatozeugmata, and (3) CaCl 2 concentration and pH on sperm membrane integrity. Free sperm were activated in Ca 2+ -free Hanks' balanced salt solution at 81-516 mOsmol/kg. The highest motility (19 ± 6%) was at 305 mOsmol/kg and swim remained for 84 h. Glucose (300-700 mOsmol/kg), NaCl (50-600 mOsmol/kg), and KCl, MgCl 2 , and MnCl 2 at 5-160 mM activated sperm within spermatozeugmata, but did not dissociate spermatozeugmata. CaCl 2 at 5-160 mM dissociated spermatozeugmata within 10 min. Solutions of NaCl-NaOH at pH 11.6 to 12.4 dissociated spermatozeugmata within 1 min. The percentage of viable cells had no significant differences (P = 0.2033) among different concentrations of CaCl 2 , but it was lower (P fishes, and for development of germplasm repositories for imperiled goodeids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm cryopreservation in live-bearing Xiphophorus fishes: offspring production from Xiphophorus variatus and strategies for establishment of sperm repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Savage, Markita G; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2012-09-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from Xiphophorus fishes has produced live young in three species: X. hellerii, X. couchianus, and X. maculatus. In this study, the goal was to establish protocols for sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination to produce live young in X. variatus, and to identify needs for repository development. The objectives were to: 1) collect basic biological characteristics of males; 2) cryopreserve sperm from X. variatus, 3) harvest live young from cryopreserved sperm, and 4) discuss the requirements for establishment of sperm repositories. The 35 males used in this study had a body weight of 0.298±0.096 g (mean±SD), body length of 2.5±0.2 cm, and testis weight of 6.4±3.4 mg. The sperm production per gram of testis was 2.33±1.32×10(9) cells. After freezing, the post-thaw motility decreased significantly to 37%±17% (ranging from 5% to 70%) (p=0.000) from 57%±14% (40%-80%) of fresh sperm (N=20). Artificial insemination of post-thaw sperm produced confirmed offspring from females of X. hellerii and X. variatus. This research, taken together with previous studies, provides a foundation for development of strategies for sperm repositories of Xiphophorus fishes. This includes: 1) the need for breeding strategies for regeneration of target populations, 2) identification of minimum fertilization capacity of frozen samples, 3) identification of fish numbers necessary for sampling and their genetic relationships, 4) selection of packaging containers for labeling and biosecurity, 5) assurance of quality control and standardization of procedures, 6) information systems that can manage the data associated with cryopreserved samples, including the genetic data, 7) biological data of sampled fish, 8) inventory data associated with frozen samples, and 9) data linking germplasm samples with other related materials such as body tissues or cells saved for DNA and RNA analyses.

  19. Sperm transfer in monogenean (platyhelminth) parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, Graham; Whittington, Ian

    2015-12-01

    There are three major groups of parasitic platyhelminths (flatworms). The digeneans and cestodes are endoparasites, while the monogeneans are ectoparasites mostly on the gills or skin of fishes. Monogeneans are hermaphrodite and, with the exception of the gyrodactylids, mostly protandrous, the male reproductive system maturing before the female system. Their ectoparasitic life-style provides unique opportunities to observe the reproductive biology of living platyhelminths, opportunities restricted in digeneans and cestodes by their endoparasitic habits. Moreover, the male copulatory organs (MCOs) of monogeneans are of special interest because of their perplexing diversity, ranging from sclerotised penis tubes, many with accessory sclerites, to cirruses and genital atrium armature (hooks and spines). The relatively few accounts in the literature of mating in monogeneans are reproduced in this review, together with consideration of the following aspects of sperm transfer: structure and function of MCOs; self-insemination; spermatophores and pseudospermatophores; "hypodermic" and transtegumental insemination; tissue fusion; glands associated with MCOs and vaginae; finding a mating partner.

  20. Reduction in sperm count and increase in abnormal sperm in the mouse following x-irradiation or injection of 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, A.; Moore, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The accumulated reduction in sperm count and increase in the number of aberrant sperm in the mouse were used to compare acute X-irradiation with protracted radiation from an injection of 22 Na. The effects per unit of absorbed dose of acute and protracted radiation were similar on sperm count, but in respect of numbers of abnormal sperm the 22 Na induced a significantly greater maximum than X-rays. (author)

  1. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  2. Sperm quality after swim up and density gradient centrifugation sperm preparation with supplementation of alpha lipoic acid (ALA): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Lestari, Sarah H.; Pujianto, Dwi A.

    2018-02-01

    Intra uterine insemination (IUI) as one of the treatment for infertility, persists low success rate. A factor that contributes to the unsuccessful of IUI is sperm preparation, performed through Swim-up (SU) and Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) methods. Furthermore, studies have shown that Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant that could enhance the sperm motility and protect the DNA integrity of the sperm [1]. This study is aimed to re-evaluate the efficiency of the DGC and SU methods in selecting sperm before being transferred for IUI by the supplementation of ALA based on the sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples were obtained from 13 men from partners of women who are infertile (normozoospermia) and underwent IUI. Semen analysis based on the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 was performed to measure the sperm motility and velocity, before and after sperm preparation. Then, samples were incubated with Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) in 0.625 mg (ALA 1), 1.25 mg (ALA 2) and 2.5 mg (ALA 3). The Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test was performed to evaluate the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). The percentage of motile sperm was higher in prepared sperm (post-DGC and post-SU) than in whole semen. Furthermore, the percentage of motile sperm was higher in post-DGC compared to post-SU. The level of DFI after the supplementation of ALA was decreased in prepared sperm compared to the whole semen. ALA was proved capable to select the better sperm quality with decreased sperm DNA fragmentation of prepared sperm in the all of DFI category.

  3. Human sperm sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage assessed by the neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, M E; Williams, P L; Korrick, S A; Dadd, R; Marchetti, F; Martenies, S E; Perry, M J

    2014-10-10

    Is there an association between human sperm sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage? An increase in human sperm XY disomy was associated with higher comet extent; however, there was no other consistent association of sex chromosome disomies with DNA damage. There is limited published research on the association between sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage and the findings are not consistent across studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 190 men (25% ever smoker, 75% never smoker) from subfertile couples presenting at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Clinic from January 2000 to May 2003. Multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y and 18 was used to determine XX, YY, XY and total sex chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei using an automated scoring method. The neutral comet assay was used to measure sperm DNA damage, as reflected by comet extent, percentage DNA in the comet tail, and tail distributed moment. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were constructed with sex chromosome disomy (separate models for each of the four disomic conditions) as the independent variable, and DNA damage parameters (separate models for each measure of DNA damage) as the dependent variable. Men with current or past smoking history had significantly greater comet extent (µm: regression coefficients with 95% CI) [XX18: 15.17 (1.98, 28.36); YY18: 14.68 (1.50, 27.86); XY18: 15.41 (2.37, 28.45); Total Sex Chromosome Disomy: 15.23 (2.09, 28.38)], and tail distributed moment [XX18: 3.01 (0.30, 5.72); YY18: 2.95 (0.24, 5.67); XY18: 3.04 (0.36, 5.72); Total Sex Chromosome Disomy: 3.10 (0.31, 5.71)] than men who had never smoked. In regression models adjusted for age and smoking, there was a positive association between XY disomy and comet extent. For an increase in XY disomy from 0.56 to 1.47% (representing the 25th to 75th percentile), there was a mean increase of 5.08 µm in comet extent. No other statistically significant

  4. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa))

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis.

  5. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis

  6. Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm

  7. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm...... temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed...... counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period...

  8. Validation of image cytometry for sperm concentration measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte L.; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2017-01-01

    Sperm concentration is an essential parameter in the diagnostic evaluation of men from infertile couples. It is usually determined by manual counting using a hemocytometer, and is therefore both laborious and subjective. We have earlier shown that a newly developed image cytometry (IC) method may...... be used to determine sperm concentration. Here we present a validation of the IC method by analysis of 4010 semen samples. There was high agreement between IC and manual counting at sperm concentrations above 3 mill/ml and in samples with concentrations above 12 mill/ml the two methods can be used...... a lower coefficient of variation than the manual method (5% vs 10%), indicating a better precision of the IC method. In conclusion, measurement of sperm concentration by IC can be used at concentrations above 3 mill/ml and seems more accurate and precise than manual counting, making it an attractive...

  9. AWARE Sonar and Sperm Whale Tagging (DE9906, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AWARE sonar and sperm whale tagging cruise primarily focuses on whales in the continental shelf areas, with the following objectives: 1) Develop a better...

  10. Reproduction and sperm structure in Galeommatidae (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse; Lützen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Reproduction and/or sperm structure was studied in 18 species belonging to five genera of Galeommatidae from Phuket Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand, and Hong Kong. Incubation of the ova occurs in the inner and outer demibranchs of both gills, and sperm is most probably transferred to the ctenidial...... brood chamber as masses of agglutinated and non-encapsulated spermatozoa. The smallest specimens are males, but change into the female sex and there is a strong indication that some of the species are alternate hermaphrodites. Dwarf males occur in one species (Galeomma layardi). The sperm of all 18...... species studied are of the ent-aquasperm type with a more or less hemispherical acrosome that is tilted with respect to the long axis of the moderately elongated nucleus. It is suggested that this type of sperm affords the best autapomorphy for the family Galeommatidae....

  11. Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-10

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm.

  12. Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Acoustic Prey Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summer of 2009 and the winter of 2010 in the north-central Gulf of Mexico to examine the spatial distribution of sperm...

  13. [Posthumous sperm procurement and use--ethical and legal dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crha, I; Dostál, J; Ventruba, P; Kudela, M; Záková, J

    2004-07-01

    To present a review of bioethical discussion and recommendations concerning posthumous sperm procurement and postmortem parenthood. Review article. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Masaryk University, Brno, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University, Olomouc. Literature search in Database of Abstracts of Reviews of the Evidence (DARE) and MEDLINEplus. Posthumous sperm procurement and cryopreservation must be performed within 36 hours after death. To established appropriate medical practice, it is important to consider all stakeholders in the decision-making process: the deceased, the requesting party, the child, the physician and the society. There are only few legislative measures concerning postmortem parenthood and posthumous sperm procurement. The essential elements for postmortem reproduction are: judicial order, ethics committee approval, bereavement period of at least 6 month before use. Posthumous sperm procurement is fraught with ethical and legal implications. All stakeholder should be considered. Society for reproductive medicine should prepare acceptable standard protocol.

  14. AWARE Sonar and Sperm Whale Tagging (DE0007, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AWARE sonar and sperm whale tagging cruise primarily focuses on whales in the continental shelf areas, with the following objectives: 1) Develop a better...

  15. Proteomics analysis of ram sperm by heavy ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuxuan; Li Hongyan; Zhang Hong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the proteome changes induced by heavy ion radiation using irradiated ram sperm by a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The 2D gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. Differentially expressed proteins were detected by PDQuest 8.0 software and subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a surveyor HPLC system, and differential protein spots were identified. Results showed there are five differential protein spots in irradiated sperm gels, four up-regulated protein spots and one spot missed. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified to be two up-regulated proteins including enolase, and enolase 1. It was concluded there was proteome changes induced by heavy ion radiation in ram sperm, which may be useful to clarify the physiology state of ram sperm in heavy ion radiation and provide a theoretical basis for radiation ram breeding. (authors)

  16. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible period of time

  17. Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (micro-TESE as a Sperm Acquisition Method for Men with Nonobstructive Azoospermia Seeking Fertility: Operative and Laboratory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rare foci of sperm production may be found in up to 60% of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA. Sperm production, if present, is minimal for sperm appearance in the ejaculate. Given that there are no treatment options to restore fertility, sperm retrieval is the only alternative to find testicular sperm than then can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF. Among sperm acquisition methods, micro-TESE has higher success rates at obtaining sperm compared with testicular sperm extraction and testicular sperm aspiration. Materials and Methods This video describes the operative aspects of micro-TESE, performed on an outpatient basis, in a man with NOA and history of cryptorchidism in whom orchidopexy was performed at age 6. The concept of micro-TESE is to identify areas of sperm production within the testes with the aid of optical magnification (15-25X and based on the size and appearance of the seminiferous tubules (ST. Conclusion Micro-TESE allowed the identification and extraction of sperm-containing STs with minimum tissue excision and marked reduction in time processing of testicular specimens for sperm injection.

  18. Comparison of cryopreserved human sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen: effect on motility parameters, morphology, and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyatanasakchai, Piyaphan; Sophonsritsuk, Areephan; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Wansumrit, Surapee; Chompurat, Deonthip

    2008-11-01

    To compare the effects of cryopreserved sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen on sperm motility, morphology, and sperm function. Experimental study. Andrology laboratory at Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-eight semen samples with normal motility and sperm count were collected from 38 men who were either patients of an infertility clinic or had donated sperm for research. Each semen sample was divided into two aliquots. Samples were frozen with static-phase vapor cooling. One aliquot was plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), and the other was stored in vapor-phase nitrogen (-179 degrees C) for 3 days. Thawing was performed at room temperature. Motility was determined by using computer-assisted semen analysis, sperm morphology was determined by using eosin-methylene blue staining, and sperm function was determined by using a hemizona binding test. Most of the motility parameters of sperm stored in the vapor phase were not significantly different from those stored in the liquid phase of liquid nitrogen, except in amplitude of lateral head displacement. The percentages of normal sperm morphology in both vapor and liquid phases also were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the number of bound sperm in hemizona between sperm cryopreserved in both vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of human sperm in a vapor phase of liquid nitrogen was comparable to cryopreservation in a liquid phase of liquid nitrogen.

  19. Formation of primary sperm conjugates in a haplogyne spider (Caponiidae, Araneae) with remarks on the evolution of sperm conjugation in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Elisabeth; Michalik, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Sperm conjugation, where two or more sperm are physically united, is a rare but widespread pheno-menon across the animal kingdom. One group well known for its different types of sperm conjugation are spiders. Particularly, haplogyne spiders show a high diversity of sperm traits. Besides individual cleistospermia, primary (synspermia) and secondary (coenospermia, "spermatophore") sperm conjugation occurs. However, the evolution of sperm conjugates and sperm is not understood in this group. Here, we look at how sperm are transferred in Caponiidae (Haplogynae) in pursuit of additional information about the evolution of sperm transfer forms in spiders. Additionally, we investigated the male reproductive system and spermatozoa using light- and transmission electron-microscopy and provide a 3D reconstruction of individual as of well as conjugated spermatozoa. Mature spermatozoa are characterized by an extremely elongated, helical nucleus resulting in the longest spider sperm known to date. At the end of spermiogenesis, synspermia are formed by complete fusion of four spermatids. Thus, synspermia might have evolved early within ecribellate Haplogynae. The fused sperm cells are surrounded by a prominent vesicular area. The function of the vesicular area remains still unknown but might be correlated with the capacitation process inside the female. Further phylogenetic and functional implications of the spermatozoa and sperm conjugation are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An automatic system to study sperm motility and energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, LZ; Nascimento, JM; Chandsawangbhuwana, C; Botvinick, EL; Berns, MW

    2008-01-01

    An integrated robotic laser and microscope system has been developed to automatically analyze individual sperm motility and energetics. The custom-designed optical system directs near-infrared laser light into an inverted microscope to create a single-point 3-D gradient laser trap at the focal spot of the microscope objective. A two-level computer structure is described that quantifies the sperm motility (in terms of swimming speed and swimming force) and energetics (measuring mid-piece membr...

  1. DNA topoisomerase II enzyme activity appears in mouse sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm suspensions of 4 male mice (A, B, C and D), having an initial motility grade of 3.5 were used to examine the presence of DNA topoisomerase II (top 2) activity in sperm heads. The initial percentage motile of male A was 75%, male B was 80%, male C was 70% and male D was 60%. Top 2 activity was examined by ...

  2. Post-Translational Modifications of Histones in Human Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Jana; Stixová, Lenka; Pagáčová, Eva; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sehnalová, Petra; Dabravolski, Siarhei; Hejátko, Jan; Bártová, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined the levels and distribution of post-translationally modified histones and protamines in human sperm. Using western blot immunoassay, immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry (MS), and FLIM-FRET approaches, we analyzed the status of histone modifications and the protamine P2. Among individual samples, we observed variability in the levels of H3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1, but the level of acetylated (ac) histones H4 was relatively stable in the sperm head fractions, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. Sperm heads with lower levels of P2 exhibited lower levels of H3K9ac, H3K9me1, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1. A very strong correlation was observed between the levels of P2 and H3K9me2. FLIM-FRET analysis additionally revealed that acetylated histones H4 are not only parts of sperm chromatin but also appear in a non-integrated form. Intriguingly, H4ac and H3K27me3 were detected in sperm tail fractions via western blot analysis. An appearance of specific histone H3 and H4 acetylation and H3 methylation in sperm tail fractions was also confirmed by both LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that particular post-translational modifications of histones are uniquely distributed in human sperm, and this distribution varies among individuals and among the sperm of a single individual. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutcu, Semra [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Serter, Selim, E-mail: serterselim@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Nese, Nalan [Department of Pathology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Pekindil, Goekhan [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Coskun, Teoman [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  5. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutcu, Semra; Serter, Selim; Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray; Nese, Nalan; Pekindil, Goekhan; Coskun, Teoman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  6. A capillary-based perfusion phantom for simulation of brain perfusion for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciak, A.; Kronfeld, A.; Mueller-Forell, W.; Wille, C.; Kempski, O.; Stoeter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The measurement of the CBF is a non-standardized procedure and there are no reliable gold standards. This abstract shows a capillary-based perfusion-phantom for CE-DSC-MRI. It has equivalent flow properties to those within the tissue capillary system of the human brain and allows the validation of the Siemens Perfusion (MR) software. Materials and Methods: The perfusion phantom consists of a dialyzer for the simulation of the capillary system, a feeding tube for simulation of the AIF and a pulsatile pump for simulation of the heart. Using this perfusion phantom, the exact determination of the gold standard CBF due to the well-known geometry of the phantom is easy. It was validated based on different perfusion measurements. These measurements were investigated with standard software (Siemens Perfusion MR). The software determined the CBF within the capillary system. Based on this CBF, a comparison to the gold standard was made with several different flow speeds. After AIF selection, a total of 726 CBF data points were automatically extracted by the software. Results: This results in a comparison of the gold standard CBF to these 726 CBF values. Therefore, a reproducible and reliable deviation estimation between gold standard CBF and measured CBF using the software was computed. It can be shown that the deviation between gold standard and software-based evaluation ranges between 1 and 31 %. Conclusion: There is no significance for any correlation between flow speed and amount of deviation. The mean measured CBF is 11.4 % higher than the gold standard CBF (p-value < 0.001). Using this kind of perfusion-phantom, the validation of different software systems allows reliable conclusions about their quality. (orig.)

  7. Can preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy predict changes in left ventricular perfusion and function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Johansen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe wanted to evaluate whether preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) could predict changes in cardiac symptoms and postoperative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).METHODSNinety-two patients with stable angina...... in 26%. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), which was normal before operation in 45%, improved in 40% of all patients. The increase in LVEF was not related to the preoperative pattern of perfusion defects. Of 30 patients with normalized perfusion after CABG, 29 (97%) had reversible defects...... that reversible or partly reversible perfusion defects at a preoperative MPS have a high chance of normalized myocardial perfusion assessed by MPS 6 months after operation. Normal perfusion is obtained almost exclusively in territories with reversible ischaemia. Symptoms improved in nearly all patients and LVEF...

  8. Patient satisfaction with coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, myocardial perfusion MRI, SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and conventional coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, S.; Rief, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Richter, F.; Roehle, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Schoenenberger, E. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate patient acceptance of noninvasive imaging tests for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), including single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI), stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coronary CT angiography (CTA) in combination with CT myocardial stress perfusion (CTP), and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Intraindividual comparison of perception of 48 patients from the CORE320 multicentre multinational study who underwent rest and stress SPECT-MPI with a technetium-based tracer, combined CTA and CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine), MRI, and CCA. The analysis was performed by using a validated questionnaire. Patients had significantly more concern prior to CCA than before CTA/CTP (p < 0.001). CTA/CTP was also rated as more comfortable than SPECT-MPI (p = 0.001). Overall satisfaction with CT was superior to that of MRI (p = 0.007). More patients preferred CT (46 %; p < 0.001) as a future diagnostic test. Regarding combined CTA/CTP, CTP was characterised by higher pain levels and an increased frequency of angina pectoris during the examination (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher degree of pain during SPECT-MPI with adenosine stress compared to physical exercise (p = 0.016). All noninvasive cardiac imaging tests are well accepted by patients, with CT being the preferred examination. (orig.)

  9. Quantification of coral sperm collected during a synchronous spawning event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Teo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of coral reproductive biology to date have focused on oocyte numbers and sizes. Only one (ex situ study has enumerated sperm numbers, even though these data have multiple potential applications. We quantified total coral sperm and eggs per gamete bundle collected from six species in situ during a synchronous spawning event in Singapore. Egg-sperm bundles were captured midwater as they floated towards the surface after being released by the colony. For each sample, a semi-transparent soft plastic bottle was squeezed and released to create a small suction force that was used to ‘catch’ the bundles. This technique provided several advantages over traditional methods, including low cost, ease of use, no diving prior to the night of collection needed, and the ability to target specific areas of the colony. The six species sampled were Echinophyllia aspera, Favites abdita, F. chinensis, Merulina ampliata, M. scabricula and Platygyra pini. The mean number of sperm packaged within one egg-sperm bundle ranged from 2.04 × 106 to 1.93 × 107. The mean number of eggs per egg-sperm bundle ranged from 26.67 (SE ± 3.27 to 85.33 (SE ± 17.79. These data are critical for fertilisation success models, but the collection technique described could also be applied to studies requiring in situ spawning data at the polyp level.

  10. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment: a 15-year monocentric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, P; Saias-Magnan, J; Jouve, E; Grillo, J M; Karsenty, G; Metzler-Guillemain, C; Perrin, J

    2012-03-01

    Sperm banking is an important procedure to preserve fertility before cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyse cryopreservation activity retrospectively for 1080 patients referred to the sperm bank for sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment. This study included 1007 patients diagnosed with testicular cancer (TC) (41.7%), lymphoma (26%), other haematological cancers (9.4%) or other types of cancer (22.8%); of these, 29 patients did not produce any semen sample and cryopreservation was impossible for 67 patients. Semen characteristics before treatment were within normal ranges, except moderate asthenospermia. Sperm concentration was significantly lower in TC than in non-TC. Straws from 57 patients (6.3%) were used in assisted reproductive technologies, which led to a 46.8% cumulative birth rate. Straws were destroyed for 170 patients (18.7%) and 140 patients performed semen analyses after cancer therapy. After an average delay of 22.5 months after the end of therapy, 43 patients (30.7%) exhibited azoospermia. This study of a large population of cancer patients revealed a high level of successful sperm storage. Utilization of cryopreserved spermatozoa led to good chances of fatherhood. Nevertheless, sperm banks should be aware of the low rates of straw use and straw destruction by cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  12. Anti sperm antibodies detection in infertile patients by radioimmunometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELnabarawy, F.; Megahed, Y.M.; Tadrous, G.A.; Hamada, T.; Elbadry, A.

    1992-01-01

    Three different methods of testing for anti sperm antibodies were compared: complement cytotoxicity, sperm agglutination, and radiolabelled anti globulin antibody technique, for detection of anti sperm antibodies in serum and secretions (seminal plasma and cervical mucus). Sample from 120 patients with infertility were investigated by the previous three methods. The results of unexplained infertile patients revealed wide variations in figures, concerning the positivity of anti sperm antibody whether in their serum or secretions, by using the cytotoxicity or sperm agglutination tests. Using a specific radiolabelled anti globulin test, a subset of patients (44.9% in the serum of men and 50% in seminal plasma) with IgG anti sperm antibody was identified, and this antibody was present in 65.4% and 78,6% of infertile wives sera and cervical mucus, respectively. Therefore, this test has been used to identify and quantitate antibodies directed toward other human cell surfaces. It was concluded that this radiolabelled method is a clinically useful and a potentially versatile procedure that can be successfully applied to the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected immunologic infertility. 1 fig., 5 tab

  13. Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination. PMID:24963711

  14. Transfer of 60Co from midwater squid to sperm whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Takeshi; Minamisako, Yoko; Ebihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Sperm whales are notable squid-eaters. They feed mainly on medium to large-sized cephalopods at midwater levels and defecate near the surface. This suggests the existence of an upward transport of 60 Co by sperm whales from the mesopelagic zone (150-1,200m). To elucidate this squid-whale route for this artificial radionuclide, 60 Co content was determined in squid and in predator whales captured by commercial whaling. In the Cephalopoda livers 60 Co levels of 30-500 mBq kg -1 wet were found and in the viscera of Odontoceti (toothed whales) 15-40 mBq kg -1 wet. About 0.3% of 60 Co ingested was estimated to be retained in a 23-year-old male sperm whale. In the livers of Bryde's whales, 60 Co levels of 40-80 mBq kg -1 wet were detected, but not in euphausiids and sardines, their possible prey. The level of Co in sperm whales was nearly the same as in Bryde's whales. Specific radioactivity 60 Co/ 59 Co in mBq μg -1 was several times higher in sperm whale (1.1-1.6) than in cephalopods (0.19-0.77). Eating prey with a high content of 60 Co in the 1960's may have contributed to the present body burden in sperm whales with a long-life span. However, the origin of 60 Co in Bryde's whales is unknown. (author)

  15. PLAG1 deficiency impairs spermatogenesis and sperm motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Almas R; Grommen, Sylvia V H; O'Bryan, Moira K; O'Connor, Anne E; Merriner, D Jo; Hall, Nathan E; Doyle, Stephen R; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina E; Barriga, Daniel; Hart, Adam H; Van de Ven, Wim J M; De Groef, Bert

    2017-07-13

    Deficiency in pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) leads to reduced fertility in male mice, but the mechanism by which PLAG1 contributes to reproduction is unknown. To investigate the involvement of PLAG1 in testicular function, we determined (i) the spatial distribution of PLAG1 in the testis using X-gal staining; (ii) transcriptomic consequences of PLAG1 deficiency in knock-out and heterozygous mice compared to wild-type mice using RNA-seq; and (iii) morphological and functional consequences of PLAG1 deficiency by determining testicular histology, daily sperm production and sperm motility in knock-out and wild-type mice. PLAG1 was sparsely expressed in germ cells and in Sertoli cells. Genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis were downregulated in the testes of knock-out mice, as well as Hsd17b3, which encodes a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. In the absence of Plag1, a number of genes involved in immune processes and epididymis-specific genes were upregulated in the testes. Finally, loss of PLAG1 resulted in significantly lowered daily sperm production, in reduced sperm motility, and in several animals, in sloughing of the germinal epithelium. Our results demonstrate that the subfertility seen in male PLAG1-deficient mice is, at least in part, the result of significantly reduced sperm output and sperm motility.

  16. Rogue sperm indicate sexually antagonistic coevolution in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E Ellis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense reproductive competition often continues long after animals finish mating. In many species, sperm from one male compete with those from others to find and fertilize oocytes. Since this competition occurs inside the female reproductive tract, she often influences the outcome through physical or chemical factors, leading to cryptic female choice. Finally, traits that help males compete with each other are sometimes harmful to females, and female countermeasures may thwart the interests of males, which can lead to an arms race between the sexes known as sexually antagonistic coevolution. New studies from Caenorhabditis nematodes suggest that males compete with each other by producing sperm that migrate aggressively and that these sperm may be more likely to win access to oocytes. However, one byproduct of this competition appears to be an increased probability that these sperm will go astray, invading the ovary, prematurely activating oocytes, and sometimes crossing basement membranes and leaving the gonad altogether. These harmful effects are sometimes observed in crosses between animals of the same species but are most easily detected in interspecies crosses, leading to dramatically lowered fitness, presumably because the competitiveness of the sperm and the associated female countermeasures are not precisely matched. This mismatch is most obvious in crosses involving individuals from androdioecious species (which have both hermaphrodites and males, as predicted by the lower levels of sperm competition these species experience. These results suggest a striking example of sexually antagonistic coevolution and dramatically expand the value of nematodes as a laboratory system for studying postcopulatory interactions.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiations on sperm of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, F.I.; Hassan, N.H.A.; Eldawt, H.A.; Roushdy, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of both gamma rays and reactor beams of mixed neutrons and gamma rays on sperms were investigated. Caudal sperms of adult male mice were examined 3 and 6 weeks post-exposure to 0.5 , 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma rays and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks in animals exposed to 42.5 and 58.5 R of mixed neutrons and gamma-rays. Sperms were seriously affected due to exposure to both types of irradiation. There were dose dependent changes in the mean frequency of abnormal sperms. The peak values were at dose level of 3.0 Gy recording 26.43% and 29.82% in both groups sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks respectively compared with 1.57% for the control group. The increase in the abnormal sperms in the groups of the animals exposed to the reactor beam was always related to the time interval between treatment and observation, the longer the time the more sperms with abnormal head were encountered. 14 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Uji Daya Hambat Jamur Endofit dan Eksofit dalam Menekan Pertumbuhan Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae Penyebab Busuk Batang Panili Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN SUNITI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on In Vitro Inhibitory Ability of Endophytic and Exophytic Fungusin Suppressing the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae thatCauses Stem Rot of Vanilla. Vanilla stem rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. vanillae , is still a very dangerous disease and feared by vanilla farmers. Disease until thepresent time there does not yet appear adequate control strategies for the disease. On the basisof these problems interested studied the use of endophytic fungi and exophytic existing on theleaves and stems of healthy plants , which have potential as a biological agent to controlpathogens . The study was conducted in three stages: (1 isolation of the pathogen and fungalendophyte and exophytic, (2 identification of pathogenic microscopic morphology, fungalendophyte and exophytic, and (3 test the inhibition of fungal endophyte and exophyticagainst pathogens. Fungi are found as the leaves are Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus spp., Onexophytic on the trunk is Trichoderma sp . and Fusarium spp., as a leaf endophytic found A.niger and Neurospora spp. and as endophytic rod is Neurospora spp . The highest prevalenceachieved by Neurospora spp . which is equal to 100 % on endophyte stem, while Rhizopusspp., and Fusarium spp. by 90 % respectively, exophytic on the leaves and stems. The testresults found that the inhibition of leaf eksofit Rhisopus spp . give up inhibition ranged from70.37±3.2% - 100% , while A. niger amounted to 72.22% . In exophytic on rod found onlyTrichoderma sp. inhibit pathogens by 73.70±3.57%. In endophytic on leaf found A. niger at70.37±3.2% , while Neorospora spp. ranging from 79.11±3.21% - 88.50±2.10%. In theendophytic on trunk was found Neurosporas spp. amounting to 70.74±3.57% - 79.26±1.28%.

  19. Determinación del antagonismo del aislamiento T 95 de Trichoderma harzianum sobre Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum en plantas de pepino cohombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borda Fernando

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las enfermedades de mayor importancia económica en el cultivo de clavel en Colombia es la ocasionada por el hongo Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. dianthi. Las altas pérdidas directas que ocasiona el patógeno una vez establecido en cultivos comerciales, la facilidad de propagación através de esquejes infectados, la fácil diseminación del patógeno a
    través de diferentes formas, la alta persistencia del
    patógeno en el suelo y el alto costo y regular eficiencia
    de las medidas de control utilizadas, dan a esta
    enfermedad una gran importancia patológica y económica
    (Arbeláez, 1987. Para el control del marchitamiento vascular del clavel, se realizan prácticas, tales como tratamiento
    del suelo con vapor deagua, con diversos fumigantes y con fungicidas sistémicos, pero el costo de dichas prácticas puede variar actualmente entre $500.000 y $10.000.000, lo cual depende del tipo de tratamiento (Baker, 1980; Arbeláez, 1989. Las dificultades encontradas en el manejo de las
    poblaciones de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi en el suelo por métodos convencionales, hacen que el control biológico sea uno de los métodos más promisorios para el control de la enfermedad; además el control biológico puede combinarse con otros métodos de control y asl, se logra una mayor
    eficiencia (Scher y Baker, 1980.

  20. Evolution of sperm quality but not quantity in the internally fertilized fish Xiphophorus nigrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C C; Ryan, M J

    2010-08-01

    Species with alternative reproductive strategies are characterized by discrete differences among males in suites of traits related to competition for fertilizations. Models predict sneaker males should allocate more resources to their ejaculates because they experience sperm competition more frequently and often occupy a disfavoured 'role' owing to subordinance in intramale competition and female preferences for larger males. We examined whether sperm number and quality differed between male strategies in the internally fertilized fish Xiphophorus nigrensis and explored the relationship between sperm morphology and performance. We found sneaker males had similar testes sizes compared to courting males but ejaculates with both more viable and longer lived sperm. Sneaker sperm also had longer midpieces, which was positively correlated with both velocity and longevity. Our study suggests that the evolution of sperm quantity and quality can be decoupled and that the sperm morphology is likely to play an important role in mediating sperm competition through its effects on sperm performance.

  1. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  2. First production of larvae using cryopreserved sperm: Effects of preservation temperature and cryopreservation on European eel sperm fertilization capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asturiano, J.F.; Sørensen, Sune Riis; Perez, L.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species....... Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few...... larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success...

  3. Quantitative aspects of myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion measurements have traditionally been performed in a quantitative fashion using application of the Sapirstein, Fick, Kety-Schmidt, or compartmental analysis principles. Although global myocardial blood flow measurements have not proven clinically useful, regional determinations have substantially advanced our understanding of and ability to detect myocardial ischemia. With the introduction of thallium-201, such studies have become widely available, although these have generally undergone qualitative evaluation. Using computer-digitized data, several methods for the quantification of myocardial perfusion images have been introduced. These include orthogonal and polar coordinate systems and anatomically oriented region of interest segmentation. Statistical ranges of normal and time-activity analyses have been applied to these data, resulting in objective and reproducible means of data evaluation

  4. Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellender, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Uehara, T.; Shimonagata, T.; Nishimura, T.; Osaka Univ., Suita

    1993-01-01

    15 cases of primary pulmonary hypertension were classified into two groups by patterns of perfusion lung scintigraphy. Perfusion scintigrams showed multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled + ve) pattern in eight cases, and the remaining seven cases had a normal (mottled - ve) pattern. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with a mottled pattern (54 ± 10 mmHg) was higher than in those with a normal pattern (42 ± 9 mmHg, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in right ventricular ejection fraction, partial pressures of oxygen in the arterial blood or alveolo-arterial oxygen difference. All the patients with a mottled pattern died within 2 years following the lung scintigraphy. There was a significant difference in the survival curves between the two groups. (author)

  6. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kumita, Shin-ichirou; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Akira

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen cases with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) were classified into two groups by using the perfusion lung scan pattern. Eight cases had multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled pattern), and remaining seven cases had no mottled pattern. These two groups were compared with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAP), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), blood gas at room air (PaO 2 ), and alveolar-arterial O 2 difference (A-aDo 2 ). The cases with mottled pattern showed a significant increase in mean PAP. There were no significant differences in RVEF, PaO 2 , and A-aDo 2 , between the groups. The survival rate of the patients with mottled pattern was significantly lower than that without mottled pattern (p<0.05). We concluded that perfusion lung scan is very useful for evaluation of the prognosis in primary pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  7. FEMALE CONTROL OF SPERM TRANSFER AND INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN SPERM PRECEDENCE: ANTECEDENTS TO THE EVOLUTION OF A COURTSHIP FOOD GIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaluk, Scott K; Eggert, Anne-Katrin

    1996-04-01

    Manipulation of ejaculates is believed to be an important avenue of female choice throughout the animal kingdom, but evidence of its importance to sexual selection remains scarce. In crickets, such manipulation is manifest in the premature removal of the externally attached spermatophore, which may afford females an important means of postcopulatory mate choice. We tested the hypothesis that premature spermatophore removal contributes significantly to intraspecific variation in sperm precedence by (1) experimentally manipulating spermatophore attachment durations of competing male Gryllodes sigillatus and (2) employing protein electrophoresis to determine the paternity of doubly mated females. The relative spermatophore attachment durations of competing males had a significant influence on male paternity, but the pattern of sperm precedence deviated significantly from the predictions of an ideal lottery. Instead, paternity data and morphological evidence accorded best with a model of partial sperm displacement derived here. Our model is similar to a displacement model of Parker et al. in that sperm of the second male mixes instantaneously with that of the first throughout the displacement process, but the novel feature of our model is that the number of sperm displaced is only a fraction of the number of sperm transferred by the second male. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, female G. sigillatus can clearly alter the paternity of their offspring through their spermatophore-removal behavior, and employ such cryptic choice in favoring larger males and those providing larger courtship food gifts. We discuss how female control of sperm transfer and intraspecific variation in sperm precedence may be important precursors to the evolution of gift giving in insects. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. A comparison of sperm agglutination and immobilization assays with a quantitative ELISA for anti-sperm antibody in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D M; Leali, B A; Howe, S E

    1986-08-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that quantitates antisperm antibody in serum was compared with standard sperm agglutination and immobilization assays with the use of sera from 40 normal and 292 subfertile individuals. Quantitation of the assay was accomplished by standardizing assay parameters, including the incorporation of a standard reference curve, the number of whole target sperm, the optimal dilution of serum, the selection of microtiter plate, and the time and temperatures involved in the adsorption and incubation phases. With this method, the level of antisperm antibody binding to target sperm in 40 normal fertile individuals was found to be 2.3 (+/- 1.1 standard deviation [SD]) fg immunoglobulin (Ig)/sperm. An increased mean level of 7.4 +/- 3.7 fg Ig/sperm was determined in 84 infertile patients with positive agglutination and/or immobilization tests. In 208 individuals with negative agglutination and immobilization tests the mean concentration of antisperm antibody was 2.5 +/- 1.3 fg Ig/sperm. Postvasectomy patients assayed by this method had a mean Ig binding value of 7.1 +/- 2.4 fg Ig/sperm. The infertile group with positive agglutination and/or immobilization tests had a significantly higher mean antisperm antibody level than the normal fertile group, according to the Student's t-test for independent samples (P less than 0.001). This indirect serum-based assay reproducibly quantitates antisperm antibody binding to whole target sperm, suggests the normal and abnormal levels of antisperm antibody, and correlates with standard functional assays.

  9. Cerebral perfution studies; Estudios de Perfusion Cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mut, Fernando [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    1994-12-31

    For detecting in precocious form a coronary disease is necessary to aply a diagnostic techniques. The main considerations to be indicated in the present work are: physiological considerations, myocardial perfusion studies with radiotracers such as Talio 201, 99mTc, MIBI, 99mTc-Teboroxima, 99mTc-Fosfinas, instrumentation for obtain good images, proceedings protocols, studies interpretation, standards, SPECT, anomalies standards, coronary diseases.

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging in hyperthrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Patients with Hyperthrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) frequently suffer from syncope and cardiac arrest which may lead to sudden death. This is most often caused by ventricular arrhythmia's in adults, however in young patients the mechanisms are thought to be different. Ischaemia may play a significant role even in young asymptomatic HCM patients. The mechanisms of ischaemic development in HCM differ from those in the 'normal' myocardium (Due to intramural small vessel abnormalities and abnormal myocellular architecture). In HCM the coronary microcirculation is most often affected and massive hypertrophy means more energy is required to promote contraction thus increasing oxygen demand and compounding the effects of any ischaemic changes. A case of a 12 year old HCM patient is presented who has symptoms of syncope associated with exercise whose mother died suddenly of cardiac arrest developed from HCM. A myocardial perfusion rest/stress study was undertaken to detect any underlying myocardial ischaemia. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy demonstrates any reduction in the microcirculation in addition to that present in the macrocirculation, unlike angiography which will only detect the latter. In this case the scan clearly showed evidence of ischaemia in the lateral wall and this may be an explanation for her episodes of syncope. We suggest an algorithm or the routine work-up of young patients with HCM which makes aggressive use of myocardial perfusion imaging to detect ischaemic changes. This may identify patients who are at higher risk and will assist with treatment decisions. We feel myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive accurate method of detecting microcirculatory ischaemia and is thus invaluable in HCM patients

  11. Regional cerebral perfusion in cardiovascular reflex syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeyry, J.P.; Kuikka, J.T.; Laensimies, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the regional cerebral perfusion in subjects with presyncope or syncope, and the impact that autonomic nervous dysfunction has on it. Seven subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor reflex syncope were studied. A baseline test was performed with the patients standing in the 70 upright position, while the passive head-up tilt table test with and without isoprenaline infusion was employed for provocation. Regional cerebral perfusion was assessed by means of single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m labelled V-oxo-1,2-N,N 1 -ethylenedylbis-l-cysteine diethylester (baseline, and during blood pressure decline in the provocation test) and the autonomic nervous function by means of spectral analysis of heart rate variability (baseline, and before blood pressure decline in the provocation test). Every subject showed an abrupt decline in blood pressure in the provocation test (five with presyncope and two with syncope). The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P<0.001) between the baseline and the provocation study time points (radiopharmaceutical injection and lowest systolic blood pressure). Mean cerebral perfusion as average count densities decreased upon provocation as compared with baseline (190±63 vs 307±90 counts/voxel, respectively, P=0.013). Hypoperfusion was most pronounced in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that cerebral perfusion decreases markedly during presyncope or syncope with systemic blood pressure decline in subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor syncope. Furthermore, the autonomic nervous function remains unchanged before the systemic blood pressure decline. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Myocardial perfusion studies in coronary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    For detecting in precocious form a coronary disease is necessary to apply a diagnostic techniques. The main considerations to be indicated in the present work are: physiological considerations, myocardial perfusion studies with radiotracers such as Talio 201, 99mTc, MIBI, 99mTc-Teboroxima, 99mTc-Fosfinas, instrumentation for obtain good images,proceedings protocols, studies interpretation, standards, SPECT, anomalies standards, coronary diseases

  13. Delta opioid receptor on equine sperm cells: subcellular localization and involvement in sperm motility analyzed by computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalandra Giovanni M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides act not only in the control of nociceptive pathways, indeed several reports demonstrate the effects of opiates on sperm cell motility and morphology suggesting the importance of these receptors in the modulation of reproduction in mammals. In this study we investigated the expression of delta opioid receptors on equine spermatozoa by western blot/indirect immunofluorescence and its relationship with sperm cell physiology. Methods We analyzed viability, motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial activity in the presence of naltrindole and DPDPE by means of a computer assisted sperm analyzer and a fluorescent confocal microscope. The evaluation of viability, capacitation and acrosome reaction was carried out by the double CTC/Hoechst staining, whereas mitochondrial activity was assessed by means of MitoTracker Orange dye. Results We showed that in equine sperm cells, delta opioid receptor is expressed as a doublet of 65 and 50 kDa molecular mass and is localized in the mid piece of tail; we also demonstrated that naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, could be utilized in modulating several physiological parameters of the equine spermatozoon in a dose-dependent way. We also found that low concentrations of the antagonist increase sperm motility whereas high concentrations show the opposite effect. Moreover low concentrations hamper capacitation, acrosome reaction and viability even if the percentage of cells with active mitochondria seems to be increased; the opposite effect is exerted at high concentrations. We have also observed that the delta opioid receptor agonist DPDPE is scarcely involved in affecting the same parameters at the employed concentrations. Conclusions The results described in this paper add new important details in the comprehension of the mammalian sperm physiology and suggest new insights for improving reproduction and for

  14. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jie [Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J. [Washington University School of Medicine, The Program in Physical Therapy, St. Louis, MO (United States); Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gao, Fabao [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Curci, John [Washington University School of Medicine, The Department of Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  15. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jie; Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J.; Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Gao, Fabao; Curci, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  16. Radiolabelling of sperm cells with 99mTc-HMPAO. In vivo visualization of sperm cell migration in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN; Al-Hasani, S.; Ven, H.V.D.; Diedrich, K.; Krebs, D.; Posch, C.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper is the first descriptive radiolabeling of sperm cells in order to visualize their in vivo migration and imaging by scintigraphic technique, 99m Tc-HMPAO was used which combines favourable characteristics of both imaging modalities and radiation exposure. The radiolabeling yield was optimised for human sperm cells, and was increasing with the number of sperm cells, the amount of HMPAO, the 99m Tc-HMPAO concentration and the duration of the incubation. Incubation periods greater than 20 min, however, resulted only in a minor increase of labeling yield. A delay of more than 5 min between the labeling of the HMPAO with 99m Tc and initiation of the incubation of the sperm cells with the 99m Tc-HMPAO also decreased the maximum labeling yield. The radiolabeled cells were found to be stable and after 18 h > 93% of the activity was still bound to the sperm cells. After insemination of labeled sperm cells in ovulating rabbits the accumulation of the cells in the Fallopian tubes and their subsequent migration could be clearly visualized by scintigraphic techniques in vivo. (orig.) [de

  17. Phosphorus NMR of isolated perfused morris hepatomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Brown, T.R.; Sauer, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing techniques for the study of perfused solid tumors by NMR. Tissue-isolated solid hepatomas were grown to 1-2 cm diameter as described previously. The arterial supply was isolated and the tumors perfused (0.5 - 1.0 ml/min) in vitro at 25 C with a 15% suspension of red blood cells in Krebs-Henseliet solution. 31 P-NMR spectra were acquired at 162 MHz in a specially-designed NMR probe using a solenoidal coil. Intracellular pH (monitored from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate) and ATP levels were stable for up to 6 hrs during perfusion. During 30 min of global ischemia, ATP decreased by 75% and pH fell from 7.0 to 6.7. These changes were reversed by 1 hr reperfusion. In addition to ATP and phosphate, the spectra included a large resonance due to phosphomonoesters, as well as peaks consistent with glycerylphosphocholine, glyceryl-phosphoethanolamine, phosphocreatine, NAD, and UDPG. However, the most novel feature of the spectra was the presence of an unidentified peak in the phosphonate region (+ 16.9 ppm). The peak was not present in spectra of muscle, liver, brain, kidney, or fat tissues excised from the same animals. They are presently attempting to identify the compound that gives rise to this peak and to establish its metabolic origin

  18. Can perfusion SPECT aid CTPA interpretation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradinscak, D. J.; Roach, P.; Bailey, E.; Kueh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Objective: To determine whether fusion of perfusion SPECT and CTPA improves the diagnostic accuracy of CTPA. Methods: 35 patients with suspected PE who underwent both CTPA and SPECT V/Q within 48 hours were included. Of these, the majority (n=30) had PE as determined by the V/Q SPECT scan and the others (n=5) were negative for PE. The clinical reports of CTPA were reviewed and pulmonary emboli tabulated based on anatomical location. A second radiologist, blinded to the results of the clinical read and the V/Q SPECT scan, reviewed the CTPA with and without perfusion SPECT fusion for assistance. Results: A total 57 PE were reported on the clinical reports and 60 PE identified on the blinded read. Fused CTPA/perfursion SPECT images identified a further 5 PE not identified on the clinical read (8% increase) and 2 PE not identified on the blinded read (3% increase). The additional emboli detected resulted in a change in final diagnosis from PE negative to PE positive in 2 patients (6%) compared with the clinical read and 1 patient (3%) compared with the blinded read without SPECT fusion. Conclusion: Fused CTPA-SPECT perfusion improves the sensitivity of CTPA for the detection of PE in a small number of patients. Fused data may help guide the radiologist to identify sites of PE on CTPA.

  19. Cerebral perfusion in homogeneity in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, S.M.; Larcos, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the interpretation of cerebral perfusion scans, it is important to know the normal variation in perfusion which may occur between the cerebral hemispheres. For this reason 24 normal volunteers with no neurological or psychiatric history, and who were on no medications, had 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies using a single headed gamma camera computer system. Oblique, coronal and sagittal images were reviewed separately by two experienced observers and any differences were resolved by consensus. Semi-quantitation was performed by summing two adjacent oblique slices and drawing right and left mirror image ROIs corresponding to the mid section level of anterior and posterior frontal lobes, anterior and posterior parietal lobes, temporal lobes and cerebellum. From the mean counts per pixel, right: left ROI ratios and ROI: cerebellar ratios were calculated. On qualitative review 6/24 subjects had mild asymmetry in tracer distribution between right and left cerebral lobes. Semi-quantitation revealed a 5-10% difference in counts between right and left ROIs in 12/24 subjects and an additional three subjects had 10-20% difference in counts between right and left temporal lobes. This study demonstrates the presence of mild asymmetry of cerebral perfusion in a significant minority of normal subjects

  20. Development of Domestic Cat Embryo Produced by Preserved Sperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARTINI ERIANI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to mature and fertilize oocytes of endangered species may allow us to sustain genetic and global biodiversity. Epididymis sperms may be the last chance to ensure preservation of genetic materials after injury or death of a valuable animal. Studies have been conducted to determine wether both epididymis sperms and oocytes can be used to produce viable embryos and offspring. The purpose of this study was to determine how long cats sperms contained in epididymis were remain motile and had intact membranes when preserved at 4 ° C, and to determine whether such those preserved sperms are able to fertilize oocytes. Epididymis was preserved immediately in phosphate buffer saline at 4 ° C for 1, 3, and 6 days. The observation of sperm quality and viability after preservation was performed by vital staining acrosom and Hoechst-Propidium Iodine. Biological functions of sperms were evaluated by in vitro culture technique for fertilization, micro fertilization and embryonic development rate in CR1aa medium. The results showed that average motility of sperms collected from ductus deferens, cauda and corpus epididymis decreased not significantly (P > 0.05 from 0, 1, 3, and 6 days of preservation times (from 83.0%, 80.2%, 79.0%; 80.9%, 75.0%, 75.5%; 52.0%, 63.2%, 55.0% to 34.6%, 34.6%, 33.3%, respectively. The general results showed that sperms from epididymis preserved for 1, 3, and 6 days can be used for IVF. The rate of embryonal cleavage produced by IVF technique using sperms collected from epididymis preserved for 1-, 3- and 6-days were 33.3, 26.7, and 20.0%, respectively and significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of controll (50.0%. In conclusion, sperms contained in epididyimis preserved at 4 ° C in PBS (Phospate Buffer Saline for 1-6 days can be used to IVF and in vitro production of cat embryos.

  1. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR......-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses....

  2. A transmission electron microscopic study of impala (Aepyceros melampus sperm from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Ackerman

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Since knowledge of sperm morphology can play an important role in semen evaluation and fertilisation, baseline data are required. Live spermatozoa were collected from the cauda epididymis of 64 impala rams in the Kruger National Park and studied by trans- mission electron microscopy. The morphology of normal sperm was documented. The impala sperm shares characteristics with other members of the Bovidae. The occurrence of appendages on the cytoplasmic droplet of the flagellum of impala sperm is described for the first time. A total of 31 micrographs, showing typical features of impala sperm, in sections through various planes of the sperm, are presented.

  3. Sperm structure and sperm transfer in Pseudopythina subsinuata (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse

    2009-01-01

    to the elongate cells. Most females contain one to three "sperm trees", structures consisting of a short stem and numerous branches. They are firmly implanted in the abfrontal part of the gill filament and protrude into the posterior part of the suprabranchial (brooding) chamber. Implantation of the trees causes...... the gill tissue to swell around the stem and some of the nearest filaments to coalesce. All branches are densely coated with euspermatozoa that are attached by means of their acrosomes. It is conjectured that the syncytial and multinucleate trees arise from seminal receptacle cells that detach from...

  4. Efecto de los procesos de compostacion y lombricultura de residuos de clavel sobre la población de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi Effect of the processes of composting and lombricomposting of carnation residues on the population of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Fabio Alejandro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de los residuos vegetales es uno de los problemas que actualmente enfrenta la floricultura colombiana. El objetivo de la investigación fue estudiar el efecto de la descomposición de residuos de clavel mediante los procesos de compostación y lombricultura sobre la población de Fusarium oxysporum en una finca productora de flores
    localizada en la Sabana de Bogotá. Los procesos de compostación y lombricultura redujeron de manera apreciable la población del hongo, obteniéndose la mayor reducción en el tratamiento de plantas de rosa más plantas de clavel enfermo. De 235 aislamientos de F oxysporum inoculados en esquejes de clavel de la variedad "Navidad", 37 (16% fueron patogénicos y pertenecen a F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, mientras que 198 aislamientos (84% correspondieron a formas no patogénicas de F oxysporum o a formas patogénicas de la especie, diferentes a la forma especial dianthi. La utilización de compost o de humus de lombriz que provenga de plantas enfermas de clavel presenta riesgos fitopatológicos importantes para su aplicación al suelo.The management of plant residues is a very important problem of the Colombian floriculture. The objetive of the research was to study the effect of descomposition of carnation plant residues with the processes of compostation and lombricompostation on the population of Fusarium oxysporum on a commercial farm located at the Bogota Plateau. Compostation and lombricompostation processes reduced significantly the population of Foxysporum. The highest reduction was obtained with the treatment of a mixture of rose plants plus carnation diseased plants. From 235 isolates of F. oxysporum inoculated on carnation cuttings of the variety "Navidad", 37 (16% were pathogenic and belong to F oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, 198 isolates (84% did not cause disease on carnation plants, so they belong to other formae specialis or they are nonpathogenic isolates of Foxysporum. The application of

  5. Towards robust deconvolution of low-dose perfusion CT: Sparse perfusion deconvolution using online dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruogu; Chen, Tsuhan; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an important functional imaging modality in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in acute stroke and vasospasm. However, the post-processed parametric maps of blood flow tend to be noisy, especially in low-dose CTP, due to the noisy contrast enhancement profile and the oscillatory nature of the results generated by the current computational methods. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse perfusion deconvolution method (SPD) to estimate cerebral blood flow in CTP performed at low radiation dose. We first build a dictionary from high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation on the low-dose CTP data. Our method is validated on clinical data of patients with normal and pathological CBF maps. The results show that we achieve superior performance than existing methods, and potentially improve the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissue in the brain. PMID:23542422

  6. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass for open heart surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Grønlykke, Lars; Risom, Emilie C

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Available evidence has been inconclusive on whether pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with decreased or increased mortality, pulmonary events, and serious adverse events (SAEs) after open heart surgery. To our knowledge, no previous systematic...... handsearched retrieved study reports and scanned citations of included studies and relevant reviews to ensure that no relevant trials were missed. We searched for ongoing trials and unpublished trials in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and at clinicaltrials......). We used GRADE principles to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this review four RCTs (210 participants) reporting relevant outcomes. Investigators randomly assigned participants to pulmonary artery perfusion with blood versus no perfusion during CPB. Only one trial included...

  7. Aperfeiçoamento da técnica de Soldagem Pontual por Fricção (FSpW para união de poliamida 6 e laminado de poliamida 66 com fibra de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Soldagem Pontual por Fricção ('Friction Spot Welding - FSpW' é uma técnica inovadora que foi desenvolvida e patenteada em 2005 pelo centro de pesquisa alemão Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG. A técnica apresenta ciclos rápidos, baixo custo operacional e gera soldas com alto desempenho mecânico. Foi inicialmente projetada para a soldagem de ligas metálicas leves. A soldagem de polímeros é alvo de pesquisas recentes e a soldagem de compósitos poliméricos por FSpW ainda é inédita. Este estudo demonstrou a viabilidade técnica da soldagem de chapa de poliamida 6 (PA6 e laminado de poliamida 66 e fibra de carbono (CF-PA66 por FSpW. O histórico térmico, o acabamento superficial, a microestrutura da região da solda e a resistência mecânica ao cisalhamento de juntas sobrepostas PA6/CF-PA66 foram investigados. O aumento do tamanho do anel de fixação da ferramenta original, projetada para a soldagem de metais, possibilitou a seleção de parâmetros de soldagem que resultaram em grande aporte térmico, resultando no aumento da área soldada, num menor entalhe (inscrição deixado pela ferramenta na amostra, produzindo melhoria no acabamento superficial da solda. Essa otimização resultou em uma junta PA6/CF-PA66 com resistência ao cisalhamento de 35 MPa (2196 N, com fratura predominante na placa superior de PA6.

  8. Hepatic arterial perfusion increases in the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis patients: Evaluation by perfusion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyasu, Sho; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Togashi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Although hepatic perfusion abnormalities have been reported in patients with acute pancreatitis, hepatic perfusion with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not been quantitatively evaluated in humans. Therefore, we investigated hepatic perfusion in patients with SAP using perfusion CT. Materials and methods: Hepatic perfusion CT was performed in 67 patients with SAP within 3 days after symptom onset. The patients were diagnosed as having SAP according to the Atlanta criteria. Fifteen cases were established as a control group. Perfusion CT was obtained for 54 s beginning with a bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast agent (600–630 mgI/kg) at a flow rate of 4 ml/s. Perfusion data were analyzed by the dual-input maximum slope method to obtain hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) and hepatic portal perfusion (HPP). Finally, we compared HAP and HPP in SAP patients with those in the control group, respectively. Results: Average HAP was significantly higher in SAP patients than in the control group (75.1 ± 38.0 vs. 38.2 ± 9.0 ml/min/100 ml; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in average HPP between SAP patients and the control group (206.7 ± 54.9 vs. 204.4 ± 38.5 ml/min/100 ml; p = 0.92). Conclusion: Using quantitative analysis on perfusion CT, we first demonstrated an increase of HAP in the right hepatic lobe in SAP patients.

  9. Developing a Benchmarking Process in Perfusion: A Report of the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A.; Newland, Richard F.; Fenton, Carmel; McDonald, Michael; Willcox, Timothy W.; Merry, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Improving and understanding clinical practice is an appropriate goal for the perfusion community. The Perfusion Downunder Collaboration has established a multi-center perfusion focused database aimed at achieving these goals through the development of quantitative quality indicators for clinical improvement through benchmarking. Data were collected using the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration database from procedures performed in eight Australian and New Zealand cardiac centers between March 2007 and February 2011. At the Perfusion Downunder Meeting in 2010, it was agreed by consensus, to report quality indicators (QI) for glucose level, arterial outlet temperature, and pCO2 management during cardiopulmonary bypass. The values chosen for each QI were: blood glucose ≥4 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L; arterial outlet temperature ≤37°C; and arterial blood gas pCO2 ≥ 35 and ≤45 mmHg. The QI data were used to derive benchmarks using the Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC™) methodology to identify the incidence of QIs at the best performing centers. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-five procedures were evaluated to derive QI and benchmark data. The incidence of the blood glucose QI ranged from 37–96% of procedures, with a benchmark value of 90%. The arterial outlet temperature QI occurred in 16–98% of procedures with the benchmark of 94%; while the arterial pCO2 QI occurred in 21–91%, with the benchmark value of 80%. We have derived QIs and benchmark calculations for the management of several key aspects of cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a platform for improving the quality of perfusion practice. PMID:22730861

  10. Comparison of sperm subpopulation structures in first and second ejaculated semen from Japanese black bulls by a cluster analysis of sperm motility evaluated by a CASA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-08-04

    In the present study, bull sperm in the first and second ejaculates were divided into subpopulations based on their motility characteristics using a cluster analysis of data from computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Semen samples were collected from 4 Japanese black bulls. Data from 9,228 motile sperm were classified into 4 clusters; 1) very rapid and progressively motile sperm, 2) rapid and circularly motile sperm with widely moving heads, 3) moderately motile sperm with heads moving frequently in a short length, and 4) poorly motile sperm. The percentage of cluster 1 varied between bulls. The first ejaculates had a higher proportion of cluster 2 and lower proportion of cluster 3 than the second ejaculates.

  11. Antioxidant allocation modulates sperm quality across changing social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Gning, Ophélie; Glauser, Gaëtan; Vallat, Armelle; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    In promiscuous species, male reproductive success depends on their ability to mate with fertile females and on the fertilizing ability of their sperm. In such species, theory predicts that, owing to a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory reproductive traits, males with lesser access to females should increase resource investment into those sperm traits that enhance fertilization success-usually referred to as ejaculate quality. This prediction has been validated in several taxa, yet studies on the physiological mechanisms modulating ejaculate quality are lacking. Sperm cells are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress, which impairs male fertility. Therefore, males that better protect their sperm from oxidative stress are expected to achieve higher ejaculate quality. Based on theoretical expectations, and since social dominance is a major determinant of mating opportunity, we predicted that subordinate males should invest more into the antioxidant protection of their sperm in order to achieve higher ejaculate quality. We maintained 60 male and 60 female wild-caught house sparrows Passer domesticus in outdoor aviaries, where we experimentally manipulated male social status to test our predictions. We measured cellular oxidative stress and enzymatic antioxidant activity in blood and sperm both before and after manipulating social ranks. Before manipulating the social status, we found that ejaculate viability correlated with oxidative stress level in sperm, with dominant males producing more oxidized and less viable ejaculates. Further, males at the lower end of the hierarchy produced ejaculates of similar quality to those of dominant males, suggesting that restricted access to resources might limit male reproductive strategies. After experimentally manipulating the social status, males matched their ejaculate quality to their new rank, while increases in antioxidant investment into ejaculates paralleled increases in ejaculate viability. Oxidative stress has been

  12. Cryopreservation of donkey sperm using non-permeable cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Jimenez, M; Dorado, J; Ortiz, I; Consuegra, C; Pereira, B; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera, R; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, C C; Hidalgo, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sucrose combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA), as non-permeable cryoprotectants, on donkey sperm parameters after cryopreservation, in comparison to a control extender containing glycerol. Semen from five Andalusian donkeys (n = 12) were centrifuged and resuspended with a commercial extender for equine sperm (Gent A, Minitube) adding 1% BSA and different concentrations (M, mol/l) of water-diluted sucrose: 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45. Thereafter, semen (n = 24) were diluted in the same base extender containing 0.25 M sucrose (S25) or glycerol (GLY, Gent B). Sperm were slowly cooled, filled in 0.5 ml straws and frozen in nitrogen vapours. Post-thaw samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane and DNA integrity and results were compared by ANOVA. In Experiment 1, sperm motility was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for S25 than the remaining treatments, and no differences were found for plasma membrane or DNA integrity. In Experiment 2, no differences were found between S25 or GLY for sperm motility and DNA integrity but plasma membrane integrity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for S25. In conclusion, the extender with sucrose 0.25 M combined with BSA can be considered as an alternative to conventional extenders with glycerol for donkey sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ventilation and Perfusion in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, Gordon Kim (Inventor); Hopkins, Susan Roberta (Inventor); Buxton, Richard Bruce (Inventor); Pereira De Sa, Rui Carlos (Inventor); Theilmann, Rebecca Jean (Inventor); Cronin, Matthew Vincent (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods, devices, and systems are disclosed for implementing a fully quantitative non-injectable contrast proton MRI technique to measure spatial ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) matching and spatial distribution of ventilation and perfusion. In one aspect, a method using MRI to characterize ventilation and perfusion in a lung includes acquiring an MR image of the lung having MR data in a voxel and obtaining a breathing frequency parameter, determining a water density value, a specific ventilation value, and a perfusion value in at least one voxel of the MR image based on the MR data and using the water density value to determine an air content value, and determining a ventilation-perfusion ratio value that is the product of the specific ventilation value, the air content value, the inverse of the perfusion value, and the breathing frequency.

  14. Myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Birger; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would improve myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in a subpopulation of normotensive patients with diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), both independent risk factors of coronary...... disease. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated the response of regional myocardial perfusion to acute ACE inhibition with i.v. infusion of perindoprilat (vs saline infusion as control, minimum interval 3 days) in 12 diabetic patients with LVH. Myocardial perfusion was quantified...... with controls, maximal perfusion was reduced in patients (1.8+/-0.6 vs 2.5+/-1.0 ml min(-1) g(-1); P2.7+/-1.0 vs 3.6+/-1.3; P=0.059). During perindoprilat infusion, myocardial perfusion reserve in patients increased to 3.9+/-0.9 ( P

  15. Reversible ventilation and perfusion abnormalities in unilateral obstructed lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.E.; Jones, R.L.; King, E.G.; Sproule, B.J.; Fortune, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    An intraluminal carcinoid tumor obstructing the left mainstem bronchus produced hypoxemia through alteration in ventilation/perfusion matching. Studies of regional lung function using 133-xenon (/sup 133/Xe) and a multiprobe computerized instrumentation system documented a reduction of perfusion to 22 percent and ventilation to 6 percent of the total. There was negligible washout of intravenously injected /sup 133/Xe from the left lung consistent with air trapping. Four days after left mainstem bronchial sleeve resection, perfusion, ventilation and washout of injected xenon had significantly improved and by four months postresection, all measurements were virtually normal, although complete restoration of perfusion in relation to ventilation was delayed. Regional lung function studied with a multiprobe system in this patient provided a clinical model for the study of ventilation and perfusion inter-relationships in large airway obstruction and demonstrated that a prolonged time may be required for return of perfusion to normal

  16. Revisión: spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea y su virus asociado potato mop-top virus (pmtv), dos patógenos reemergentes en los cultivos de papa de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Giraldo, Inés; Gutiérrez, Pablo Andrés; Marín Montoya, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. El cultivo de papa es uno de los renglones agrícolas de mayor importancia en Colombia; se extiende a 128.701 ha y genera una producción anual de 2,3 millones de t año-1. Desde el punto vista fitosanitario, la papa se ve afectada por diversos problemas, destacándose en los últimos años la reemergencia de la sarna polvosa causada por el protozoario del suelo Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (Sss). El efecto de esta enfermedad se refleja en el deterioro de la calidad del tubérc...

  17. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Johnston, Stephen D.; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Key Concepts The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell.Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage.Alkaline treatment may break the sugar–phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites with deoxyribose damage, transforming these lesions into DNA breaks that are also converted into ssDNA. These lesions are known as Alkali Labile Sites “ALSs.”DBD–FISH permits the in situ visualization of DNA breaks, abasic sites or alkaline-sensitive DNA regions.The alkaline comet single assay reveals that all mammalian species display constitutive ALS related with the requirement of the sperm to undergo transient changes in DNA structure linked with chromatin packing.Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome.The TT is a valuable tool for identifying SSBs or DSBs in sperm cells with DNA fragmentation and can be therefore used for the purposes of fertility assessment. Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for the difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to

  18. Environmental toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation as detected by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA[reg])

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, Donald P.; Wixon, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Studies over the past two decades have clearly shown that reproductive toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation. This DNA fragmentation can usually be detected prior to observing alterations of metaphase chromosomes in embryos. Thus, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA)-detected DNA damage is viewed as the molecular precursor to later gross chromosome damage observed under the light microscope. SCSA measurements of animal or human sperm consist of first obtaining a fresh or flash frozen neat semen sample in LN2 or dry ice. Samples are then sent to a SCSA diagnostic laboratory where the samples are thawed, diluted to ∼1-2 x 106 sperm/ml, treated for 30 s with a pH 1.2 detergent buffer and then stained with acridine orange (AO). The low pH partially denatures DNA at the sites of DNA strand breaks and the AO-ssDNA fluoresces red while the AO-dsDNA fluoresces green. Flow cytometry measurements of 5000 sperm/sample provide statistically robust data on the ratio of red to green sperm, the extent of the DNA fragmentation and the standard deviations of measures. Numerous experiments on rodents treated with reproductive toxicants clearly showed that SCSA measures are highly dose responsive and have a very low CV. Different agents that act on germ cells at various stages of development usually showed sperm DNA fragmentation when that germ cell fraction arrived in the epididymis or ejaculate. Some of these treated samples were capable of successful in vitro fertilization but with frequent embryo failure. A 2-year longitudinal study of men living a valley town with a reported abnormal level of infertility and spontaneous miscarriages and also a seasonal atmospheric smog pollution, showed, for the first time, that SCSA measurements of human sperm DNA fragmentation were detectable and correlated with dosage of air pollution while the classical semen measures were not correlated. Also, young men spraying pesticides without protective gear are at an increased risk for elevated

  19. Papillomavirus DNA in sperm from infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gennari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are causative agents of sexually transmitted disease that affect both men and women (6, 7.The genus includes more than 150 types divided in according to different tropism for skin surfaces and paved mucosal epithelia. Although HPV infection has a very high incidence in both sexes, HPV infection in men is often neglected because of its transitory nature and its lack of clinical relevance.The HPV infection in males was found to be borne by the anal region, perineum, scrotum, urethra and glans. The persistence of the virus in these sites of infection has been linked both to male infertility and to the development of neoplasia in genital areas and not. In addition, several studies have documented the presence of HPV in the semen but with conflicting results regarding the location of the virus in the various components of semen (5, 9,10. The objective of this study was to highlight the presence of HPV DNA in the sperm of patients waiting for a Medically Assisted Procreation and to evaluate if there is a correlation between the semen parameters (motility, concentration and morphology of spermatozoa and HPV infection.

  20. Characterization and possible function of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic protein GAPDHS in mammalian sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaryan, Hasmik; Dorosh, Andriy; Capkova, Jana; Manaskova-Postlerova, Pavla; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozak, Pavel; Peknicova, Jana

    2015-03-08

    Sperm proteins are important for the sperm cell function in fertilization. Some of them are involved in the binding of sperm to the egg. We characterized the acrosomal sperm protein detected by a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (Hs-8) that was prepared in our laboratory by immunization of BALB/c mice with human ejaculated sperms and we tested the possible role of this protein in the binding assay. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling, gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and protein sequencing were used for Hs-8 antigen characterization. Functional analysis of GAPDHS from the sperm acrosome was performed in the boar model using sperm/zona pellucida binding assay. Monoclonal antibody Hs-8 is an anti-human sperm antibody that cross-reacts with the Hs-8-related protein in spermatozoa of other mammalian species (boar, mouse). In the immunofluorescence test, Hs-8 antibody recognized the protein localized in the acrosomal part of the sperm head and in the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. In immunoblotting test, MoAb Hs-8 labelled a protein of 45 kDa in the extract of human sperm. Sequence analysis identified protein Hs-8 as GAPDHS (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrohenase-spermatogenic). For this reason, commercial mouse anti-GAPDHS MoAb was applied in control tests. Both antibodies showed similar staining patterns in immunofluorescence tests, in electron microscopy and in immunoblot analysis. Moreover, both Hs-8 and anti-GAPDHS antibodies blocked sperm/zona pellucida binding. GAPDHS is a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme involved in energy production during spermatogenesis and sperm motility; its role in the sperm head is unknown. In this study, we identified the antigen with Hs8 antibody and confirmed its localization in the apical part of the sperm head in addition to the principal piece of the flagellum. In an indirect binding assay, we confirmed the potential role of GAPDHS as a binding protein that is involved in the secondary sperm

  1. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (Pextender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (Pextender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  3. Simultaneous Multiagent Hyperpolarized 13C Perfusion Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert A.; Reed, Galen D.

    2014-01-01

    in simulations. "Tripolarized" perfusion MRI methods were applied to initial preclinical studies with differential conditions of vascular permeability, in normal mouse tissues and advanced transgenic mouse prostate tumors. Results: Dynamic imaging revealed clear differences among the individual tracer...... distributions. Computed permeability maps demonstrated differential permeability of brain tissue among the tracers, and tumor perfusion and permeability were both elevated over values expected for normal tissues. Conclusion: Tripolarized perfusion MRI provides new molecular imaging measures for specifically...

  4. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  5. Perfusion lung scanning: differentiation of primary from thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Kreisman, H.; Novales-Diaz, J.; Derbekyan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Of eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, final diagnosis established by autopsy or angiography, four had primary hypertension and four hypertension from thromboembolism. The perfusion lung scan was distinctly different in the two groups. The lung scan in primary pulmonary hypertension was associated with nonsegmental, patchy defects of perfusion, while in thromboembolic hypertensives it was characterized by segmental and/or lobar defects of perfusion with or without subsegmental defects. The perfusion lung scan is a valuable, noninvasive study in the evaluation of the patient with pulmonary hypertension of undetermined cause and in the exclusion of occult large-vessel pulmonary thromboembolism

  6. On sperm competition games: raffles and roles revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, M

    1999-08-01

    In principle there are two approaches to modelling a trade-off between the positive and negative outcomes of a behavior: after suitably defining a value for the behavior in the absence of any trade-off, one can either multiply that value by an appropriate discount or subtract an appropriate cost. In a prospective analysis of sperm competition, Parker (Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B (1990) 242, 120-126) adopted the multiplicative approach to model the trade-off between the value of a mating and the cost of its acquisition. He obtained two paradoxical results. First, if two males 'know' whether they are first or second to mate, but these roles are assigned randomly, then sperm numbers should be the same for both males whether the 'raffle' for fertilization is fair or unfair. Second, if mating order is constant, then a favored male should expend less on sperm. His results are puzzling not only in terms of intuition about nature, but also in terms of his model's consistency. In other words, they present both an external and an internal paradox. Parker assumed the fairness of the raffle to a disfavored male to be independent of how much sperm a favored male deposits. This article both generalizes Parker's analysis by allowing fairness to decrease with sperm expenditure by the favored male and compares Parker's results to those obtained by the additive approach. In many respects, results are similar. Nevertheless, if the costs of mating are assumed to increase with sperm expenditure but not to depend on the role in which sperm is expended, as Parker assumed, then the additive approach is more fundamentally correct. In particular, Parker's constant-role paradox is an artifact of his approach. His random-role paradox is internally rationalized in terms of standard microeconomic theory. When fairness decreases, however slightly, with sperm expenditure by the favored male, both models demonstrate that the evolutionarily stable strategy is for more sperm to be deposited during a

  7. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects on the sperm morphology of irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnabe, V.H.; Mucciolo, R.G.; Barnabe, R.C.; Eston, V.R. de

    1976-01-01

    A comparative research was made on the effects of total irradiation with different dosis of X-rays on the sperm morphological of rabbits. Forty adult male rabbits of the white New Zealand breed were used as experimental animals, divided in four groups of 10 animals each, being one group used as control and the others irradiated respectively with 50, 200 and 600 rad. A 4 MeV linear accelerator was used as radiation source. Semen samples evaluations were made before irradiation and in subsequent periods of 7 hours, 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Sperm morphology was examined by counting 200 cells in each of 241 smears stained by William's method and in 241 formol saline preparations in phase contrast microscope. Averages and standard deviations of these data are presented. Percentages of main abnormalities and the period in which they occured are also presented. Mean percentages of normal sperm and spermatic abnormalities are given an determined at successive intervals after erradiation, a decrease in number of normal and an increase in abnormal sperm were observed. The level of sperm abnormalities was more sensitive accordingly to higher of X-rays irradiation [pt

  9. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Sperm should evolve to make female meiosis fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Genomic conflicts arise when an allele gains an evolutionary advantage at a cost to organismal fitness. Oögenesis is inherently susceptible to such conflicts because alleles compete for inclusion into the egg. Alleles that distort meiosis in their favor (i.e., meiotic drivers) often decrease organismal fitness, and therefore indirectly favor the evolution of mechanisms to suppress meiotic drive. In this light, many facets of oögenesis and gametogenesis have been interpreted as mechanisms of protection against genomic outlaws. That females of many animal species do not complete meiosis until after fertilization, appears to run counter to this interpretation, because this delay provides an opportunity for sperm-acting alleles to meddle with the outcome of female meiosis and help like alleles drive in heterozygous females. Contrary to this perceived danger, the population genetic theory presented herein suggests that, in fact, sperm nearly always evolve to increase the fairness of female meiosis in the face of genomic conflicts. These results are consistent with the apparent sperm dependence of the best characterized female meiotic driversin animals. Rather than providing an opportunity for sperm collaboration in female meiotic drive, the "fertilization requirement" indirectly protects females from meiotic drivers by providing sperm an opportunity to suppress drive. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  12. Sperm should evolve to make female meiosis fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Genomic conflicts arise when an allele gains an evolutionary advantage at a cost to organismal fitness. Oögenesis is inherently susceptible to such conflicts because alleles compete for inclusion into the egg. Alleles that distort meiosis in their favor (i.e. meiotic drivers) often decrease organismal fitness, and therefore indirectly favor the evolution of mechanisms to suppress meiotic drive. In this light, many facets of oögenesis and gametogenesis have been interpreted as mechanisms of protection against genomic outlaws. That females of many animal species do not complete meiosis until after fertilization, appears to run counter to this interpretation, because this delay provides an opportunity for sperm-acting alleles to meddle with the outcome of female meiosis and help like alleles drive in heterozygous females. Contrary to this perceived danger, the population genetic theory presented herein suggests that, in fact, sperm nearly always evolve to increase the fairness of female meiosis in the face of genomic conflicts. These results are consistent with the apparent sperm dependence of the best characterized female meiotic drivers in animals. Rather than providing an opportunity for sperm collaboration in female meiotic drive, the ‘fertilization requirement’ indirectly protects females from meiotic drivers by providing sperm an opportunity to suppress drive. PMID:25662355

  13. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Failed sperm development as a reproductive isolating barrier between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Lisa K; Pfennig, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Binary mixture of DDT and Arochlor1254: effects on sperm release by Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiwa, Jules Richard Kemadjou; Müller, Paul; Klein, Roland

    2004-06-01

    A long-term toxicity test with zebrafish was carried out with different concentrations of DDT, Arochlor1254 (A54), and their 1:1 mixture under flow-through conditions. By collecting and counting the number of sperm released during separate mating events we observed that gametes are released asynchronously. Sperms are released in the form of sperm trails laid on the nest surface; subsequently active spermatozoa leave the trails and move in the water for several minutes. Sperm trails consist of bands of viscous material in which sperm are embedded. The water samples for the estimation of sperm presence were collected gradually within 180 min after 24 h, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months of exposure. It was established that the reductions in count, activity of sperm, and average life span of sperm trails were significant (Psperm release and activity as well as the life span of their trails.

  16. Modification of trout sperm membranes associated with activation and cryopreservation. Implications for fertilizing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract We investigated the effects of two trout sperm activation solutions on sperm physiology and membrane organization prior to and following cryopreservation using flow cytometry and investigated their impact on in vitro fertility. Cryopreservation caused greater phospholipid disorder (high pl...

  17. Effects of advanced selection methods on sperm quality and ART outcome : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, Tamer M.; Land, Jolande A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current routine semen preparation techniques do not inclusively target all intrinsic sperm characteristics that may impact the fertilization potential. In order to address these characteristics, several methods have been recently developed and applied to sperm selection. The objective of

  18. Effects of anti-malarial alkaloids on the sperm properties and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... 2Department of Physiology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. ... sperm count, percentage sperm forward motility and blood levels of testosterone were ... be associated with fertility changes as a result of their inherent ...

  19. Banking on the Future: Everything you always wanted to know about sperm donation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2018-01-01

    Excerpt from Wahlberg, A. 2018. Good Quality - the Routinization of Sperm Banking China, Berkley: University of California Press......Excerpt from Wahlberg, A. 2018. Good Quality - the Routinization of Sperm Banking China, Berkley: University of California Press...

  20. Genetic and physical mapping of candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum race 3 in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Wanamaker, Steve; Ma, Yaqin Q; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot) is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant) x 24-125B-1 (susceptible). Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding cowpea varieties

  1. Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as

  2. Correlation between adjusted late spermatid score and sperm count in normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Fahmy; Yasser Elkhiat; Mohamed Saad; Hussein Ghanem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate late spermatid score and sperm count in men with normal semen analysis and oligozoospermia undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to set the average threshold of spermatids/tubule of testicular tissue needed for normal sperm count/ml of semen. Material and methods: This study was conducted on 24 normozoospermic subjects and 18 oligozoospermic patients who underwent wide bore needle biopsy because of failed sperm collection at the day of ICSI. Clinical da...

  3. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, Mar?a J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Se...

  4. Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified....

  5. Validation of a spectrophotometer-based method for estimating daily sperm production and deferent duct transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present work were 3-fold. First, a new method for estimating daily sperm production was validated. This method, in turn, was used to evaluate testis output as well as deferent duct throughput. Next, this analytical approach was evaluated in 2 experiments. The first experiment compared left and right reproductive tracts within roosters. The second experiment compared reproductive tract throughput in roosters from low and high sperm mobility lines. Standard curves were constructed from which unknown concentrations of sperm cells and sperm nuclei could be predicted from observed absorbance. In each case, the independent variable was based upon hemacytometer counts, and absorbance was a linear function of concentration. Reproductive tracts were excised, semen recovered from each duct, and the extragonadal sperm reserve determined by multiplying volume by sperm cell concentration. Testicular sperm nuclei were procured by homogenization of a whole testis, overlaying a 20-mL volume of homogenate upon 15% (wt/vol) Accudenz (Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corporation, Westbury, NY), and then washing nuclei by centrifugation through the Accudenz layer. Daily sperm production was determined by dividing the predicted number of sperm nuclei within the homogenate by 4.5 d (i.e., the time sperm with elongated nuclei spend within the testis). Sperm transit through the deferent duct was estimated by dividing the extragonadal reserve by daily sperm production. Neither the efficiency of sperm production (sperm per gram of testicular parenchyma per day) nor deferent duct transit differed between left and right reproductive tracts (P > 0.05). Whereas efficiency of sperm production did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high sperm mobility lines, deferent duct transit differed between lines (P < 0.001). On average, this process required 2.2 and 1.0 d for low and high lines, respectively. In summary, we developed and then tested a method for quantifying male

  6. Sperm transfer of gamma irradiated male fruit fly Dacus zonatus (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangapichaikul, M.; Sutantawong, M.

    1986-01-01

    Sperm transfer of male fruit flies, Dacus zonatus (Saunders) emerged from 8-day-old pupae irradiated at 80 Gray were determined from amount of sperm in female spermatheca. The results showed that the amount of sperms of 10, 15 and 30-day-old sterilized males were not significant difference from normal males (P>0.05). However, the sperms of 20 and 25-day-old sterilized males were less numerous than these normal males (P<0.05)

  7. Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Erif E. M.; Cooper, Trevor G.; Widiasih, Dyah A.; Junaidi, Aris; Yeung, Ching-Hei

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was ...

  8. Epididymosomes: transfer of fertility-modulating proteins to the sperm surface

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A Martin-DeLeon

    2015-01-01

    A variety of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins are acquired on spermatozoa from epididymal luminal fluids (ELF) during sperm maturation. These proteins serve roles in immunoprotection and in key steps of fertilization such as capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis and sperm-egg interactions. Their acquisition on sperm cells is mediated both by membrane vesicles (epididymosomes, EP) which were first reported to dock on the sperm surface, and by lipid carriers which facilitate the ...

  9. Compartmented pyruvate in perfused working heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenger, R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyruvate compartmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in isolated perfused working guinea pig hearts. The mean intracellular pyruvate (Pyr) contents increased with perfusate Pyr (0-2 mM) but varied only slightly with glucose (0-10 mM) and additional insulin (0.04-5 U/l), respectively. With 5-10 mM glucose plus 5 U/l insulin, but not with Pyr or lactate (Lac) as substrates, a near equilibrium between the LDH and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase seemed to exist. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of Pyr on the activity of the LDH system of the perfused hearts was not obtained. With [U- 14 C]glucose as sole substrate, the specific activity of coronary venous Lac was near half that of precursor glucose. 14 CO 2 production was thus in quantitative agreement with rates of pyruvate oxidation that were determined as glucose uptake minus (Pyr + Lac) release. In contrast, with 0.2 mM [1- 14 C]Pyr plus 5 mM glucose, the ratio of 14 CO 2 production to specific activity of Lac overestimated Pyr oxidation judged from myocardial substrate balances and O 2 uptake, respectively; here, at least three pools of [ 14 C]HCO-3 and [ 14 C]lac, respectively, were kinetically demonstrable during washout of trace amounts of 14 C-labeled Pyr. Evidently, the specific activity of Lac was equivalent to that of mitochondrial oxidized Pyr provided [ 14 C]glucose was the sole or major precursor of cellular pyruvate. However, exogenously applied [1- 14 C]Pyr of high specific activity seemed to induce intracellular formation of both a highly and lowly labeled Pyr; the latter Pyr compartment did not seem in ready equilibrium with the cell physiologically prevailing highly labeled Pyr pool

  10. [Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, H; Ishikawa, K; Ogai, T; Katori, R

    1986-03-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 100 msec before the R wave, and 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Myokard-Perfusions-SPECT. Myocardial perfusion SPECT - Update S1 guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Bengel, Frank; Burchert, Wolfgang; Dörr, Rolf; Hacker, Marcus; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Schäfers, Michael A; Schmidt, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Vom Dahl, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Rainer

    2017-08-14

    The S1 guideline for myocardial perfusion SPECT has been published by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and is valid until 2/2022. This paper is a short summary with comments on all chapters and subchapters wich were modified and amended.

  12. The effects of increased testicular temperature on testis-specific isoform of Na+/K+ -ATPase in sperm and its role in spermatogenesis and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, J C; Rajamanickam, G D; Kastelic, J P; Newton, L D

    2012-08-01

    Impaired testicular thermoregulation is commonly implicated in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm function in animals and humans, with outcomes ranging from subclinical infertility to sterility. Bovine testes must be maintained 4-5 °C below body-core temperature for normal spermatogenesis. The effects of elevated testicular temperature have been extensively studied in cattle using a scrotal insulation model, which results in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm morphology and function. Using this model and proteomic approaches, we compared normal and abnormal sperm (from the same bulls) to elucidate the molecular basis of impaired function. We identified a cohort of sperm functional proteins differentially expressed between normal vs abnormal sperm, including a testis-specific isoform of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase. In addition to its role as a sodium pump regulating sperm motility, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase is also involved as a signalling molecule during sperm capacitation. In conclusion, because of its involvement in regulation of sperm function, this protein has potential as a fertility marker. Furthermore, comparing normal vs abnormal sperm (induced by scrotal insulation) is a useful model for identifying proteins regulating sperm function. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Feed-backs among inbreeding, inbreeding depression in sperm traits, and sperm competition can drive evolution of costly polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in nonselfing systems. We use a genetically explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males, rather than to avoid inbreeding, and to elucidate underlying feed-backs. Specifically, given inbreeding depression in sperm traits, costly polyandry evolved to ensure female fertility, without requiring explicit inbreeding avoidance. Resulting sperm competition caused evolution of sperm traits and further mitigated the negative effect of inbreeding depression on female fertility. The evolving mating system fed back to decrease population-wide homozygosity, and hence inbreeding. However, the net overall decrease was small due to compound effects on the variances in sex-specific reproductive success and paternity skew. Purging of deleterious mutations did not eliminate inbreeding depression in sperm traits or hence selection for polyandry. Overall, our model illustrates that polyandry evolution, both directly and through sperm competition, might facilitate evolutionary rescue for populations experiencing sudden increases in inbreeding. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Validation of the sperm class analyser CASA system for sperm counting in a busy diagnostic semen analysis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Chey G; Kilburn, Sally; Lindsay, Kevin S

    2014-03-01

    Sperm counts have been linked to several fertility outcomes making them an essential parameter of semen analysis. It has become increasingly recognised that Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) provides improved precision over manual methods but that systems are seldom validated robustly for use. The objective of this study was to gather the evidence to validate or reject the Sperm Class Analyser (SCA) as a tool for routine sperm counting in a busy laboratory setting. The criteria examined were comparison with the Improved Neubauer and Leja 20-μm chambers, within and between field precision, sperm concentration linearity from a stock diluted in semen and media, accuracy against internal and external quality material, assessment of uneven flow effects and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to predict fertility in comparison with the Neubauer method. This work demonstrates that SCA CASA technology is not a standalone 'black box', but rather a tool for well-trained staff that allows rapid, high-number sperm counting providing errors are identified and corrected. The system will produce accurate, linear, precise results, with less analytical variance than manual methods that correlate well against the Improved Neubauer chamber. The system provides superior predictive potential for diagnosing fertility problems.

  15. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function. PMID:25795911

  16. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Design. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. Results. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. PMID:27694560

  17. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-09-30

    The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes' holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Looking down on sperm motion: a useful added dimension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The assumed association of sperm motility with fertility has long been a preoccupation of clinicians. Whereas assessing fertility of a couple has relatively easy end-points (time to pregnancy, number of children, assessing motility does not. The many methods developed to determine it include assessing a sperm population subjectively (by grading and objectively (by measuring its motion-induced movement into a light beam by spectrophotometry or nephelometry, and making measurements on individual sperm cells (by stroboscopic or multiple-exposure photography or digitized video-recordings. A new technique reported recently [1] involves holography to determine unrestrained movement patterns of objects in deep chambers over long periods of time. It has been used to provide information on the temporal motility patterns of unrestrained spermatozoa swimming in three-dimensions (hence four-dimensional motility.

  19. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, María J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Seminal parameters values in the fertile group were very far above from those of the patients, either before or after surgery. No significant improvement in the percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.10), sperm concentration (P = 0.52), total sperm count (P = 0.76), subjective motility (%) (P = 0.97) nor kinematics (P = 0.30) was observed after varicocelectomy when all groups were compared. Neither was significant improvement found in percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.91), sperm concentration (P = 0.10), total sperm count (P = 0.89) or percentage motility (P = 0.77) after varicocelectomy in paired comparisons of preoperative and postoperative data. Analysis of paired samples revealed that the total sperm count (P = 0.01) and most sperm kinetic parameters: curvilinear velocity (P = 0.002), straight-line velocity (P = 0.0004), average path velocity (P = 0.0005), linearity (P = 0.02), and wobble (P = 0.006) improved after surgery. CASA offers the potential for accurate quantitative assessment of each patient's response to varicocelectomy.

  20. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.