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Sample records for sperm penetration assay

  1. Correlation of sperm penetration assay score with polyspermy rate in in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Vincent W; Peterson, C Matthew; Parker-Jones, Kirtly; Hatasaka, Harry H; Gibson, Mark; Huang, Ivan; Carrell, Douglas T

    2005-02-09

    BACKGROUND: The sperm penetration assay (SPA) is used to predict the fertilizing capacity of sperm. Thus, some programs rely on SPA scores to formulate insemination plans in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a relationship exists between SPA scores and polyspermy rates during conventional IVF cycles. METHODS: A total of 1350 consecutive IVF patients using conventional IVF insemination were evaluated in the study. Oocytes were inseminated three hours post-retrieval by the addition of 150,000 to 300,000 progressively motile sperm. Approximately 18 hours after insemination, the oocytes were evaluated for fertilization by the visualization of pronuclei. The presence of three or more pronuclei was indicative of polyspermy. Polyspermy rates, fertilization success, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate their relationship with SPA score, count, motility, number of progressively motile sperm inseminated, oocyte pre-insemination incubation time, patient age, and diagnosis. RESULTS: A significant positive relationship was observed between SPA score and polyspermy rate (rs = 0.10, p polyspermy rates than those with abnormal SPA scores (6.3% +/- 1.5% vs. 2.0% +/- 0.7%, p polyspermy rates and IVF fertilization percentage. Additionally, there is a slight increase in clinical pregnancy rates, and embryo implantation rates with increased SPA. Furthermore, there is a slight decrease in spontaneous abortions rates related to increased SPA.

  2. Hemizona Assay and Sperm Penetration Assay in the Prediction of IVF Outcome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Vogiatzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limited predictive value of semen analysis in achieving natural conception or in IVF outcome confirms the need for sperm function tests to determine optimal management. We reviewed HZA and SPA predictive power in IVF outcome, with statistical significance of diagnostic power of the assays. HZA was readily efficient in predicting IVF outcome, while evident inconsistency among the studies analysed framed the SPA’s role in male fertility evaluation. Considerable variation was noted in the diagnostic accuracy values of SPA with wide sensitivity (52–100%, specificity (0–100%, and PPV (18–100% and NPV (0–100% together with fluctuation and notable differentiation in methodology and cutoff values employed by each group. HZA methodology was overall consistent with minor variation in cutoff values and oocyte source, while data analysis reported strong correlation between HZA results with IVF outcome, high sensitivity (75–100%, good specificity (57–100%, and high PPV (79–100% and NPV (68–100%. HZA correlated well with IVF outcome and demonstrated better sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive power. Males with normal or slightly abnormal semen profiles could benefit by this intervention and could be evaluated prior to referral to assisted reproduction. HZA should be used in a sequential fashion with semen analysis and potentially other bioassays in an IVF setting.

  3. A simple comet assay for archived sperm correlates DNA fragmentation to reduced hyperactivation and penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes.

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    Chan, P J; Corselli, J U; Patton, W C; Jacobson, J D; Chan, S R; King, A

    2001-01-01

    To correlate sperm variables with sperm DNA fragmentation, as assessed by using a modified alkaline comet assay for sperm smears. The comet assay was adapted for fixed sperm smears (59 cases), and the level of DNA fragmentation was determined. Clinical and academic research environment. 59 patients undergoing fertility treatment. Sperm samples leftover from IVF procedures were fixed and processed for the comet assay. Sperm head DNA density and sperm variables. A correlation was observed between increased sperm head DNA fragmentation and decreased penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes. Heat-induced hyperactive motility decreased as DNA fragmentation increased. The DNA fragmentation did not correlate with percentages of intact acrosome, normality, maturity, and strict normal morphology. The advantages of the comet assay for archived cells include simplicity, low intraassay coefficient of variation, and low performance cost; in addition, DNA analysis can be carried out at leisure. Low DNA damage was associated with higher hyperactivation and oocyte penetration, suggesting that failed fertilization was linked to compromised DNA integrity in the sperm. Exploration of compounds to repair damaged DNA is warranted.

  4. Correlation of the sperm penetration assay (SPA and miscarriage after assisted reproduction: The potential use of spa as a new criterion for preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradistanac Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 93 couples undergoing male screening with the Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA before in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, to determine the accuracy of SPA for subsequent embryonic development, incidence of pregnancy and miscarriage rates (SAB. ICSI patients with the lowest SPA scores had significantly higher incidences of Sthan did patients in the other SPA groups. Sperm quality is higher with better SPA scores. Poor sperm quality has increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and is associated with early fetal loss. Couples with negative SPA are candidates for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, to reduce the incidence of SAB.

  5. DNA integrity in sexed bull sperm assessed by neutral Comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, Gry B; Morris, Ian D; Ersbøll, Annette K; Greve, Torben; Christensen, Preben

    2005-04-01

    During the production of sex-sorted spermatozoa from bull semen, the cells are exposed to a number of potential hazards including: dilution, centrifugation, incubation, exposure to DNA stains and laser light. These factors may affect the survival capacity and fertilization potential of the sperm. The objective of this study was to determine whether sex-sorted bull spermatozoa have more DNA damage than sperm from conventional processed bull semen. Two methods were used to determine DNA integrity: the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The NCA showed that the conventional samples had a higher tail moment (TM) (P sperm and that cell sorting by flow cytometry improves the integrity of the sperm cell population. Additionally the results from the SCSA indicated that the sex-sorted sperm had less homogenous sperm chromatin. In the future assessment of sperm DNA integrity may be used to select bulls for sperm sex sorting and optimizing sperm sex sorting procedures.

  6. Sperm DNA assays and their relationship to sperm motility and morphology in bulls (Bos Taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Rosanna; Romano, Juan E; Varner, Dickson D; Di Palo, Rossella; Love, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    The relationship among sperm DNA assays in bulls with different sperm motility and morphology measures has not been reported. The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe Comet assay measures and examine their repeatability (inter- and intra-assay); (2) compare sperm DNA quality assays (i.e., Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay-SCSA; alkaline and neutral Comet assays and Sperm Bos Halomax assay-SBH) in two groups of bulls selected on either greater and lesser sperm motility and morphology (greater compared with lesser); (3) determine the relationship among DNA assays and sperm motility and morphology values. Inter-assay repeatability was greater for the neutral Comet assay as compared to the alkaline Comet assay. Intra-assay repeatability was greater than inter-assay repeatability for both Comet assays. Comet assay dimension measures and percentage tail DNA were the most repeatable for both Comet assays. Among sperm DNA quality assays, only SCSA measures and neutral Comet assay Ghosts (% Ghosts), head diameter and area, and comet area were different between greater and lesser sperm quality groups (PComet head measures (diameter, area, and intensity) and positively with percentage Ghosts (Psperm morphology and sperm motility. The neutral Comet assay was more appropriate for sperm evaluation than the alkaline Comet assay for distinguishing among groups with different sperm quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sperm DNA damage measured by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Luke; Carrell, Douglas T

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of sperm DNA damage is a useful tool in the evaluation of male infertility, as the sperm nucleus lacks protection against oxidative stress and is vulnerable to oxidation-mediated DNA damage. The Comet assay or single-cell gel electrophoresis is a relatively simple and sensitive method for measuring strand breaks in DNA in individual sperm. During this procedure, sperm cells are embedded in a thin layer of agarose on a microscope slide and lysed with detergent under high salt conditions. This process removes protamines and histones allowing the nucleus to form a nucleoid-like structure containing supercoiled loops of DNA. Alkaline pH conditions result in unwinding of double-stranded DNA, and subsequent electrophoresis results in the migration of broken strands towards the anode, forming a comet tail, when observed under fluorescence microscope. The amount of DNA in the head and tail is reflected by its fluorescent intensity. The relative fluorescence in the tail compared with its head serves as a measure of the level of DNA damage. In this chapter, we describe the alkaline version of the Comet assay, which is highly sensitive for measuring single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  8. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability. Copyright © 2010

  9. Sperm penetration through the human zona pellucida as a predictor of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P; Vantman, D; Madariaga, M

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of sperm penetration into the perivitelline space of human cadaveric oocytes on in vitro fertilization outcome. Forty-two patients with tubal infertility undergoing ovarian stimulation with gonadotropin for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer participated in the study. The number of spermatozoa bound to the human zona pellucida, the percentage of cadaveric oocytes with one or more spermatozoa in the perivitelline space, and the in vitro fertilization outcome were evaluated. Spermatozoa from 37 of 42 patients were able to penetrate the perivitelline space of cadaveric oocytes as well as to fertilize human oocytes in vitro. In three individuals, no penetration of the perivitelline space of cadaveric oocytes was observed and no in vitro fertilization was detected. Only two patients were able to fertilize the couple's oocytes without penetration of the cadaveric oocytes. Based on these results the specificity and the sensitivity of the assay to predict in vitro fertilization was 100% and 94.1%, respectively. Accordingly, these results suggest that sperm-zona penetration is a useful bioassay to predict male fertility potential in IVF outcome.

  10. Sperm DNA quality evaluated by comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay in stallions after unilateral orchiectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, R; Varner, D D; Bissett, W; Blanchard, T L; Teague, S R; Love, C C

    2015-09-15

    Unilateral orchiectomy (UO) may interfere with thermoregulation of the remaining testis caused by inflammation surrounding the incision site, thus altering normal spermatogenesis and consequently sperm quality. Two measures of sperm DNA quality (neutral comet assay and the sperm chromatin structure assay [SCSA]) were compared before UO (0 days) and at 14, 30, and 60 days after UO to determine whether sperm DNA changed after a mild testis stress (i.e., UO). The percent DNA in the comet tail was higher at 14 and 60 days compared to 0 days (P comet tail measures (i.e., length, moment, migration) were higher at all time periods after UO compared to 0 days (P sperm DNA quality using both the neutral comet assay and the SCSA, which was not identified using traditional measures of sperm quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Zona Pellucida Function for Sperm Penetration During In Vitro Fertilization in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANIHARA, Fuminori; NAKAI, Michiko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; NOGUCHI, Junko; OTOI, Takeshige; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In porcine oocytes, the function of the zona pellucida (ZP) with regard to sperm penetration or prevention of polyspermy is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm penetration during in vitro fertilization (IVF). We collected in vitro-matured oocytes with a first polar body (ZP+ oocytes). Some of them were freed from the ZP (ZP− oocytes) by two treatments (pronase and mechanical pipetting), and the effects of these treatments on sperm penetration parameters (sperm penetration rate and numbers of penetrated sperm per oocyte) were evaluated. There was no evident difference in the parameters between the two groups. Secondly, we compared the sperm penetration parameters of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes using frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from four boars. Sperm penetration into ZP+ oocytes was found to be accelerated relative to ZP− oocytes. Thirdly, we evaluated the sperm penetration of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes at 1−10 h after IVF (3 h gamete co-incubation). The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased significantly with time in both groups; however, the number of penetrated sperm per oocyte did not increase in ZP− oocytes. Finally, we performed IVF using ZP− oocytes divided into control (3 h) and prolonged gamete co-incubation (5 h) groups. Greater numbers of sperm penetrated in the 5 h group than in the control group. These results suggest that the ZP and oolemma are not competent factors for prevention of polyspermy in our present porcine IVF system. However, it appears that ZP removal is one of the possibilities for reducing polyspermic penetration in vitro in pigs. PMID:23666494

  12. An immunochemical assay to detect DNA damage in bovine sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Haring, R.; Dijk- Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Daas, N.H.G. den

    2000-01-01

    An immunochemical assay has been developed to detect oxidative damage in bovine sperm DNA. Sperm DNA contains a large amount of oxidative damage as a result of exposure to exogenous agents, but damage also can caused by normal metabolic processes and the absence of DNA repair in the later stages of

  13. Reliability of the comet assay in cryopreserved human sperm.

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    Duty, S M; Singh, N P; Ryan, L; Chen, Z; Lewis, C; Huang, T; Hauser, R

    2002-05-01

    Although the comet assay has potential value for measuring DNA damage in large epidemiological human sperm studies, it is impractical to perform the assay daily on fresh semen samples. Therefore, before its use in epidemiological studies, the reliability of the comet assay in measuring DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm should be compared with that in fresh human sperm. Semen samples from 16 men were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) using four methods: flash freezing with and without cryopreservative, and programmable freezing with and without cryopreservative. Neutral microgel electrophoresis was performed and comets were stained with YOYO-1. Comet length was measured using an eyepiece micrometer at x400 magnification. The highest correlation was between comet assay results obtained from fresh human semen compared with semen flash frozen without cryopreservative (R = 0.88). However, the method of cryopreservation, as compared with other sources of variability, accounted for only 6% of the variability. Inter-individual variability accounted for 20%, and individual sperm-to-sperm variability within an ejaculate accounted for 65%. Flash-freezing in LN without cryopreservative most closely reproduced the results obtained using fresh human semen samples, and thereby represents the most appropriate cryopreservation method for human semen in epidemiological studies utilizing the neutral comet assay.

  14. Evaluation of male germ cell toxicity in rats: correlation between sperm head morphology and sperm comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, P P; Kushwaha, S; Tripathi, D N; Jena, G B

    2010-12-21

    The present study was aimed to investigate the germ cell toxicity of doxorubicin and find out the possible correlation between sperm head morphological evaluation and sperm comet assay, which are used to assess male germ cell toxicity. The correlation between these two assays was validated using a potent germ cell toxicant, doxorubicin, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Doxorubicin was administered intra-peritionally at the doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg weekly once for a period of 5 weeks and all the animals were sacrificed after 1 week of receiving the last dose. The germ cell toxicity of doxorubicin was assessed using oxidative stress parameters, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay, halo assay and histology in testes as the end point of evaluation. A significant increase in the % abnormality in sperm head was found in the animals treated with 2.5 and 5mg/kg/week doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment significantly increased the DNA damage of sperm in a dose-dependent manner as observed by sperm comet assay parameters. A strong positive correlation was observed between the sperm head morphological evaluation and the sperm comet assay. Therefore, it can be concluded that the damage in genetic material of sperm may result into abnormalities in the sperm head morphology. The sperm head morphological evaluation is considered to be essential for the assessment of male germ cell toxicity by several regulatory bodies like the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). However, acceptance of the sperm comet assay by regulatory authorities as a standard genotoxicity test for assessing male germ cell toxicity still requires further validation of the assay. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative analysis of three sperm DNA damage assays and sperm nuclear protein content in couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Liu, L; Murphy, K; Ge, S; Hotaling, J; Aston, K I; Emery, B; Carrell, D T

    2014-05-01

    Is there an association between sperm DNA damage, measured by three different assays, sperm nuclear protein content and clinical outcomes in assisted reproduction treatment (ART)? Sperm DNA damage measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and the Comet assay were significantly associated with ART outcomes in our single institution study. Abnormal protamine expression is known to be associated with sperm DNA damage and male infertility. A number of studies have shown a significant relationship between sperm DNA damage and ART outcomes. To date, there are no large studies providing direct comparisons of DNA damage tests within the same study population. Thus, the prognostic value for each method remains unknown. Cross-sectional study of 238 men from infertile couples undergoing ART at the University Center for Reproductive Medicine, Utah, USA, between April 2011 and March 2013. Sperm from men undergoing ART were tested for DNA damage using the alkaline Comet assay, TUNEL and flow cytometric chromatin evaluation (FCCE) assays. Histone retention was analysed using the aniline blue staining method, whereas protamine content (proteins P1 and P2) and ratio were analysed using acid urea gel electrophoresis. The prognostic value of each sperm DNA test to predict clinical pregnancy was calculated. Histone retention was associated with sperm DNA damage (P sperm with DNA damage was significantly higher in sperm from non-pregnant couples compared with that from pregnant couples, as measured by TUNEL assay (15.04 ± 1.16% versus 8.79 ± 0.56%; P Comet assay (72.79 ± 2.49% versus 55.86 ± 2.29%; P sperm count (P = 0.013), men's age (P = 0.037), maturity (P = 0.049) and blastocyst quality (P = 0.012). Histone retention and sperm DNA damage measured by Comet and TUNEL assays were associated with fertilization rate (P sperm is one part of the equation; there are also a number of female factors that have the potential to influence ART

  16. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  17. A simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay with propidium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W-J; Li, J

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to develop a new simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay (SNVA) with propidium iodide (PI) to determine the status of nuclear vacuole (NV) of individual spermatozoa. After PI staining, sperm nuclei were classified into the 14 categories according to both nuclear morphology and the status of NV. The incidence was 57.8% (range 28-84%) in fertile controls (n = 40), and 85.1% (range 67-99%) in men with varicocele (n = 40). In the fertile group, normal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region were significantly more in comparison with the varicocele group. In the varicocele group, abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one large NV and with multiple NVs located in the ante-nuclear region were most frequent findings. Besides, spermatozoa with NVs in both ante- and post-nuclear regions in the varicocele group were significantly more than those in the fertile group. In both fertile and varicocele groups, normal or abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one or more vacuoles only located in the post-nuclear region occurred sparingly. The SNVA provides a useful additional approach to identify the status of NV in human spermatozoa for diagnostic purposes. A good sperm sample would have more spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Human sperm sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage assessed by the neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, M E; Williams, P L; Korrick, S A; Dadd, R; Marchetti, F; Martenies, S E; Perry, M J

    2014-10-10

    Is there an association between human sperm sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage? An increase in human sperm XY disomy was associated with higher comet extent; however, there was no other consistent association of sex chromosome disomies with DNA damage. There is limited published research on the association between sex chromosome disomy and sperm DNA damage and the findings are not consistent across studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 190 men (25% ever smoker, 75% never smoker) from subfertile couples presenting at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Clinic from January 2000 to May 2003. Multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y and 18 was used to determine XX, YY, XY and total sex chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei using an automated scoring method. The neutral comet assay was used to measure sperm DNA damage, as reflected by comet extent, percentage DNA in the comet tail, and tail distributed moment. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were constructed with sex chromosome disomy (separate models for each of the four disomic conditions) as the independent variable, and DNA damage parameters (separate models for each measure of DNA damage) as the dependent variable. Men with current or past smoking history had significantly greater comet extent (µm: regression coefficients with 95% CI) [XX18: 15.17 (1.98, 28.36); YY18: 14.68 (1.50, 27.86); XY18: 15.41 (2.37, 28.45); Total Sex Chromosome Disomy: 15.23 (2.09, 28.38)], and tail distributed moment [XX18: 3.01 (0.30, 5.72); YY18: 2.95 (0.24, 5.67); XY18: 3.04 (0.36, 5.72); Total Sex Chromosome Disomy: 3.10 (0.31, 5.71)] than men who had never smoked. In regression models adjusted for age and smoking, there was a positive association between XY disomy and comet extent. For an increase in XY disomy from 0.56 to 1.47% (representing the 25th to 75th percentile), there was a mean increase of 5.08 µm in comet extent. No other statistically significant

  19. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Johnston, Stephen D; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Key ConceptsThe two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell.Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage.Alkaline treatment may break the sugar-phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites with deoxyribose damage, transforming these lesions into DNA breaks that are also converted into ssDNA. These lesions are known as Alkali Labile Sites "ALSs."DBD-FISH permits the in situ visualization of DNA breaks, abasic sites or alkaline-sensitive DNA regions.The alkaline comet single assay reveals that all mammalian species display constitutive ALS related with the requirement of the sperm to undergo transient changes in DNA structure linked with chromatin packing.Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome.The TT is a valuable tool for identifying SSBs or DSBs in sperm cells with DNA fragmentation and can be therefore used for the purposes of fertility assessment. Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for the difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to allow for

  20. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Johnston, Stephen D.; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Key Concepts The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell.Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage.Alkaline treatment may break the sugar–phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites with deoxyribose damage, transforming these lesions into DNA breaks that are also converted into ssDNA. These lesions are known as Alkali Labile Sites “ALSs.”DBD–FISH permits the in situ visualization of DNA breaks, abasic sites or alkaline-sensitive DNA regions.The alkaline comet single assay reveals that all mammalian species display constitutive ALS related with the requirement of the sperm to undergo transient changes in DNA structure linked with chromatin packing.Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome.The TT is a valuable tool for identifying SSBs or DSBs in sperm cells with DNA fragmentation and can be therefore used for the purposes of fertility assessment. Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for the difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to

  1. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Elva I eCortes-Gutierrez; Carmen eLopez-Fernandez; Jose Luis Fernandez; Martha I Davila-Rodriguez; Stephen eJohnston; Jaime eGosalvez

    2014-01-01

    Key Concepts The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol is a valuable technique to differentiate between single-stranded (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. Protein lysis inherent with the TT-comet protocol accounts for differences in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level to produce reliable visualization of sperm DNA damage. Alkaline treatment may break the sugar–phosphate backbone in abasic sites or at sites wi...

  2. Genetic damage in oligozoospermic patients detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization, inverse restriction site mutation assay, sperm chromatin structure assay and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T E; Kamischke, A; Bollwein, H; Nieschlag, E; Brinkworth, M H

    2003-07-01

    The possibility that oligozoospermic men may have elevated levels of genetic damage in their sperm is of particular concern as they could transmit defects to their offspring. Sperm samples were obtained from 12 infertile, oligozoospermic patients and 12 healthy normozoospermic volunteers. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine aneuploidy rates in sperm and inverse restriction site mutation (iRSM) assay to determine gene mutations; defective chromatin packaging was quantified by sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and DNA strand breaks by the Comet assay. FISH analysis showed a significant increase in gonosomal X,Y,18 (P sperm with X,Y,18,18 (P sperm chromatin was found in the infertility patients compared with the control group using the SCSA assay. In the Comet assay, a significant increase (P assay. The data indicate that infertile oligozoospermic men have an elevated level of XY aneuploidy and XY diploidy in the germ-line, as well as elevated levels of sperm chromatin disturbances and sperm DNA strand breaks. These data demonstrate that oligozoospermic infertility patients show several different types of genetic damage in their sperm. Thus, such men appear to have defects at a variety of levels of spermatogenesis and their infertility may not just be a result of the oligozoospermia.

  3. Interpreting sperm DNA damage in a diverse range of mammalian sperm by means of the two-tailed comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva I eCortes-Gutierrez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to allow for the simultaneous evaluation of relatively high numbers of DSBs and SSBs in mammalian spermatozoa. Here we have compiled a retrospective overview of how the TT-comet assay has been used to investigate the structure and function of sperm DNA across a diverse range of mammalian species (eutheria, metatheria and prototheria. When conducted as part of the TT-comet assay, we discuss how (a the alkaline comet single assay has been used to help understand the constitutive and transient changes in DNA structure associated with chromatin packing, (b the capacity of the TT-comet to differentiate between the presence of SSBs and DSBs (c and the possible implications of SSBs or DSBs for the assessment of infertility.

  4. Frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm exhibit DNA damage shortly after thawing when assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, T; Johnston, S D; Hermes, R; Arroyo, F; López-Fernadez, C; Bryant, B; Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Gosalvez, J

    2009-09-15

    This study reports on the successful validation (via in situ nick translation and neutral comet assay) of the equine Sperm-Halomax kit as an appropriate methodology for the assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation in three species of rhinoceros. Rhinoceros sperm nuclei with fragmented DNA (validated using in situ nick translation) were evident as large halos with dispersed DNA fragments, whereas those with nonfragmented DNA displayed small halos of nondispersed DNA within the microgel. There was a high correlation (r) of 0.974 (R(2) value=0.949; PSperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCDt) and the neutral comet assay. Application of the SCDt to determine the DNA fragmentation dynamics of rhinoceros (n=6) sperm frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and incubated postthaw at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h to mimic in vitro conditions in the female reproductive tract, revealed an increase (P=0.001) in DNA damage, as soon as 4h after the start of incubation. Linear regression equations were calculated for all six rhinoceroses over the first 6h of incubation and revealed individual animal variation. Freshly collected and incubated (37 degrees C) rhinoceros (n=3) sperm had no increase in the basal level of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h, indicating that the cryopreservation of rhinoceros sperm in liquid nitrogen vapor, as used in this study, appeared to result in freeze-thaw DNA damage.

  5. Functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a cell-penetrating peptide to target mammalian sperm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Jones, Celine; Townley, Helen; Coward, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of actively targeting mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) toward mammalian sperm with a cell-penetrating peptide (C105Y), with subsequent analysis of binding rates and nano-safety profiles. Boar sperm were exposed in vitro to C105Y-functionalized MSNPs or free C105Y, in a series of increasing doses for up to 2 h, followed by the evaluation of sperm motility, kinematic parameters, acrosome morphology, MSNP-sperm binding and cell fluorescence levels. C105Y-functionalized MSNPs preserved their biocompatibility with sperm, and exhibited an approximately fourfold increase in affinity toward gametes, compared with unmodified MSNPs, during the early stages of incubation. Our findings support the application of MSNPs and active targeting to sperm as valuable tools for reproductive biology.

  6. Numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities detected in human sperm with a combination of multicolor FISH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Van Hummelen, P; Lowe, X R; Adler, I D; Wyrobek, A J

    1999-01-01

    A pair of multicolor FISH assays (X-Y-21 and A-M-16) was developed for human sperm to simultaneously measure sex ratios; aneuploidies involving chromosomes 1, 16, 21, X, and Y; meiotic diploidies; and structural aberrations involving chromosome 1p. Sex ratios in sperm were not significantly different from unity among healthy men. Baseline frequencies of disomic sperm for chromosomes 1, 8, and 21 were similar (6.7 per 10(4) sperm, 95% CI of 5.6-8.1), suggesting that among these three chromosomes, chromosome 21 was not especially prone to nondisjunction. Frequencies of disomy 16 sperm were significantly lower, however (3.5 per 10(4) sperm, 95% CI of 2.0-6.2; P chromosomes 16 and 21 were validated against aneuploidy data obtained by the hamster-egg technique for human sperm cytogenetics. The frequencies of X-X, Y-Y, X-Y ("Klinefelter") sperm and sex-null ("Turner") sperm were 5.5, 5.1, 5.5, and 7.8 per 10(4) sperm, respectively. For chromosomes 16 and 21, the frequencies of nullisomic and disomic sperm were similar, suggesting that gain and loss events occurred symmetrically. However, more gain than loss was reported for chromosomes 1, X, and Y. The frequency of MI and MII diploid sperm (with flagella) was approximately 12 per 10(4) (range 8.3-16.7 per 10(4) sperm). Based on flagella data, the frequency of somatic cells in the semen was estimated to be approximately 1.8 per 10(4) sperm. Loss or gain of a portion of chromosome-arm 1p occurred in 5.5 per 10(4) sperm, and the percentage of sperm carrying structural aberrations within the haploid genome as calculated from FISH (1.4%), was similar to that obtained with the hamster-egg technique. These complementary sperm FISH assays have promising applications in studies of chromosomally abnormal sperm after exposure to occupational, medical, and environmental toxicants.

  7. Development of the NBT assay as a marker of sperm oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Ozlem; Thompson, Jeremy; Tremellen, Kelton

    2010-02-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-established cause of male infertility, with reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing infertility principally by impairing sperm motility and DNA integrity. Currently, most clinics do not test their infertile patients for the presence of oxidative stress because the available tests are expensive or difficult to perform. As antioxidant therapy may improve sperm DNA integrity and pregnancy outcomes, it has become apparent that there is an unmet clinical need for an inexpensive and easy-to-perform assay to identify sperm oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized protocol for performing a photometric nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay for the measurement of seminal ROS production via production of coloured formazan, whilst correlating these results with impaired sperm function (motility and DNA integrity). Semen samples from 21 fertile and 36 male aetiology infertile men were assessed for ROS production (NBT assay), sperm DNA integrity (TUNEL), apoptosis (Annexin V) and sperm motility. Infertile men's semen contained on average fourfold higher levels of ROS than fertile men. The production of ROS by sperm was positively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, whilst being negatively correlated with sperm motility. Receiver-operating characteristic plot analysis established a cut-off point of 24 microg formazan/10(7) sperm having a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 81% for determining the fertility status of an individual. This study has been successful in establishing a standardized protocol for performing a photometric seminal NBT assay that has significant clinical utility in identifying men with impaired fertility because of oxidative stress.

  8. Effect of two ram sperm capacitating media on acrosome reaction and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ferrari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test was utilized in 24 trials in order to evaluate the capacitation media used for ram sperm. A pool of fresh semen was collected from three crossed breed rams. Two semen drops were washed by centrifugation and incubated in high ionic strength treatment (HIS or in a defined medium with HEPES, on heat ewe serum and heparin. After the incubation to promote capacitation, simplified triple-stain technique was used to evaluate the spontaneous acrosome reaction of the capacitated sperm. Superovulation in 96 golden hamsters was induced by PMSG and hCG. The oocytes were treated with hyaluronidase and trypsin to remove, respectively, the cumulus cells and the zona pellucida. Oocytes and capacitated sperm were incubated during 3 hours for further penetration. Then, oocytes were fixed and stained, being evaluated under phase contrast microscope. No significant statistical difference (p >; 0.05 was found between media, concerning the penetration rate of the capacitated sperm and between number of sperm viable with acrosome reaction after the capacitation treatment using two different media. It was concluded that both media utilized were effective in capacitating ram sperm.

  9. Comparison of three different techniques of human sperm DNA isolation for methylation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hong-fang; Kuete, Martin; Su, Li; Yang, Fan; Hu, Zhi-yong; Tian, Bo-zhen; Zhang, Hui-ping; Zhao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Human sperm DNA is an important genetic and epigenetic material, whose chromatin structure differs from that of somatic cells. As such, conventional methods for DNA extraction of somatic cells may not be suitable for obtaining sperm DNA. In this study, we evaluated and compared three sperm DNA extraction techniques, namely, modified guanidinium thiocyanate method (method A), traditional phenol-chloroform method (method B), and TianGen kit method (method C). Spectrophotometry and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses showed that method A produced DNA with higher quantity and purity than those of methods B and C (Psperm DNA methylation assay further indicated that methods A and B were effective, and the former yielded higher quantitative accuracy. In conclusion, the modified guanidinium thiocyanate method provided high quality and reliable results and could be an optimal technique for extracting sperm DNA for methylation assay.

  10. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyaluronic acid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner, Theodore L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2011-02-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus sperm to penetrate periovulatory cervical mucus (CM). Motile sperm concentration of pre-freeze ("fresh") and post-thawed ("thawed") samples from five different males were normalized for both computer assisted sperm motion analysis and CM penetration experiments. Sperm samples were deposited into slide chambers containing CM or gel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a surrogate for CM and numbers of sperm were recorded as they entered a video field a preset distance from the sperm suspension-CM (or HA) interface. Fresh and thawed sperm were dried on glass slides, "Pap"-stained, and assessed for changes in head dimensions and head and flagellar shape. While retaining better than 80% of fresh sperm progressive motility, thawed sperm from the same ejaculate retained on average only 18.6% of the CM penetration ability. Experiments using HA gel yielded similar results only with reduced experimental error and thus improved detection of treatment differences. Neither the percentage of abnormal forms nor head dimensions differed between fresh and thawed sperm. While findings suggests that sperm-CM interaction is a prominent factor in previous failures of vaginal AI with cryopreserved macaque sperm, neither sperm motility nor morphology appears to account for changes in the ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate CM. Our data points to a previously unidentified manifestation of cryodamage which may have implications for assessment of sperm function beyond the cervix and across

  11. The Comet assay for detection of DNA damage in canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A F; Borges, P; Fontbonne, A; Cardoso, L; Gaivão, I; Martins-Bessa, A

    2017-12-01

    Sperm DNA integrity is a fundamental prerequisite in fertilization and embryo development. Among DNA integrity tests, the Comet assay is an accurate and sensitive test for the detection of sperm oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate sperm oxidative damage using the Comet assay and to study the correlation between Comet and routine assays for the evaluation of semen quality. Dogs were divided in two groups: group A (n = 6), comprising dogs with abnormal spermiogram, that is astheno-, terato- or oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT); and group B (n = 8), comprising normospermic dogs. The distribution of sperm oxidative damage was significantly different between the two groups (p = .001): group A-median: 31.55%, interquartile range (IQR): 30.18-38.01; group B-median: 0.90%, IQR: 0.65-1.96. The correlation between oxidative damage and abnormal morphology was high (r = .846; p sperm quality, the Comet assay has ample potential for clinical and research purposes in dogs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Assessment of DNA integrity (COMET assay) in sperm cells of boron-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçin; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydin, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçin; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Britta Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    An extension of a male reproductive study conducted in a boric acid/borate production zone at Bandırma, Turkey, is presented. The relation between DNA-strand breaks (COMET assay, neutral and alkaline version) in sperm cells and previously described sperm quality parameters was investigated in boron-exposed males. A correlation between blood boron levels and mean DNA-strand breaks in sperm was weak, and DNA-strand breaks in sperm were statistically not different between control and exposed groups. Therefore, increasing boron exposures had no additional contribution in addition to already pre-existing DNA-strand breaks in the sperm cells. Weak but statistically significant correlations between DNA-strand breaks and motility/morphology parameters of sperm samples were observed in the neutral version of the COMET assay, while correlations between the same variables were statistically not significant in the alkaline version. A likely reason for these negative results, even in highly exposed humans, is that experimental exposures that had led to reproductive toxicity in animals were significantly higher than any boron exposures, which may be reached under realistic human conditions.

  13. Human semen quality and sperm DNA damage assessed by comet assay in clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Muhammad Haris; Ramzan, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Ramzan, Faiqah; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Muhammad Aslam; Jillani, Musharraf; Shah, Mohsin

    2015-01-01

    About 10%-15% of couples around the world suffer from infertility. Male infertility is responsible directly or indirectly in approximately 60% of cases. A deficiency in semen is the most common cause of male infertility. The study included 180 male subjects aged 18-50 years with 26 fertile and 154 infertile. The infertile subjects were further subdivided according to the WHO guidelines of semen analysis (2010) into different clinical groups. Sperm DNA damage was estimated using a neutral comet assay. Plasma gonadotropin and testosterone levels were measured using a chemiluminescence assay. The results of the study revealed no significant differences, in semen volume, pH, and liquefaction time between the fertile and all infertile groups. However, sperm concentration, sperm vitality, and sperm motility were significantly lower in all infertile groups as compared to the fertile males. The morphological forms of the sperm and its DNA fragmentation varied significantly between the fertile and infertile males. Reproductive hormone levels were observed to be significantly lower in the infertile than in the fertile males. Sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in all of the infertile subjects as compared to the fertile ones. Reproductive hormone levels varied significantly between the infertile patients and the fertile ones.

  14. Inter- and intra-laboratory standardization of TUNEL assay for assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S; Sharma, R; Gupta, S; Cakar, Z; De Geyter, C; Agarwal, A

    2017-05-01

    One of the challenges with the sperm DNA fragmentation results is the inconsistency and the large variability in the results obtained by different techniques. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay quantifies the incorporation of fluoresceinated dUTP into single- and double-strand DNA breaks by labeling the 3'-OH terminal with TdT. The goal of this study was optimize the TUNEL protocol for assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation by standardization of the method and comparison of the data across two reference laboratories (i) at Basel, Switzerland and (ii) Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA. Semen samples from 31 subjects grouped into three cohorts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was data measured by two experienced operators at two different laboratories using identical semen samples, assay kit, protocol and acquisition settings using identical flow cytometers (BD Accuri C6). No significant differences were observed between the duplicates in any of the experiments performed. By including an additional washing step after fixation in paraformaldehyde, a high correlation was seen between the two laboratories (r = 0.94). A strong positive correlation was observed between the average sperm DNA fragmentation rates (r = 0.719). The mean sperm DNA fragmentation measured in each laboratory was similar. Both flow cytometers were identical in their settings and performance. This inter- and intra-laboratory study establishes that TUNEL is a reproducible assay when utilizing a standardized staining protocol and flow cytometer acquisition settings. Standardization and consensual guidelines for TUNEL validate the assay and establishes TUNEL as a robust test for measuring sperm DNA fragmentation especially in a multicenter setting. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Embryo quality and IVF treatment outcomes may correlate with different sperm comet assay parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsu, M; Sharma, V; Miller, D

    2002-07-01

    Standard semen parameters have proven poor at predicting the outcomes of IVF treatment cycles. As recent studies suggest that the male genome may play an important role in early embryogenesis, this study attempts to correlate the level of sperm DNA damage in fresh semen and prepared sperm with the outcomes of conventional IVF treatment cycles. Forty patients embarking on IVF treatment were recruited into this prospective observational study. Both fresh semen and PureSperm-prepared sperm were processed using a modified comet assay 3-6 months prior to the patients' IVF treatment cycles. Comet head DNA (mean and integrated head density) and tail DNA parameters (length and moment) were measured separately. Significant correlations between total sperm concentration and between comet length, moment, mean head density with embryo quality were detected in fresh semen and prepared sperm. Surprisingly, no significant correlations between head and tail parameters were detected. Comet head and tail DNA parameters appear to be potentially useful as predictors of embryo quality and IVF outcomes, especially in couples with unexplained subfertility. The lack of correlation between head and tail parameters may be due to a different mechanism of DNA damage within these two compartments.

  16. Evaluation of DNA Integrity of Cryopreserved Boer Goat (Capra hircus) Sperm Using Comet Assay at Various pH Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Iswadi Mohd; Fazly Ann Zainalabidin; Mohamed Norhazilah; Mohd Padzil Rahman; Mazni Othman Abas; Fatimah Ibrahim Siti

    2013-01-01

    A very wide range of temperature changes during cryopreservation process reported cause complications to the sperm. One of it is DNA damage on the sperm which has been identified during the freezing and thawing process. Comet assay is a useful tool in sperm DNA integrity evaluation. Alkaline and neutral comet assay were able to differentiate DNA single- and double-strand breaks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the DNA integrity of post-thaw Boer goat (Capra hircus) sperm using com...

  17. Alkaline and neutral Comet assay profiles of sperm DNA damage in clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; García-Peiró, A; Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Navarro, J; Benet, J

    2012-03-01

    The analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation has become a new marker to predict male infertility, and many techniques have been developed. The sperm Comet assay offers the possibility of differentiating single- and double-stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) breaks, which could have different effects on fertility. The objective of this study was to perform a descriptive characterization of different groups of patients, such as those with asthenoteratozoospermic (ATZ) with or without varicocele, oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OATZ) or balanced chromosome rearrangements, as compared with fertile donors. The Comet assay was used to investigate sperm samples for ssDNA and dsDNA breaks. The analysis of alkaline and neutral Comet assays in different groups of patients showed different sperm DNA damage profiles. Most fertile donors presented low values for ssDNA and dsDNA fragmentation (low-equivalent Comet profile), which would be the best prognosis for achieving a pregnancy. OATZ, ATZ and ATZ with varicocele presented high percentages of ssDNA and dsDNA fragmentation (high-equivalent Comet assay profile), ATZ with varicocele being associated with the worst prognosis, due to higher levels of DNA fragmentation. Rearranged chromosome carriers display a very high variability and, interestingly, two different profiles were seen: a high-equivalent Comet assay profile, which could be compatible with a bad prognosis, and a non-equivalent Comet assay profile, which has also been found in three fertile donors. Comet assay profiles, applied to different clinical groups, may be useful for determining prognosis in cases of male infertility.

  18. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Maynou, J.; Gawecka, J.E.; Benet, J.; Ward, W.S.

    2013-01-01

    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestim...

  19. Evaluation of ram semen quality using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, M; Ordás, L; Chamorro, C A; Martinez-Pastor, F; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-05-01

    Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of the spermatozoa, including sperm motility. Two objectives are analyzed in this study: (1) Replace the cervical mucus by a synthetic medium in a sperm penetration test, and (2) evaluating the results of this test objectively analyzing the sperm number that migrates. In experiment 1, we have tested eight concentrations of acrylamide (1%-2%). Rheological properties of media were analyzed. The plastic straws, loaded with acrylamide, were placed vertically on the semen sample tube for 15 min at 39 °C. After, the acrylamides were placed, by segments of 5 mm, into wells of a 24-well plate, dyed with Hoechst 33342 and the number of spermatozoa were calculated by automated microscopy analysis. The 1.55% and 1.6% acrylamide gel showed a number of spermatozoa emigrating closer to that seen with natural mucus. In experiment 2, we applied the sperm penetration in acrylamide 1.6% and 1.55% using fresh semen and cooled semen at 15 °C and 5 °C. The spermatozoa counts were performed for each segment of 10 mm. Semen chilled at 15 °C presented intermediate values of sperm counts in comparison with fresh semen (higher) and 5 °C chilled semen. The sperm counts do not differ between acrylamides but the rheological properties of acrylamide 1.6% were more similar to those of the natural cervical mucus. In experiment 3, we have observed significant correlations between the number of spermatozoa and several sperm quality parameters (positive: progressive motility and velocity according to the straight path; negative: damaged acrosomes and apoptotic cells) in 1.6% acrylamide media. We conclude that the size of the cell subpopulation, objectively calculated, that migrate beyond 20 mm in 0.5-mL straws filled with acrylamide is a useful parameter in ram sperm quality assessment and further studies are needed to evaluate its relationship with field fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Repeated Assessment by High-Throughput Assay Demonstrates that Sperm DNA Methylation Levels Are Highly Reproducible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortessis, Victoria K.; Siegmund, Kimberly; Houshdaran, Sahar; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess reliability of high-throughput assay of sperm DNA methylation. Design Observational study comparing DNA methylation of sperm isolated from three divided and twelve longitudinally collected semen samples. Setting Academic Medical Center Patients One man undergoing screening semen analysis during evaluation of the infertile couple and two healthy fertile male volunteers. Interventions Spermatozoa were separated from seminal plasma and somatic cells using gradient separation. DNA was extracted from spermatozoa, and DNA methylation was assessed at 1,505 DNA-sequence specific sites. Main Outcome Measures Repeatability of sperm DNA methylation measures, estimated by correlation coefficients. Results DNA methylation levels were highly correlated within matched sets of divided samples (all r≥0.97) and longitudinal samples (average r=0.97). Conclusions The described methodology reliably assesses methylation of sperm DNA at large numbers of sites. Methylation profiles were consistent over time. High-throughput assessment of sperm DNA methylation is a promising tool for studying the role of epigenetic state in male fertility. PMID:22035967

  1. Evaluation of DNA Integrity of Cryopreserved Boer Goat (Capra hircus Sperm Using Comet Assay at Various pH Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Iswadi Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A very wide range of temperature changes during cryopreservation process reported cause complications to the sperm. One of it is DNA damage on the sperm which has been identified during the freezing and thawing process. Comet assay is a useful tool in sperm DNA integrity evaluation. Alkaline and neutral comet assay were able to differentiate DNA single- and double-strand breaks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the DNA integrity of post-thaw Boer goat (Capra hircus sperm using comet assay. The semen was collected using artificial vagina technique and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen by slow-freezing cryopreservation protocol. DNA integrity of the sperm was evaluated using both neutral and alkaline comet assay immediately after thawing process. Tail moment and Olive tail moment were significantly higher under neutral condition (pH10 compared to alkaline condition (pH13 on post-thawed sperm (p<0.05. As a conclusion, cryopreservation of Boer goat sperm produces DNA double-strand breaks. The optimum detection of DNA strand breaks is at pH10.

  2. Human semen cryopreservation: a sperm DNA fragmentation study with alkaline and neutral Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; Fernández-Encinas, A; García-Peiró, A; Prada, E; Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Navarro, J; Benet, J

    2014-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is widely used for both research and reproduction purposes, but its effect on sperm DNA damage remains controversial. Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has become an important biomarker to assess male infertility. In particular, the differentiation between single- and double-stranded DNA fragmentation (ssSDF and dsSDF) has clinical implications for male infertility where ssSDF is associated with reduced fertility, whereas dsSDF is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. In this study, semen samples from 30 human males have been analysed in both fresh and cryopreserved using the alkaline and neutral Comet assays. Results show an increase of about 10% of ssSDF, assessed by the alkaline Comet assay, regardless of the male fertility status. Neutral Comet analysis of dsSDF does not show any statistical increase when comparing fresh and cryopreserved samples in any of the patient groups. Results support previous reports that oxidative stress is the major effector in DNA damage during sample cryopreservation, as, on one hand, ssSDF has previously been related to oxidative damage and, on the other hand, we have not found any effect on dsSDF. Therefore, there might be a slight risk of decreased fertility after using a freezed sample, but no evidence for increased miscarriage risk from cryopreserved spermatozoa should be expected. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Applying the erythrocyte Pig-a assay concept to rat epididymal sperm for germ cell mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiying; LeBaron, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    The Pig-a assay, a recently developed in vivo somatic gene mutation assay, is based on the identification of mutant erythrocytes that have an altered repertoire of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface markers. We hypothesized that the erythrocyte Pig-a assay concept could be applied to rat cauda epididymal spermatozoa (sperm) for germ cell mutagenicity evaluation. We used GPI-anchored CD59 as the Pig-a mutation marker and examined the frequency of CD59-negative sperm using flow cytometry. A reconstruction experiment that spiked un-labeled sperm (mutant-mimic) into labeled sperm at specific ratios yielded good agreement between the detected and expected frequencies of mutant-mimic sperm, demonstrating the analytical ability for CD59-negative sperm detection. Furthermore, this methodology was assessed in F344/DuCrl rats administered N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), a prototypical mutagen, or clofibrate, a lipid-lowering drug. Rats treated with 1, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight/day (mkd) ENU via daily oral garage for five consecutive days showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of CD59-negative sperm on study day 63 (i.e., 58 days after the last ENU dose). This ENU dosing regimen also increased the frequency of CD59-negative erythrocytes. In rats treated with 300 mkd clofibrate via daily oral garage for consecutive 28 days, no treatment-related changes were detected in the frequency of CD59-negative sperm on study day 85 (i.e., 57 days after the last dose) or in the frequency of CD59-negative erythrocytes on study day 29. In conclusion, these data suggest that the epidiymal sperm Pig-a assay in rats is a promising method for evaluating germ cell mutagenicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:485-493, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Correlation of spermiogram profiles with DNA damage in sperm cells of infertile men: a comet assay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tug, Niyazi; Sandal, Suleyman; Ozelgun, Berna; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated a relationship between DNA damage in sperm and spermiogram profiles in the infertile men. Twenty-one non-smoking infertile men Sperm samples were collected and evaluated according to WHO guidelines. DNA damage of sperm cells was assessed using neutral comet assay. Fifty cells per slide and two slides per sample were scored to evaluate DNA damage. The cells were visually classified into four categories based on DNA migration such as undamaged (UD), little damage (LD), moderate damage (MD) and significant damage (SD). Total comet scores (TCS) were calculated as: 1×UD + 2×LD + 3×MD + 4×SD. There was a negative correlation between the percentage of slow- and in situ-motion sperm cells in spermiograms and TCS (p sperm cells and TCS was negative (p sperm motility parameters are negatively correlated. We suggest that evaluation of sperm DNA by the neutral comet assay may be valuable to use in fertility research.

  5. Antisperm antibodies in repeat-breeding cows: Frequency, detection and validation of threshold levels employing sperm immobilization, sperm agglutination and immunoperoxidase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S K; Shinde, S; Singh, S K; Mehrotra, S; Verma, M R; Singh, A K; Nandi, S; Srivastava, N; Singh, S K; Goswami, T K; Bhure, S K; Kumar, H; Ghosh, S K

    2017-04-01

    Antisperm antibodies have been found in repeat-breeding(RB) cows, and those causing agglutination and/or immobilization of sperm are considered to be closely related to unexplained infertility. However, a standard protocol for identifying antisperm antibodies (ASA) in cattle is not validated. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to evaluate sperm immobilization (SIT), sperm agglutination (SAT) and immunoperoxidase (IPT)assays for detection of ASA in serum and their respective threshold levels for confirmation. Animals (heifers, normally breeding, repeat-breeding and pregnant animals) that were free from IBR, brucellosis and uterine infections (screened by clinical examination) were included in the study. Sperm agglutinating, sperm immobilizing and antisperm antibodies evaluated by respective assay were significantly higher (p < .05) in RB cows compared to other groups. The SIT assay was able to identify 61% of RB caused by ASA, more than those employing SAT and IPT. Furthermore, a dilution rate of 1:5 and 1:80 (confirms 59.0 and 57.0% RB+ve)were sufficient to diagnose ASA by SAT and IPT, respectively. Results indicate the presence of __12.6% clumped spermatozoa and __ 2.6%(cut-off value) peroxidase-positive spermatozoa at 1:5 and 1:80 dilutions diagnosed with SAT and IPT, respectively, may be considered as repeaters arising out of ASA. Furthermore, study also showed the presence of lower incidence of ASA positivity in other groups of animals (heiferassays suitable for detecting ASA under field conditions and thus can be recommended for screening of repeaters. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. A direct and versatile assay measuring membrane penetration of adenovirus in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Maarit; Luisoni, Stefania; Boucke, Karin; Bianchi, Sarah; Engel, Daniel A; Greber, Urs F

    2013-11-01

    Endocytosis is the most prevalent entry port for viruses into cells, but viruses must escape from the lumen of endosomes to ensure that viral genomes reach a site for replication and progeny formation. Endosomal escape also helps viruses bypass endolysosomal degradation and presentation to certain Toll-like intrinsic immunity receptors. The mechanisms for cytosolic delivery of nonenveloped viruses or nucleocapsids from enveloped viruses are poorly understood, in part because no quantitative assays are readily available which directly measure the penetration of viruses into the cytosol. Following uptake by clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis, the nonenveloped adenoviruses penetrate from endosomes to the cytosol, and they traffic with cellular motors on microtubules to the nucleus for replication. In this report, we present a novel single-cell imaging assay which quantitatively measures individual cytosolic viruses and distinguishes them from endosomal viruses or viruses at the plasma membrane. Using this assay, we showed that the penetration of human adenoviruses of the species C and B occurs rapidly after virus uptake. Efficient penetration does not require acidic pH in endosomes. This assay is versatile and can be adapted to other adenoviruses and members of other nonenveloped and enveloped virus families.

  7. A Direct and Versatile Assay Measuring Membrane Penetration of Adenovirus in Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Maarit; Luisoni, Stefania; Boucke, Karin; Bianchi, Sarah; Engel, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the most prevalent entry port for viruses into cells, but viruses must escape from the lumen of endosomes to ensure that viral genomes reach a site for replication and progeny formation. Endosomal escape also helps viruses bypass endolysosomal degradation and presentation to certain Toll-like intrinsic immunity receptors. The mechanisms for cytosolic delivery of nonenveloped viruses or nucleocapsids from enveloped viruses are poorly understood, in part because no quantitative assays are readily available which directly measure the penetration of viruses into the cytosol. Following uptake by clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis, the nonenveloped adenoviruses penetrate from endosomes to the cytosol, and they traffic with cellular motors on microtubules to the nucleus for replication. In this report, we present a novel single-cell imaging assay which quantitatively measures individual cytosolic viruses and distinguishes them from endosomal viruses or viruses at the plasma membrane. Using this assay, we showed that the penetration of human adenoviruses of the species C and B occurs rapidly after virus uptake. Efficient penetration does not require acidic pH in endosomes. This assay is versatile and can be adapted to other adenoviruses and members of other nonenveloped and enveloped virus families. PMID:24027314

  8. The sperm penetration test (P-test) can predict fecundability in the male partner from infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-one consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital in the period from November 1977 to June 1985. The male partners were evaluated in two ways: the classical semen analysis, and the ability of sperm to penetrate fresh hen egg white......, the P-test. A Cox regression analysis was used to describe the relation between these variables and fecundability, i.e. the time required to conceive. Four of thirteen variables--the number of morphologically normal spermatozoa, the number of motile spermatozoa, the P-test, and the man's age--each have...... significant relation to the fecundability. However, when covariation is considered, only the P-test and the man's age possess significant prognostic information, whereas the variables of the classical semen analysis do not. This indicates that the P-test may replace the classical semen analysis when trying...

  9. Evaluation of sperm DNA quality in men presenting with testicular cancer and lymphoma using alkaline and neutral Comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Lewis, S; Vinci, S; Riera-Escamilla, A; Fino, M-G; Tamburrino, L; Muratori, M; Larsen, P; Krausz, C

    2018-01-01

    Despite more cancers in young men over the past two decades, improvements in therapies give a greater chance to live full lives following treatment. Sperm genomic quality is variable following cancer diagnosis, so its assessment is important if sperm cryopreservation is being considered. Here, we evaluated DNA damage using two DNA damage assays: an alkaline and for the first time, a neutral Comet assays in men presenting with testicular cancer (n = 19 for alkaline and 13 for neutral group) and lymphoma (n = 13 for alkaline and 09 for neutral group) compared with fertile donors (n = 20 for alkaline and 14 for neutral group). No significant differences were observed in any semen analysis parameters. In contrast, sperm DNA damage was higher in men with testicular cancer than in donors as assessed by both the alkaline (12.4% vs. 37.4%, p Comet assays. Similar trends were observed in men with lymphoma. Here, sperm DNA damage was higher using both the alkaline (35.0% vs. 12.4%) and neutral (10.7% against 7.5% (p Comet assays. Moreover, the DNA strand breaks (particularly double-strand breaks) were significantly more prominent in men with cancer having abnormal seminal parameters than normozoospermic ones. This study showed that sperm DNA testing using alkaline and neutral Comet assays is more sensitive than semen analysis in detecting impaired sperm quality in men presenting with cancer. It may provide a useful adjunct when considering storage prior to cancer investigations and assisted reproductive techniques (ART)-based treatment. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Validation of the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test in the Amphibian Xenopus laevis using in situ nick translation and comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, K; Gosálvez, J; Arroyo, F; López-Fernández, C; Guille, M; Noble, A; Johnston, S D

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of sperm DNA is becoming increasingly recognised as an important parameter of semen quality, but there are no published reports of this procedure for any amphibian. The primary aim of this study was to apply a modified sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test (Halomax) to an amphibian sperm model (African clawed frog; Xenopus laevis) and to validate the assay against in situ nick translation (ISNT) and the double-comet assay procedure. Inactivated spermatozoa were collected from fr...

  11. Comprehensive analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation by five different assays: TUNEL assay, SCSA, SCD test and alkaline and neutral Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; García-Peiró, A; Fernández-Encinas, A; Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Prada, E; Navarro, J; Benet, J

    2013-09-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is becoming an important test to assess male infertility. Several different tests are available, but no consensus has yet been reached as to which tests are most predictive of infertility. Few publications have reported a comprehensive analysis comparing these methods within the same population. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences between the five most common methodologies, to study their correlations and to establish their cut-off values, sensitivity and specificity in predicting male infertility. We found differences in SDF between fertile donors and infertile patients in TUNEL, SCSA, SCD and alkaline Comet assays, but none with the neutral Comet assay. The alkaline COMET assay was the best in predicting male infertility followed by TUNEL, SCD and SCSA, whereas the neutral COMET assay had no predictive power. For our patient population, threshold values for infertility were 20.05% for TUNEL assay, 18.90% for SCSA, 22.75% for the SCD test, 45.37% for alkaline Comet and 34.37% for neutral Comet. This work establishes in a comprehensive study that the all techniques except neutral Comet are useful to distinguish fertile and infertile men. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Sperm preparation: DNA damage by comet assay in normo- and teratozoospermics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Laiq; Jalali, Samina; Shami, Sajjad Aslam; Akram, Zertashia

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out on semen samples of human fertile and infertile subjects, teratozoospermics (TZs) and idiopathics (IDs), with neat semen and sperm prepared by swim up or Percoll density gradient centrifugation procedures. Sperm morphology analysis revealed that only head and midpiece defects in TZs and IDs were significantly (P sperm DNA damage compared to fertile subjects. Fertile subjects with sperm prepared from neat and Percoll density gradient centrifugation exhibited a comet tail DNA percentage of 20% and 15%, respectively. The TZs and IDs infertile subjects had higher levels of comet tail DNA of 33% and 25% and 25% and 19%, respectively. A significant (F = 24.01; P = 0.0059) decrease in mean comet head DNA percentage or sperm DNA integrity was observed in neat samples from fertile and infertile subjects by Repeated Measures ANOVA. In Percoll prepared samples from fertile, TZs, and IDs, there was a significant increase in sperm DNA integrity. Similarily, there was a decrease in abnormal sperm morphology in swim up and Percoll prepared sperm compared to neat samples. The Percoll density gradient centrifugation procedure yields sperm with an increase in sperm DNA integrity relative to swim up. Sperm DNA damage of TZs with both sperm preparation methods was significantly (P sperm with improved DNA integrity. In conjunction with semen analysis, the assessment of nuclear integrity improves the characterization of the semen sample and may be used as a tool for allocating the patients to specific assisted reproductive treatments.

  13. Effect of low density lipoprotein on DNA integrity of freezing-thawing boar sperm by neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Qing-Wang; Li, Wen-Ye; Hu, Jian-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Shan

    2007-06-01

    A modified protocol of neutral comet assay was utilized to assess the effect of low density lipoprotein (LDL) on the DNA integrity of boar freezing-thawing semen. The results demonstrated that the method was high sensitive and easier manipulation and LDL significantly protected sperm DNA integrity (psperm DNA in cryopreservation 0 day and 30 days (p>0.05).

  14. Evaluation of a modified comet assay to detect DNA damage in mammalian sperm exposed in vitro to different mutagenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Paola; Spanò, Marcello; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Weimer, Marc; Cordelli, Eugenia

    2010-08-01

    The final stages of male gametogenesis are sensitive targets of DNA-reactive chemicals, most of which form adducts. Comet assay is a widely applied genotoxicity test that reveals DNA adducts through breaks formed during repair processes. However, sperm cells are essentially devoid of repair enzymes and comet assay is poorly sensitive in detecting chemically induced DNA lesions in sperm. To overcome such limitation, in a previous paper we proposed a modified protocol for comet assay. In this work we further tested the method treating bull sperm with additional mutagens (diethylsulfate, mitomycin C, bleomycin and colchicine) in parallel with the standard comet assay. No treatment-related increase of DNA migration was ever detected with the standard protocol. A dose-dependent effect of diethylsulfate, was obtained with the modified assay. As expected, the mitotic poison colchicine resulted negative even by the modified assay. Results with the other two compounds were consistent with their mechanism of action. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sperm DNA damage measured by the alkaline Comet assay as an independent predictor of male infertility and in vitro fertilization success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Luke; Lutton, Deborah; McManus, Joanne; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation and semen parameters to diagnose male factor infertility and predict pregnancy after IVF. Prospective study. Academic research laboratory. Seventy-five couples undergoing IVF and 28 fertile donors. Sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the alkaline Comet assay in semen and sperm after density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Binary logistic regression was used to analyze odds ratios (OR) and relative risks (RR) for IVF outcomes. Semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation in semen and DGC sperm compared with fertilization rates, embryo quality, and pregnancy. Men with sperm DNA fragmentation at more than a diagnostic threshold of 25% had a high risk of infertility (OR: 117.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.72-2,731.84, RR: 8.75). Fertilization rates and embryo quality decreased as sperm DNA fragmentation increased in semen and DGC sperm. The risk of failure to achieve a pregnancy increased when sperm DNA fragmentation exceeded a prognostic threshold value of 52% for semen (OR: 76.00, CI: 8.69-1,714.44, RR: 4.75) and 42% for DGC sperm (OR: 24.18, CI: 2.89-522.34, RR: 2.16). Sperm DNA testing by the alkaline Comet assay is useful for both diagnosis of male factor infertility and prediction of IVF outcome. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Zona pellucida from fertilised human oocytes induces a voltage-dependent calcium influx and the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa, but cannot be penetrated by sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouannet Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functions of three zona glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 during the sperm-zona pellucida (ZP interaction are now well established in mice. The expression of an additional zona glycoprotein, ZPB/4, in humans, led us to reconsider the classical mouse model of gamete interaction. We investigated the various functions of human ZP (hZP during the interaction of spermatozoa with fertilised and unfertilised oocytes. Results The hZP of fertilised oocytes retained their ability to bind sperm (albeit less strongly than that from unfertilised oocytes, to induce an intraspermatic calcium influx through voltage-dependent channels similar to that observed with hZP from unfertilised oocytes and to promote the acrosome reaction at a rate similar to that induced by the ZP of unfertilised oocytes (61.6 ± 6.2% vs60.7 ± 9.1% respectively. Conversely, the rate of hZP penetrated by sperm was much lower for fertilised than for unfertilised oocytes (19% vs 57% respectively, p Conclusion The change in ZP function induced by fertilisation could be different in human and mouse species. Our results suggest a zona blocking to polyspermy based at the sperm penetration level in humans.

  17. Sperm DNA damage output parameters measured by the alkaline Comet assay and their importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Aston, K I; Emery, B R; Hotaling, J; Carrell, D T

    2017-03-01

    The alkaline Comet assay has shown high diagnostic value to determine male reproductive health and prognostic ability to predict ART success. Here, spermatozoon was analysed in 47 fertile donors and 238 patients, including 132 couples undergoing ART [semen was collected: Group I - within 3 months of their treatment (n = 79); and Group II - 3 months prior to their treatment (n = 53)]. We introduce four Comet distribution plots (A, B1, B2 and C) by plotting the level of DNA damage (x-axis) and percentage of comets (y-axis). Fertile donors had low mean DNA damage, olive tail moment and per cent of spermatozoa with damage and increased type A plots. Comet parameters were associated with clinical pregnancies in Group I. About 66% of couples with type A distribution plot were successful after ART, whereas couples with type B1, B2 and C distribution plots achieved 56%, 44% and 33% pregnancies respectively. The efficiency of the Comet assay was due to complete decondensation process, where the compact sperm nuclear DNA (28.2 ± 0.2 μm 3 ) is decondensed to ~63 μm 3 (before lysis) and ~1018 μm 3 (after lysis). A combinational analysis of all the Comet output parameters may provide a comprehensive evaluation of patient's reproductive health as these parameters measure different aspects of DNA damage within the spermatozoa. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Assessment of sperm quality in palaemonid prawns using Comet assay: methodological optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erraud, Alexandre; Bonnard, Marc; Duflot, Aurélie; Geffard, Alain; Danger, Jean-Michel; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Xuereb, Benoît

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Comet assay in spermatozoa of the marine prawn Palaemon serratus to use it as a marker of sperm quality. Indeed, due to the characteristics of their spermatozoa, the measurement of DNA integrity is one of the few markers which can be transferred to crustaceans to assess the quality of their semen. In the first step, the methods of collecting and maintaining spermatozoa were optimized. Cell survival was estimated during kinetics of preservation (i.e. 1, 2, 4 and 8 h) in various suspension media to define artificial seawater (ASW) as optimal. Several methods in the releasing of spermatozoa from the spermatophore of prawns were estimated with regard to their incidence both on the efficiency of extraction and the survival of cells. Pipetting up and down turned out to be the most successful and the least invasive technique. Secondly, the transfer of Comet assay was optimized by studying various times in both cell lysis (i.e. 1, 6, 18 h) and DNA denaturation (i.e. 15, 30 and 45 min), after in vitro exposure of spermatozoa to an H2O2 gradient as model genotoxicant. Results revealed that a minimum of 1 h in cell lysis and 15 min of DNA denaturation were sufficient to obtain valuable results, linked with a low compaction of DNA in spermatozoa of Palaemon sp. Finally, the sensitivity of P. serratus spermatozoa was assessed after in vitro exposures to model genotoxicants displaying various modes of interaction with DNA (i.e. UV-C, 13.3-79.5 J m -2 ; H 2 O 2 , 5-10 μM and MMS, 0.5-5 mM) and some environmental contaminants known or suspected to be genotoxic (i.e. cadmium and diuron, 0.015-1.5 μg L -1 ; carbamazepine, 0.1-10 μg L -1 ) for invertebrates. The low variability of the baseline level of DNA strand breaks recorded in controls highlighted the robustness of the method. P. serratus spermatozoa displayed significant DNA damage from the lowest doses tested for all model genotoxicants, but conversely, no genotoxic effect

  19. The spectrum of DNA damage in human sperm assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and its relationship to fertilization and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, I D; Ilott, S; Dixon, L; Brison, D R

    2002-04-01

    The integrity of sperm DNA is important for the success of natural or assisted fertilization, as well as normal development of the embryo, fetus and child. ICSI, by bypassing sperm selection mechanisms, increases the risk of transmitting damaged DNA and the significance of this requires investigation. DNA damage in sperm from an unselected group of 60 men undergoing IVF treatment was measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and correlated with semen and treatment cycle parameters. Wide spectra of sperm DNA damage were found both within and between men but no specific subgroups were identified. Semen and treatment cycle parameters were not different in men grouped according to high or low sperm DNA damage. However, regression analysis showed that DNA damage was positively associated with age (29-44 years), abnormal sperm and motility and negatively associated with sperm concentration. In ICSI cycles DNA damage was positively associated with impairment of post-fertilization embryo cleavage. This study contributes to the evidence of DNA damage within sperm. High loads of DNA damage measured by the Comet assay were predictive of failure of embryo development after ICSI. As it is likely that sperm with DNA damage contributed to successful fertilization and in-vitro development, potential adverse effects remain to be clarified.

  20. Morphological and biochemical changes of isolated chicken egg-envelope during sperm penetration: degradation of the 97-kilodalton glycoprotein is involved in sperm-driven hole formation on the egg-envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y; Cho, R; Iwata, Y; Nishimura, K; Kato, T; Aoki, N; Kitajima, K; Matsuda, T

    2001-03-01

    The chicken egg-envelope is made of two major glycoprotein components, which are designated as gp97 and gp42 (after their molecular masses). To elucidate how these two components are involved in macromolecular organization of the chicken egg-envelope, the isolated egg-envelope was characterized by immunochemical and biochemical methods. The gp97 was suggested to be a homologue of mouse ZPB based on the similarities of N-terminal and internal sequences. Immunoblotting using anti-gp97 monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with or without mercaptoethanol treatment revealed that gp97 formed a homodimer through disulfide bonds, whereas gp42 did not. Under indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the anti-gp97 antibody visualized indistinct, small spots on the egg-envelope, whereas the anti-gp42 antibody showed a meshwork of blurry, fibrous structures. The hole formation on the egg-envelope by in vitro sperm penetration was completely inhibited by two anti-gp97 monoclonal antibodies. Interestingly, the anti-gp97 monoclonal antibodies blocked the proteolysis not only of gp97 but also of gp42 during incubation of the egg-envelope with either sperm or the crude chicken acrosin. Taken together, these results indicate that gp97 may play pivotal roles not only in constitution of the macromolecular organization of the egg-envelope but also in triggering hydrolysis of the egg-envelope during sperm penetration.

  1. Differential resistance of mammalian sperm chromatin to oxidative stress as assessed by a two-tailed comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, María; Johnston, Stephen D; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Protamines of eutherian species are cysteine-rich molecules that become cross-linked by disulfide bonds during epididymal transit, whereas the protamines of most marsupial species lack cysteine residuals. The present study made use of the differences in protamine structure between eutherian and metatherian mammal spermatozoa to examine the comparative resistance of sperm DNA to oxidative damage in three eutherian species (Mus musculus, Homo sapiens, Sus domesticus) and three metatherian species (Vombatus ursinus, Phascolarctos cinereus, Macropus giganteus). Sperm DNA fragmentation of samples exposed to increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide was assessed by means of the two-tailed comet assay. The sperm DNA of the marsupial species studied were significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than the spermatozoa of eutherian species. Such susceptibility is consistent with the lack of disulfide cross-linking in marsupial sperm chromatin and suggests that the oxidation of thiols to disulfides for chromatin condensation during epididymal transit in eutherian mammals is likely to be important in order to provide stability and protect these cells from the genotoxic effects of adverse environments.

  2. Oestrogenic compounds and oxidative stress (in human sperm and lymphocytes in the Comet assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf; Cemeli-Carratala, Eduardo; Brinkworth, Martin H; Wood, John M

    2003-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by a wide variety of chemicals and physiological processes in which enzymes catalyse the transfer of electrons from a substrate to molecular oxygen. The immediate products of such reactions, superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide can be metabolised by enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), respectively, and depending on its concentration by Vitamin C (Vit C). Under certain circumstances the ROS form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. We examined human sperm and lymphocytes after treatment with six oestrogenic compounds in the Comet assay, which measures DNA damage, and observed that all caused damage in both cell types. The damage was diminished in nearly all cases by catalase, and in some instances by SOD and Vit C. This response pattern was also seen with hydrogen peroxide. This similarity suggests that the oestrogen-mediated effects could be acting via the production of hydrogen peroxide since catalase always markedly reduced the response. The variable responses with SOD indicate a lesser involvement of superoxide anion radicals due to SOD-mediated conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide generally causing a lower level of DNA damage than other ROS. The variable Vit C responses are explained by a reduction of hydrogen peroxide at low Vit C concentrations and a pro-oxidant activity at higher concentrations. Together these data provide evidence that inappropriate exposure to oestrogenic compounds could lead to free-radical mediated damage. It is believed that the observed activities were not generated by cell free cell culture conditions because increased responses were observed over and above control values when the compounds were added, and also increasing dose-response relationships have been found after treatment with such oestrogenic compounds in previously reported studies.

  3. Integrity of human sperm DNA assessed by the neutral comet assay and its relationship to semen parameters and clinical outcomes for the IVF-ET program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hee-Jun; Chung, Da-Yeon; Choi, Soon-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Seok; Lee, Hee-Sun; Kim, Myung-Hee; Roh, Sung-Il

    2011-03-01

    To explore potential relationships between sperm DNA integrity and both semen parameters and clinical outcomes. Semen analysis of 498 samples was performed according to the 2010 criteria of the World Health Organization. The sperm DNA fragmentation Index (DFI) of the semen samples was assessed using a neutral comet assay. Sperm DFI showed a significant correlation with semen parameters, including the patient's age, sperm viability, motility, morphology, and number of leukocytes (psperm DFI values for asthenozoospermic (15.2%), oligoteratozoospermic (18.3%), asthenoteratozoospermic (17.5%), and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic semen samples (21.3%) were significantly higher than that observed in normozoospermic semen samples (10.5%, psperm DFI value of 14% was used as a threshold of sperm DFI in assessing whether DNA was highly damaged. In 114 IVF-ET cycles, the fertilization rate of the sperm DFI sperm DFI assessed using the comet assay was shown to improve the quality of the semen evaluation. To evaluate the precise effect of ICSI on pregnancy rates in the patients who demonstrate high sperm DFI values, further study is necessary.

  4. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; Gawecka, J E; Benet, J; Ward, W S

    2014-04-01

    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestimates the epididymal SCF breaks because the broken DNA ends remain attached to the nuclear matrix, causing the DNA to remain associated with the dispersion halo, and the Comet tails to be weak. Therefore, we term these hidden dsDNA breaks. When the Comet assay was modified to include an additional incubation with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) after the conventional lysis, thereby solubilizing the nuclear matrix, the broken DNA was released from the matrix, which resulted in a reduction of the sperm head halo and an increase in the Comet tail length, exposing the hidden dsDNA breaks. Conversely, SCF-induced vas deferens sperm had small halos and long tails with the conventional neutral Comet assay, suggesting that the broken DNA ends were not tethered to the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that the attachment to the nuclear matrix is crucial for the religation of SCF-induced DNA breaks in sperm. Our data suggest that the neutral Comet assay identifies only dsDNA breaks that are released from the nuclear matrix and that the addition of an SDS treatment can reveal these hidden dsDNA breaks.

  5. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duty, Susan M; Singh, Narendra P; Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Brock, John W; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C; Hauser, Russ

    2003-07-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory provided a semen and a urine sample. Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; data were corrected for urine dilution by adjusting for specific gravity. The neutral single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to measure DNA integrity in sperm. VisComet image analysis software was used to measure comet extent, a measure of total comet length (micrometers); percent DNA in tail (tail%), a measure of the proportion of total DNA present in the comet tail; and tail distributed moment (TDM), an integrated measure of length and intensity (micrometers). For an interquartile range increase in specific gravity-adjusted monoethyl phthalate (MEP) level, the comet extent increased significantly by 3.6 micro m [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.74-6.47]; the TDM also increased 1.2 micro m (95% CI, -0.05 to 2.38) but was of borderline significance. Monobutyl, monobenzyl, monomethyl, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalates were not significantly associated with comet assay parameters. In conclusion, this study represents the first human data to demonstrate that urinary MEP, at environmental levels, is associated with increased DNA damage in sperm.

  6. Bremsstrahlung-induced highly penetrating probes for nondestructive assay and defect analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, F A; Harmon, J F; Kwofie, J; Spaulding, R; Erickson, G; Roney, T

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive assay and defect analysis probes based on bremsstrahlung-induced processes have been developed to identify elements and probe defects in large volume samples. Bremsstrahlung beams from (electron accelerators) with end-point energies both above and below neutron emission threshold have been used. Below neutron emission threshold these beams (from 6 MeV small pulsed linacs), which exhibit high penetration, create positrons via pair production inside the material and produce X-ray fluorescence (XRF) radiation. Chemical assays of heavy elements in thick samples up to 10 g/cm sup 2 thick are provided by energy dispersive XRF measurements. The pair-produced positrons annihilate within the material, thereby emitting 511 keV gamma radiation. Doppler broadening spectroscopy of the 511 keV radiation can be performed to characterize the material and measure defects in samples of any desired thickness. This technique has successfully measured induced strain due to tensile stress in steel samples of 0.64 cm...

  7. Validation of the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test in the amphibian Xenopus laevis using in situ nick translation and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, K; Gosálvez, J; Arroyo, F; López-Fernández, C; Guille, M; Noble, A; Johnston, S D

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of sperm DNA is becoming increasingly recognised as an important parameter of semen quality, but there are no published reports of this procedure for any amphibian. The primary aim of this study was to apply a modified sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test (Halomax) to an amphibian sperm model (African clawed frog; Xenopus laevis) and to validate the assay against in situ nick translation (ISNT) and the double-comet assay procedure. Inactivated spermatozoa were collected from fresh testes (n=3). Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) for each sperm sample was conducted immediately following activation (T0) and again after 1h (T1) and 24h (T24) of incubation at room temperature in order to produce a range of spermatozoa with differing levels of DNA damage. The SCD procedure resulted in the production of three nuclear morphotypes; amphibian sperm morphotype 1 (ASM-1) and ASM-2 showed no evidence of DNA damage, whereas ASM-3 spermatozoa were highly fragmented with large halos of dispersed DNA fragments and a reduced nuclear core. ISNT confirmed that ASM-3 nuclei contained damaged DNA. There was a significant correlation (r=0.9613) between the levels of ASM-3 detected by the SCD test and SDF revealed by the double-comet assay.

  8. Incubation of boar spermatozoa in viscous media by addition of methylcellulose improves sperm quality and penetration rates during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abreu, David; García-Martínez, Soledad; Fernández-Espín, Vanesa; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    This work was designed to study whether viscous media can improve the in vitro sperm functionality in pigs by using methylcellulose as a thickener. Viscosity of porcine oviductal fluid (POF) was compared with culture medium (Tyrode's) supplemented with methylcellulose (MET 0, 0.5 and 1% w/v). Spermatozoa were incubated in the different media (0, 1 and 2 h) and sperm motion parameters, lipid membrane disorder, plasma membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were assessed. Fertilization results were assessed i) preincubating spermatozoa in the viscous media followed by gamete coculture in a non-viscous medium; and ii) gamete coculture in the viscous media. Viscosity of POF from early luteal phase was higher than late follicular phase. Medium without methylcellulose presented constant viscosity with increased shear rate, while viscosity of the POF and media with methylcellulose was reduced by increased shear rates. Methylcellulose improved sperm linearity, straightness and the proportion of fast-linear spermatozoa. Moreover, methylcellulose increased the rate of viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome and low lipid disorder, reducing the ROS generation. Preincubation in viscous media increased the penetration rate and the mean number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida (both with 0.5 and 1% MET) and reduced monospermy with 1% MET. On the other hand fertilization in the viscous media reduced penetration rate and increased monospermy. The efficiency of the IVF system was not improved with the use of viscous media. The results show the relevance of increasing viscosity thus making the in vitro media more comparable to physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parallel evaluation of doxorubicin-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes and sperm using the comet assay and spectral karyotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Schmid, T E; Cemeli, E; Anderson, D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, two techniques for detecting genetic damage in the whole genome have gained importance: the alkaline comet assay, to detect DNA damage such as strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, and a multicolour FISH method, spectral karyotyping (SKY), to identify chromosomal aberrations simultaneously in all metaphase chromosomes. In the present study, the induction of DNA damage in human sperm and lymphocytes in vitro has been studied employing an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DX). An increase in DNA damage was observed with the comet assay as the median per cent head DNA of sperm significantly decreased from 82.07 and 85.14% in the untreated control groups to 63.48 and 72.52% at doses of 0.8 micro M DX. At 1.6 micro M the percentage declined to 60.96% (the corresponding tail moment increased from 4.42 to 12.19). In stimulated lymphocytes, a significant increase was observed in tail moment, from 0.72 and 0.53 in controls to 15.17 and 12.10 at 0.2 micro M DX, continuing at the same level to a final concentration of 1.6 micro M. Structural aberrations found in the parallel SKY study in stimulated lymphocytes at 0.2 micro M DX consisted of 14% chromatid-type and 2% chromosome-type aberrations; none were found in controls. The SKY results correlate very well with the findings of the comet assay in lymphocytes where DNA damage was observed at similar doses. This study is the first reporting use of the comet assay and SKY analysis in parallel after chemical treatment. The potential of the two techniques together is evident, as they represent a set of assays feasible for evaluating damage in human somatic and germ cells after chemical treatment (i) by direct observation of two different end-points, detecting general DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations and (ii) by extrapolation from lymphocytes to sperm, which provides a 'parallelogram' approach in human cells.

  10. Comparison of post-thaw DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed with the neutral comet assay and Sperm-Sus Halomax test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Parda, A; Filipowicz, K; Strzeżek, J

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the Sperm-Sus-Halomax (SSH) test kit could provide similar measurements of post-thaw DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa. Whole ejaculates or sperm-rich fractions of boar semen were frozen in an extender containing lactose, lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo), glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G) or in a standard boar semen extender (K3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. In all boars, both the NCA and SSH test showed similar levels of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation in samples of the same ejaculates, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure and extender. Yet, the levels of post-thaw sperm DNA damage, detected by the NCA and SSH test, were more accentuated in spermatozoa frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. Both the NCA and SSH detected variations among individual boars in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation. Agreement between the measurements of the NCA and SSH was confirmed by scatter plots of differences, suggesting that the DNA integrity tests could detect the same sperm populations, which were susceptible to cryo-induced DNA damage. The findings of this study indicate that the NCA and the SSH test are effective in detecting similar levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and reinforce their importance in the assessment of frozen-thawed boar semen quality. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of the anti-malarial compound cryptolepine and its analogues in human lymphocytes and sperm in the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Rajendran C; Emerce, Esra; Wright, Colin W; Karahalil, Bensu; Karakaya, Ali E; Anderson, Diana

    2011-12-15

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the genus Plasmodium. It causes one million deaths per year in African children under the age of 5 years. There is an increasing development of resistance of malarial parasites to chloroquine and other currently used anti-malarial drugs. Some plant products such as the indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine have been shown to have potent activity against P. falciparum in vitro. On account of its toxicity, cryptolepine is not suitable for use as an antimalarial drug but a number of analogues of cryptolepine have been synthesised in an attempt to find compounds that have reduced cytotoxicity and these have been investigated in the present study in human sperm and lymphocytes using the Comet assay. The results suggest that cryptolepine and the analogues cause DNA damage in lymphocytes, but appear to have no effect on human sperm at the assessed doses. In the context of antimalarial drug development, the data suggest that all cryptolepine compounds and in particular 2,7-dibromocryptolepine cause DNA damage and therefore may not be suitable for pre clinical development as antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An in vivo assay of the mutagenic potential of imidacloprid using sperm head abnormality test and dominant lethal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the mutagenic effects of imidacloprid in germ cells of Swiss albino male mice by sperm head abnormality (SHA) assay and dominant lethal test (DLT). Swiss albino mice were exposed to imidacloprid (22, 11 and 5.5 mg/kg/day) along with 3% gum acacia as vehicle control through oral route for 7, 14 and 28 days for SHA assay and for 28 days for DLT. The epididymal sperm smear in 1% eosin stain was analyzed for SHAs. In DLT, male mice were allowed to mate with females after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of end of pesticide treatment. The uterine contents of the sacrificed females were observed for live and dead implants. The analysis of test and control groups data was done by one way ANOVA at p imidacloprid (22, 11 and 5.5 mg/kg/day) for seven days did not induce significant SHAs while they induced significant SHAs compared with the control group following exposure for 14 and 28 days. The analysis of uterine content revealed a significant increase in the number of dead implants/female compared with the vehicle control in only those females which were mated with male mice after six weeks of treatment of highest dose level of imidacloprid. The dominant lethal mutations were observed only at spermatogonial stage. Long-term exposure of pesticide generated SHAs even at lowest dose level (5.5 mg/kg/day for 14 days) and mutagenic effects at spermatogonial stage at highest dose level (22 mg/kg/day for 28 days).

  13. Adaptation of ubiquitin-PNA based sperm quality assay for semen evaluation by a conventional flow cytometer and a dedicated platform for flow cytometric semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J F; Sutovsky, M; DeJarnette, J M; Marshall, C; Sutovsky, P

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of semen quality evaluation is to predict the fertility potential of the sample in an objective, rapid and inexpensive manner. However, utilization of sperm quality biomarkers such as ubiquitin and lectin Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) for flow cytometric semen evaluation might eliminate the need for visual assessment by microscopy. Herein, we demonstrate a robust ubiquitin and PNA-based semen evaluation conducted on a simple, easy to operate, dedicated sperm flow cytometer, EasyCyte Plus (IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France). Semen samples were collected periodically from two dairy bulls, which were subjected to temporary scrotal insults to induce variable semen quality. Samples were labeled with fluorescently-conjugated anti-ubiquitin antibodies (bind exclusively to the surface of defective sperm) and lectin PNA (binds to acrosomal surface in prematurely capacitated and acrosome-damaged sperm). Fluorescent properties of the samples were measured with a conventional flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACScan; Becton Dickinson Corp., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and by the EasyCyte (IMV Technologies) instrument. Data from the two flow cytometers were positively correlated for the percentage of PNA-positive sperm with a damaged acrosome (r = 0.47; P < 0.001) and the percentage of ubiquitin-positive, defective sperm (r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Relative intensities of ubiquitin-induced fluorescence in cells with high ubiquitin levels were also positively correlated (r = 0.90). The proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology was positively correlated with ubiquitin-induced fluorescence measured by EasyCyte (IMV Technologies) (r = 0.63; P < 0.001). These observations provided a rationale for the adaptation of a dual ubiquitin-PNA sperm quality assay for flow cytometric semen evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An investigation of the potential effect of sperm nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa on DNA fragmentation using a neutral and alkaline Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszek, E; Kiewisz, J; Skowronska, P; Liss, J; Lukaszuk, M; Bruszczynska, A; Jakiel, G; Lukaszuk, K

    2017-03-01

    Presence of vacuoles and degree of sperm DNA damage are considered to be the basic factors used for the assessment of sperm fertilization capacity. We aimed to investigate the link between these two parameters. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where the Comet assay was used to assess the degree of DNA fragmentation of sperm categorized by Motile Sperm Organelle Morphology Examination (MSOME) Grades. Semen samples from 10 patients were assessed. Spermatozoa were graded into four MSOME groups according to the Vanderzwalmen's criteria. A total of 3930 motile spermatozoa were selected one-by-one using an inverted microscope and transferred onto two different slides. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed by alkaline and neutral Comet assay. Results of the neutral Comet assay showed that Grade I spermatozoa (absence of vacuoles) presented significantly lower dsDNA fragmentation level (mean: 3.13 ± 1.17%) than Grade II (maximum of two small vacuoles; mean: 10.34 ± 2.65%), Grade III (more than two small vacuoles or at least one large vacuole; mean: 23.88 ± 8.37%), and Grade IV (large vacuoles associated with abnormal head shapes or other abnormalities; mean: 36.94 ± 7.78%; p Comet assay showed that Grade I spermatozoa had significantly lower DNA (ssDNA + dsDNA) fragmentation level (mean: 8.33 ± 3.62%) than Grade III (mean: 25.64 ± 9.15%) and Grade IV (mean: 40.10 ± 9.10%, p  0.05). Probably, the vacuoles may be responsible for double strand DNA breaks rather than single strand DNA breaks (only 2.39% spermatozoa in MSOME Grade II, 1.76% in III, and 3.16% in IV has single strand breaks). The results demonstrate that lower MSOME grading correlates with lower sperm DNA fragmentation. Therefore, the observation of sperm nuclear vacuoles using real-time optical microscopy without precise DNA fragmentation examination is not sufficient for optimal sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. © 2017 American Society of

  15. Determination of DNA damage after exposure to inhalation anesthetics in human peripheral lymphocytes and sperm cells in vitro by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, C; Kadioglu, E; Coskun, E; Basar, H; Basar, M

    2012-12-01

    In this study, genotoxic activities of four halogenated anesthetics (halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane) were investigated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and sperm cells in vitro by alkaline comet assay. For this purpose, sperm or lymphocyte suspension was exposed to different concentrations (0.1 mM, 1 mM, 10 mM and 100 mM) of anesthetic agents and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. The DNA strand breaks as well as alkali-labile sites were measured as percentage tail intensity with comet assay. The results of this study demonstrate that all analyzed drugs were capable of inducing DNA damage on PBLs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. However, the results in sperm cells were slightly different since we did not observe any genotoxic effect for desflurane in any of the exposure doses, and the genotoxic effect of halothane was not dose dependent. This experimental study points out to the presence of DNA damage after exposure to halogenated anesthetics in both PBLs and sperm cells, although this effect seems to be higher in PBLs.

  16. Lack of an association between environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE and DNA damage in human sperm measured using the neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R; Singh, N P; Chen, Z; Pothier, L; Altshul, L

    2003-12-01

    Chlorinated organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, the most stable daughter compound of DDT) are persistent lipophilic compounds found in a large portion of the general population. To explore the hypothesis that environmental exposure to these compounds is associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, a study of 212 male partners of a sub-fertile couple who presented to the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory was conducted. The neutral single cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to assess DNA integrity in sperm. VisComet image analysis software was used to measure total comet length, the proportion of DNA present in the comet tail, and tail distributed moment, an integrated measure of length and intensity. In the regression analyses, there were no statistically significant consistent associations between the comet assay parameters and any of the individual PCB congeners, sum of PCB, or p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that there are not strong relationships between adult levels of these chlorinated organic compounds and sperm DNA damage as measured by the comet assay.

  17. APPLICATION OF THE SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY TO THE TEPLICE PROGRAM SEMEN STUDIES: A NEW METHOD FOR EVALUATING SPERM NUCLEAR CHROMATIN DAMAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTA measure of sperm chromatin integrity was added to the routine semen end points evaluated in the Teplice Program male reproductive health studies. To address the hypothesis that exposure to periods of elevated air pollution may be associated with abnormalities in sp...

  18. Sperm antigens in fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saling, P M

    1990-02-01

    A review of sperm antigens involved in fertilization includes a description of sperm differentiation, seminal fluid components that coat sperm, sperm antigens involved in binding to the zona pellucida (ZP), antigens involved in the acrosome reaction, in zona pellucida penetration, and those active in fusion with the ova membrane. Sperm antigens are located in certain domains of the cell, and they are altered during capacitation and passage through the female tract. Caltrin and acrosome-stabilizing factor are applied by seminal fluid. At least 2 antigens have been studied that occur in sterile women, although one cross reacts with milk proteins. Some antigens active in ZP binding are trypsin, proacrosin, acrosin, PH-20 from guinea pigs, and rabbit sperm autoantigen I. Antigens involved in the acrosome reaction, such as M42, are likely to cross react with other body proteins that also entail exocytosis. A mouse antigen involved in ZP penetration, MS 207 is well characterized. PH-30 from guinea pigs and M29 from mouse participate in sperm-egg membrane fusion, as does fertilization antigen I from human and mouse sperm which is know to cause infertility. Oddly, patients' sera react with polymers but not monomers of this antigen. Studies with antisperm antibodies suggest that it will not be necessary to agglutinate all sperm to block fertility, only to inhibit a single sperm epitope and function. It will probably be feasible to inhibit multiple successive events, and possibly to induce temporary immunity.

  19. Efficacy of testicular sperm chromatin condensation assay using aniline blue-eosin staining in the IVF-ET cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Seog; Kim, Myo Kyung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Cho, Jae Won; Song, In Ok; Seo, Ju Tae

    2011-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate testicular sperm chromatin condensation using aniline blue-eosin (AB-E) staining and its effects on IVF-ET. Chromatin condensation was analyzed using AB-E staining in 27 cases of testicular sperm extraction. There were 19 cases of obstructive azoospermia (OA) and 8 cases of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in IVF-ET. Mature sperm heads were stained red-pink whereas immature sperm heads were stained dark blue. The percentage of sperm chromatin condensation was calculated from the ratio of the number of red-pink sperm to the total number of sperm analyzed. The overall percentages of chromatin condensation in OA and NOA were 31.1±11.2% and 26.3±14.4%, respectively. The fertilization rate was significant higher in OA than NOA (pcondensation, fertilization, good embryos, and clinical pregnancy between the pregnant group and non-pregnant group. Chromatin condensation is less stable than OA and showed a low fertilization rate in NOA. While there were no significant differences in chromatin condensation results between NOA and OA, we propose that a pattern of decreased chromatin condensation in NOA is one of the factors of low fertilization results requiring further study.

  20. Mechanistic investigation of ROS-induced DNA damage by oestrogenic compounds in lymphocytes and sperm using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Anderson, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that oestrogenic compounds produce strand breaks in the DNA of sperm and lymphocytes via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the current investigation, sperm and lymphocytes were treated in vitro with oestrogenic compounds (diethylstilboestrol, progesterone, 17β-oestradiol, noradrenaline and triiodotyronine) and several aspects of DNA damage were investigated. Firstly, mediation of DNA damage by lipid peroxidation was investigated in the presence of BHA (a lipid peroxidation blocker). BHA reduced the DNA damage generated by 17β-oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol in a statistically significant manner. No effects were observed for sperm. Secondly, the presence of oxidized bases employing FPG and EndoIII were detected for lymphocytes and sperm in the negative control and after 24 h recovery in lymphocytes but not immediately after treatment for both cell types. The successful detection of oxidized bases in the negative control (untreated) of sperm provides an opportunity for its application in biomonitoring studies. DNA repair at 24 h after exposure was also studied. A nearly complete recovery to negative control levels was shown in lymphocytes 24 h recovery after oestrogenic exposure and this was statistically significant in all cases. Rapid rejoining of DNA, in a matter of hours, is a characteristic of DNA damaged by ROS.

  1. Mechanistic Investigation of ROS-Induced DNA Damage by Oestrogenic Compounds in Lymphocytes and Sperm Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Past research has demonstrated that oestrogenic compounds produce strand breaks in the DNA of sperm and lymphocytes via reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the current investigation, sperm and lymphocytes were treated in vitro with oestrogenic compounds (diethylstilboestrol, progesterone, 17β-oestradiol, noradrenaline and triiodotyronine and several aspects of DNA damage were investigated. Firstly, mediation of DNA damage by lipid peroxidation was investigated in the presence of BHA (a lipid peroxidation blocker. BHA reduced the DNA damage generated by 17β-oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol in a statistically significant manner. No effects were observed for sperm. Secondly, the presence of oxidized bases employing FPG and EndoIII were detected for lymphocytes and sperm in the negative control and after 24 h recovery in lymphocytes but not immediately after treatment for both cell types. The successful detection of oxidized bases in the negative control (untreated of sperm provides an opportunity for its application in biomonitoring studies. DNA repair at 24 h after exposure was also studied. A nearly complete recovery to negative control levels was shown in lymphocytes 24 h recovery after oestrogenic exposure and this was statistically significant in all cases. Rapid rejoining of DNA, in a matter of hours, is a characteristic of DNA damaged by ROS.

  2. Sperm proteasomes degrade sperm receptor on the egg zona pellucida during mammalian fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn W Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL, a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and

  3. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  4. In vitro evaluation of baseline and induced DNA damage in human sperm exposed to benzo[a]pyrene or its metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide, using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipinen, V; Laubenthal, J; Baumgartner, A; Cemeli, E; Linschooten, J O; Godschalk, R W L; Van Schooten, F J; Anderson, D; Brunborg, G

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to genotoxins may compromise DNA integrity in male reproductive cells, putting future progeny at risk for developmental defects and diseases. To study the usefulness of sperm DNA damage as a biomarker for genotoxic exposure, we have investigated cellular and molecular changes induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in human sperm in vitro, and results have been compared for smokers and non-smokers. Sperm DNA obtained from five smokers was indeed more fragmented than sperm of six non-smokers (mean % Tail DNA 26.5 and 48.8, respectively), as assessed by the alkaline comet assay (P sperm cells to B[a]P (10 or 25 microM) caused moderate increases in DNA fragmentation which was independent of addition of human liver S9 mix for enzymatic activation of B[a]P, suggesting some unknown metabolism of B[a]P in ejaculates. In vitro exposure of samples to various doses of B[a]P (with or without S9) did not reveal any significant differences in sensitivity to DNA fragmentation between smokers and non-smokers. Incubations with the proximate metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t9,10-epoxide (BPDE) produced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner (20 or 50 microM), but only when formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase treatment was included in the comet assay. These levels of DNA fragmentation were, however, low in relation to very high amounts of BPDE-DNA adducts as measured with (32)P postlabelling. We conclude that sperm DNA damage may be useful as a biomarker of direct exposure of sperm using the comet assay adapted to sperm, and as such the method may be applicable to cohort studies. Although the sensitivity is relatively low, DNA damage induced in earlier stages of spermatogenesis may be detected with higher efficiencies.

  5. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Duty, Susan M; Singh, Narendra P; Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Brock, John W; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C; Hauser, Russ

    2003-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laborato...

  6. Assessment of the DNA Damage in Human Sperm and Lymphocytes Exposed to the Carcinogen Food Contaminant Furan with Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Pandir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this work was to assess the damage of DNA in human blood cell and spermin vitro under the influence of furan. These cells were administered 0-600 μM of furan at 37 and 32oC for 30 and 60 min, respectively. A significant increase in tail DNA%, tail length and moment indicating DNA damage was observed at increasing doses when compared to the controls. The treatment with 300 and 600 μM of furan showed a maximum increase of 86.74 ± 2.43 and 93.29 ± 8.68 compared to the control tail DNA% in lymphocytes. However, only 600 μM of furan showed a maximum increase of 94.71 ± 6.24 compared to the control tail DNA% in sperm. The results suggested that furan caused DNA damage in lymphocytes at increasing doses, but appeared to have not the same effect on human sperm at the low doses. Genotoxic activity had an impact on the risk assessment of furan formed on the food for human cells. Therefore, it would be important to further investigate these properties of furan as the food mutagen.

  7. Double stranded sperm DNA breaks, measured by Comet assay, are associated with unexplained recurrent miscarriage in couples without a female factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Amengual, Maria José; Prada, Elena; Cortés, Pilar; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sperm samples from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) couples have an increase in their sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), but no studies have been performed in order to identify differences between single stranded SDF (ssSDF) and double stranded SDF (dsSDF) in these patients. This could be relevant because the type of DNA damage could have different effects. Semen samples were classified attending their clinical status: 25 fertile donors and 20 RPL patients with at least two unexplained first trimester miscarriages. SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150) was performed to establish predictive threshold values. SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the presence of two subgroups within fertile donors. The values obtained were 21.10±9.13, 23.35±10.45 and 12.31±4.31, respectively, for fertile donors with low values for both ssSDF and dsSDF; 27.86±12.64, 80.69±12.67 and 12.43±5.22, for fertile donors with low ssSDF and high dsSDF; and 33.61±15.50, 84.64±11.28 and 19.28±6.05, for unexplained RPL patients, also showing a low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile. This latter profile was seen in 85% of unexplained RPL and 33% of fertile donors, suggesting that it may be associated to a male risk factor for undergoing RPL. ROC analysis regarding recurrent miscarriage set the cut-off value at 77.50% of dsDNA SDF. PFGE for low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile samples and positive controls treated with DNase, to induce dsDNA breaks, showed a more intense band of about 48 kb, which fits the toroid model of DNA compaction in sperm, pointing out that some nuclease activity may be affecting their sperm DNA in RPL patients. This work identifies a very specific SDF profile related to the paternal risk of having RPL.

  8. Double stranded sperm DNA breaks, measured by Comet assay, are associated with unexplained recurrent miscarriage in couples without a female factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ribas-Maynou

    Full Text Available It is known that sperm samples from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL couples have an increase in their sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF, but no studies have been performed in order to identify differences between single stranded SDF (ssSDF and double stranded SDF (dsSDF in these patients. This could be relevant because the type of DNA damage could have different effects. Semen samples were classified attending their clinical status: 25 fertile donors and 20 RPL patients with at least two unexplained first trimester miscarriages. SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150 was performed to establish predictive threshold values. SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the presence of two subgroups within fertile donors. The values obtained were 21.10±9.13, 23.35±10.45 and 12.31±4.31, respectively, for fertile donors with low values for both ssSDF and dsSDF; 27.86±12.64, 80.69±12.67 and 12.43±5.22, for fertile donors with low ssSDF and high dsSDF; and 33.61±15.50, 84.64±11.28 and 19.28±6.05, for unexplained RPL patients, also showing a low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile. This latter profile was seen in 85% of unexplained RPL and 33% of fertile donors, suggesting that it may be associated to a male risk factor for undergoing RPL. ROC analysis regarding recurrent miscarriage set the cut-off value at 77.50% of dsDNA SDF. PFGE for low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile samples and positive controls treated with DNase, to induce dsDNA breaks, showed a more intense band of about 48 kb, which fits the toroid model of DNA compaction in sperm, pointing out that some nuclease activity may be affecting their sperm DNA in RPL patients. This work identifies a very specific SDF profile related to the paternal risk of having RPL.

  9. Double Stranded Sperm DNA Breaks, Measured by Comet Assay, Are Associated with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage in Couples without a Female Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Amengual, Maria José; Prada, Elena; Cortés, Pilar; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sperm samples from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) couples have an increase in their sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), but no studies have been performed in order to identify differences between single stranded SDF (ssSDF) and double stranded SDF (dsSDF) in these patients. This could be relevant because the type of DNA damage could have different effects. Semen samples were classified attending their clinical status: 25 fertile donors and 20 RPL patients with at least two unexplained first trimester miscarriages. SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150) was performed to establish predictive threshold values. SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the presence of two subgroups within fertile donors. The values obtained were 21.10±9.13, 23.35±10.45 and 12.31±4.31, respectively, for fertile donors with low values for both ssSDF and dsSDF; 27.86±12.64, 80.69±12.67 and 12.43±5.22, for fertile donors with low ssSDF and high dsSDF; and 33.61±15.50, 84.64±11.28 and 19.28±6.05, for unexplained RPL patients, also showing a low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile. This latter profile was seen in 85% of unexplained RPL and 33% of fertile donors, suggesting that it may be associated to a male risk factor for undergoing RPL. ROC analysis regarding recurrent miscarriage set the cut-off value at 77.50% of dsDNA SDF. PFGE for low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile samples and positive controls treated with DNase, to induce dsDNA breaks, showed a more intense band of about 48 kb, which fits the toroid model of DNA compaction in sperm, pointing out that some nuclease activity may be affecting their sperm DNA in RPL patients. This work identifies a very specific SDF profile related to the paternal risk of having RPL. PMID:23028579

  10. Sperm design and sperm function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aurelio F Malo; Montserrat Gomendio; Julian Garde; Barbara Lang-Lenton; Ana J Soler; Eduardo R.S Roldan

    2006-01-01

    .... Sperm swimming velocity is a key determinant of male fertilization success, but previous efforts to identity which sperm phenotypic traits are associated with swimming velocity have been unsuccessful...

  11. Equatorial segment protein (ESP) is a human alloantigen involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, M J; Digilio, L; Klotz, K; Shetty, J; Flickinger, C J; Herr, J C

    2008-01-01

    The equatorial segment of the sperm head is known to play a role in fertilization; however, the specific sperm molecules contributing to the integrity of the equatorial segment and in binding and fusion at the oolemma remain incomplete. Moreover, identification of molecular mediators of fertilization that are also immunogenic in humans is predicted to advance both the diagnosis and treatment of immune infertility. We previously reported the cloning of Equatorial Segment Protein (ESP), a protein localized to the equatorial segment of ejaculated human sperm. ESP is a biomarker for a subcompartment of the acrosomal matrix that can be traced through all stages of acrosome biogenesis (Wolkowicz et al, 2003). In the present study, ESP immunoreacted on Western blots with 4 (27%) of 15 antisperm antibody (ASA)-positive serum samples from infertile male patients and 2 (40%) of 5 ASA-positive female sera. Immunofluorescent studies revealed ESP in the equatorial segment of 89% of acrosome-reacted sperm. ESP persisted as a defined equatorial segment band on 100% of sperm tightly bound to the oolemma of hamster eggs. Antisera to recombinant human ESP inhibited both oolemmal binding and fusion of human sperm in the hamster egg penetration assay. The results indicate that ESP is a human alloantigen involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion. Defined recombinant sperm immunogens, such as ESP, may offer opportunities for differential diagnosis of immune infertility.

  12. Polyspermy in birds: sperm numbers and embryo survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemmings, N; Birkhead, T R

    2015-01-01

    Polyspermy is a major puzzle in reproductive biology. In some taxa, multiple sperm enter the ovum as part of the normal fertilization process, whereas in others, penetration of the ovum by more than one sperm is lethal...

  13. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyualuronic acid gel

    OpenAIRE

    Tollner, Theodore L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus s...

  14. Microscale integrated sperm sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yaokuang; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Gu, Wei; Smith, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and fabrication of a passively driven microfluidic sperm sorter using soft lithographic microfabrication techniques. This self-contained device can separate motile sperm from nonmotile sperm and other cellular debris. The sorting system is small (coin sized) and structurally simple. It comprises two inlets; two outlets; a sorting channel; and arrays of horizontally oriented reservoirs that function as passively driven, constant-flow-rate pumps. Sperm with higher motility are sorted out from the rest of the semen samples based on their ability to swim through interfaces between adjacent laminar streams into separate streamlines, whereas the nonmotile sperm and debris remain in their initial streamlines. The device, which we call a microscale integrated sperm sorter, does not rely on any external power sources or controllers and incorporates all sample loading and sorting functions necessary to prepare high-quality sperm for in vitro fertilization. This self-contained, inexpensive, and portable device may also be useful for developing convenient sperm motility assays that can be used at the point of care or at home.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracies of the TUNEL, SCD, and Comet Based Sperm DNA Fragmentation Assays for Male Infertility: a Meta-analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhao-Lei; Zheng, De-Zhu; Liu, Yao-Hua; Chen, Liang-Yuan; Lin, Dong-Hong; Feng-Hua Lan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided new insights into the diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) for male factor sterility. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the SDF test for male infertility. Eligible studies were retrieved by searching electronic databases. The quality of the studies was assessed on the basis of quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS) criteria tool. The bivariate metaanalysis model was employed to summarize the diagnostic indices and plot the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve by using Meta-disc 1.4 software. Influence analysis, meta-regression, and publication bias assay were all conducted through Stata 12.0 software. Our bivariate random effect meta-analysis yielded an AUC (area under curve) value of 0.9211 with a sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of 0.80 (0.78 - 0.82) and specificity of 0.83 (0.80 - 0.86) for the use of the SDF test in differentiating infertile males from normal fertile controls. Moreover, our subgroup analysis suggested that SDF analysis with a single TUNEL test resulted in an AUC value of 0.9506, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.77 (0.74 - 0.80) and specificity of 0.91 (0.87 - 0.94), while SCD and Comet assays displayed a combined sensitivity of 0.77 (0.67 - 0.81) or 0.91 (0.88 - 0.94), and specificity of 0.84 (0.75 - 0.91) or 0.63 (0.54 - 0.70), accompanied by an AUC value of 0.8408 or 0.9473. The SDF assay confers a relatively high diagnostic accuracy for infertility detection, among which the TUNEL based methodology seems to achieve higher accuracy than the SCD and Comet assays.

  16. Aged men share the sperm protein PATE1 defect with young asthenozoospermia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Jun; Liu, Xin; Han, Jun-Ling; Wang, Yan-Wei; Jin, Shao-Hua; Liu, Xue-Xia; Liu, Juan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Wang, Wen-Juan

    2015-04-01

    Does a defect in the human sperm-located protein prostate and testis expressed 1 (PATE1) exist in both aged men and young asthenozoospermia patients? A defect in sperm PATE1 exists in both aged men and young asthenozoospermia patients, and an antibody against PATE1 can decrease human sperm motility and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration. Both aged men and young asthenozoospermia patients have poor sperm quality. The PATE1 protein seems to mediate sperm-egg interactions; however, the mechanisms are still unknown. This was a case-control study including 60 young fathers (aged 28-32 years) and 60 aged fathers (68-72 years old) who donated semen by masturbation after 7 days of sexual abstinence. Comparative sperm proteome analysis from the young fathers and aged fathers was performed to discover key proteins. The target protein PATE1 was chosen and validated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Quantitative assessment of sperm PATE1 protein was performed on sperm from 60 young fathers, 60 aged fathers and 110 young asthenozoospermia patients. Furthermore, an antibody against PATE1 assay was used to test whether PATE1 participated in sperm motility and penetration of zona-free hamster egg. Samples were pooled and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the confidence of proteomic data. Sperm immunofluorescence quantification experiments disclosed whether the aged men indeed shared the same PATE1 defect with 110 young asthenozoospermia patients. The sperm motility test and penetration of zona-free hamster egg assay were performed for PATE1. Twenty-two sperm proteins with significant differential expression between young adults and aged men were identified (P 1.5), including 13 proteins with decreased expressions with aging. Based on bioinformatics, PATE1 was chosen for further study

  17. Estimation of the potential fertility based upon non-return rates of bulls: using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, M; Bacinoglu, S; Cirit, U; Ozgümüş, S; Kaşgöz, H; Pabuccuoğlu, S

    2007-10-15

    In the present study, we aimed to develop a polyacrylamide gel that could be used instead of bovine cervical mucus in the cervical mucus penetration test (CMPT) to obtain coherent and replicable results in bulls. The frozen semen samples of six Holstein bulls, which were divided into two fertility groups as low and high according to their non-return rate (NRR), were used. In this study, the modified CMPT (mCMPT) was carried out within 0.25 mL transparent plastic straws with an inner diameter 1.7 mm. The penetration ability of spermatozoa to bovine cervical mucus and to polyacrylamide gels swollen with two different solutions [NaCl (G1) and PBS (G2)] was compared. For the penetration test, the straws filled with cervical mucus and both gels were dipped into thawed semen samples and incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 min. After the incubation, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour and stored at -20 degrees C. On the evaluation day, the frozen straws were cut at 1.5-1.75 cm (penetration distance range=PDR1), 3.25-3.5 cm (PDR2) and 5.0-5.25 cm (PDR3), beginning from open-end of the straws. The separated frozen parts were then immediately transferred onto special counting slides by pushing with a mandrel and left to thaw. Thawed samples were covered with cover glass and penetrated spermatozoa in these parts were counted. The relation between the results and fertility of bulls was determined. In the tests performed using mucus, the number of spermatozoa determined in the high fertility group was found to be higher at PDR3 (p<0.0001) compared to the low fertility group, while in G1 spermatozoa number was significantly higher at PDR1 and PDR3 (p<0.0001). However, in G2 medium, no significant difference was observed between either of the fertility groups with respect to spermatozoa number determined at all distance ranges. In the study, we have determined that the gel swollen with NaCl produces better results and this gel can be used instead of bovine cervical mucus

  18. Electroejaculation versus vibratory stimulation in spinal cord injured men: sperm quality and patient preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, D A; Sønksen, J; Menge, A C; McCabe, M; Keller, L M

    1997-06-01

    We compared semen quality and patient preference between penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in spinal cord injured men. We treated 11 spinal cord injured men with penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in random order. End points examined were semen analysis, sperm functional assessment, and patient pain scores (1 to 10) and preferred procedure. Differences between the procedures were determined with the paired Student t test. There was no difference in antegrade sperm count but penile vibratory stimulation specimens had greater motility (26.0 versus 10.7%), viability (25.2 versus 9.7%) and motile sperm count (185.0 x 10(6) versus 97.0 x 10(6)). The retrograde sperm count was greater (but not significant) in electroejaculation patients. The total (antegrade plus retrograde) and motile sperm counts were not different. There was no difference in immunobead test (all negative), cervical mucus penetration or sperm penetration assay, although the percent hamster egg penetration approached significance (53.7% for penile vibratory stimulation versus 22.1% for electroejaculation, p = 0.06). There was no difference in the peak blood pressures and no complications were noted. Pain scores were significantly greater for electroejaculation compared to penile vibratory stimulation (5.2 versus 1.7, respectively). All patients preferred penile vibratory stimulation. There was a slight advantage in sperm quality and a high patient preference in favor of penile vibratory stimulation. Penile vibratory stimulation should be attempted first to induce ejaculation in spinal cord injured men, with electroejaculation reserved for failures.

  19. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P < 0.05), suggesting that a sperm-related enzymatic reaction is involved in sperm motility. Under this protocol, MTT reduction was coupled with catalysis of GAPDH and was promoted by electron transfer from NADH. Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  20. No evidence for sperm priming responses under varying sperm competition risk or intensity in guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2009-07-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should tailor their investment in ejaculates according to the number of rival males competing to fertilize a female’s eggs. Research spanning several taxa supports this prediction by showing that males are often sensitive to the level of sperm competition and adjust their investment in sperm numbers accordingly. More recent work has revealed that males may also tailor the quality of sperm according to the number of males competing for fertilization. Here I test for both effects in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in an experiment that simultaneously evaluates the risk and intensity models of sperm competition. The experiment determined whether male guppies adjust the number (stripped ejaculate size) and quality (sperm velocity and viability) of sperm that are primed over a 3-day period according to experimental changes in the perceived level of sperm competition. A total of 136 focal males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm and assayed for these sperm traits before being allocated at random to one of four treatments simulating different levels of sperm competition risk and intensity. During the 3-day treatment phase, focal males had visual and olfactory access to a sexually receptive (initially virgin) female maintained with different numbers of stimulus males to simulate variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Following this, males were assayed again for the sperm traits. Contrary to predictions, there was no significant change in any of the measured variables among treatments, although qualitatively the patterns for sperm velocity and viability did conform to expectation. The lack of any trend for the number of sperm primed was unequivocal and future work examining the effects of sperm competition on sperm production should focus on whether males differentially allocate sperm numbers among matings that differ in the level of sperm competition.

  1. Importance of sperm gluthatione treatment in ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, A Mohseni; Mozdarani, H; Moradi, Sh Zari; Akhoond, M R

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of sperm from infertile patients would gluthatione could reduce sperm premature chromosome condensation (PCC). To reach the goals of this study, the frequency of sperm PCC formation in sperm of normal and sub-fertile men with/without glutathione treatment were compared and analyzed. Hamster oocytes were retrieved after super ovulation by PMSG and HCG injection. Following treatment with hyaluronidase, zonae was removed by trypsin digestion. Sperm were classified into 3 groups according to morphology, movement and counts, treated with glutathione(10 μg/ml) and then processed by swim up method. After capacitation, zona-free oocytes were incubated with sperm then transferred to fresh media containing colcemid. Cells were fixed and slides prepared using Tarkowskie's standard air drying technique and after staining in 5% Giemsa, oocytes were analyzed at high magnification. Sperm penetration rate was higher and the rate of intact sperm head and PCC was lower in GSH treated samples compared to non treated groups. Sperm penetration rate was significantly higher in treated astheno sperm samples compared to non-treated ones (66.4% and 50. 97% respectively) (P ART outcome.

  2. Etiology and Evaluation of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human sperm chromatin anomalies adversely affect reproductive outcomesand infertile men possess substantially amount of sperm with chromatin anomalies than fertilemen.Routine semen analysis evaluates parameters such as sperm motility and morphology, but doesnot examine the nuclear DNA integrity of spermatozoa. It has been suggested that altered nuclearchromatin structure or damaged DNA in spermatozoa could modify the special cellular functionsof human spermatozoa, and thereby affect the fertility potential. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI bypass the barriers to fertilization for such a sperm, then the effect of chromatin anomalies onthe development remains a concern. Therefore, it is essential to develop and use accurate diagnostictests, which may provide better prognostic capabilities than the standard sperm assessments. Thisreview discusses our current understanding of the structure and organization of sperm DNA,the different procedures for assessment of sperm chromatin anomalies including comet assay,Chromomycin A3 (CMA3, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA, acridine orange test (AOT,terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, aniline blue and sperm chromatindispersion (SCD test and the impact of chromatin anomalies on reproductive outcome.

  3. Sperm function test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  4. Polyspermy in birds: sperm numbers and embryo survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, N; Birkhead, T R

    2015-11-07

    Polyspermy is a major puzzle in reproductive biology. In some taxa, multiple sperm enter the ovum as part of the normal fertilization process, whereas in others, penetration of the ovum by more than one sperm is lethal. In birds, several sperm typically enter the germinal disc, yet only one fuses with the female pronucleus. It is unclear whether supernumerary sperm play an essential role in the avian fertilization process and, if they do, how females regulate the progression of sperm through the oviduct to ensure an appropriate number reach the ovum. Here, we show that when very few sperm penetrate the avian ovum, embryos are unlikely to survive beyond the earliest stages of development. We also show that when the number of inseminated sperm is limited, a greater proportion than expected reach and penetrate the ovum, indicating that females compensate for low sperm numbers in the oviduct. Our results suggest a functional role for supernumerary sperm in the processes of fertilization and early embryogenesis, providing an exciting expansion of our understanding of sperm function in birds. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Ejaculate evolution in external fertilizers: Influenced by sperm competition or sperm limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen Bo; Huang, Yan; Zeng, Yu; Zhong, Mao Jun; Luo, Yi; Lüpold, Stefan

    2017-10-04

    The evolution of sperm quality and quantity is shaped by various selective processes, with sperm competition generally considered the primary selective agent. Particularly in external fertilizers, however, sperm limitation through gamete dispersal can also influence gamete investments, but empirical data examining this effect are limited. Here, we studied the relative importance of sperm competition and the spawning conditions in explaining the macroevolutionary patterns of sperm size and number within two taxa with external fertilization but differences in their reproductive biology. In frogs, sperm swim slowly but for up to hours as they penetrate the gelatinous egg coating, whereas fish sperm typically swim fast, are very short-lived (seconds to minutes), and often face a relatively higher risk of being moved away from the ova by currents. Our phylogenetic models and path analyses revealed different trajectories of ejaculate evolution in these two taxa. Sperm size and number responded primarily to variation in sperm competition in the anurans, but more strongly to egg number and water turbulence in the fishes. Whereas the results across anurans align with the general expectation that sexual selection is the main driver of ejaculate evolution, our findings across the fishes suggest that sperm limitation has been underappreciated. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...

  7. Hyaluronidase 2: a novel germ cell hyaluronidase with epididymal expression and functional roles in mammalian sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Mark J; Menlah, Gladys; Wang, Yipei; Dash, Soma; Wu, Kathie; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    To initiate the crucial cell adhesion events necessary for fertilization, sperm must penetrate extracellular matrix barriers containing hyaluronic acid (HA), a task thought to be accomplished by neutral-active hyaluronidases. Here we report that the ~57 kDa hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) that in somatic tissues has been highly characterized to be acid-active is present in mouse and human sperm, as detected by Western blot, flow cytometric, and immunoprecipitation assays. Immunofluorescence revealed its presence on the plasma membrane over the acrosome, the midpiece, and proximal principal piece in mice where protein fractionation demonstrated a differential distribution in subcellular compartments. It is significantly more abundant in the acrosome-reacted (P = 0.04) and soluble acrosomal fractions (P = 0.006) (microenvironments where acid-active hyaluronidases function) compared to that of the plasma membrane where neutral hyaluronidases mediate cumulus penetration. Using HA substrate gel electrophoresis, immunoprecipitated HYAL 2 was shown to have catalytic activity at pH 4.0. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation assays reveal that HYAL2 is associated with its cofactor, CD44, consistent with CD44-dependent HYAL2 activity. HYAL2 is also present throughout the epididymis, where Hyal2 transcripts were detected, and in the epididymal luminal fluids. In vitro assays demonstrated that HYAL2 can be acquired on the sperm membrane from epididymal luminal fluids, suggesting that it plays a role in epididymal maturation. Because similar biphasic kinetics are seen for HYAL2 and SPAM1 (Sperm adhesion molecule 1), it is likely that HYAL2 plays a redundant role in the catalysis of megadalton HA to its 20 kDa intermediate during fertilization. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. A Highly Sensitive Assay Using Synthetic Blood Containing Test Microbes for Evaluation of the Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing Material under Applied Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Hara, Masayuki; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure. However, these methods only roughly classified the penetration resistance of fabrics, and the detection sensitivity of the methods and the penetration amount with respect to the relationship between blood and the pathogen have not been studied in detail. Moreover, no standard method using bacteria for evaluation is known. Here, to evaluate penetration resistance of protective clothing materials under applied pressure, the detection sensitivity and the leak amount were investigated by using synthetic blood containing bacteriophage phi-X174 or S. aureus. And the volume of leaked synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration were simultaneously quantified. Our results showed that the penetration detection sensitivity achieved using a test microbial culture was higher than that achieved using synthetic blood at invisible leak level pressures. This finding suggested that there is a potential risk of pathogen penetration even when visual leak of contaminated blood through the protective clothing was not observed. Moreover, at visible leak level pressures, it was found that the amount of test microbe penetration varied at least ten-fold among protective clothing materials classified into the same class of penetration resistance. Analysis of the penetration amount revealed a significant correlation between the volume of penetrated synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration, indicating that the leaked volume of synthetic

  9. Conspecific sperm precedence in two species of tropical sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Laura B; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Conspecific sperm precedence occurs when females are exposed to sperm from males of multiple species, but preferentially use sperm of a conspecific. Conspecific sperm precedence and its mechanisms have been documented widely in terrestrial species, in which complex female behaviors or reproductive tract morphologies can allow many opportunities for female choice and sperm competition, however, the opportunity for conspecific sperm precedence in free spawning marine invertebrates has been largely ignored. Two sea urchin species, Echinometra oblonga and E. sp. C, have high levels of interspecific fertilization in no-choice lab crosses, but no natural hybrids have been found. We performed competitive fertilization assays to test for conspecific sperm precedence and found that eggs of both species showed a marked preference for conspecific sperm when fertilized with heterospecific sperm mixtures. Strong rejection of heterospecific sperm would not have been predicted from no-choice assays and helps explain the lack of natural hybrids. We also found significant variation in hybridization success among crosses. Conspecific sperm precedence in free spawning invertebrates shows that the simple surfaces of eggs and sperm provide ample opportunity for egg choice and sperm competition even in the absence of intricate behavior or complex reproductive morphologies.

  10. Study on the in vitro effect of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on boar sperm-zona pellucida interaction by hemizona assay application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Vainas, E; Boscos, C M; Kyriakis, S C; Alexopoulos, C

    2007-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (zen) impairs fertility in farm animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of zearalenone and its major metabolite (alpha-zearalenol) on boar semen binding capacity, under in vitro conditions. Extended boar semen was exposed to three different concentrations of zen and alpha-zen (40, 60 and 80 microg ml(-1) of semen) for 1 h. Afterwards, the semen was washed and incubated with homologous oocyte hemizona for 4 h. A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the number of tightly attached spermatozoa on the hemizona was obtained at concentrations of 60 microg ml(-1) and 80 microg ml(-1) of zen and alpha-zen. In conclusion, zen and alpha-zen affected the sperm-zona interaction by reducing the ability of boar spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-11

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

  12. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  13. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM. To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  14. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  15. The relationship between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplaski, Mary K; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Mullen, Brendan; Garbens, Alaina; Jarvi, Keith A

    2015-05-14

    In humans, sperm DNA fragmentation rates have been correlated with sperm viability rates. Reduced sperm viability is associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation, while conversely high sperm viability is associated with low rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Both elevated DNA fragmentation rates and poor viability are correlated with impaired male fertility, with a DNA fragmentation rate of >30% indicating subfertility. We postulated that in some men, the sperm viability assay could predict the sperm DNA fragmentation rates. This in turn could reduce the need for sperm DNA fragmentation assay testing, simplifying the infertility investigation and saving money for infertile couples. All men having semen analyses with both viability and DNA fragmentation testing were identified via a prospectively collected database. Viability was measured by eosin-nigrosin assay. DNA fragmentation was measured using the sperm chromosome structure assay. The relationship between DNA fragmentation and viability was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. From 2008-2013, 3049 semen analyses had both viability and DNA fragmentation testing. A strong inverse relationship was seen between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates, with r=-0.83. If viability was ≤50% (n=301) then DNA fragmentation was ≥ 30% for 95% of the samples. If viability was ≥75% (n=1736), then the DNA fragmentation was ≤30% for 95% of the patients. Sperm viability correlates strongly with DNA fragmentation rates. In men with high levels of sperm viability≥75%, or low levels of sperm viability≤ 30%, DFI testing may be not be routinely necessary. Given that DNA fragmentation testing is substantially more expensive than vitality testing, this may represent a valuable cost-saving measure for couples undergoing a fertility evaluation.

  16. Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders; Egeberg, Dorte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+-influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have...... the effect of progesterone on Ca2+-signaling in human sperm cells, can similarly mimic the effect of progesterone on acrosome reaction and sperm penetration. Human exposure to these chemical UV filters may impair fertility by interfering with sperm function, e.g. through induction of premature acrosome...

  17. Improvements in semen quality, sperm fatty acids, and reproductive performance in aged Cobb 500 breeder roosters fed diets containing dried ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, A; Ahangari, Y Jafari; Navidshad, B; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Zhandi, M; Deldar, H; Rezvani, M R; Dadpasand, M; Hashemi, S R; Poureslami, R; Peebles, E D

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid predisposes spermatozoa to lipid peroxidation, resulting in their decreased fertility. Ginger powder (GP), which is high in antioxidative compounds, was fed to aged breeder roosters to improve their reproductive performance. Seventy-five 52-wk-old Cobb 500 breeder roosters randomly received either 0 (GP0), 15 (GP15), or 30 (GP30) g of GP/kg of diet for 14 consecutive wk, during which time their seminal characteristics were evaluated every 2 wk. At the end of the trial, semen samples were tested for determination of sperm fatty acid (FA) concentration and seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, sperm penetration was assayed, and using 225 artificially inseminated hens, fertility and hatchability rates were determined. Dietary GP improved sperm forward motility, live sperm percentage, and sperm plasma membrane integrity. These were associated with a decrease in the percentage of abnormal sperm. The seminal TBA reactive species concentration was lower in birds belonging to the GP30 treatment in comparison with those in the GP15 and GP0 treatments. The feeding of GP resulted in overall decreases and increases in sperm saturated and unsaturated FA, respectively. The n-6:n-3 FA ratio of sperm was decreased in the GP30 group in comparison with controls. The highest levels of sperm C20:4(n-6) and C22:6(n-3) FA were recorded in the GP15 and GP30 treatments, respectively. A higher percentage of sperm C22:4(n-6) FA was found in GP-fed roosters. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity was considerably improved by the GP15 and GP30 treatments. Further, a higher number of perivitelline membrane sperm penetration holes was recorded for the GP30 treatment in comparison with the GP15 and GP0 treatments. Interestingly, although hatchability, chick quality, and embryonic mortality were not affected by dietary treatment, fertility rate was improved by the feeding of GP. In conclusion, dietary GP improved most of

  18. Sperm viability - Determination of sperm viability using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the percentage of viable sperm in a semen sample using stains that differentiates viable (live) sperm from nonviable (dead) sperm. Viable sperm are detected by SYBR-14, which stains the sperm nuclei green. Nonviable sperm are detected by propidium iodide (PI), which stains the sperm red...

  19. Solea senegalensis sperm cryopreservation: New insights on sperm quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F Riesco

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of Senegalese sole sperm can represent an alternative to overcome some reproductive problems of this species. However, it is important to guarantee the safe use of cryopreserved sperm by selecting an appropriate protocol according to a high demand quality need to be ensured. It has been demonstrated that traditional assays such as motility and viability do not provide enough information to identify specific damage caused by cryopreservation process (freezing and thawing. Specific tests, including lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, should be performed. In the present study, motility and lipid peroxidation were performed as specific tests allowing us to discard cryopreservation conditions such as methanol as internal cryoprotectant and bovine serum albumin as external cryoprotectant. In addition, a caspase 3/7 detection by flow cytometry was performed to analyze apoptosis activity in the best selected conditions. Moreover, new highly sensitive tests based on transcript number detection have recently been described in fish sperm cryopreservation. For this reason, a transcript level detection assay was performed on certain oxidative and chaperone genes related to fertilization ability and embryo development (hsp70, hsp90BB, hsp90AA, gpx to select the best cryopreservation conditions. DMSO+ egg yolk proved to be the best cryoprotectant combination in terms of transcript level. This study describes an optimized cryopreservation protocol for Solea senegalensis sperm demonstrating for the first time that transcript degradation is the most sensitive predictor of cell status in this species after cryopreservation.

  20. Efeito da inserção de implante anticoncepcional contendo acetato de nomegestrol sobre a função ovariana, muco cervical e penetração espermática Effects of a contraceptive implant containing nomegestrol acetate on ovarian function, cervical mucus and sperm penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Cristina Barbosa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar o efeito de um único implante de acetato de nomegestrol (Uniplant sobre função ovariana, produção do muco cervical e penetração espermática, quando inserido na fase pré-ovulatória. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico aberto, comparativo, incluindo 20 mulheres com ciclos menstruais regulares que foram estudadas durante um ciclo menstrual antes (controle e um ciclo menstrual depois da inserção do implante. Dosagens de hormônio luteinizante (LH, estradiol e progesterona, ultra-sonografia vaginal, coleta de muco cervical e teste de penetração espermática foram realizados. Para comparação estatística, foi utilizado o Student t-test para grupos pareados e o teste Wilcoxon não paramétrico. Os valores estão mostrados como médias ± erro padrão. RESULTADOS: todos os ciclos controles foram ovulatórios com parâmetros normais. Os níveis pré-ovulatórios de estradiol e LH diminuíram significativamente de 603,2 ± 78,0 pmol/l e 22,5 ± 6,5 UI/l na pré-inserção do implante para 380,7 ± 51,9 pmol/l e 4,9 ± 1,3 UI/l 48 horas após a inserção (p OBJECTIVE: to study the effect of a single contraceptive implant of nomegestrol acetate (Uniplant on the ovarian function, cervical mucus production and sperm penetration, when inserted in women in the preovulatory phase. METHODS: twenty women with regular menstrual cycles were included in an open comparative study. All participants were investigated during one menstrual cycle before (control and one menstrual cycle after implant insertion. Measurements of estradiol, LH, and progesterone, as well as transvaginal sonography, cervical mucus examination and sperm penetration test, were carried out. Statistical analysis was performed with the paired t-test and the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. RESULTS: all control cycles were ovulatory and presented normal parameters. Preovulatory estradiol and LH peak decreased significantly from 603.2 ± 78.0 pmo/l and 22.5 ± 6.5 IU/l at pre

  1. Single layer centrifugation of fresh dromedary camel semen improves sperm quality and in vitro fertilization capacity compared with simple sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Crichton, E G; Morrell, J M; Pukazhenthi, B S; Skidmore, J A

    2017-12-01

    Single layer centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid is a tool for selecting viable mammalian spermatozoa but has not been used previously for fresh dromedary camel sperm. Semen from six camels (2 ejaculates/male) was diluted 1:5 (v:v) or 1:10 (v:v) in a Tris-citrate-fructose buffer for mechanical liquefaction by gentle pipetting. Following liquefaction, semen was processed either by SLC or by centrifugation without a colloid (control). Total and progressive motilities, CASA kinematics, vitality and acrosome integrity (eosin-nigrosin) and plasma membrane integrity (Hypo-osmotic swelling test; HOST), and fertilizing ability in a heterologous assay (zona-free goat oocytes) were evaluated. Both total (p = .003) and progressive motilities (p = .003) were higher in SLC-processed than in control semen samples, irrespective of dilution. Positive HOST values increased when using colloid in 1:5 (p = .001) and 1:10 dilution (p = .010). Colloid-selected sperm had higher penetration rates than controls (p < .001 and p = .02 for 1:5 and 1:10 dilutions, respectively). However, only the SLC sperm at 1:5 dilution showed higher percentages of pronuclear formation (p = .02) than controls. Dilution effect was only significant for total motility before in vitro fertilization, with higher values for the 1:5 dilution (p = .033). The recovery rates of motile sperm between dilutions were similar (26.1% vs 35.4%; p = .226). In conclusion, SLC is a promising tool for selecting functional dromedary camel sperm and warrants more research. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Measuring Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Clinical Outcomes of Medically Assisted Reproduction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissen, Maartje; Wely, Madelon van; Scholten, Irma; Mansell, Steven; Bruin, Jan Peter de; Mol, Ben Willem; Braat, Didi; Repping, Sjoerd; Hamer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation has been associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality, pregnancy rates and increased miscarriage rates. Various methods exist to test sperm DNA fragmentation such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test, the

  3. Influence of sexual stimulation on sperm parameters in semen samples collected via masturbation from normozoospermic men or cryptozoospermic men participating in an assisted reproduction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Sofikitis, N; Mio, Y; Miyagawa, I

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of sexual stimulation via sexually stimulating videotaped visual images (VIM) on sperm function, two semen samples were collected from each of 19 normozoospermic men via masturbation with VIM. Two additional samples were collected from each man via masturbation without VIM. The volume of seminal plasma, total sperm count, sperm motility, percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa, outcome of hypo-osmotic swelling test and zona-free hamster oocyte sperm penetration assay, and markers of the secretory function of prostate were significantly larger in semen samples collected via masturbation with VIM than masturbation without VIM. The improved sperm parameters in the samples collected via masturbation with VIM may reflect an enhanced prostatic secretory function and increased loading of the vas deferens at that time. In a similar protocol, two semen samples were collected via masturbation with VIM from each of 22 non-obstructed azoospermic men. Semen samples from these men had been occasionally positive in the past for a very small number of spermatozoa (cryptozoospermic men). Two additional samples were collected from each cryptozoospermic man via masturbation without VIM. The volume of seminal plasma, total sperm count, sperm motility, and a marker of the secretory function of prostate were significantly larger in semen samples collected via masturbation with VIM. Fourteen out of the 22 men were negative for spermatozoa in both samples collected via masturbation without VIM. These men demonstrated spermatozoa in both samples collected via masturbation with VIM. Six men with immotile spermatozoa in both samples collected via masturbation without VIM exposed motile spermatozoa in both samples collected via masturbation with VIM. High sexual stimulation during masturbation with VIM results in recovery of spermatozoa of greater fertilizing potential both in normozoospermic and cryptozoospermic men. The appearance of spermatozoa after

  4. Penetration equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, C.W. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA) of sperm motility and hyperactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, David; Mortimer, Sharon T

    2013-01-01

    Progressive motility is a vital functional characteristic of ejaculated human spermatozoa that governs their ability to penetrate into, and migrate through, both cervical mucus and the oocyte vestments, and ultimately fertilize the oocyte. A detailed protocol, based on the most common computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system with phase contrast microscope optics, is provided for performing reliable assessments of sperm movement pattern characteristics ("kinematics") in semen. The protocol can also be used with washed sperm suspensions where, in addition, the percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa can also be derived. Using CASA technology it is also possible to identify biologically, and hence clinically, important subpopulations of spermatozoa (e.g., those in semen with good mucus-penetrating characteristics, or those showing hyperactivation when incubated under capacitating conditions) by applying multi-parametric definitions on a cell-by-cell basis.

  6. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  7. Semen analysis and sperm function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Daniel R; Oehninger, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Despite controversy regarding the clinical value of semen analysis, male fertility investigation still relies on a standardized analysis of the semen parameters. This is especially true for infertility clinics in both developing and developed countries. Other optional tests or sophisticated technologies have not been widely applied. The current review addresses important changes in the analysis of semen as described in the new World Health Organization (WHO) manual for semen analysis. The most important change in the manual is the use of evidence-based publications as references to determine cutoff values for normality. Apart from the above mentioned changes, the initial evaluation and handling methods remain, in most instances, the same as in previous editions. Furthermore, the review evaluates the importance of quality control in andrology with emphasis on the evaluation of sperm morphology. WHO sperm morphology training programmes for Sub-Saharan countries were initiated at Tygerberg Hospital in 1995. The external quality control programme has ensured that the majority of participants have maintained their morphological reading skills acquired during initial training. This review reports on current sperm functional tests, such as the induced acrosome reaction, and sperm-zona pellucida binding assays, as well as the impact of sperm quality in terms of DNA integrity, and the relationship of sperm function tests to sperm morphology.

  8. How is plasminogen/plasmin system contributing to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grullón, Luis A; Gadea, Joaquín; Mondéjar, Irene; Matás, Carmen; Romar, Raquel; Coy, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Plasminogen is present in the oviduct, on the zona pellucida (ZP) and on oolemma, and reduces the number of sperm penetrating the oocyte during in vitro fertilization in pig and cow. It is unknown how this reduction occurs. We tested whether plasminogen (1) changed the ZP resistance to enzymatic digestion thus making the passage of the spermatozoa across it difficult; (2) reduced the sperm functionality, assessed by sperm viability, motility, spontaneous acrosome reaction and membrane lipid disorder; or (3) affected the sperm-ZP binding before or after sperm-ZP interaction. The mechanism by which plasminogen/plasmin system contributes to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte is not inducing a ZP hardening or a decrease in sperm functionality but detaching more than 50% of sperm bound to the ZP. It is suggested that the fertilizing spermatozoon activates plasminogen into plasmin at the oocyte surface and that plasmin removes additional spermatozoa attached to the ZP.

  9. Comparison of four methods to evaluate sperm DNA integrity between mouse caput and cauda epididymidis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Miranda, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that transit through the epididymis involves an increase in the compaction of sperm chromatin, which acquires fully condensed status at the caput epididymidis. The purpose of this study was to compare the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay, the comet assay, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test by analysing spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymidis in order to demo...

  10. Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid peroxidation following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were no consistent associations between post-thaw sperm LPO and sperm quality characteristics. It could be suggested that the increased LPO of membrane phospholipids is associated with higher susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to cryo-induced DNA damage. Keywords: Comet assay measurements, cryopreservation ...

  11. DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-10-15

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformation of sperm nuclei to metaphase chromosomes in the cytoplasm of maturing oocytes of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H J; Masui, Y

    1986-03-01

    Zona-free oocytes of the mouse were inseminated at prometaphase I or metaphase I of meiotic maturation in vitro, and the behavior of the sperm nuclei within the oocyte cytoplasm was examined. If the oocytes were penetrated by up to three sperm, maturation continued during subsequent incubation and became arrested at metaphase II. Meanwhile, each sperm nucleus underwent the following changes. First, the chromatin became slightly dispersed. By 6 h after insemination, this dispersed chromatin had become coalesced into a small mass, from which short chromosomal arms later became projected. Between 12 and 18 h after insemination, each mass of chromatin became resolved into 20 discrete metaphase chromosomes. In contrast, if oocytes were penetrated by four to six sperm, oocyte meiosis was arrested at metaphase I, and each sperm nucleus was transformed into a small mass of chromatin rather than into metaphase chromosomes. If oocytes were penetrated by more than six sperm, the maternal chromosomes became either decondensed or pycnotic, and the sperm nuclei were transformed into larger masses of chromatin. As control experiments, immature and fully mature metaphase II oocytes were inseminated. In the immature oocytes, which were kept immature by exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP, no morphological changes in the sperm nucleus were observed. On the other hand, in the fully mature oocytes, which were activated by sperm penetration, the sperm nucleus was transformed into the male pronucleus. Therefore, the cytoplasm of the maturing oocyte develops an activity that can transform the highly condensed chromatin of the sperm into metaphase chromosomes. However, the capacity of an oocyte is limited, such that it can transform a maximum of three sperm nuclei into metaphase chromosomes. Furthermore, the presence of more than six sperm causes a loss of the ability of the oocyte to maintain the maternal chromosomes in a metaphase state.

  13. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR......-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses....

  14. The application of in vitro sperm competition test to evaluate the impact of ZP-derived peptides on fertilization capacity of cat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuyu; Greube, Alexa; Ji, Weizhi; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to establish a sensitive in vitro assay to assess the binding capacity of cat spermatozoa. Cat oocytes and epididymal sperm cells were isolated from gonads and cultured for in vitro fertilization. Before fertilization, the sperm cells were incubated either in 10 microM green dye Fluo-3-AM or 10 microM orange dye CellTracker Orange CMTMR (Molecular Probes), respectively. After removing the dyes by washing, sperm cells stained with each dye were added to medium drops containing oocytes in various proportions and cultured for 16 h at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The oocytes were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm bound to oocytes, and stained with different colors, were counted. When fresh epididymal sperm were mixed in at a specific proportion, the number of sperm bound to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes reflected the proportion of differently colored sperm in the medium. This indicated that neither dye influenced the binding capacity of cat sperm. Mixing fresh and cryopreserved sperm, however, resulted in a higher number of fresh sperm bound to the oocyte surface in comparison to frozen-thawed sperm. Also, the pre-incubation of cat sperm cells with ZP derived peptide reduced the sperm binding capacity by 40%. In conclusion, the presented sperm competition assay allows assessment of fertilizing capacity of cat spermatozoa in vitro when a mixture of two different populations is used. The applied supravital fluorescence dyes do not affect motility and binding capacity of sperm cells and were clearly distinguishable under fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that the assay can be used to study the impact of sperm treatment, such as cryopreservation or pre-incubation in bioactive peptides, on fertilizing capacity.

  15. Boar sperm encapsulation reduces in vitro polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, M; Bucco, M; Galeati, G; Spinaci, M; Villani, S; Chlapanidas, T; Ghidoni, I; Vigo, D; Torre, M L

    2010-04-01

    A boar sperm encapsulation technology in barium alginate has been developed to enhance reproductive performances and spermatozoa preservation time; aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro sperm encapsulation on polyspermy as a function of storage time at 18 degrees C. A total number of 40 in vitro fertilization (IVF) tests were performed using encapsulated or diluted spermatozoa (20 IVF each treatment). Overall, 1288 in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized with spermatozoa stored at 24, 48 or 72 h at 18 degrees C for both treatments polyspermy and normospermy, and the non-penetration rates were assessed by optical microscopy. Results indicate a significant reduction in risk of polyspermic oocytes when spermatozoa are preserved in barium alginate membranes (incidence risk ratio: 0.766 with respect to diluted); such enhancement could be explained by lesser damage of sperm membranes achieved by encapsulation technology.

  16. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay......The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...

  17. Sperm competition in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R

    1998-05-01

    Sperm competition in birds occurs when a female is inseminated by more than one male during a single breeding cycle. Despite most birds being socially monogamous, sperm competition is widespread and results in frequent extra-pair paternity. Sperm competition is a fundamental part of sexual selection since it results in differential reproductive success among males. Male adaptations to sperm competition include relatively large testes, large sperm stores and long spermatozoa, mate guarding and frequent pair copulations. Females show no obvious morphological adaptations to sperm competition but, by controlling whether copulations are successful, they probably determine its frequency and extent. Despite this, the evolutionary benefits females acquire from extra-pair fertilizations are poorly understood. Experiments in which females are inseminated with equal numbers of spermatozoa from two males usually show last male sperm precedence. Understanding the mechanism of sperm competition requires understanding of why the last male to inseminate a female fertilizes a disproportionate number of eggs. The data from sperm competition studies on the domestic fowl, turkeys and zebra finches are consistent only with a passive sperm loss model of sperm competition. The mechanism is as follows: after insemination, spermatozoa enter the sperm storage tubules located in the oviduct, from which they are lost at a constant rate over days or weeks. All else being equal, the interval between two inseminations determines the probability of fertilization: the second of two inseminations fertilizes most eggs simply because, by the time fertilization occurs, fewer of these spermatozoa have been lost. Other factors also affect the outcome of sperm competition: the timing of insemination relative to oviposition, the differential fertilizing capacity of males and differences in the numbers of spermatozoa inseminated; as a consequence, last male sperm precedence is not automatic. On the basis

  18. Characterization and possible function of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic protein GAPDHS in mammalian sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaryan, Hasmik; Dorosh, Andriy; Capkova, Jana; Manaskova-Postlerova, Pavla; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozak, Pavel; Peknicova, Jana

    2015-03-08

    Sperm proteins are important for the sperm cell function in fertilization. Some of them are involved in the binding of sperm to the egg. We characterized the acrosomal sperm protein detected by a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (Hs-8) that was prepared in our laboratory by immunization of BALB/c mice with human ejaculated sperms and we tested the possible role of this protein in the binding assay. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling, gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and protein sequencing were used for Hs-8 antigen characterization. Functional analysis of GAPDHS from the sperm acrosome was performed in the boar model using sperm/zona pellucida binding assay. Monoclonal antibody Hs-8 is an anti-human sperm antibody that cross-reacts with the Hs-8-related protein in spermatozoa of other mammalian species (boar, mouse). In the immunofluorescence test, Hs-8 antibody recognized the protein localized in the acrosomal part of the sperm head and in the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. In immunoblotting test, MoAb Hs-8 labelled a protein of 45 kDa in the extract of human sperm. Sequence analysis identified protein Hs-8 as GAPDHS (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrohenase-spermatogenic). For this reason, commercial mouse anti-GAPDHS MoAb was applied in control tests. Both antibodies showed similar staining patterns in immunofluorescence tests, in electron microscopy and in immunoblot analysis. Moreover, both Hs-8 and anti-GAPDHS antibodies blocked sperm/zona pellucida binding. GAPDHS is a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme involved in energy production during spermatogenesis and sperm motility; its role in the sperm head is unknown. In this study, we identified the antigen with Hs8 antibody and confirmed its localization in the apical part of the sperm head in addition to the principal piece of the flagellum. In an indirect binding assay, we confirmed the potential role of GAPDHS as a binding protein that is involved in the secondary sperm

  19. Pregnancy prediction by free sperm DNA and sperm DNA fragmentation in semen specimens of IVF/ICSI-ET patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounartzi, Theofania; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Anifandis, George; Messini, Christina I; Koutsonikou, Chrysoula; Kouris, Spyros; Satra, Maria; Sotiriou, Sotirios; Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of free sperm plasma DNA (f-spDNA) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), in semen specimens from men undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) treatments. Fifty-five semen samples were evaluated during 55 consecutive IVF/ICSI-ET cycles. F-spDNA was determined by conventional quantitative real-time PCR-Sybr green detection approach, while evaluation of sperm DNA damage was performed using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay. While f-spDNA only correlated with total sperm count, SDF correlated with many semen parameters (including sperm concentration, total sperm count and the per cent of non-progressive sperm). Neither SDF nor the proportion of sperm with small or no halos correlated with f-spDNA. Interestingly, smoking status correlated with f-spDNA but not with SDF. Although these two factors seem to interact for the prediction of pregnancy, receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that SDF had a stronger predictive value (AUC = 0.7, p  0.05). SDF and f-spDNA may not be associated together but they interact at a significant level in order to exert their actions on pregnancy outcome. Among the two markers, SDF appears to have stronger and significantly predictive value for pregnancy success.

  20. Simplified Mathematical Model to Evaluate Sperm Concentration in Kremer'S Capillary Tube Test: A Preliminary Study Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Tang

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: The strong correlation of sperm concentrations between these two methods suggests that the postulated equation may provide a simplified calculation model to indicate penetration efficiency in the capillary tube test.

  1. Combined albumin and bicarbonate induces head-to-head sperm agglutination which physically prevents equine sperm-oviduct binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Sostaric, Edita; De Schauwer, Catharina; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    In many species, sperm binding to oviduct epithelium is believed to be an essential step in generating a highly fertile capacitated sperm population primed for fertilization. In several mammalian species, this interaction is based on carbohydrate-lectin recognition. D-galactose has previously been characterized as a key molecule that facilitates sperm-oviduct binding in the horse. We used oviduct explant and oviduct apical plasma membrane (APM) assays to investigate the effects of various carbohydrates; glycosaminoglycans; lectins; S-S reductants; and the capacitating factors albumin, Ca(2+) and HCO3(-) on sperm-oviduct binding in the horse. Carbohydrate-specific lectin staining indicated that N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) and D-mannose or D-glucose were the most abundant carbohydrates on equine oviduct epithelia, whereas D-galactose moieties were not detected. However, in a competitive binding assay, sperm-oviduct binding density was not influenced by any tested carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans, lectins or D-penicillamine, nor did the glycosaminoglycans induce sperm tail-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, N-glycosidase F (PNGase) pretreatment of oviduct explants and APM did not alter sperm-oviduct binding density. By contrast, a combination of the sperm-capacitating factors albumin and HCO3(-) severely reduced (>10-fold) equine sperm-oviduct binding density by inducing rapid head-to-head agglutination, both of which events were independent of Ca(2+) and an elevated pH (7.9). Conversely, neither albumin and HCO3(-) nor any other capacitating factor could induce release of oviduct-bound sperm. In conclusion, a combination of albumin and HCO3(-) markedly induced sperm head-to-head agglutination which physically prevented stallion sperm to bind to oviduct epithelium. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Sperm DNA damage has a negative association with live-birth rates after IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Proutski, I; Stevenson, M; Jennings, D; McManus, J; Lutton, D; Lewis, S E M

    2013-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage has a negative impact on pregnancy rates following assisted reproduction treatment (ART). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation and live-birth rates after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The alkaline Comet assay was employed to measure sperm DNA fragmentation in native semen and in spermatozoa following density-gradient centrifugation in semen samples from 203 couples undergoing IVF and 136 couples undergoing ICSI. Men were divided into groups according to sperm DNA damage. Following IVF, couples with sperm DNA fragmentation had a live-birth rate of 33%; in contrast, couples with >50% sperm DNA fragmentation had a much lower live-birth rate of 13%. Following ICSI, no significant differences in sperm DNA damage were found between any groups of patients. Sperm DNA damage was also associated with low live-birth rates following IVF in both men and couples with idiopathic infertility: 39% of couples and 41% of men with idiopathic infertility have high sperm DNA damage. Sperm DNA damage assessed by the Comet assay has a close inverse relationship with live-birth rates after IVF. Sperm DNA damage has a negative impact on assisted reproduction treatment outcome, in particular, on pregnancy rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation and live-birth rates after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The alkaline Comet assay was employed to measure sperm DNA fragmentation in native semen and in spermatozoa following density-gradient centrifugation in semen samples from 203 couples undergoing IVF and 136 couples undergoing ICSI. Men were divided into groups according to sperm DNA damage and treatment outcome. Following IVF, couples with sperm DNA fragmentation had a live birth rate of 33%. In contrast, couples with >50% sperm DNA fragmentation had a much lower live-birth rate of 13% following IVF. Following ICSI, there were

  3. Sperm competition and the evolution of sperm design in mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-01-01

    .... The hypothesis that, when ejaculates compete with rival males, an increase in sperm size would make sperm more competitive because it would increase sperm swimming speed, has generated contradictory...

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of sperm chromatin dispersion test to evaluate sperm deoxyribonucleic acid damage in men with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Cinthia M; Esteves, Sandro C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and the terminal uridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay for assessment of sperm DNA damage. Prospective comparative experimental study. Andrology laboratory. Twenty subfertile men with unexplained infertility. Sperm DNA damage was determined in the same semen samples using the TUNEL assay with fluorescence microscopy and the SCD test with bright-field microscopy. Correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic analysis outcomes. The TUNEL assay was used as the reference standard to identify optimal cutoff points for assessing DNA damage by SCD. The SCD test detected a significantly higher proportion of sperm with damaged DNA (20.6% ± 14.0%) than the TUNEL assay (11.5% ± 7.3%). Spearman's rank correlation showed that the methods were not comparable (r = 0.29). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that 15% was the best SCD cutoff point to classify patients within the same levels of DNA fragmentation, normal or abnormal, as determined by the TUNEL assay, with an accuracy of 69%. The SCD test is more sensitive than the TUNEL assay for the assessment of DNA damage in men with unexplained infertility. Although the methods are poorly correlated, SCD may discriminate men with normal and abnormal sperm DNA damage with moderate accuracy when compared with TUNEL. It is important to distinguish between the methods because they differently evaluate sperm DNA damage. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complexin I is required for mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longmei; Burkin, Heather R; Shi, Xudong; Li, Lingjun; Reim, Kerstin; Miller, David J

    2007-09-15

    Regulated exocytosis in many cells is controlled by the SNARE complex, whose core includes three proteins that promote membrane fusion. Complexins I and II are highly related cytosolic proteins that bind tightly to the assembled SNARE complex and regulate neuronal exocytosis. Like somatic cells, sperm undergo regulated exocytosis; however, sperm release a single large vesicle, the acrosome, whose release has different characteristics than neuronal exocytosis. Acrosomal release is triggered upon sperm adhesion to the mammalian egg extracellular matrix (zona pellucida) to allow penetration of the egg coat. Membrane fusion occurs at multiple points within the acrosome but how fusion is activated and the formation and progression of fusion points is synchronized is unclear. We show that complexins I and II are found in acrosome-intact mature sperm, bind to SNARE complex proteins, and are not detected in sperm after acrosomal exocytosis (acrosome reaction). Although complexin-I-deficient sperm acrosome-react in response to calcium ionophore, they do not acrosome-react in response to egg zona pellucida proteins and have reduced fertilizing ability, in vitro. Complexin II is present in the complexin-I-deficient sperm and its expression is increased in complexin-I-deficient testes. Therefore, complexin I functions in exocytosis in two related but morphologically distinct secretory processes. Sperm are unusual because they express both complexins I and II but have a unique and specific requirement for complexin I.

  6. Do "sperm trading" simultaneous hermaphrodites always trade sperm?

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Anthes; Michiels, Nico K.

    2005-01-01

    Sperm trading can be a mechanism to solve the conflict over sex roles in hermaphrodites with copulation, sperm competition, and sperm digestion. If present, sperm donation depends on sperm receipt, resulting in conditional reciprocal inseminations. Conditional reciprocity can involve three traded commodities: penis intromissions on a yes-or-no basis, intromission durations (indicating ejaculate size), or sperm transfer. If present, animals that refuse to donate (cheaters) should be deserted b...

  7. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  8. The effect of flash-freezing temperature on stallion sperm DNA structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, R; Varner, D D; Bissett, W; Blanchard, T L; Teague, S R; Love, C C

    2017-06-01

    The effect of flash-freezing storage temperature on stallion sperm DNA has not been evaluated. Commonly, sperm are flash-frozen at various temperatures to preserve sperm DNA prior to analysis. It is unclear whether the temperature at which sperm are frozen and stored may affect the results of DNA assays. In this study, the neutral comet assay was used to evaluate the effect of flash-freezing storage temperature (freezer [-60 °C], dry ice [-78.5 °C], liquid nitrogen [-196 °C]) compared to fresh sperm DNA structure. In addition, intra- and inter-assay and intra- and inter-stallion variabilities were determined. All comet tail measures were higher following any flash-freezing method, as compared to fresh sperm DNA (P  0.05). For most comet variables, intra- and inter-assay variabilities were comet head length (HL) and width (CW) were less variable as compared to comet tail values, i.e., % comet tail DNA (T-DNA), tail length (TL), tail moment (OTM), and tail migration (TM). Certain comet tail values in fresh (% T-DNA, and OTM) and flash-frozen sperm (OTM, % T-DNA, TL, and TM) were correlated to the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) variable, COMP-α t . The comet tail measures were negatively correlated to % morphologically normal sperm (P sperm motility were not correlated to any morphologic sperm feature in this group of stallions (P > 0.05). While significant differences in the structure of the sperm DNA were identified in the flash-frozen as compared to the fresh sperm DNA with the neutral comet assay, it cannot be assumed that these changes are fertility limiting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. [Optimization of sperm alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuang; Fan, Lang; Wu, Xi-yan; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Ke-qian

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the main factors that influence the results of sperm alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), optimize the conditions, and standardize its procedures. Using alkaline SCGE, we detected the DNA fragments of sperm treated with different concentrations of H2O2 and determined the influences of the number of agarose gel layers, pH during DNA unwinding and electrophoresis, the time of DNA unwinding and electrophoresis, and cumulative sperm number on the results of sperm alkaline SCGE. Then we optimized the procedures, analyzed the repeatability of the optimized method, and examined 40 semen samples using the method. Three agarose gel layers could reduce the background. The optimal pH during DNA unwinding and electrophoresis was 10, and the best times for DNA unwinding and electrophoresis were 40 min and 30 min, respectively. Fifty sperm were adequate to ensure the reliability of the results. Based on the percentage of tail DNA, the intra- and inter-assay repeatabilities of the optimized sperm alkaline SCGE were 3.12% and 7.13%, and by the DNA damage score, they were 2.38% and 6.09%, respectively. Sperm DNA fragments were significantly increased in the infertile patients with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia as compared with healthy fertile males (P sperm alkaline SCGE, highly repeatable and easy to be standardized, can be applied to the clinical detection of sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men.

  10. Albumin is synthesized in epididymis and aggregates in a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex involved in sperm-egg fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kélen Fabíola Arroteia

    Full Text Available The epididymis has an important role in the maturation of sperm for fertilization, but little is known about the epididymal molecules involved in sperm modifications during this process. We have previously described the expression pattern for an antigen in epididymal epithelial cells that reacts with the monoclonal antibody (mAb TRA 54. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses suggest that the epitope of the epididymal antigen probably involves a sugar moiety that is released into the epididymal lumen in an androgen-dependent manner and subsequently binds to luminal sperm. Using column chromatography, SDS-PAGE with in situ digestion and mass spectrometry, we have identified the protein recognized by mAb TRA 54 in mouse epididymal epithelial cells. The ∼65 kDa protein is part of a high molecular mass complex (∼260 kDa that is also present in the sperm acrosomal vesicle and is completely released after the acrosomal reaction. The amino acid sequence of the protein corresponded to that of albumin. Immunoprecipitates with anti-albumin antibody contained the antigen recognized by mAb TRA 54, indicating that the epididymal molecule recognized by mAb TRA 54 is albumin. RT-PCR detected albumin mRNA in the epididymis and fertilization assays in vitro showed that the glycoprotein complex containing albumin was involved in the ability of sperm to recognize and penetrate the egg zona pellucida. Together, these results indicate that epididymal-derived albumin participates in the formation of a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex that has an important role in egg fertilization.

  11. Albumin is synthesized in epididymis and aggregates in a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex involved in sperm-egg fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroteia, Kélen Fabíola; Barbieri, Mainara Ferreira; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Hyslop, Stephen; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira; Pereira, Luís Antonio Violin Dias

    2014-01-01

    The epididymis has an important role in the maturation of sperm for fertilization, but little is known about the epididymal molecules involved in sperm modifications during this process. We have previously described the expression pattern for an antigen in epididymal epithelial cells that reacts with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) TRA 54. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses suggest that the epitope of the epididymal antigen probably involves a sugar moiety that is released into the epididymal lumen in an androgen-dependent manner and subsequently binds to luminal sperm. Using column chromatography, SDS-PAGE with in situ digestion and mass spectrometry, we have identified the protein recognized by mAb TRA 54 in mouse epididymal epithelial cells. The ∼65 kDa protein is part of a high molecular mass complex (∼260 kDa) that is also present in the sperm acrosomal vesicle and is completely released after the acrosomal reaction. The amino acid sequence of the protein corresponded to that of albumin. Immunoprecipitates with anti-albumin antibody contained the antigen recognized by mAb TRA 54, indicating that the epididymal molecule recognized by mAb TRA 54 is albumin. RT-PCR detected albumin mRNA in the epididymis and fertilization assays in vitro showed that the glycoprotein complex containing albumin was involved in the ability of sperm to recognize and penetrate the egg zona pellucida. Together, these results indicate that epididymal-derived albumin participates in the formation of a high molecular mass glycoprotein complex that has an important role in egg fertilization.

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation on capacitated human sperm tail detected by immunofluorescence correlates strongly with sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding but not with the ZP-induced acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D Y; Clarke, G N; Baker, H W G

    2006-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) of human sperm is related to sperm capacitation and zona pellucida (ZP) binding. The aim of this study was to determine whether the TP of capacitated sperm is a useful marker for the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP and undergo the ZP-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Semen samples were obtained from 115 subfertile men with sperm count > or =20 x 10(6)/ml, motility > or =25% and variable morphology. Motile sperm (2 x 10(6)/ml) selected by swim-up were incubated with four oocytes for 2 h, and the number of sperm bound to the ZP and the ZP-induced AR was examined. TP of sperm tail was assessed by immunofluorescence (IF) with anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody. The time course and effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on TP were also studied. TP was stimulated more by dbcAMP (P ZP binding but not with the ZP-induced AR. Sperm TP detected by IF correlates strongly with sperm-ZP binding capacity but not with the ZP-induced AR. This simple IF assay of TP may be a clinically useful test of sperm function that is predictive of normal sperm ZP-binding capacity.

  13. Effect of semen preparation technique and its incubation on sperm quality in the Moroccan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulmaouahib, S; Madkour, A; Kaarouch, I; Saadani, B; Sefrioui, O; Louanjli, N; Copin, H; Cadi, R; Benkhalifa, M

    2017-08-01

    In in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm preparation as critical part and influencing the sperm quality is especially dependent on the chosen technique itself and incubation parameters including temperature and CO2. In this study, we compared firstly density-gradient centrifugation technique (DGC) to the adapted DGC using the sperm pellet of 80% fraction (DGC/80P) in order to improve the sperm yield. Secondly, this study led to evaluate different sperm incubation conditions based on temperature effect (room temperature (RT = 23°C) versus 35°C) and in the other hand, with or without 5% CO2 during 24 hrs. Based on evaluating sperm conventional parameters and the DNA damage using TUNEL assay, our result showed that DGC/80P increased sperm quality compared to DGC with 25% of improvement. For temperature incubation effect after 24 hrs, 35°C increased the DNA damage and decreased the sperm quality while RT could improve sperm motility by 38%. Moreover, the sperm incubation with 5% CO2 after 24 hrs realised a negative impact on sperm parameters and its DNA damage. Indeed, for current IVF practice, a good sperm quality can be maintained for several hours at room temperature, while the sperm preparation is processed using the DGC/80P without CO2. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Comparison of four methods to evaluate sperm DNA integrity between mouse caput and cauda epididymidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Miranda, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that transit through the epididymis involves an increase in the compaction of sperm chromatin, which acquires fully condensed status at the caput epididymidis. The purpose of this study was to compare the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay, the comet assay, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test by analysing spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymidis in order to demonstrate the ability of each technique to discriminate between different degrees of sperm maturity related to chromatin compaction and DNA fragmentation. Our results suggest that some populations of DNA-fragmented spermatozoa associated with immature sperm can only be identified using the comet assay and the SCSA but not with the SCD test or the TUNEL assay. PMID:22002436

  15. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  16. Effect of natural neosporosis on bull sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Somayeh; Hamidinejat, Hossein; Fatemi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sardarifar, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    Neospora is one of the protozoans that can infect the male and female's reproduction system. Despite the existence of N. caninum in the genitalia, its effect on sperm characteristics was not studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of natural neosporosis on the sperm parameters of bulls. Using 30 bulls with neosporosis diagnosed by modified agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 15 healthy bulls, some sperm parameters such as sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology were studied and compared. Also, the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level as the biomarker of lipid peroxidation was investigated. Results showed that sperm concentration, viability, and motility were significantly lower in bulls with neosporosis in the present study. There were no significant differences in activities of SOD and MDA level but GPX activity was significantly increased in infected bulls.

  17. Sperm storage potential and daily sperm production of brown male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testes and epididymis were homogenised separately in 0.154M NaCl. Sperm reserves in the homogenates were determined. Sperm production efficiency and daily sperm production were also determined from testicular homogenates and epididymal sperm reserves from epididymal homogenate. The results showed that ...

  18. Sperm vacuoles cannot help to differentiate fertile men from infertile men with normal sperm parameter values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatimel, N; Léandri, R D; Marino, L; Esquerre-Lamare, C; Parinaud, J

    2014-11-01

    Can the assessment of sperm vacuoles at high magnification contribute to the explanation of idiopathic infertility? The characteristics of sperm head vacuoles (number, area, position) are no different between fertile controls and patients with unexplained infertility. Until now, the assessment of sperm head vacuoles has been focused on a therapeutic goal in the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) procedure, but it could be pertinent as a new diagnostic tool for the evaluation of male fertility. This diagnostic test study with blind assessment included a population of 50 fertile men and 51 men with idiopathic infertility. They were selected from September 2011 to May 2013. Fertile men were within couples who had a spontaneous pregnancy in the last 2 years. Infertile men were within couples who had unexplained infertility and were consulting in our centre. After analysis of conventional sperm parameters, we investigated the number, position and area of sperm head vacuoles at high magnification (×6000) with interference contrast using an image analysis software. We also carried out a nuclear status analysis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay (TUNEL), sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and aniline blue staining. Concerning the vacuoles data, we did not find any significant difference between the two populations. We found no significant correlation between the vacuolar parameters (mean number of vacuoles, relative vacuole area and percentage of spermatozoa with large vacuoles) and either conventional semen parameters, male age or the data from the aniline blue staining, SCSA assay and TUNEL assay. Despite the fact all of the vacuole parameters values were identical in fertile and infertile men, we cannot totally exclude that a very small cause of unexplained infertilities could be related to an excess of sperm vacuoles. In line with its widely debated use as a therapeutic tool, sperm vacuole

  19. [Type of sperm DNA strand breaks in infertile men and its clinical implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren-xiong; Chen, Jian-wei; Huang, Ji-hong; Zhang, Xiao-xia; Cui, Yun

    2015-07-01

    To observe the characteristics of sperm single-stranded DNA breaks (SSB) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) in infertile men, explore the association of DSB with male infertility, and provide a new observation index and idea for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This study involved 60 infertile men (infertility group) and 30 normal healthy males with infertile wives (control group). We comparatively analyzed the seminal parameters of the two groups, determined sperm concentration and viability using the computer aided sperm analysis system, measured the sperm survival rate by hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) test, examined sperm morphology by Diff-Quick staining, and detected sperm DNA damage by two-tail comet assay. Nine two-tail comet models were established for detecting sperm DNA integrity. Comparisons between the fertility and control groups showed that the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was (33.8 ± 13.1) vs (16.3 ± 7.9)% (P 0.05), the SSB-DFI/DFI was (56.8 ± 32.4) vs (91.4 ± 27.8)% (P 0.05); DFI was correlated negatively with the percentage of progressively motile sperm, sperm survival rate, and the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P sperm concentration (P > 0.05); both DSB-DFI and DSB-DFI/DFI showed a negative correlation with sperm concentration, sperm survival rate, and the percentages of progressively motile sperm and morphologically normal sperm (P sperm DNA strand damage is of much reference value for the assessment of male fertility.

  20. Melatonin ameliorates the adverse effects of leptin on sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez A Almabhouh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of melatonin on leptin-induced changes in sperm parameters in adult rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either leptin or leptin and melatonin or melatonin for 6 weeks. Leptin was given daily via the intraperitoneal route (60 μg kg−1 body weight and melatonin was given in drinking water (10 mg kg−1 or 20 mg kg−1 body weight per day. Upon completion, sperm count, sperm morphology, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Comet assay, TUNEL assay, gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes, respiratory chain reaction enzymes, DNA damage, and apoptosis genes were estimated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Sperm count was significantly lower whereas the fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and sperm DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in rats treated with leptin only. Microarray analysis revealed significant upregulation of apoptosis-inducing factor, histone acetyl transferase, respiratory chain reaction enzyme, cell necrosis and DNA repair genes, and downregulation of antioxidant enzyme genes in leptin-treated rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed significant decreases in glutathione peroxidase 1 expression with increases in the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor and histone acetyl transferase in leptin-treated rats. There was no change in the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3. In conclusion, the adverse effects of leptin on sperm can be prevented by concurrent melatonin administration.

  1. Comparison of DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm of dogs using Sperm Chromatin Structure Analysis and Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, I; Urbano, M; Dorado, J; Morrell, J M; Al-Essawe, E; Johannisson, A; Hidalgo, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm of dogs using the SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) and SCDt (Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test). For this purpose, epididymis from neutered dogs were minced and incubated in a Tris-based extender. The recovered sperm were frozen in a two-step cooling protocol with Tris-based, egg yolk extender and increasing glycerol concentrations, and stored in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, each replica was incubated at 38°C for 24h. Sperm DNA fragmentation index (sDFi) was assessed by SCSA and SCDt at 0, 3, 6 and 24h of incubation and compared within treatments. The relationship and agreement between techniques were evaluated by Pearson's coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The results were expressed as mean±standard error of the mean (SEM). Both techniques indicated there was a significant increase of DNA fragmentation after 24h of incubation. Moderate correlation (r=0.65; P0.05) was found between SCSA and SCDt. The lack of agreement indicates that SCSA and SCDt measure different aspects of DNA fragmentation. Four halo morphologies were detected after 24h of incubation using the SCDt: un-fragmented DNA with a small halo, fragmented DNA with large halo and two new halo presentations never described before for dog sperm: receding sperm with a disappearing halo and "bald" sperm without chromatin dispersion halo around the core. Sperm without a halo of chromatin dispersion are not described by the manufacturer and are similar to un-fragmented sperm, which could lead to erroneous results when using the SCDt. Further studies with different incubation periods and including the new morphologies described in this study should be performed. In conclusion, although SCSA and SCDt can evaluate the changes in the sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics of frozen-thawed epididymal dog sperm, these provided different findings on sperm DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2017

  2. How Is Plasminogen/Plasmin System Contributing to Regulate Sperm Entry Into the Oocyte?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grullón, Luis A.; Gadea, Joaquín; Mondéjar, Irene; Matás, Carmen; Romar, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Plasminogen is present in the oviduct, on the zona pellucida (ZP) and on oolemma, and reduces the number of sperm penetrating the oocyte during in vitro fertilization in pig and cow. It is unknown how this reduction occurs. We tested whether plasminogen (1) changed the ZP resistance to enzymatic digestion thus making the passage of the spermatozoa across it difficult; (2) reduced the sperm functionality, assessed by sperm viability, motility, spontaneous acrosome reaction and membrane lipid disorder; or (3) affected the sperm–ZP binding before or after sperm–ZP interaction. The mechanism by which plasminogen/plasmin system contributes to regulate sperm entry into the oocyte is not inducing a ZP hardening or a decrease in sperm functionality but detaching more than 50% of sperm bound to the ZP. It is suggested that the fertilizing spermatozoon activates plasminogen into plasmin at the oocyte surface and that plasmin removes additional spermatozoa attached to the ZP. PMID:23420828

  3. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of <15 m ml(-1) . The significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Improving the resolution of cryopreserved X- and Y-sperm during DNA flow cytometric analysis with the addition of Percoll to quench the fluorescence of dead sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, J.; Hoebe, R. A.; Merton, J. S.; Haring, R. M.; Bakker, P. J.; Aten, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The most effective method to control the sex of offspring is by separating X- from Y-bearing sperm on the basis of their DNA content. Sperm can be stained with Hoechst 33342 and efficiently sexed using a flow cytometer/cell sorter. However, applying this established assay to cryopreserved bovine

  5. Modelling a tethered mammalian sperm cell undergoing hyperactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, M.P.

    2012-09-01

    The beat patterns of mammalian sperm flagella can be categorised into two different types. The first involves symmetric waves propagating down the flagellum with a net linear propulsion of the sperm cell. The second, hyperactive, waveform is classified by vigorous asymmetric waves of higher amplitude, lower wavenumber and frequency propagating down the flagellum resulting in highly curved trajectories. The latter beat pattern is part of the capacitation process whereby sperm prepare for the prospective penetration of the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg. Hyperactivation is often observed to initiate as sperm escape from epithelial and ciliary bindings formed within the isthmic regions of the female oviducts, leading to a conjecture in the literature that this waveform is mechanically important for sperm escape. Hence, we explore the mechanical effects of hyperactivation on a tethered sperm, focussing on a Newtonian fluid. Using a resistive force theory model we demonstrate that hyperactivation can indeed generate forces that pull the sperm away from a tethering point and consequently a hyperactivated sperm cell bound to an epithelial surface need not always be pushed by its flagellum. More generally, directions of the forces generated by tethered flagella are insensitive to reductions in beat frequency and the detailed flagellar responses depend on the nature of the binding at the tethering point. Furthermore, waveform asymmetry and amplitude increases enhance the tendency for a tethered flagellum to start tugging on its binding. The same is generally predicted to be true for reductions in the wavenumber of the flagellum beat, but not universally so, emphasising the dynamical complexity of flagellar force generation. Finally, qualitative observations drawn from experimental data of human sperm bound to excised female reproductive tract are also presented and are found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Low Sperm Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lump or swelling in the testicle area A history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems Groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes The production of sperm is a complex ...

  7. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoseok Choi; Bomi Choi; Ju Tae Seo; Kyung Jin Lee; Myung Chan Gye; Young-Pil Kim

    2016-01-01

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) p...

  8. Binding of Sperm to the Zona Pellucida Mediated by Sperm Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins is not Species-Specific in Vitro between Pigs and Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Nakano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are candidates for the basis of species-selective interaction of gametes during mammalian fertilization. In this study, we sought to clarify the roles of sugar residues in the species-selective, sperm–oocyte interaction in pigs and cattle. Acrosome-intact porcine and bovine sperm exhibited their strongest binding affinities for β-Gal and α-Man residues, respectively. Porcine-sperm specificity changed from β-Gal to α-Man after the acrosome reaction, while bovine-sperm specificity did not. Binding of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm decreased after trypsinization, indicating that the carbohydrate-binding components are proteins. While immature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm, oocytes matured in vitro bound similar numbers of homologous and heterologous sperm. Lectin staining revealed the aggregation of α-Man residues on the outer surface of the porcine zona during maturation. In both species, zona-free, mature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm. The lectin-staining patterns of the zona pellucida and zona-free oocytes coincided with the carbohydrate-binding specificities of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm, respectively, supporting the involvement of carbohydrates in gamete recognition in pigs and cattle. These results also indicate that sperm-zona pellucida and sperm–oolemma bindings are not strictly species-specific in pigs and cattle, and further suggest that sperm penetration into the zona and/or fusion with oolemma may be species-specific between pigs and cattle.

  9. Adsorption of human papillomavirus 16 to live human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Andino, Julio; Buck, Christopher B; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2009-06-09

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a diverse group of viruses that infect the skin and mucosal tissues of humans. A high-risk subgroup of HPVs is associated with virtually all cases of cervical cancer [1]-[3]. High-risk HPVs are transmitted sexually; however, the exact mechanisms by which sexual contact promotes virus infection remain uncertain. To study this question we asked whether capsids of HPV type 16 (a high-risk HPV) specifically interact with sperm cells. We tested if purified HPV16 virions directly adsorb to live human sperm cells in native semen and in conditions that resemble the female genital tract. We found that HPV16 capsids bind efficiently to two distinct sites at the equatorial region of the sperm head surface. Moreover, we observed that the interaction of virus with sperm can be reduced by two HPV infection inhibitors, heparin and carrageenan. Our findings suggest that 1) sperm cells may serve as motile carriers that promote virus dispersal and mucosal penetration, and 2) blocking interactions between HPV16 and sperm cells may be an important strategy for the development of antiviral therapies.

  10. Adsorption of human papillomavirus 16 to live human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pérez-Andino

    Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are a diverse group of viruses that infect the skin and mucosal tissues of humans. A high-risk subgroup of HPVs is associated with virtually all cases of cervical cancer [1]-[3]. High-risk HPVs are transmitted sexually; however, the exact mechanisms by which sexual contact promotes virus infection remain uncertain. To study this question we asked whether capsids of HPV type 16 (a high-risk HPV specifically interact with sperm cells. We tested if purified HPV16 virions directly adsorb to live human sperm cells in native semen and in conditions that resemble the female genital tract. We found that HPV16 capsids bind efficiently to two distinct sites at the equatorial region of the sperm head surface. Moreover, we observed that the interaction of virus with sperm can be reduced by two HPV infection inhibitors, heparin and carrageenan. Our findings suggest that 1 sperm cells may serve as motile carriers that promote virus dispersal and mucosal penetration, and 2 blocking interactions between HPV16 and sperm cells may be an important strategy for the development of antiviral therapies.

  11. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long......-term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...... hypnorum, a species with multiple-mating queens, have longer sperm than males of B. terrestris and B. lucorum whose queens are single mated. Although the sample size on the species level was too small to perform a phylogenetic analysis, this finding supports the hypothesis that, all other things being...

  12. Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxiang; Wu, Shiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhengyao; Wu, Ruiyun; Cai, Junfeng; Luo, Xiangmin; Huang, Suzhen; You, Liuxia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of zinc on hydrogen peroxide-induced sperm damage in assisted reproduction techniques. First, sperms were selected from semen samples of 20 healthy men prepared by density gradient centrifugation. Selected sperm were treated with either 0.001% H(2)O(2), 12.5 nM ZnCL(2), 0.001% H(2)O(2) + 12.5 nM ZnCL(2) or 0.9% NaCl(2) (control). After this treatment, the motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation of sperms in each group were analysed by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay. Poorer motility, vitality, membrane integrity and more DNA damage were found in sperms treated by H(2)O(2), compared with control. When sperms were treated with both H(2)O(2) and zinc, however, all indicators were improved compared with H(2)O(2) alone. There was a close association between oxidative stimulation and sperm injury; zinc could inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of sperm in assisted reproductive technology. However, the presence of zinc in culture medium can decrease the sperm quality without addition of peroxide. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of human papillomavirus on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Foresta, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    To review the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) on sperm parameters, fertility and implication of the use of infected sperm cells in assisted reproduction. HPVs are agents of the most common sexually transmitted disease and can lead to warts and cancers both in men and women.A high incidence of HPV infection has been demonstrated in sperm from sexually active men with and without risk factors for HPV and from infertile patients. Semen infection is associated to an impairment of sperm parameters suggesting a possible role in male infertility. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that when HPV is present in semen only a percentage of total cells are infected and the virus can be localized in sperm or in exfoliated cells with different impact on sperm motility. Moreover, infected sperm are able to penetrate the oocyte, to deliver HPV genome in the oocyte and HPV genes can be actively transcribed by the fertilized oocyte. Recently an increased risk of pregnancy loss has been demonstrated in couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization and particularly when HPV DNA was present in semen samples of male partners. To date, no effective treatment, control strategy and prevention is provided for men despite the reported high incidence of HPV semen infection. Because this infection in men is also a problem for partners, and because growing evidence suggests that semen infection may cause infertility and early miscarriage, more attention should be paid to male HPV infection. This study reviews the more recent literature about the role of HPV infection on sperm function and human reproduction.

  14. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and what you can do to improve your fertility. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do your sperm pass ... understanding the various factors that can affect male fertility — then consider steps to help your sperm become ...

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29, a protein related to sperm maturation is involved in sperm-oocyte fusion in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yemin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm-oocyte fusion is a critical step in fertilization, which requires a series of proteins from both spermatozoa and oocyte to mediate membrane adhesion and subsequent fusion. A rat spermatozoa membrane protein is endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29, which significantly increases on the sperm surface as well as in the cytoplasm of epididymal epithelia from caput to cauda as the sperm undergo epididymal maturation. Moreover, ERp29 facilitates viral infection via mediating membrane penetration. We determined if in addition to promoting sperm maturation ERp29 may also play a role in facilitating gamete fusion during the fertilization process. Methods Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM and Western blot analysis were employed to probe for ERp29 protein in BALB/c mouse epididymal and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. We prepared rabbit polyclonal antibodies against mouse recombinant ERp29 (rERp29 to characterize: 1 fertilization rate (FR; 2 fertilization index (FI; 3 sperm motility and 4 acrosome reaction (AR. Results Confocal microscopy indicated that ERp29 was partially localized at the sperm head of the epididymal caput as well as over the whole head and part of the principal piece of the tail region from the epididymal cauda. However, when the acrosome reacted, ERp29 remained in the equatorial and post-acrosomal regions of the sperm head, which is the initial site of sperm-oocyte membrane fusion. Such localization changes were confirmed based on the results of Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the antibodies against mouse rERp29 inhibited the spermatozoa from penetrating into the zona pellucida (ZP-free oocytes. The functional blocking antibodies reduced both mouse sperm-oocyte FR and FI at concentrations of 100 and 200 micro g/ml compared with pre-immunized rabbit IgG or with anti-mouse recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI, a sperm surface protein unrelated to sperm-oocyte fusion antibodies

  16. On mammalian sperm dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, J M; Woodall, P F

    1985-09-01

    Data on linear sperm dimensions in mammals are presented. There is information on a total of 284 species, representing 6.2% of all species; 17.2% of all genera and 49.2% of all families have some representation, with quantitative information missing only from the orders Dermoptera, Pholidota, Sirenia and Tubulidentata. In general, sperm size is inverse to body mass (except for the Chiroptera), so that the smallest known spermatozoa are amongst those of artiodactyls and the largest are amongst those of marsupials. Most variations are due to differences in the lengths of midpiece and principal piece, with head lengths relatively uniform throughout the mammals.

  17. Concentração de lactato de cálcio e tempo de incubação sobre a capacidade de adesão e penetração de espermatozoides suínos na membrana perivitelina do ovo da galinha Calcium lactate concentration and incubation period on the binding and penetration capacity of swine sperm in the perivitelline membrane of chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dahl Corcini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo testou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de lactato de cálcio e tempos de incubação sobre a capacidade de adesão e a penetração dos espermatozoides suínos nas membranas perivitelinas (MP de ovos de galinhas, na expectativa de desenvolver um teste para estimar o potencial de fertilidade de machos doadores de sêmen. No primeiro experimento, amostras de sêmen (n=12 foram incubadas em meio TCM com lactato de cálcio a 1,1 e 2,2µg mL-1. Posteriormente, após definida a concentração de 1,1µg mL-1 de lactato de cálcio, um segundo experimento comparou três períodos de incubação a 39°C: 10, 15 e 20min. As respostas testadas foram: a taxa de adesão (TA e o número de espermatozoides aderidos (NA na MP externa, e a taxa de penetração (TP e o número de orifícios (NO na MP interna. A TA na MP externa foi de 100%, independentemente da concentração e dos períodos testados. Com a concentração de lactato de cálcio de 1,1µg mL-1, o NA na membrana perivitelina externa e TP e NO na membrana perivitelina interna foram superiores (PThis study tested the effect of different calcium lactate concentrations and incubation periods on the binding and penetration capacity of swine sperm to the perivitelline layers (PL of chicken eggs, with the expectation of developing a test to estimate the potential fertility of boars used as sperm donors. In the first experiment, semen samples (n=12 were incubated with TCM medium ant two calcium lactate levels: 1.1 and 2.2µg mL-1. After the set up of fixed calcium lactate level (1.1µg mL-1, the second experiment compared three incubation periods: 10, 15 and 20min. The observed variables were binding rate (BR and number of bound sperm (NB in the outer PL, and penetration rate (PR and number of holes (NH in the inner PL. The BR to the outer MP was 100%, regardless of the tested concentrations and incubation periods. The NB to the outer perivitelline layer and the PR and the NH in the inner

  18. Dose-dependent relationship between oocyte cytoplasmic volume and transformation of sperm nuclei to metaphase chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H J; Masui, Y

    1987-04-01

    We have studied the chromosome condensation activity of mouse oocytes that have been inseminated during meiotic maturation. These oocytes remain unactivated, and in those penetrated by up to three or four sperm, each sperm nucleus is transformed, without prior development of a pronucleus, into metaphase chromosomes. However, those penetrated by more than four sperm never transform any of the nuclei into metaphase chromosomes (Clarke, H. J., and Y. Masui, 1986, J. Cell Biol. 102:1039-1046). We report here that, when the cytoplasmic volume of oocytes was doubled or tripled by cell fusion, up to five or eight sperm nuclei, respectively, could be transformed into metaphase chromosomes. Conversely, when the cytoplasmic volume was reduced by bisection of oocytes after the germinal vesicle (GV) had broken down, no more than two sperm could be transformed into metaphase chromosomes. Thus, the capacity of the oocyte cytoplasm to transform sperm nuclei to metaphase chromosomes was proportional to its volume. The contribution of the nucleoplasm of the GV and the cytoplasm outside the GV to the chromosome condensation activity was investigated by bisecting oocytes that contained a GV and then inseminating the nucleate and anucleate fragments. The anucleate fragments never induced sperm chromosome formation, indicating that GV nucleoplasm is required for this activity. In the nucleate fragments, the capacity to induce sperm chromosome formation was reduced as compared with whole oocytes, in spite of the fact that the fragments contained the entire GV nucleoplasm. This implies that non-GV cytoplasmic material also was required for chromosome condensation activity. When inseminated oocytes were incubated in the presence of puromycin, the sperm nuclei were transformed into interphase-like nuclei, but no metaphase chromosomes developed. However, when protein synthesis resumed, the interphase nuclei were transformed to metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that the

  19. Regulation of sperm gene expression by the GATA factor ELT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo-Olivares, Antonio; Kulkarni, Madhura; Smith, Harold E

    2009-09-15

    Cell fate specification is mediated primarily through the expression of cell-type-specific genes. The regulatory pathway that governs the sperm/egg decision in the hermaphrodite germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans has been well characterized, but the transcription factors that drive these developmental programs remain unknown. We report the identification of ELT-1, a GATA transcription factor that specifies hypodermal fate in the embryo, as a regulator of sperm-specific transcription in the germ line. Computational analysis identified a conserved bipartite sequence element that is found almost exclusively in the promoters of a number of sperm genes. ELT-1 was recovered in a yeast one-hybrid screen for factors that bind to that sperm consensus site. In vitro assays defined the sperm consensus sequence as an optimal binding site for ELT-1. We determined that expression of elt-1 is elevated in the sperm-producing germ line, and that ELT-1 is required for sperm function. Deletion of the ELT-1 binding site from a sperm promoter abrogates sperm-specific expression of a reporter transgene. This work demonstrates a role for the ELT-1 transcription factor in sperm, and provides a critical link between the germ line sex determination program and gamete-specific gene expression.

  20. Equine sperm-neutrophil binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdorrahman S; Madill, Scott; Foster, Douglas N; Troedsson, Mats H T

    2015-04-01

    When mares are inseminated repeatedly, protein molecules from the seminal plasma (SP) prevent sperm-neutrophil binding and reduced fertility. The molecule(s) responsible for sperm-neutrophil binding is not known and the identification of beneficial SP proteins is complicated by their large numbers and abundant variation. We examined several important aspects of sperm-neutrophil binding to ultimately facilitate the identification and isolation of the molecule(s) responsible. First, we raised anti-equine P-selectin antibodies to determine the involvement of this adhesion molecule in sperm-neutrophil binding. While these antibodies identified equine P-selectin, they did not inhibit sperm-neutrophil binding. However, acrosome-reacted equine sperm expressed a molecule similar to the ligand recognition unit of P-selectin. Second, we attempted to characterize SP protein binding to equine sperm and gauge their affinity. Biotinylated SP proteins were incubated with fresh sperm, washed over a viscous medium, electrophoresed, and probed with avidin. Several SP proteins bound to sperm with a strong affinity to withstand these treatments. This finding may prove valuable for future attempts to identify and characterize specific SP molecules. Lastly, we compared the secretions from male sex organs/glands on sperm motility, sperm-neutrophil binding, and their protein profile. We expected fewer proteins from individual organs/glands, which would facilitate isolation and identification of target molecules. While each secretion had a varying effect on motility and sperm-neutrophil binding, the protein profile was as complex as that seen in whole SP, indicating that collection of proteins from individual sources will not facilitate this work. Together, these experiments answer several important questions related to sperm-neutrophil binding, sperm-SP proteins interaction, and the complexity of the SP proteome. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  2. Isolation and Proteomic Characterization of the Mouse Sperm Acrosomal Matrix*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Benoit; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; SanFrancisco, Susan; Cornwall, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    A critical step during fertilization is the sperm acrosome reaction in which the acrosome releases its contents allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg investments. The sperm acrosomal contents are composed of both soluble material and an insoluble material called the acrosomal matrix (AM). The AM is thought to provide a stable structure from which associated proteins are differentially released during fertilization. Because of its important role during fertilization, efforts have been put toward isolating the AM for biochemical study and to date AM have been isolated from hamster, guinea pig, and bull spermatozoa. However, attempts to isolate AM from mouse spermatozoa, the species in which fertilization is well-studied, have been unsuccessful possibly because of the small size of the mouse sperm acrosome and/or its fusiform shape. Herein we describe a procedure for the isolation of the AM from caput and cauda mouse epididymal spermatozoa. We further carried out a proteomic analysis of the isolated AM from both sperm populations and identified 501 new proteins previously not detected by proteomics in mouse spermatozoa. A comparison of the AM proteome from caput and cauda spermatozoa showed that the AM undergoes maturational changes during epididymal transit similar to other sperm domains. Together, our studies suggest the AM to be a dynamic and functional structure carrying out a variety of biological processes as implied by the presence of a diverse group of proteins including proteases, chaperones, hydrolases, transporters, enzyme modulators, transferases, cytoskeletal proteins, and others. PMID:22707618

  3. Dynamic resolution of acrosomal exocytosis in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Claire V; Cummerson, Joanne A; White, Michael R H; Publicover, Stephen J; Johnson, Peter M

    2008-07-01

    An essential step in mammalian fertilisation is the sperm acrosome reaction (AR) - exocytosis of a single large vesicle (the acrosome) that surrounds the nucleus at the apical sperm head. The acrosomal and plasma membranes fuse, resulting in both the release of factors that might facilitate penetration of the zona pellucida (which invests the egg) and the externalisation of membrane components required for gamete fusion. Exocytosis in somatic cells is a rapid process - typically complete within milliseconds - yet acrosomal enzymes are required throughout zona penetration - a period of minutes. Here, we present the first studies of this crucial and complex event occurring in real-time in individual live sperm using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Simultaneous imaging of separate probes for acrosomal content and inner acrosomal membrane show that rapid membrane fusion, initiated at the cell apex, is followed by exceptionally slow dispersal of acrosomal content (up to 12 minutes). Cells that lose their acrosome prematurely (spontaneous AR), compromising their ability to penetrate the egg vestments, are those that are already subject to a loss of motility and viability. Cells undergoing stimulus-induced AR (progesterone or A23187) remain viable, with a proportion remaining motile (progesterone). These findings suggest that the AR is a highly adapted form of exocytosis.

  4. Short communication Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leyland Fraser

    2017-03-08

    Mar 8, 2017 ... spermatozoa, particularly for assisted reproductive techniques (Thomson et al., 2010), even though it has been reported that the repeated cryo-cycle might compromise sperm DNA integrity and viability (Liu et al.,. 2016). Consistent significant correlations were found between the comet assay parameters ...

  5. Mitochondria functionality and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alexandra; Lourenço, Bárbara; Marques, Mónica; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria are best known for being the eukaryotic cell powerhouses, these organelles participate in various cellular functions besides ATP production, such as calcium homoeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis. The aim of this review was to discuss the putative roles of mitochondria in mammalian sperm function and how they may relate to sperm quality and fertilisation ability, particularly in humans. Although paternal mitochondria are degraded inside the zygote, sperm mitochondrial functionality seems to be critical for fertilisation. Indeed, changes in mitochondrial integrity/functionality, namely defects in mitochondrial ultrastructure or in the mitochondrial genome, transcriptome or proteome, as well as low mitochondrial membrane potential or altered oxygen consumption, have been correlated with loss of sperm function (particularly with decreased motility). Results from genetically engineered mouse models also confirmed this trend. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria derived ATP is not crucial for sperm motility and that glycolysis may be the main ATP supplier for this particular aspect of sperm function. However, there are contradictory data in the literature regarding sperm bioenergetics. The relevance of sperm mitochondria may thus be associated with their role in other physiological features, particularly with the production of ROS, which in controlled levels are needed for proper sperm function. Sperm mitochondria may also serve as intracellular Ca²⁺ stores, although their role in signalling is still unclear.

  6. Comparative evidence for the evolution of sperm swimming speed by sperm competition and female sperm storage duration in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Oddmund; Fossøy, Frode; Laskemoen, Terje; Robertson, Raleigh J; Rudolfsen, Geir; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2009-09-01

    Sperm swimming speed is an important determinant of male fertility and sperm competitiveness. Despite its fundamental biological importance, the underlying evolutionary processes affecting this male reproductive trait are poorly understood. Using a comparative approach in a phylogenetic framework, we tested the predictions that sperm swim faster with (1) increased risk of sperm competition, (2) shorter duration of female sperm storage, and (3) increased sperm length. We recorded sperm swimming speed in 42 North American and European free-living passerine bird species, representing 35 genera and 16 families. We found that sperm swimming speed was positively related to the frequency of extrapair paternity (a proxy for the risk of sperm competition) and negatively associated with clutch size (a proxy for the duration of female sperm storage). Sperm swimming speed was unrelated to sperm length, although sperm length also increased with the frequency of extrapair paternity. These results suggest that sperm swimming speed and sperm length are not closely associated traits and evolve independently in response to sperm competition in passerine birds. Our findings emphasize the significance of both sperm competition and female sperm storage duration as evolutionary forces driving sperm swimming speed.

  7. Morphology, Structure of Dimorphic Sperm, and Reproduction in the Hermaphroditic Commensal Bivalve Pseudopythina tsurumaru (Galeommatoidea: Kellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse; Takahashi, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma......Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma...

  8. Sperm whale clicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.

    2000-01-01

    . A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not supported by published data for sperm whale clicks ~source levels of 180 dB re 1 mPa and little, if any...... of the continental shelf off Andenes, Norway, in the summers of 1997 and 1998. With this system, source levels up to 223 dB re 1 mPa peRMS were recorded. Also, source level differences of 35 dB for the same click at different directions were seen, which are interpreted as evidence for high directionality....... This implicates sonar as a possible function of the clicks. Thus, previously published properties of sperm whale clicks underestimate the capabilities of the sound generator and therefore cannot falsify the Norris and Harvey theory....

  9. Cryopreservation of Fish Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Hisashi

    Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.

  10. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. No evidence of conpopulation sperm precedence between allopatric populations of house mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée C Firman

    Full Text Available Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF TRYPANOSOME INFECTION WITH SPERM ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION IN RED SOKOTO (MARADI GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. FAYEMI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1021 randomly selected serum samples of adult male goats that had been screened for trypanosome infection were assayed for sperm antibodies using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The result of the trypanosome screening revealed that 586(57.39% goats were positive for trypanosome infection, while 435(42.61% were negative. The assay for sperm antibodies showed that 482(47.21% animals were positive, while 539(52.79% were negative. In the group that was positive for trypanosome infection, 364(62.12% animals were positive, whereas 222(37.88% were negative for sperm antibodies (P<0.001. The group that was negative for trypanosome infection, had a significantly lower number and proportion 118(27.13% of positive compared to 317(72.87% negative for sperm antibodies. Out of a total 482 goats that were positive for sperm antibodies, a significantly higher number, 364(75.52%, were positive than 118(24.48% that were negative for trypanosome infection (P<0.001. In the group that was found negative for sperm antibodies, a significantly lower proportion, 222(41.19%, was positive compared to 317(58.81% that were negative for trypanosome infection (P<0.001. Seropositivity to sperm antibodies was positively correlated to trypanosome infection (P<0.001. Further work on the pathogenesis of sperm antibody production in trypanosome infection is advocated.

  13. Cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaciregui, M; Gil, L; Montón, A; Luño, V; Jerez, R A; Martí, J I

    2014-02-01

    Any event that makes semen collection or mating impossible, such as death, castration, or injury, may terminate a stallion's breeding career. Fortunately, stallion sperm which are capable of fertilization can be harvested from the epididymis, and frozen for future use. However, the fertility of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm has been found to be lower than that of ejaculated sperm. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the fertility of frozen epididymal stallion sperm by investigating the effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing protocols on sperm quality. Dimethylformamide was tested alone or combination with pasteurized egg yolk as substitute of fresh egg yolk. In addition, the effect of the pre-freeze stabilization on sperm quality was analyzed. Heterospermic samples obtained from stallion epididymis were collected and cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying content of cryoprotectant and content of egg yolk, stabilized and no-stabilized. Sperm motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity were evaluated post-thawing. No improvement was observed on the replacement of fresh yolk by pasteurized egg yolk, whereas the results suggest that dimethylformamide is a cryoprotectant suitable for cryopreservation of equine epididymal semen, even better than glycerol. In addition, we found that the stabilization before freezing on epididymal stallion sperm, can improve sperm quality parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of chilling duration on post-thaw characteristics of sperm from the North American bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D; Dance, A; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the duration for which sperm from the North American bison (Bison bison) could be chilled prior to being cryopreserved, without compromising post- thaw sperm quality. This would permit transport of samples collected remotely, to the laboratory (at 4°C) for cryopreservation. Epididymal sperm from plains bison (n = 11) and ejaculated sperm from wood bison (n = 3) were collected, extended and held at 4°C for extended periods of time. At intervals, an aliquot was cryopreserved. Post-thaw sperm motion characteristics were evaluated by computer assisted sperm analysis. Representative plains bison sperm samples (n = 3) were evaluated for their in vitro fertilizing ability in a heterologous system using bovine oocytes. There was no statistical difference in total and progressive motility of plains bison epididymal sperm when cryopreserved after chilling for 24, 48 or 72 h. For wood bison ejaculated sperm, there was no difference in total and progressive motility for sperm cryopreserved following 24 or 48 h of chilling. However, one of the three bulls showed significantly poorer fertilization (based on cleavage rate) with sperm chilled for 72 compared to 24 and 48 h prior to freezing. In conclusion, plains bison epididymal sperm can be chilled for 72 h and wood bison ejaculated sperm can be chilled for at least 48 h prior to cryopreservation without compromising post-thaw sperm motility, while heterologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay indicated a between-bull variation in the in vitro fertilizing ability of sperm chilled for an extended duration before cryopreservation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Relationships between sperm DNA fragmentation, sperm apoptotic markers and serum levels of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE in European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronati, A; Manicardi, G C; Cecati, M

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are suspected to interfere with hormone activity and the normal homeostasis of spermatogenesis. We investigated the relationships between sperm DNA fragmentation, apoptotic markers identified on ejaculated spermatozoa and POP levels in the blood of 652....... Sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by using the TUNEL assay, whereas immunofluorescence methods were utilized for detecting pro-apoptotic (Fas) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) markers. Both TUNEL assay and apoptotic markers were statistically differed across the four populations. No correlation between...... neither sperm DNA fragmentation nor apoptotic sperm parameters and the large variations in POPs exposure was observed for the separate study groups. However, considering the European populations taken together, we showed that both %TUNEL positivity and Bcl-xL were related to CB-153 serum levels, whereas...

  16. Pentoxifylline increase sperm motility in devitrified spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patient without damage chromatin and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Talebi, Alireza; Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Saeed

    2017-06-01

    The freeze-thaw process results in reduced motility, viability and fertilization potential of human spermatozoa. So, a variety of substances were evaluated in order to enhance human sperm resistance to the stress of cryopreservation, such as Pentoxifylline (PTX) for improving the Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The aim was to investigate the effect of PTX on sperm parameters and chromatin/DNA integrity of asthenozoospermic semen post vitrification. A total of 30 semen specimens were obtained from infertile men with asthenozoospermia. The cryoprotectant-free vitrification was performed for the samples after assessment of sperm parameters. After warming, each sample was exposed for 30 min to 3.6 mmol/l PTX in experimental group and the control group without any treatment apposing at 37 °C for 30 min in regard, to repeat all in vitro analysis (sperm parameters and DNA integrity assay). Regardless of the vitrification devastating impacts on sperm parameters, incubation of post vitrified samples with PTX increased the rate of progressive motility (P integrity of asthenozoospermic sperm samples. The data showed that PTX was able to improve sperm movement without any adverse effects on sperm chromatin/DNA integrity in vitrification program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular spermatozoa from a man with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shenmin; Gao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Ding, Jie; Xu, Yongle; Li, Hong

    2017-10-02

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the sperm morphology of a Chinese man affected with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) and observe the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. A Chinese man was diagnosed with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella by semen analysis and electron microscopy. Testicular spermatozoa were injected intracytoplasmically, and the following ICSI results were observed. All the spermatozoa from his ejaculate were immotile and morphologically abnormal in the flagellum. In transmission electron microscopy assays, most spermatozoa showed disorganized fibrous sheath, accompanied by distortion of various cytoskeletal components, and missing of the central pair microtubules. Testicular sperm was injected to the oocytes in two ICSI cycles, with fertilization rates of 45.5 and 40.0%. Finally, a healthy female infant was delivered at the second ICSI cycle. Fertilization and pregnancy could be achieved by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, regardless of severe flagellar defects. ICSI is effective for MMAF-affected man, and testicular sperm is an alternative when no motile sperm is available.

  18. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  19. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    into how the bending of boundaries by “inappropriate parents”, fertility travellers, private sperm banks and fertility clinics have been part in negotiating the changes of the legislation in practice, and thus been part of developing a Danish industry of sperm banking. The presentation is based on a multi...

  20. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires...

  1. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  2. Penetrating Thoracic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Anthony M; Caban, Kim; Munera, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses the role of radiology in evaluating patients with penetrating injuries to the chest. Penetrating injuries to the chest encompass ballistic and nonballistic injuries and can involve superficial soft tissues of the chest wall, lungs and pleura, diaphragm, and mediastinum. The mechanism of injury in ballistic and nonballistic trauma and the impact the injury trajectory has on imaging evaluation of penetrating injuries to the chest are discussed. The article presents the broad spectrum of imaging findings a radiologist encounters with penetrating injuries to the chest, with emphasis on injuries to the lungs and pleura, diaphragm, and mediastinum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social imaginaries, sperm and whiteness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...

  4. Sperm preparation for ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schill Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate

  5. The presence of human papillomavirus in semen does not affect the integrity of sperm DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; de la O-Pérez, L O; Garza-Flores, M E; Eguren-Garza, R; Gosálvez, J

    2017-03-06

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen samples of 22 normozoospermic patients undergoing infertility treatment, nine fertile donors and seven fertile men with a risk of HPV infection (genital warts or condylomas) were included in the study. The samples were examined by an INNO-LiPA test PCR-based reverse hybridisation array that identifies 28 types of HPVs as simple or multiple infections. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by sperm chromatin dispersion assay (SCD). Our preliminary findings demonstrate an increase in HPV infection in infertile men with respect to fertile men. However, the sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Relation between serum xenobiotic induced receptor activities and sperm DNA damage and sperm apoptotic markers in European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Stronati, Alessanda; Bizzaro, Davide

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can interfere with hormone activities and are suspected as endocrine disrupters involved in disorders, e.g. reproductive disorders. We investigated the possible relation between the actual integrated serum xenoestrogenic, xenoandrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon...... receptor (AhR) activities, and the sperm DNA damage and sperm apoptotic markers of 262 adult males (54 Inuits from Greenland, 69 from Warsaw (Poland), 81 from Sweden, and 58 from Kharkiv (Ukraine)) exposed to different levels of POPs. Xenobiotic-induced receptor activities were determined by receptor......-mediated luciferase reporter gene expression. Sperm DNA damage was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-driven dUTP nick labeling assay (TUNEL) and pro- (Fas) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) markers were determined by immune methods. Different features of xenobiotic-induced receptor activity in serum...

  7. Artificial insemination technology for the emu--improving sperm survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Irek A; Sood, Sushil; Tawang, Alene; Martin, Graeme B

    2011-12-01

    For the emu, where monogamous mating is normal, artificial insemination (AI) promises much faster genetic improvement and a considerable reduction in production costs by reducing the number of male birds needed for mating. Semen collection is now a routine procedure so the next step is to develop successful protocols for sperm storage. In this paper, we briefly overview our recent progress on the development of protocols for liquid storage and cryopreservation of emu spermatozoa. We have shown that emu semen can be stored at 10 °C for up to 48 h with a minimal loss of viability, and that cryopreservation with dimethylacetamide (DMA) as a cryoprotectant is feasible because we have observed no adverse effects of this cryoprotectant on the emu sperm membrane integrity, morphology and motility. We now need to establish the predictability of the various tests in vivo, but the proportions of live normal and motile sperm with good egg membrane penetration potential suggest that acceptable numbers of competent sperm are preserved and that this will be sufficient for AI.

  8. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Sperm membrane modulation by Sapindus mukorossi during sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivsarkar, Manish; Shrivastava, Neeta; Patel, Manoj; Padh, Harish; Bapu, Cherian

    2002-09-01

    To observe the alterations in the biochemical and biophysical changes in the sperm membrane during sperm maturation in male rats treated with the water extract of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged the aqueous extract of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d for 45 days. On day 46, the sperm parameters were observed in different sections of the epididymis and the sperm superoxide dismutase and the lipid peroxidation was determined and compared with the controls. The testis and epididymis were routinely prepared for histological examination under the light microscope. No significant differences in the sperm number and morphology were observed between the control and treated groups. However, a significant inhibition (P<0.05-0.01) of sperm motility in the caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis was seen in the treated group. No significant histopathological changes were found in the testis and epididymis. The important finding was that in the treated animals, the spermatozoa showed an abnormal distribution of the superoxide dismutase activity, being minimum in the caput and maximum in the corpus, which was just opposite to that of the controls. The study provides a unique observation where the plant extract alters the sperm membrane physiology without change the testicular and epididymal morphology.

  10. Relationship between sperm parameters and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Chaichian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: With the adventure of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, great progresses have developed in the treatment of infertility. Concentration on the properties of male’s gamete has been encouraged by the increasing concerns about the causes of ICSI failure. We hence conducted this study to investigate the probable association of sperm parameters with ISCI outcome. Methods: A total of 523 couples referred to Isfahan Fertility and Sterility Center from January 2007 to June 2008 for ICSI. Semen analysis was performed before ICSI procedure according to the WHO criteria. Patients were assigned into successful ICSI (case and failed ICSI (control groups. Sperm parameters were then compared between the 2 groups. Results: One hundred and six patients (20% had successful ICSI results (case group compared with 417 couples (80% with undesirable ICSI outcomes (control group. Among evaluated factors, sperm agglutination (p = 0.007, sperm concentration (p = 0.043, leukocytospermia (p = 0.026 and head abnormality of sperm (p = 0.019 showed statistically significant differences between two groups with differing ICSI results. None of the other semen parameters revealed significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that some sperm parameters are associated with desirable ICSI outcome. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal.

  11. Sperm production and sperm morphology of Swedish Warmblood stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, S; Dalin, A-M; Lundeheim, N

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated daily sperm output and sperm morphology of fresh semen in eight Swedish Warmblood stallions aged 5-8 years. They were used for artificial insemination, and their fertility during the breeding season of semen collection exceeded 60% per cycle. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 consecutive days from each stallion. The gel-free volume was measured, and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Bürker chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). Sperm morphology was examined in ejaculates collected on days 2, 5 and 10. An aliquot from each ejaculate was fixed in 1 ml formol-saline immediately after collection and examined under a phase-contrast microscope (magnification 1000x) to assess morphological abnormalities. Furthermore smears were prepared and stained according to Williams (carbolfuchsin-eosin) for a more detailed examination of the sperm heads under a light microscope (magnification 1000x). Analysis of variance was applied to data. Total spermatozoa number decreased progressively during the first 8 days of collection, and daily sperm output (DSO) was calculated as mean TSN of collections on days 8-10, being 6.4 x 10(9) spermatozoa. The overall percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa in ejaculates collected on days 2, 5 and 10 were above 70%, being significantly lower in ejaculate 2 (68.6%) compared with ejaculates 5 and 10 (72.9% respectively 75.3%).

  12. Recombinant hamster oviductin is biologically active and exerts positive effects on sperm functions and sperm-oocyte binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1 in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 μg/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function.

  13. Allurin, a 21-kDa sperm chemoattractant from Xenopus egg jelly, is related to mammalian sperm-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J H; Xiang, X; Ziegert, T; Kittelson, A; Rawls, A; Bieber, A L; Chandler, D E

    2001-09-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that a protein from Xenopus egg jelly exhibits sperm chemoattractant activity when assayed by either video microscopy or by sperm passage across a porous filter. Here we describe the isolation and purification of allurin, the protein responsible for this activity. Freshly oviposited jellied eggs were soaked in buffer, and the conditioned medium was loaded onto an anion exchange column and eluted with an NaCl gradient. The active fraction was purified further by RP-HPLC, the chemoattractant protein appearing as a single sharp peak. The amino acid sequence of the protein, determined by direct sequencing and cloning of cDNAs coding for the protein, consisted of 184 amino acids having a molecular mass of 21,073 Da. The protein shares homology with the mammalian cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family that includes testes-specific spermatocyte protein 1, a cell adhesion protein which links spermatocytes to Seritoli cells, and acidic epididymal glycoproteins that bind to sperm and have been implicated in sperm-egg fusion. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that allurin evolved from the ancestral protein that gave rise to the mammalian CRISP family. Addition of allurin to this family portends that the CRISP family represents a group of "sperm escort" proteins, which bind to sperm at various steps in their life history, facilitating passage from one functional stage to the next. Allurin stands out in this regard, representing both the first vertebrate sperm chemoattractant to be purified and sequenced and the first member of the CRISP family to be found in the female reproductive tract.

  14. The effect of two cryopreservation methods on human sperm DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taixiu; Gao, Jianfang; Zhou, Niya; Mo, Min; Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Ao, Lin; Liu, Jinyi; Cui, Zhihong; Cao, Jia

    2016-06-01

    Several methods are currently available for selection when conducting sperm cryopreservation, however, these methods might cause different degrees of damage on sperm DNA. The aim of the this study is to compare the effects of storage at -80 °C (in ultra-low temperature refrigerator) and at -196 °C (in liquid nitrogen) on sperm DNA damage, thus to provide a reference for choosing the right method according to different aims. We randomly collected 28 semen samples from college students of Chongqing city. The samples stored at -80 °C were neat semen samples and the samples stored at -196 °C were mixed with additional cryoprotectants. Each sample was subjected to two freezing-thawing cycles, and the sperm DNA damage levels of fresh and thawed samples were measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Both SCGE and SCSA assays showed cryopreservation induced significant damage to sperm DNA. However, storage at -196 °C lead to more severe damage to sperm DNA than storage at -80 °C measured by SCSA. Sperm DNA damage increased simultaneously with the higher frequency of freezing-thawing cycles. We concluded that storage of neat semen samples at -80 °C had milder damage to sperm DNA than storage at -196 °C mixed with cryoprotectants. To avoid additional sperm DNA damage, repeated freezing and thawing should be prevented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Orientation of sea urchin sperms in static magnetic fields: Compared to human sperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhnini, Lama; Dairi, Maheen

    In this study we report on magnetic orientation of sea urchin and human sperms. The sea urchin and human sperms became oriented parallel to the magnetic field (1 T maximum). The human sperms were totally oriented with magnetic field at about 600 mT. However, the sea urchin sperms show different behavior due to morphological differences between them and the human sperms.

  16. Sperm chemorepulsion, a supplementary mechanism to regulate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidobaldi, H A; Cubilla, M; Moreno, A; Molino, M V; Bahamondes, L; Giojalas, L C

    2017-08-01

    Are human spermatozoa able of chemorepulsive behaviour? Capacitated human spermatozoa are able to be chemorepelled by synthetic Progesterone Receptor Ligands (sPRL, known as contraceptives) and zinc (a cation released by the oocyte upon fertilization). Moving cells can be oriented towards or against a molecular gradient, processes called chemoattraction and chemorepulsion, respectively, which have been described in unicellular organisms such as amoebas and bacteria, to organismic cells such macrophages and developmental cells. In the case of spermatozoa, chemoattraction may help the finding of an oocyte and has been widely studied in various invertebrate and mammalian species; however, chemorepulsion has not yet been verified in spermatozoa. This is an in vitro study involving human, rabbit and mouse spermatozoa which were used to perform 3-30 experiments per treatment. Human sperm samples were obtained by masturbation from healthy donors who gave written consent. Only those samples exhibiting normal semen parameters according to current WHO criteria were included in the study. Rabbit spermatozoa were obtained by artificial vagina whereas mice spermatozoa were obtained from epididymis. The sperm selection assay (SSA), originally designed to evaluate sperm chemoattraction towards progesterone (P), and a video-microscopy and computer motion analysis system were used to test sperm chemorepulsion. Additional kinetic parameters were also determined by video-microscopy and computer motion analysis. In some experiments, the level of induced acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was determined. Rabbit mating manipulation was achieved to perform the sperm-oocyte co-incubation assay. Sperm accumulation in the well containing 100 pg/ml of sPRL was lower than the culture medium negative control (P < 0.05). The percentage of sperm persistence against the well containing 100 pg/ml ulipristal acetate (UPA) (P = 0.001), and the percentage of sperm showing a repulsive pattern of movement (a

  17. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidydymal sperm was collected and analyzed using standard procedures. Sperm analyses involved sperm count, sperm morphology test and sperm motility test. At the doses administered, P. amarus extract affected the sperm number, morphology and motility of treated animals. Epididymal sperm count and motility were ...

  18. Effects of sera taken from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion on sperm motility and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Talaei-khozani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities.Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility.Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history and sera from 20 women with at least two healthy children were added to the sperms samples from 20 healthy men for 2 hours. The sperm motility was assessed after incubation with sera. The samples were stained with Tdt mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay for DNA fragmentation. The samples were analyzed with flow cytometry and the percentage of the TUNEL positive sperms were calculated. The data were analyzed by t-test.Results: The incubation of the sperm samples in sera with URSA lead to a decrease in the percentage of the motile sperm from 55% in control to 41% in the treated group, significantly (p=0.038. The percentage of the sperm with abnormal fragmented DNA increased after incubation with URSA (26.6% compare to the control (21.2%; however, it was not significant.Conclusion: It seems that sera from URSA patients could not induce a significant increase in the percentage of the sperms with nuclei contain DNA fragmentation. However, the sera of women with URSA could affect the fertility rate by reduction of the sperm motility.

  19. Identification of calcium-binding proteins associated with the human sperm plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westbrook Anne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The precise composition of the human sperm plasma membrane, the molecular interactions that define domain specific functions, and the regulation of membrane associated proteins during the capacitation process, still remain to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the repertoire of calcium-regulated proteins associated with the human sperm plasma membrane. Methods Surface specific radioiodination was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, a 45Ca-overlay assay, computer assisted image analysis and mass spectrometry to identify calcium-binding proteins exposed on the human sperm surface. Results Nine acidic 45Ca-binding sperm proteins were excised from stained preparative 2D gels and identified by mass spectrometry. Five of the calcium binding proteins; HSPA2 (HSP70-1, HSPA5 (Bip, HYOU1 (ORP150, serum amyloid P-component (SAP and protein kinase C substrate 80K-H (80K-H were found to be accessible to Iodo-Bead catalyzed 125I-labelling on the surface of intact human sperm. Agglutination and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that SAP is situated on the plasma membrane of intact, motile sperm as well as permeabilized cells. Western blot analysis showed increased phosphorylation of human sperm 80K-H protein following in vitro capacitation. This is the first demonstration of the 80K-H protein in a mammalian sperm. Conclusion The presence of SAP on the surface of mature sperm implies that SAP has a physiological role in reproduction, which is thought to be in the removal of spermatozoa from the female genital tract via phagocytosis. Since 80K-H is a Ca2+-sensor recently implicated in the regulation of both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel activities, its detection in sperm represents the first direct signaling link between PKC and store-operated calcium channels identified in human sperm.

  20. Running title: Sperm cytogenetic alterations and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozdarani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility is caused by many factors including genetics. Although part of genetic damages are inherited and could be traced in blood leukocytes, but those de novo alterations induced in spermatogenesis are not part of diagnostic work up. De novo alterations might be the cause of many idiopathic conditions of male infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage, sex chromosomal aneuploidy and DAZ microdeletion in sperms of subfertile males in comparison with normal healthy individuals. Whole blood and semen samples were obtained from 75 subfertile and 45 normal men. Semen samples from karyotypically normal subfertile and normal individuals were used for DNA fragmentation, sex chromosome aneuploidy and DAZ microdeletion analysis. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay, chromosome aneuploidy and DAZ microdeletion was assessed using a combined primed in situ labeling and fluorescent in situ hybridization (PRINS-FISH method. A significantly high percentage of DNA fragmentation was observed in subfertile patients compared to control. Similar observation was observed for sex chromosome aneuploidy and DAZ microdeletion (p < 0.01. A relatively small interindividual difference was seen in all three assays performed. However DAZ microdeletion was observed as mosaic form in Y bearing sperms. Results indicate that subfertile males experience higher genome instability in spermatogenesis expressed as DNA damage and consequently sperm chromosomal aneuploidy or microdeletions. Occurrence of de novo genetic alterations caused by environmental chemico-physical genotoxic agents during spermatogenesis might be one of the causes of idiopathic male infertility.

  1. Female sperm storage in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M

    2002-02-01

    The three orders of extant amphibians are Gymnophiona, Anura, and Urodela. Although all gymnophionans apparently have internal fertilization and many are viviparous, female sperm storage is unknown. Internal fertilization has convergently evolved in a few anurans, but females of just one species, Ascaphus truei, are known to possess oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs). The SSTs of A. truei are similar anatomically to such glands in squamate reptiles. This similarity is convergence due to similar functional adaptations and/or internal design constraints. In salamanders and newts (Urodela), absence of sperm storage in females is the ancestral condition (three families). In the derived condition, sperm storage occurs in cloacal glands called spermathecae, and their possession is a synapomorphy for females in the suborder Salamandroidea (seven families). Salamandroids are the only vertebrates with cloacal sperm storage glands. In this paper, a phenetic analysis of variation in spermathecal characters reveals patterns of convergence in certain spermathecal characters in unrelated taxa that breed in similar habitats. In the family Salamandridae, a role in sperm nutrition for the spermathecal epithelium is questioned, and the widespread occurrence of spermiophagy is related to other reproductive strategies. I propose how the packaging of sperm in structurally different types of spermathecae may influence male paternity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Paternal aging and associated intraindividual alterations of global sperm 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Timothy G; Aston, Kenneth I; Cairns, Bradley R; Carrell, Douglas T

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the relative intraindividual changes in sperm 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) levels associated with age and to compare the levels of 5-hmC in mature human sperm to blood DNA. Prospective research study. University-based andrology and in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory. Fifteen known fertile sperm donors, 22 other known fertile controls, and 41 male blood donors from a general population tissue bank. None. Measurements of global 5-mC and 5-hmC levels via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based assay. Global sperm 5-mC levels exhibit a statistically significant increase with age, and a similar trend was seen in 5-hmC levels. On average, in the age ranges we analyzed, 5-mC increased by 1.76% per year, and 5-hmC, though more variable, increased by approximately 5% per year. Additionally, we found that 5-hmC levels in sperm are 32.59% of that found in blood DNA. Global sperm DNA methylation patterns are stable over short periods of time but increase with age, which raises important questions regarding the risks of advanced paternal age. Additionally, as we would predict for a transcriptionally quiescent cell type, 5-hmC levels are statistically significantly lower in human sperm than in blood DNA. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ReProComet: a new in vitro method to assess DNA damage in mammalian sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordelli, Eugenia; Fresegna, Anna Maria; D'Alessio, Alessia; Eleuteri, Patrizia; Spanò, Marcello; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Villani, Paola

    2007-10-01

    The increasing request of chemical safety assessment demands for the validation of alternative methods to reduce the resort to animal experimentation. Methods that evaluate reproductive toxicity are among those requiring the largest use of animals. Presently, no validated in vitro alternative exists for the assessment of reproductive toxicity. Mammalian sperm are sensitive targets of DNA-reactive chemicals, which form premutagenic adducts. Here, we propose a new method based on comet assay to detect DNA damage induced by potential germ cell mutagens in bull sperm available from assisted reproduction practices. In somatic cells, chemical-induced adducts can be revealed by comet assay that detects DNA breaks produced during adduct repair. Mature sperm, however, are devoid of repair enzymes, and adducts are processed only after fertilization. For this reason, comet assay is not sensitive to detect DNA lesions induced in sperm by most chemicals. To overcome such limitation, we developed a modified comet assay based on the addition of a protein extract from HeLa cells to agarose-embedded sperm on microscopic slides. To test the method, sperm were treated in vitro with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or melphalan (MLP) and comet assay was conducted both with and without protein supplementation. No effect of MMS or MLP was detected without protein supplementation; on the contrary, a clear-cut dose-dependent effect was measured after addition of the cell extract. These results represent a proof of concept of a novel in vitro mutagenicity test on sperm that could offer a promising approach to complement previously validated in vivo germ cell genotoxicity assays.

  4. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J., E-mail: dietrich@pan.olsztyn.pl [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K. [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dobosz, Stefan [Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute, Rutki 83-330 Zukowo (Poland); Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-05-10

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  5. Experimental evolution of sperm quality via postcopulatory sexual selection in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Individuals of many species copulate with multiple mates (polygamy). Multiple mating by females (polyandry) promotes sperm competition, which has broad implications for the evolution of the ejaculate. Multigenerational studies of polygamous insects have shown that the removal of sexual selection has profound fitness consequences for females, and can lead to an evolutionary divergence in ejaculate traits. However, the evolutionary implications of polygamous mating across successive generations have not before been demonstrated in a vertebrate. By manipulating the mating system we were able to reinstate postcopulatory sexual selection in a house mouse population that had a long history of enforced monogamy. Following eight generations of selection, we performed sperm quality assays on males from both the polygamous and monogamous selection lines. We applied a principal component analysis to summarize the variation among 12 correlated sperm traits, and found that males evolving under sperm competition had significantly larger scores on the first axis of variation, reflecting greater numbers of epididymal sperm and increased sperm motility, compared to males from lines under relaxed selection. Moreover, we found a correlated response in the size of litters born to females in lines subject to sperm competition. Thus, we present significant evidence that sperm competition has profound fitness consequences for both male and female house mice.

  6. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-01-01

    .... The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  7. Paternal DNA damage resulting from various sperm treatments persists after fertilization and is similar before and after DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Ward, Monika A

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its highly condensed state, sperm DNA is vulnerable to damage that can originate from oxidative stress, the activity of sperm-specific nucleases, or both. After fertilization, in the oocyte, paternal chromatin undergoes dramatic changes, and during this extensive remodeling, it can be both repaired and degraded, and these processes can be linked to DNA synthesis. Here, we analyzed sperm response to damage-inducing treatments both before and after fertilization and before or after zygotic DNA replication. Epididymal mouse spermatozoa were either frozen without cryoprotection (FT) or treated with detergent Triton X-100 coupled with dithiothreitol (TX+DTT) to induce DNA damage. Fresh, untreated sperm served as control. Immediately after preparation, spermatozoa from 3 groups were taken for comet assay, or for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into prometaphase I oocytes to visualize prematurely condensed single-chromatid chromosomes, or into mature metaphase II oocytes to visualize chromosomes after DNA replication. Comet assay revealed increased DNA fragmentation in treated sperm when compared with control, with FT sperm more severely affected. Chromosome analysis demonstrated paternal DNA damage in oocytes injected with treated, but not with fresh, sperm, with FT and TX+DTT groups now yielding similar damage. There were no differences in the incidence of abnormal paternal karyoplates before and after DNA synthesis in all examined groups. This study provides evidence that subjecting sperm to DNA damage-inducing treatments results in degradation of highly condensed sperm chromatin when it is still packed within the sperm head, and that this DNA damage persists after fertilization. The difference in DNA damage in sperm subjected to 2 treatments was ameliorated in the fertilized oocytes, suggesting that some chromatin repair might have occurred. This process, however, was independent of DNA synthesis and took place during oocyte maturation.

  8. Paternal DNA damage resulting from various sperm treatments persists after fertilization and is similar prior and after DNA replication1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M.; Ward, Monika A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its highly condensed state sperm DNA is vulnerable to damage that can originate from oxidative stress and/or the activity of sperm-specific nucleases. After fertilization, in the oocyte, paternal chromatin undergoes dramatic changes and during this extensive remodeling it can be both repaired and degraded, and these processes can be linked to DNA synthesis. Here, we analyzed sperm response to damage-inducing treatments both before and after fertilization, and prior or after zygotic DNA replication. Epididymal mouse spermatozoa were either frozen without cryoprotection (FT) or treated with detergent Triton X-100 coupled with dithiothreitol (TX+DTT) to induce DNA damage. Fresh, untreated sperm served as control. Immediately after preparation spermatozoa from three groups were taken for comet assay, or for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into prometaphase I (proMI) oocytes to visualize prematurely condensed single chromatid chromosomes, or into mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes to visualize chromosomes after DNA replication. Comet assay revealed increased DNA fragmentation in treated sperm when compared to control, with FT sperm more severely affected. Chromosome analysis demonstrated paternal DNA damage in oocytes injected with treated but not with fresh sperm, with FT and TX+DTT groups now yielding similar damage. There were no differences in the incidence of abnormal paternal karyoplates prior and after DNA synthesis in all examined groups. This study provides evidence that subjecting sperm to DNA damage inducing treatments results in degradation of highly condensed sperm chromatin when it is still packed within the sperm head, and that this DNA damage persists after fertilization. The difference in DNA damage in sperm subjected to two treatments was ameliorated in the fertilized oocytes suggesting that some chromatin repair might have occurred. This process, however, was independent of DNA synthesis, and took place during oocyte maturation

  9. Sperm structure and sperm transfer in Pseudopythina subsinuata (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse

    2009-01-01

    to the elongate cells. Most females contain one to three "sperm trees", structures consisting of a short stem and numerous branches. They are firmly implanted in the abfrontal part of the gill filament and protrude into the posterior part of the suprabranchial (brooding) chamber. Implantation of the trees causes...... the receptacle and thereupon fuse. A similar process is known in the allied P. tsurumaru, but the resulting structure ("sperm-carrying body") is not attached to the gills....

  10. Myoinositol: does it improve sperm mitochondrial function and sperm motility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, Rosita A; La Vignera, Sandro; Bellanca, Salvatore; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate whether an improvement in mitochondrial membrane potential was associated with sperm motility amelioration and greater sperm recovery after the swim-up procedure. A second purpose was to evaluate the effects of myoinositol (MYO) on sperm apoptosis, quality of chromatin compaction, and DNA integrity. Spermatozoa from 20 normozoospermic men and 20 patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia were incubated in vitro with 2 mg/mL of MYO or phosphate-buffered saline as a control for 2 hours. After this incubation period, sperm motility was evaluated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation. We also evaluated the total number of motile spermatozoa recovered after swim-up after incubation with MYO or phosphate-buffered saline. MYO significantly increased the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility in both normozoospermic men and patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia. Motility improvement in the latter group was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential. MYO had no effects on mitochondrial function in spermatozoa from normozoospermic men. Sperm phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation were unaffected by MYO in both groups. After incubation with MYO, the total number of spermatozoa recovered after swim-up had improved significantly in both groups. These data show that MYO increases sperm motility and the number of spermatozoa retrieved after swim-up in both normozoospermic men and patients with abnormal sperm parameters. In patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, the improvement in these parameters was associated with improved sperm mitochondrial function. These findings support the use of MYO in both in vivo- and in vitro-assisted reproductive techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sperm Proteome Maturation in the Mouse Epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew A; Petritis, Konstantinos; Karr, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, transit through the epididymis, which involves the acquisition, loss and modification of proteins, is required to confer motility and fertilization competency to sperm. The overall dynamics of maturation is poorly understood, and a systems level understanding of the complex maturation process will provide valuable new information about changes occurring during epididymal transport. We report the proteomes of sperm collected from the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the mouse epididymis, identifying 1536, 1720 and 1234 proteins respectively. This study identified 765 proteins that are present in sperm obtained from all three segments. We identified 1766 proteins that are potentially added (732) or removed (1034) from sperm during epididymal transit. Phenotypic analyses of the caput, corpus and cauda sperm proteomes identified 60 proteins that have known sperm phenotypes when mutated, or absent from sperm. Our analysis indicates that as much as one-third of proteins with known sperm phenotypes are added to sperm during epididymal transit. GO analyses revealed that cauda sperm are enriched for specific functions including sperm-egg recognition and motility, consistent with the observation that sperm acquire motility and fertilization competency during transit through the epididymis. In addition, GO analyses revealed that the immunity protein profile of sperm changes during sperm maturation. Finally, we identified components of the 26S proteasome, the immunoproteasome, and a proteasome activator in mature sperm.

  12. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  13. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  14. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fertilize an egg, sperm must move — wriggling and swimming through a woman's cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes. ... Biology. 2009;47:615. Swerdloff RS, et al. Evaluation of male infertility. http://www.uptodate.com/home. ...

  15. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  16. Production of live foals via intracytoplasmic injection of lyophilized sperm and sperm extract in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Varner, D D; Love, C C; Hartman, D L; Hinrichs, K

    2011-10-01

    Work with lyophilized sperm helps delineate the factors required for successful fertilization. We investigated the use of lyophilized sperm in equine embryo production. In Experiment 1, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not affected by three freeze/thaw or lyophilization cycles. In Experiment 2, oocytes injected with lyophilized sperm or with sperm from a treatment in which lyophilized sperm were suspended in sperm cytoplasmic extract (SE) yielded blastocyst development rates of 0 and 28% respectively (P fertilization with lyophilized sperm in a non-laboratory animal species.

  17. Sperm competition selects for sperm quantity and quality in the Australian Maluridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissah Rowe

    Full Text Available When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens, we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype.

  18. Depolarization of sperm membrane potential is a common feature of men with subfertility and is associated with low fertilization rate at IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sean G; Publicover, Stephen J; Mansell, Steven A; Lishko, Polina V; Williams, Hannah L; Ramalingam, Mythili; Wilson, Stuart M; Barratt, Christopher L R; Sutton, Keith A; Da Silva, Sarah Martins

    2016-06-01

    (+)) conductance and resting membrane potential (Vm) and signalling/motility assays were used to assess functional characteristics of sperm from IVF and ICSI patient samples. The mean Vm and outward membrane conductance in sperm from IVF and ICSI patients were not significantly different from those of control (donor) sperm prepared under the same conditions, but variation between individuals was significantly greater (P25%). In particular, in ≈10% of patients (7/81), we observed either a negligible outward conductance (4 patients) or an enhanced inward current (3 patients), both of which caused depolarization of Vm. Analysis of clinical data from the IVF patients showed significant association of depolarized Vm (≥0 mV) with low fertilization rate (P= 0.012). Spermatozoa with electrophysiological abnormities (conductance and Vm) responded normally to progesterone with elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and penetration of viscous medium, indicating retention of cation channel of sperm (CatSper) channel function. For practical, technical, ethical and logistical reasons, we could not obtain sufficient additional semen samples from men with conductance abnormalities to establish the cause of the conductance defects. Full exome sequencing was only available in two men with conductance defects. These data add significantly to the understanding of the role of ion channels in human sperm function and its impact on male fertility. Impaired potassium channel conductance (Gm) and/or Vm regulation is both common and complex in human spermatozoa and importantly is associated with impaired fertilization capacity when the Vm of cells is completely depolarized. The majority of the data were obtained using funding from MRC project grants (#MR/K013343/1, MR/012492/1). Additional funding was provided by NHS Tayside, TENOVUS, Chief Scientist Office NRS Fellowship and University of Abertay. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Not applicable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  19. Mammalian sperm interaction with extracellular matrices of the egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saling, P M

    1989-01-01

    acrosin causes digestion and increases the affinity of freshly exposed proacrosin for the zona pellucida. This cycle continues, eventually generating the narrow penetration slit through the zona pellucida. Undoubtedly, other factors are at play here, particularly motility, and it is assumed that vigorously active ('hyperactive') sperm are the cells that participate in these events. This scheme can account for the many diverse observations made in different species if two factors, kinetics and affinity, are considered. In some species, FTU aggregation may occur spontaneously at a rate faster than in others, leading to a higher level of spontaneously acrosome-reacted sperm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  20. Evaluating the function of calcium antagonist on the Cd-induced stress in sperm of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhihua, E-mail: zhihuali06@yahoo.com [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Li Ping [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Rodina, Marek; Randak, Tomas [University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    In the current study, the sperm of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was used to evaluate the roles of Verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker, against cadmium (Cd)-induced stress. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2 h at 50 {mu}g/L VRP, 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd, the mixture of 50 {mu}g/L VRP + 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd, 50 {mu}g/L Cd and the mixture of 50 {mu}g/L VRP + 50 {mu}g/L Cd. After exposure, the sperm motility parameters (motility and velocity), oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and carbonyl protein [CP]) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were measured in sturgeon sperm. Compared to the control, Cd-induced stress was apparent as reflected by depressed motility parameters, induced oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities at both Cd concentrations. In the presence of VRP, Cd-induced stress was reduced in sturgeon sperm, especially all the measured parameters in the sperm exposed at 5.0 {mu}g/L Cd returned to control levels, expect for the sperm motility. The present results indicate that VRP can reduce the Cd-induced stress in sturgeon sperm and suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficient means for evaluating the effects of residual metals in the aquatic environment of sturgeon.

  1. Evaluating the function of calcium antagonist on the Cd-induced stress in sperm of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Rodina, Marek; Randak, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    In the current study, the sperm of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) was used to evaluate the roles of Verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker, against cadmium (Cd)-induced stress. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2h at 50μg/L VRP, 5.0μg/L Cd, the mixture of 50μg/L VRP+5.0μg/L Cd, 50μg/L Cd and the mixture of 50μg/L VRP+50μg/L Cd. After exposure, the sperm motility parameters (motility and velocity), oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and carbonyl protein [CP]) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were measured in sturgeon sperm. Compared to the control, Cd-induced stress was apparent as reflected by depressed motility parameters, induced oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities at both Cd concentrations. In the presence of VRP, Cd-induced stress was reduced in sturgeon sperm, especially all the measured parameters in the sperm exposed at 5.0μg/L Cd returned to control levels, expect for the sperm motility. The present results indicate that VRP can reduce the Cd-induced stress in sturgeon sperm and suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficient means for evaluating the effects of residual metals in the aquatic environment of sturgeon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the external physical damages between laser-assisted and mechanical immobilized human sperm using scanning electronic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David Y L; Li, Tin Chiu

    2017-01-01

    We aim to visualize the external physical damages and distinct external phenotypic effects between mechanical and laser-assisted immobilized human spermatozoa using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Human spermatozoa were immobilized mechanically or with laser assistance for SEM examination and the membrane integrities were checked on both types of immobilized spermatozoa. We found evidence of external damages at SEM level on mechanically kinked sperm, but not on laser-assisted immobilized sperm. Although no external damage was found on laser-assist immobilized sperm, there were two distinct types of morphological changes when spermatozoa were stricken by infra-red laser. Coiled tails were immediately formed when Laser pulse was applied to the sperm end piece area, whereas laser applied to the sperm principal piece area resulted in a sharp bend of sperm tails. Sperm immobilized by laser did not exhibit any morphological change if the laser did not hit within the on-screen central target zone or if the laser hit the sperm mid piece or head. Our modified membrane integrity assay revealed that the external membrane of more than half of the laser-assisted immobilized sperm remained intact. In conclusion, mechanical immobilization produced membrane damages whilst laser-assisted immobilization did not result in any external membrane damages besides morphological changes at SEM level.

  3. DNA fragmentation in frozen sperm of Equus asinus: Zamorano-Leonés, a breed at risk of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Crespo, F; Gosálvez, A; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; López-Fernández, C; Gósalvez, J

    2008-05-01

    The dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) and sperm viability were analyzed in frozen-thawed sperm samples of Equus asinus (Zamorano-Leonés), a breed at risk of extinction. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using an adaptation of the sperm chromatin dispersion test developed for stallions in five different frozen samples. Sperm were thawed and incubated at different temperatures (37 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 4 degrees C) and sDF was assessed at different times and compared. The mean sDF after thawing at the beginning of the experiment was 18.20+/-14.77% and did not differ significantly from the results of a neutral comet assay (22.0+/-19.34%). The tendency in the sDF of all donkeys indicated that sperm DNA is more sensitive to breakage when incubated at 37 degrees C than when incubated at 25 degrees C or 4 degrees C. Interestingly, the tendency was not the same when different animals were compared, and differences in sDF dynamics were established among individuals. sDF correlated negatively with sperm viability in some individuals but not in others. From a conservation perspective, sDF analysis may offer a new way to assess sperm quality in endangered breeds in order to identify and select the best semen samples for artificial reproduction purposes. In particular, we recommend for artificial insemination the use of semen samples with a slow increase in sDF with time after thawing.

  4. Short-Term Storage of Human Spermatozoa in Electrolyte-Free Medium Without Freezing Maintains Sperm Chromatin Integrity Better Than Cryopreservation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Jonathan M.; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Huang, Thomas T.F.; Grove, John; Ward, Monika A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous attempts to maintain human spermatozoa without freezing were based on short-term storage in component-rich medium and led to fast decline in motility and increased incidence of chromosome breaks. Here we report a new method in which sperm are maintained without freezing in an electrolyte-free medium (EFM) composed of glucose and bovine serum albumin. Human sperm were stored in EFM or human tubal fluid medium (HTFM) or were cryopreserved, and their motility, viability, and DNA integrity were examined at different intervals. Cryopreservation led to significant decline in sperm motility and viability and induced DNA fragmentation. Sperm stored in EFM maintained motility and viability for up to 4 and 7 wk, respectively, much longer than sperm stored in HTFM (comet assay, was also maintained significantly better in EFM than in HTFM. One-week storage in EFM yielded motility and viability similar to that of cryopreserved sperm, but DNA integrity was significantly higher, resembling that of fresh sperm. After several weeks of storage in EFM, sperm were able to activate oocytes, undergo chromatin remodeling, and form normal zygotic chromosomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This study demonstrated that human spermatozoa can be stored in EFM without freezing for several weeks while maintaining motility, viability, and chromatin integrity and that 1-wk storage in EFM offers better protection of sperm DNA integrity than cryopreservation. Sperm storage in EFM may become a viable option for the physicians working in assisted reproduction technology clinics, which would avoid cryodamage. PMID:21593474

  5. Peroxiredoxins prevent oxidative stress during human sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Moawad, Adel R; Morielli, Tania; Fernandez, Maria C; O'Flaherty, Cristian

    2017-02-10

    Do peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) control reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during human sperm capacitation? PRDXs are necessary to control the levels of ROS generated during capacitation allowing spermatozoa to achieve fertilizing ability. Sperm capacitation is an oxidative event that requires low and controlled amounts of ROS to trigger phosphorylation events. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that not only act as scavengers but also control ROS action in somatic cells. Spermatozoa from infertile men have lower levels of PRDXs (particularly of PRDX6), which are thiol-oxidized and therefore inactive. Semen samples were obtained from a cohort of 20 healthy nonsmoker volunteers aged 22-30 years old over a period of 1 year. Sperm from healthy donors was capacitated with fetal cord serum ultrafiltrate (FCSu) in the absence or presence of thiostrepton (TSP), inhibitor of 2-Cys PRDXs or 1-Hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol lithium (MJ33), inhibitor of calcium independent-phospholipase A2 (Ca2+-iPLA2) activity of PRDX6, added at different times of incubation. Capacitation was also induced by the dibutyryl cAMP+3-isobuty1-1-methylxanthine system. Sperm viability and motility were determined by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and computer-assisted semen analysis system, respectively. Capacitation was determined by the ability of spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction triggered by lysophosphatidylcholine. Percentages of acrosome reaction were obtained using the FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin assay. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues and of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Actin polymerization was determined by phalloidin labeling. TSP and MJ33 prevented sperm capacitation and its associated actin polymerization in spermatozoa incubated with 10% FCSu (capacitation inducer) compared to non-capacitated controls (P sperm viability

  6. Environmental car exhaust pollution damages human sperm chromatin and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, A E; La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Perdichizzi, A; Valenti, D; Asero, P; Carbone, U; Boggia, B; De Rosa, N; Lombardi, G; D'Agata, R; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E; De Rosa, M

    2011-06-01

    The adverse role of traffic pollutants on male fertility is well known. Aim of this study was to evaluate their effects on sperm chromatin/DNA integrity. To accomplish this, 36 men working at motorway tollgates and 32 unexposed healthy men (controls) were enrolled. All of them were interviewed about their lifestyle. Hormone, semen samples, and environmental and biological markers of pollution were evaluated. Sperm chromatin and DNA integrity were evaluated by flow cytometry following propidium iodide staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. LH, FSH, and testosterone serum levels were within the normal range in tollgate workers. Sperm concentration, total sperm count, total and progressive motility, and normal forms were significantly lower in these men compared with controls. Motorway tollgate workers had a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with damaged chromatin and DNA fragmentation, a late sign of apoptosis, compared with controls. A significant direct correlation was found between spermatozoa with damaged chromatin or fragmented DNA and the length of occupational exposure, suggesting a time-dependent relationship. This study showed that car exhaust exposure has a genotoxic effect on human spermatozoa. This may be of relevant importance not only for the reproductive performance of the men exposed, but also for the offspring health.

  7. Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Blengini, Cecilia Soledad; Naretto, Sergio; Cardozo Milanesio, Gabriela Alejandra; Giojalas, Laura Cecilia; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and v...

  8. A study of the antioxidant effect of alpha lipoic acids on sperm quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assisted reproductive techniques are useful in helping infertile couples achieve successful conception. Initial studies have shown that sperm cryopreservation, one step in assisted reproduction, causes a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to, among other things, free radical activities. The aim of the present study was to minimize this oxidative attack by adding an antioxidant into the sperm microenvironment. Alpha lipoic acids were selected for this purpose for their efficient free radical scavenging properties and solubility in lipid and aqueous phases. METHODS: For this investigation, semen from six Boer bucks was pooled. Seminal analysis of the baseline prior to incubation of samples with different concentrations of Alpha lipoic acids (0.00625, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mmol/ml was performed, and post-seminal analysis was conducted after a one-hour incubation. The comet assay was used to observe the effect of Alpha lipoic acids on sperm DNA integrity. Statistical analysis using an unpaired t-test with a significance level of p<0.05 was then performed. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the sperm motility rate was improved after incubation with Alpha lipoic acids at a concentration of 0.02 mmol/ml. This concentration was also capable of reducing DNA damage. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Alpha lipoic acids renders cryoprotection to sperm, thereby improving sperm quality.

  9. Epididymal protein Rnase10 is required for post-testicular sperm maturation and male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutskikh, Anton; Poliandri, Ariel; Cabrera-Sharp, Victoria; Dacheux, Jean Louis; Poutanen, Matti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2012-01-01

    Eutherian spermatozoa are dependent on the environment of the proximal epididymis to complete their maturation; however, no specific epididymal factors that mediate this process have so far been identified. Here, we show that targeted disruption of the novel gene Rnase10 encoding a secreted proximal epididymal protein in the mouse results in a binding defect in spermatozoa and their inability to pass through the uterotubal junction in the female. The failure to gain the site of fertilization in the knockout spermatozoa is associated with a gradual loss of ADAM3 and ADAM6 proteins during epididymal transit. In the distal epididymis, these spermatozoa appear to lack calcium-dependent associations with the immobilizing glutinous extracellular material and are released as single, vigorously motile cells that display no tendency for head-to-head agglutination and lack affinity to the oviductal epithelium. In sperm-egg binding assay, they are unable to establish a tenacious association with the zona pellucida, yet they are capable of fertilization. Furthermore, these sperm show accelerated capacitation resulting in an overall in vitro fertilizing ability superior to that of wild-type sperm. We conclude that the physiological role of sperm adhesiveness is in the mechanism of restricted sperm entry into the oviduct rather than in sperm-egg interaction.—Krutskikh, A., Poliandri, A., Cabrera-Sharp, V., Dacheux, J. L., Poutanen, M., Huhtaniemi, I. Epididymal protein Rnase10 is required for post-testicular sperm maturation and male fertility. PMID:22750516

  10. Taser penetrating ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weng; Chehade, Mark

    2005-04-01

    To describe the presentation and treatment of a Taser penetrating ocular injury. Case report. A 50-year-old man with a Taser injury 1.5 cm below the right lower eyelid margin was admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital. The case report describes the ophthalmic assessment, investigation, treatment, and outcome of the Taser barb penetrating ocular injury. The Taser has a fish hook barb that caused a full-thickness wound adequately large for vitreous to escape when the Taser was removed. Consequently, the scleral wound was repaired and cryopexy was performed. The affected eye made a satisfactory recovery, and the visual acuity was 6/9 with a pinhole 1 week after operation. Any Taser injury around the orbits should raise the suspicion of a penetrating ocular injury. In likely cases, removal of the Taser should be performed in an operating theater under general anesthesia.

  11. High-velocity penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ronald G.

    This paper summarizes the results of studies, coupled with a series of tests, that investigated rigid-body projectiles (penetrators) at high (up to 5500 ft/sec) velocities. Before these studies, it had been hypothesized that a velocity limit would be reached at which increasing the velocity would not commensurately increase depth of penetration into a target. It was further inferred that a given velocity/ penetration depth curve would avalanche into the hydrodynamic regime; that is, increasing the velocity past a certain point would decrease penetration performance. The test series utilized 1/2-in., 3-in., and 5 1/2-in. diameter, ogive-nose steel projectiles and grout and concrete targets. The tests confirmed that penetration depth increased as striking velocity increased to 4000 ft/sec. However, beyond striking velocities of 4000 ft/sec, asymmetric erosion and indentation of the projectile nose from the aggregate caused the projectile trajectories to deviate severely from the target centerline. These trajectory deviations caused the projectile to exit the side of the target, severely bend, break, or exhibit decreased penetration performance, confirming the hypothesis. Clearly, these results were dependent on the specific material and geometric parameters. The projectiles had 3.0 and 4.25 CRH (Caliber-Radius-Head) nose shapes and were heat-treated to R(sub c) 38-40. The grout targets had a maximum aggregate diameter of 3/16 in. and a nominal unconfined compressive strength of 2.5 ksi. The concrete targets had a maximum aggregate diameter of 3/4 in. and unconfined compressive strength of 5.5 ksi.

  12. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  13. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  14. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Mochtar, M.H.; de Melker, A.A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial

  15. Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawecka, Joanna E; Boaz, Segal; Kasperson, Kay; Nguyen, Hieu; Evenson, Donald P; Ward, W Steven

    2015-12-01

    Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice? The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis. Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF. Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ--sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted--sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed--sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid--sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged. DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis. In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We

  16. The comet assay in male reproductive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Cemeli, E; Anderson, D

    2009-02-01

    Due to our lifestyle and the environment we live in, we are constantly confronted with genotoxic or potentially genotoxic compounds. These toxins can cause DNA damage to our cells, leading to an increase in mutations. Sometimes such mutations could give rise to cancer in somatic cells. However, when germ cells are affected, then the damage could also have an effect on the next and successive generations. A rapid, sensitive and reliable method to detect DNA damage and assess the integrity of the genome within single cells is that of the comet or single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The present communication gives an overview of the use of the comet assay utilising sperm or testicular cells in reproductive toxicology. This includes consideration of damage assessed by protocol modification, cryopreservation vs the use of fresh sperm, viability and statistics. It further focuses on in vivo and in vitro comet assay studies with sperm and a comparison of this assay with other assays measuring germ cell genotoxicity. As most of the de novo structural aberrations occur in sperm and spermatogenesis is functional from puberty to old age, whereas female germ cells are more complicated to obtain, the examination of male germ cells seems to be an easier and logical choice for research and testing in reproductive toxicology. In addition, the importance of such an assay for the paternal impact of genetic damage in offspring is undisputed. As there is a growing interest in the evaluation of genotoxins in male germ cells, the comet assay allows in vitro and in vivo assessments of various environmental and lifestyle genotoxins to be reliably determined.

  17. HT-COMET: a novel automated approach for high throughput assessment of human sperm chromatin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Océane; Reintsch, Wolfgang E; Chan, Peter; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Can we make the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) for human sperm a more accurate and informative high throughput assay? We developed a standardized automated high throughput comet (HT-COMET) assay for human sperm that improves its accuracy and efficiency, and could be of prognostic value to patients in the fertility clinic. The comet assay involves the collection of data on sperm DNA damage at the level of the single cell, allowing the use of samples from severe oligozoospermic patients. However, this makes comet scoring a low throughput procedure that renders large cohort analyses tedious. Furthermore, the comet assay comes with an inherent vulnerability to variability. Our objective is to develop an automated high throughput comet assay for human sperm that will increase both its accuracy and efficiency. The study comprised two distinct components: a HT-COMET technical optimization section based on control versus DNAse treatment analyses ( ITALIC! n = 3-5), and a cross-sectional study on 123 men presenting to a reproductive center with sperm concentrations categorized as severe oligozoospermia, oligozoospermia or normozoospermia. Sperm chromatin quality was measured using the comet assay: on classic 2-well slides for software comparison; on 96-well slides for HT-COMET optimization; after exposure to various concentrations of a damage-inducing agent, DNAse, using HT-COMET; on 123 subjects with different sperm concentrations using HT-COMET. Data from the 123 subjects were correlated to classic semen quality parameters and plotted as single-cell data in individual DNA damage profiles. We have developed a standard automated HT-COMET procedure for human sperm. It includes automated scoring of comets by a fully integrated high content screening setup that compares well with the most commonly used semi-manual analysis software. Using this method, a cross-sectional study on 123 men showed no significant correlation between sperm concentration and sperm DNA

  18. HT-COMET: a novel automated approach for high throughput assessment of human sperm chromatin quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Océane; Reintsch, Wolfgang E.; Chan, Peter; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can we make the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) for human sperm a more accurate and informative high throughput assay? SUMMARY ANSWER We developed a standardized automated high throughput comet (HT-COMET) assay for human sperm that improves its accuracy and efficiency, and could be of prognostic value to patients in the fertility clinic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The comet assay involves the collection of data on sperm DNA damage at the level of the single cell, allowing the use of samples from severe oligozoospermic patients. However, this makes comet scoring a low throughput procedure that renders large cohort analyses tedious. Furthermore, the comet assay comes with an inherent vulnerability to variability. Our objective is to develop an automated high throughput comet assay for human sperm that will increase both its accuracy and efficiency. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study comprised two distinct components: a HT-COMET technical optimization section based on control versus DNAse treatment analyses (n = 3–5), and a cross-sectional study on 123 men presenting to a reproductive center with sperm concentrations categorized as severe oligozoospermia, oligozoospermia or normozoospermia. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Sperm chromatin quality was measured using the comet assay: on classic 2-well slides for software comparison; on 96-well slides for HT-COMET optimization; after exposure to various concentrations of a damage-inducing agent, DNAse, using HT-COMET; on 123 subjects with different sperm concentrations using HT-COMET. Data from the 123 subjects were correlated to classic semen quality parameters and plotted as single-cell data in individual DNA damage profiles. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We have developed a standard automated HT-COMET procedure for human sperm. It includes automated scoring of comets by a fully integrated high content screening setup that compares well with the most commonly used semi

  19. Microfluidic single sperm entrapment and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Berendsen, Johanna Theodora Wilhelmina; Berendsen, J.T.W.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    Selection of healthy spermatozoa is of crucial importance for the success rates of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Although sperm selection for ART procedures is predominantly based on sperm motility, successful

  20. in penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    particularly in trauma surgery. The benefits of ERAS/ERPs are well established. They have shown faster physiological patient recovery, and reduced length of hospital stay without. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in penetrating abdominal trauma: A prospective single-center pilot study. TRAUMA. M R Moydien, R ...

  1. Penetration resistant barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  2. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of sperm DNA damage onin vitrofertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Luke; Zini, Armand; Dyachenko, Alina; Ciampi, Antonio; Carrell, Douglas T

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage is prevalent among infertile men and is known to influence natural reproduction. However, the impact of sperm DNA damage on assisted reproduction outcomes remains controversial. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on sperm DNA damage (assessed by SCSA, TUNEL, SCD, or Comet assay) and clinical pregnancy after IVF and/or ICSI treatment from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PUBMED database searches for this analysis. We identified 41 articles (with a total of 56 studies) including 16 IVF studies, 24 ICSI studies, and 16 mixed (IVF + ICSI) studies. These studies measured DNA damage (by one of four assays: 23 SCSA, 18 TUNEL, 8 SCD, and 7 Comet) and included a total of 8068 treatment cycles (3734 IVF, 2282 ICSI, and 2052 mixed IVF + ICSI). The combined OR of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.49-1.89; P sperm DNA damage affects clinical pregnancy following IVF and/or ICSI treatment. In addition, the combined OR estimates of IVF (16 estimates, OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.34-2.04; P sperm DNA damage has a negative effect on clinical pregnancy following IVF and/or ICSI treatment.

  4. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  5. Sperm in poor quality semen from bulls during heat stress have a lower affinity for binding hydrogen-3 heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ax, R.L.; Gilbert, G.R.; Shook, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Binding assays with (/sup 3/H) heparin were performed using spermatozoa collected prior to, during, and following summer heat stress to dairy bulls. Ejaculates collected in August 1983 after a period of ambient temperatures exceeding 29.4/sup 0/C exhibited a high frequency of abnormal sperm, and motility was reduced in some samples. Sperm in samples collected during heat stress possessed dissociation constants for binding (/sup 3/H) heparin ranging from 134.5 to 163.2 nmol. In contrast, sperm in semen collected prior to and after heat stress had significantly lower dissociation constants (higher affinity) for (/sup 3/H)heparin, 12.9 to 56.4 nmol. The number of binding sites for (/sup 3/H) heparin on sperm did not change among collection periods. It was concluded that the binding affinity for (/sup 3/H) heparin may reflect membrane integrity of bull sperm.

  6. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  7. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management.

  8. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management. PMID:21716889

  9. The voltage-gated sodium channel nav1.8 is expressed in human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cejudo-Roman

    Full Text Available The role of Na(+ fluxes through voltage-gated sodium channels in the regulation of sperm cell function remains poorly understood. Previously, we reported that several genes encoding voltage-gated Na(+ channels were expressed in human testis and mature spermatozoa. In this study, we analyzed the presence and function of the TTX-resistant VGSC α subunit Nav1.8 in human capacitated sperm cells. Using an RT-PCR assay, we found that the mRNA of the gene SCN10A, that encode Na v1.8, was abundantly and specifically expressed in human testis and ejaculated spermatozoa. The Na v1.8 protein was detected in capacitated sperm cells using three different specific antibodies against this channel. Positive immunoreactivity was mainly located in the neck and the principal piece of the flagellum. The presence of Na v1.8 in sperm cells was confirmed by Western blot. Functional studies demonstrated that the increases in progressive motility produced by veratridine, a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, were reduced in sperm cells preincubated with TTX (10 μM, the Na v1.8 antagonist A-803467, or a specific Na v1.8 antibody. Veratridine elicited similar percentage increases in progressive motility in sperm cells maintained in Ca(2+-containing or Ca(2+-free solution and did not induce hyperactivation or the acrosome reaction. Veratridine caused a rise in sperm intracellular Na(+, [Na(+]i, and the sustained phase of the response was inhibited in the presence of A-803467. These results verify that the Na(+ channel Na v1.8 is present in human sperm cells and demonstrate that this channel participates in the regulation of sperm function.

  10. The Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.8 Is Expressed in Human Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Roman, Antonio; Pinto, Francisco M.; Subirán, Nerea; Ravina, Cristina G.; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; Pérez-Hernández, Natalia; Pérez, Ricardo; Pacheco, Alberto; Irazusta, Jon; Candenas, Luz

    2013-01-01

    The role of Na+ fluxes through voltage-gated sodium channels in the regulation of sperm cell function remains poorly understood. Previously, we reported that several genes encoding voltage-gated Na+ channels were expressed in human testis and mature spermatozoa. In this study, we analyzed the presence and function of the TTX-resistant VGSC α subunit Nav1.8 in human capacitated sperm cells. Using an RT-PCR assay, we found that the mRNA of the gene SCN10A, that encode Na v1.8, was abundantly and specifically expressed in human testis and ejaculated spermatozoa. The Na v1.8 protein was detected in capacitated sperm cells using three different specific antibodies against this channel. Positive immunoreactivity was mainly located in the neck and the principal piece of the flagellum. The presence of Na v1.8 in sperm cells was confirmed by Western blot. Functional studies demonstrated that the increases in progressive motility produced by veratridine, a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, were reduced in sperm cells preincubated with TTX (10 μM), the Na v1.8 antagonist A-803467, or a specific Na v1.8 antibody. Veratridine elicited similar percentage increases in progressive motility in sperm cells maintained in Ca2+-containing or Ca2+-free solution and did not induce hyperactivation or the acrosome reaction. Veratridine caused a rise in sperm intracellular Na+, [Na+]i, and the sustained phase of the response was inhibited in the presence of A-803467. These results verify that the Na+ channel Na v1.8 is present in human sperm cells and demonstrate that this channel participates in the regulation of sperm function. PMID:24086692

  11. Sperm quality evaluation in Solea senegalensis during the reproductive season at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, J; Soares, F; Herráez, M P; Dinis, M T; Cabrita, E

    2009-12-01

    Sperm quality seems to be one of the reasons for the reproduction constraints faced by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) aquaculturists. Previous studies in this species indicated that the sperm quality of individuals kept in culture varies throughout the year and that different sperm subpopulations can be identified in ejaculates according to the motility pattern of spermatozoa. Aiming to better understand factors affecting sole sperm quality in captivity, sperm of 11 males was assessed during the reproductive season using different parameters: motility characteristics using CASA analysis; cell plasma membrane resistance to seawater hyperosmolarity; DNA fragmentation with single-cell gel electrophoresis; and early apoptosis, labeled with Annexin-V FITC. Computer-assisted sperm analyses motility data were treated using multivariate analysis to identify the presence of different spermatozoa subpopulations according to their motility pattern. Four distinct sperm subpopulations were obtained: Subpop1, which includes fast linear spermatozoa; Subpop2, made up of fast nonlinear spermatozoa; Subpop3, which includes slow linear spermatozoa; and Subpop4, which contains slow nonlinear spermatozoa. The sperm subpopulation structure varied with time after activation and with male. Low cell resistance to the seawater hyperosmotic conditions was noticed. The Annexin-V assay allowed the identification of an apoptotic population ranging from 6% to 20%. A high percentage of cells (64.1%) showed a DNA fragmentation level below 30%, but these values varied significantly between males. DNA fragmentation appears to be related to cell membrane resistance to hyperosmotic conditions faced by the cells when in contact with seawater. This condition seems to modulate the composition of the motile sperm population and performance after activation. This phenomenon could be related to the spermatozoa maturation process.

  12. Daily Sperm Production, Gonadal and Extra-Gonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    animals per treatment were sacrificed and their reproductive tracts dissected. The testes and epididymides were carefully sampled, weighed and processed. Results showed that the right, left and paired testes weights of the animals were not significantly different among the dietary treatments. However, the testicular sperm ...

  13. Comparative sensitivity of sea urchin sperm bioassays to metals and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnel, P A; Link, J M; Stober, Q J; Letourneau, M W; Roberts, W E

    1989-09-01

    A simple sperm/fertilization bioassay, primarily using sea urchin gametes, has been developed and used by a variety of laboratories. This assay was recently refined into a standard test and is now being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and others for toxicity testing in marine waters. One factor that has lagged behind the development of this assay is the comparison of its sensitivity to various common toxicants as compared to other bioassay systems and life stages of other marine organisms. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of a standardized sea urchin sperm/fertilization assay to the responses of embryo, larval, and adult marine organisms to metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and pesticides (DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Endosulfan) added to natural seawater. The results, although highly variable, generally showed that sperm/fertilization and embryo assays were quite sensitive to the metals tested, but that the larval and adult assays were more sensitive to the pesticides. These comparative data, together with other studies of complex effluents, show that the standardized sperm/fertilization bioassay is an especially quick and useful tool for biomonitoring of marine waters.

  14. EVALUATION OF SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY (SCSA REGISTERED TRADEMARK) IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home semen collection kits allow men to collect a sample at their convenience and send it via overnight mail to the laboratory. Benefits of this approach include facilitated sample collection from different geographic locations, minimized variability through analysis by a central...

  15. Freezing-induced uptake of disaccharides for preservation of chromatin in freeze-dried stallion sperm during accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Zhang, Miao; Narten, Katharina; Bigalk, Judith; Sydykov, Bulat; Wolkers, Willem F; Sieme, Harald

    2017-11-07

    Non-viable freeze-dried sperm have intact chromatin and can be used for fertilization via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Freeze-dried sperm preferably should be stored at 4°C or lower, because DNA damage accumulates during storage at room temperature. Disaccharides are known to protect biomolecules both during freezing and drying, by forming a highly viscous glassy state. Their use for intracellular protection is challenging because cellular membranes are normally impermeable for disaccharides. In the current study, we demonstrate that membrane impermeable compounds, including lucifer yellow and trehalose, are taken up by stallion sperm when exposed to freezing. Trehalose uptake likely occurs during freezing-induced membrane phase transitions, but does not allow sperm to survive drying. Stallion sperm was freeze-dried in various formulations consisting of reducing or non-reducing sugars combined with albumin as bulking agent. Chromatin stability was studied during storage at 37°C, using the flow cytometric sperm chromatin structure assay and microscopic assessment of chromatin dispersion and DNA fragmentation after electrophoresis. Freeze-drying did not affect sperm chromatin, irrespective of the formulation that was used. DNA fragmentation index (DFI) values ranged from 5 - 8%. If sperm was freeze-dried without protectants or in a combination of glucose and proteins, DNA damage rapidly accumulated during storage at 37°C, reaching DFI values of respectively 95 ± 4 and 64 ± 42% after 1 month. DFI values of sperm freeze-dried with sucrose or trehalose ranged between 9 - 11% and 33 - 52% after 1 and 3 months storage, respectively. In conclusion, freeze-drying sperm with disaccharides results in uptake during freezing, which greatly reduces chromatin degradation during dried storage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [(14)C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  17. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-activity is involved in sperm acrosomal function and anti-polyspermy defense during porcine fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Joo; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Li, Rongfeng; Jonáková, Vera; Oko, Richard; Park, Chang-Sik; Prather, Randall S; Sutovsky, Peter

    2007-11-01

    The 26S proteasome, which is a multi-subunit protease with specificity for substrate proteins that are postranslationally modified by ubiquitination, has been implicated in acrosomal function and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration during mammalian fertilization. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) are responsible for the removal of polyubiquitin chains during substrate priming for proteasomal proteolysis. The inhibition of deubiquitination increases the rate of proteasomal proteolysis. Consequently, we have hypothesized that inhibition of sperm acrosome-borne UCHs increases the rate of sperm-ZP penetration and polyspermy during porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). Ubiquitin aldehyde (UA), which is a specific nonpermeating UCH inhibitor, significantly (P polyspermy during porcine IVF and reduced (P polyspermy during IVF, consistent with the UA-induced polyspermy surge. In the oocyte, UCHL3 was primarily associated with the meiotic spindle. Sperm-borne UCHL3 was localized to the acrosomal surface and coimmunoprecipitated with a peripheral acrosomal membrane protein, spermadhesin AQN1. Recombinant UCHs, UCHL3, and isopeptidase T reduced polyspermy when added to the fertilization medium. UCHL1 was detected in the oocyte cortex but not on the sperm surface, and was partially degraded 6-8 h after fertilization. Enucleated oocyte-somatic cell electrofusion caused polarized redistribution of cortical UCHL1. We conclude that sperm-acrosomal UCHs are involved in sperm-ZP interactions and antipolyspermy defense. Modulation of UCH activity could facilitate the management of polyspermy during IVF and provide insights into male infertility.

  18. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sabeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions

  19. Percutaneous Penetration - Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-01-01

    Studies on percutaneous penetration are needed to assess the hazards after unintended occupational skin exposures to industrial products as well as the efficacy after intended consumer exposure to topically applied medicinal or cosmetic products. During recent decades, a number of methods have been...... to the vehicles and solvents used in donor and sampling fluids so that it reflects in-use conditions as closely as possible. Based on available experimental data, mathematical models have been developed to aid predictions of skin penetration. The authors question the general use of the present mathematical models...... in hazard assessment, as they seem to ignore outliers among chemicals as well as the heterogeneity of skin barrier properties and skin conditions within the exposed populations....

  20. Cognitive Penetration and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Zenon Pylyshyn argues that cognitively driven attentional effects do not amount to cognitive penetration of early vision because such effects occur either before or after early vision. Critics object that in fact such effects occur at all levels of perceptual processing. We argue that Pylyshyn’s claim is correct—but not for the reason he emphasizes. Even if his critics are correct that attentional effects are not external to early vision, these effects do not satisfy Pylyshyn’s requirements that the effects be direct and exhibit semantic coherence. In addition, we distinguish our defense from those found in recent work by Raftopoulos and by Firestone and Scholl, argue that attention should not be assimilated to expectation, and discuss alternative characterizations of cognitive penetrability, advocating a kind of pluralism. PMID:28275358

  1. The mouse gamete adhesin, SED1, is expressed on the surface of acrosome-intact human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Susannah D; Murphy, Ana A; Shur, Barry D

    2009-12-01

    To determine whether SED1, a protein secreted by the mouse epididymis that coats sperm and participates in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida, is present on human sperm and in human epididymal tissue. SED1 expression was analyzed by immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence assays. Academic clinical and research laboratories. Human breast milk was donated. Unused semen was donated by men presenting for semen analysis or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Cadaveric epididymal tissue was obtained from the institutional body donor program. Human milk fat globule membranes and human seminal plasma proteins were analyzed by immunoblot. Human sperm and epididymis were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Acrosomal status was determined by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum agglutinin. Immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence assays. Human SED1 is recognized by two different polyclonal anti-SED1 antisera. SED1 is localized to the plasma membrane of human sperm overlying the intact acrosome. In acrosome-reacted sperm, SED1 is localized to the equatorial segment. SED1 is expressed by the epithelium of the anterior caput epididymis. SED1 is expressed on the surface of acrosome-intact human sperm and in the anterior caput of the human epididymis, similar to that seen in mouse.

  2. Sperm release strategies in marine broadcast spawners: the costs of releasing sperm quickly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Bolton, Toby F

    2007-11-01

    When under competition for fertilisations, males are thought to increase their reproductive success by releasing as many sperm as possible into the reproductive arena and in many species, this prediction holds. For marine invertebrates, which utilise the ancestral strategy of broadcast spawning eggs and sperm, however, it appears that males tend to release their sperm more slowly than females release their eggs. Marine invertebrate eggs typically have a relatively slow permanent block to polyspermy (whereby eggs become impermeable to further sperm attachment), and for several minutes after fertilisation, sperm can continue to attach to a fertilised egg. We hypothesised that releasing sperm slowly minimises the 'wastage' of sperm on already fertilised eggs. We simulated different sperm release rates in a flume using the broadcast spawning polychaete, Galeolaria caespitosa. Sperm release rates strongly affected overall fertilisation success: higher release rates resulted in lower fertilisation rates. Laboratory studies confirmed that the 'permanent' block to polyspermy in G. caespitosa took less than a minute to form but this lag was sufficient to result in some sperm wastage. Thus upstream, fertilised eggs that have not formed a permanent block to polyspermy can remove sperm from the pool that would otherwise fertilise downstream sibling eggs. We suggest that while electrical blocks to polyspermy evolved in response to excess sperm, permanent blocks to polyspermy could have evolved in response to sperm limitation (insufficient sperm).

  3. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-04-22

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory.

  4. Effects of reduced seminal enzymatic antioxidants on sperm DNA fragmentation and semen quality of Tunisian infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and enzymatic antioxidant status in seminal plasma of Tunisian fertile and infertile men in order to assess the effects of seminal oxidative stress on sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. Semen samples from 100 infertile patients (40 oligoasthenoteratozoospermics, 31 teratozoospermics and 29 asthenozoospermics) and 50 fertile men (controls) were analyzed for DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay and biochemical parameters. Seminal antioxidant activities (Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Catalase) and malondialdehyde concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Sperm DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde levels in infertile groups were more elevated than controls. Nevertheless, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in abnormal groups compared to normozoospermics. Sperm DNA fragmentation was closely and positively correlated to malondialdehyde levels (r = 0.37, P = 0.008); meanwhile, reduced seminal antioxidant profile was negatively associated to sperm DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, we noted also that sperm DNA fragmentation was negatively correlated to sperm motility (r = -0.54, P fragmentation can be due to the impaired seminal enzymatic antioxidant profile and increased Lipid peroxidation. Our results sustain that the evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal oxidative biomarkers in infertile men is recommended as a consistent prognostic tool for male infertility assessment.

  5. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  6. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    projectile behavior made conclusions from S versus Vo data difficult ta draw. In 1957 Allen, Mayfield, and Morrison (Reference 14) reported what were...plane as the actual nose base, but the tip was forward of the actual tip. The components of and othe point of tangency were xsymt equal tose vapes oern...other hand, attempts to predict the penetration behavior from statically measured soil properties. Deapite the rather strong assumptions involved in

  7. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow...

  8. Assessment of the Sperm Quality Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R C; Clarke, G N; Liu, D Y; Baker, H W

    1995-05-01

    To assess the relationship between the results of the Sperm Quality Analyzer (United Medical Systems Inc., Santa Ana, CA), which measures motile sperm concentration by light scattering, conventional manual semen analysis characteristics, and computer-assisted sperm motility analyses. Sperm Quality Analyzer measurements and manual and computer-assisted semen analyses were performed on 150 (50, 62, and 38) samples in three laboratories and the results were compared. The study was performed in the Andrology Laboratory of Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Monash Medical Centre, and Andrology Laboratory and Reproductive Biology Unit at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Patients presented to the laboratories for routine fertility evaluation in the male and were selected at random to reflect the range of normal and abnormal samples seen in the laboratories. None. Sperm count, motility (percent motility, motility index, velocity, and amplitude of lateral head displacement [ALH]), morphology, and normal acrosomes were evaluated by manual and computer-assisted semen analysis and sperm quality analyzer motility index. Spearman nonparametric univariate analysis showed strong correlations between sperm motility index and manual sperm concentration, motility, abnormal morphology, and normal acrosomes by Pisum sativum agglutinin; and computer-assisted sperm motility analysis sperm concentration, motile concentration, and percent static. Curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity (VSL), and linearity also were related significantly to sperm motility index values. By multiple regression analysis, the significant covariates of the sperm motility index were motile sperm concentration, abnormal morphology, ALH, and straight-line velocity and these accounted for 85.5% of the variance of the sperm motility index. The Sperm Quality Analyzer is easy to use. The good correlation between the sperm motility index, motile sperm concentration, and, in

  9. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  10. Measuring Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Clinical Outcomes of Medically Assisted Reproduction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissen, Maartje; Wely, Madelon van; Scholten, Irma; Mansell, Steven; Bruin, Jan Peter de; Mol, Ben Willem; Braat, Didi; Repping, Sjoerd; Hamer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation has been associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality, pregnancy rates and increased miscarriage rates. Various methods exist to test sperm DNA fragmentation such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the value of measuring sperm DNA fragmentation in predicting chance of ongoing pregnancy with IVF or ICSI. Out of 658 unique studies, 30 had extractable data and were thus included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the sperm DNA fragmentation tests had a reasonable to good sensitivity. A wide variety of other factors may also affect the IVF/ICSI outcome, reflected by limited to very low specificity. The constructed hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve indicated a fair discriminatory capacity of the TUNEL assay (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.74) and Comet assay (AUC of 0.73; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.97). The SCSA and the SCD test had poor predictive capacity. Importantly, for the TUNEL assay, SCD test and Comet assay, meta-regression showed no differences in predictive value between IVF and ICSI. For the SCSA meta-regression indicated the predictive values for IVF and ICSI were different. The present review suggests that current sperm DNA fragmentation tests have limited capacity to predict the chance of pregnancy in the context of MAR. Furthermore, sperm DNA fragmentation tests have little or no difference in predictive value between IVF and ICSI. At this moment, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of sperm DNA fragmentation tests in couples undergoing MAR both for the prediction of pregnancy and for the choice of treatment. Given the significant limitations of the evidence and the

  11. Measuring Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Clinical Outcomes of Medically Assisted Reproduction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Cissen

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA fragmentation has been associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality, pregnancy rates and increased miscarriage rates. Various methods exist to test sperm DNA fragmentation such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA, the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the value of measuring sperm DNA fragmentation in predicting chance of ongoing pregnancy with IVF or ICSI. Out of 658 unique studies, 30 had extractable data and were thus included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the sperm DNA fragmentation tests had a reasonable to good sensitivity. A wide variety of other factors may also affect the IVF/ICSI outcome, reflected by limited to very low specificity. The constructed hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC curve indicated a fair discriminatory capacity of the TUNEL assay (area under the curve (AUC of 0.71; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.74 and Comet assay (AUC of 0.73; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.97. The SCSA and the SCD test had poor predictive capacity. Importantly, for the TUNEL assay, SCD test and Comet assay, meta-regression showed no differences in predictive value between IVF and ICSI. For the SCSA meta-regression indicated the predictive values for IVF and ICSI were different. The present review suggests that current sperm DNA fragmentation tests have limited capacity to predict the chance of pregnancy in the context of MAR. Furthermore, sperm DNA fragmentation tests have little or no difference in predictive value between IVF and ICSI. At this moment, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of sperm DNA fragmentation tests in couples undergoing MAR both for the prediction of pregnancy and for the choice of treatment. Given the significant limitations of the evidence and

  12. Control of sperm concentration is necessary for standardization of sperm cryopreservation in aquatic species: evidence from sperm agglutination in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-02-01

    A lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms is one of the main reasons for inconsistency observed among various studies. In particular, there have been few attempts to standardize sperm concentration during procedural optimization. This study was intended to call attention to sperm concentration standardization through research of sperm agglutination in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Sperm agglutination after thawing is a relatively frequent phenomenon observed for various aquatic species, especially when sub-optimal cryopreservation protocols are used; however, no systematic attempts have been made to explain this phenomenon. The present study evaluated various factors affecting sperm agglutination of thawed samples from diploid and tetraploid Pacific oysters, and is the first detailed report addressing the sperm agglutination phenomenon of thawed samples from any aquatic organism. Agglutination of oyster sperm was classified into six levels with a scale ranging from 0 (homogenous suspension) to 5 (well-developed "noodles"). It was found that agglutination in thawed samples was mainly due to the lack of sufficient cryoprotectant for a specific sperm concentration. Interestingly, high levels of agglutination did not necessarily lead to low fertilization. On the contrary, some sperm cells appeared to gain protection from the formation of peripheral agglutination within 0.5-ml French straws. The exact mechanism of sperm agglutination remains unclear. However, morphological examination of cross sections of the noodles (agglutination level 5) indicated at least two forms of agglutination (formed with and without cryoprotectant) which could be used as a tool to understand the cryopreservation process within the micro-environment of the straw. Furthermore, the fact that the level of sperm agglutination was directly determined by sperm concentration, in addition to the type of cryoprotectant, cryoprotectant concentration, and cooling and

  13. Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Erif E. M.; Cooper, Trevor G.; Widiasih, Dyah A.; Junaidi, Aris; Yeung, Ching-Hei

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was slightly better maintained after cryoprotectants were added and removed in multiple small steps rather than in a single step. The intracellular content of the polyol osmolytes, D-sorbitol and myo-inositol, exceeded that of the zwitterion osmolytes, L-carnitine and L-glutamate. Certain cryoprotectants reduced intracellular L-carnitine and L-glutamate concentration but not that of myo-inositol or D-sorbitol. Multistep treatments with some cryoprotectants had advantages over one-step treatments in mucus penetration depending on the original amount of intracellular carnitine and glutamate in the spermatozoa. Overall, sperm quality was best maintained by multistep treatment with glycerol and propanediols that were associated with decreased intracellular glutamate concentration. Bovine spermatozoa seem to use glutamate to regulate cryoprotectant-induced cell swelling. PMID:19668223

  14. Sperm head binding to epithelium of the oviduct isthmus is not an essential preliminary to mammalian fertilization - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H F

    2011-08-01

    In endeavouring to understand the nature of sperm-oviduct interactions in mammals, attention was focused on experimental models in which fertilization can occur without a preliminary phase of sperm head binding to the isthmus epithelium. The ovarian endocrine milieu imposed on the oviduct tissues plays an important role in the binding phenomenon, although less so after the time of ovulation. Nonetheless, a sperm suspension introduced into the peritoneal cavity or surgical insemination directly into the oviduct ampulla before ovulation can result in fertilization, as can a surgical model in which the isthmus has been resected and the remaining portions of the duct reanastomosed. Mating or artificial insemination after ovulation in pigs permits rapid sperm transport to the site of fertilization, and the frequency of polyspermic penetration increases with the post-ovulatory age of eggs.Strategies underlying sperm binding were considered, especially in terms of preovulatory sperm storage and suppression of full membranous maturation. These, in turn, raised the problem of how sperm binding in vitro to oviduct cells from prepuberal animals or to cells harvested during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, or to cells from the ampulla or even the tracheal epithelium, can act to regulate sperm storage and maturation with precision. In an evolutionary perspective, preovulatory binding of diverse populations of cells to the endosalpinx may have developed as a form of fine tuning to assist in sperm selection, to synchronize completion of capacitation with the events of ovulation, and to promote monospermic fertilization by a controlled release of competent gametes.

  15. Sister chromatid exchanges and sperm abnormalities produced by antidepressant drug fluoxetine in mouse treated in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, H A S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the capacity of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drug fluoxetine (FLX) to induce genotoxic damage in somatic and germ cells. For this study, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells and sperm abnormalities assays in male mice were used. The animals were organized in four groups constituted by five mice. They were orally administered with the test substance as follows: a negative control group; three groups treated with FLX (2.6, 7.8 and 13.0 mg/kg b.wt.) for 5 consecutive days. Animals were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment for analysis SCE's and left for 35 days from the first treatment for analysis sperm-shape abnormalities. The results showed that the drug was SCE and sperm abnormalities inducer. The response of this compound was dose-dependent, and showed that the highest tested dose increased about two times SCE and four times the sperm abnormalities control level. The cellular proliferation kinetics was not affected by the chemical, and the mitotic indexes were slightly diminished with the highest dose. The percentage of sperm count and sperm motility decreased (p < 0.01) with increased the dose of treatment. These results indicate an in vivo genotoxic potential for the antidepressant drug FLX.

  16. The ability of sperm selection techniques to remove single- or double-strand DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, María; Iglesias, Miriam; Galán, Isabel; Sarasa, Jonás; Gosálvez, Antonio; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of techniques for the preparation of sperm are currently available, of which the most commonly employed are density–gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up (SUP). To date, these methods appear to be effective in selecting functional sperm for assisted reproduction techniques (ART), but they may have negative effects on sperm DNA. In this study, the ability of these semen processing techniques to eliminate spermatozoa containing single- and double-strand DNA damage was assessed by the two-tailed comet assay and the sperm chromatin dispersion test in 157 semen samples from patients seeking assisted reproduction treatment. Our results indicated that SUP and DGC are equally efficient in eliminating spermatozoa containing double-strand DNA damage and sperm with highly damaged (degraded) DNA, as characterized by the presence of both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. However, DGC is more efficient than SUP in selecting spermatozoa that are free from single-strand DNA damage. Future studies should characterise the importance of the various types of DNA damage and examine the sperm processing protocols used in each laboratory to determine their ability to eliminate DNA damage and hence, prevent the potential transmission of genetic mutations via ART. PMID:21725332

  17. Sperm toxicity testing: UK best practice guideline from the Association of Biomedical Andrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Woodward, B; Tomlinson, M

    2018-02-09

    In order to ensure the quality and integrity of diagnostic semen analysis results, materials used should be tested to ensure that they do not interfere with sperm function. As a toxicity test, complex sperm function testing may be considered controversial, since the fertilizing capacity of single sperm can never be assured. In preference, sperm motility offers a unique means of assessing the toxicity of reagents and materials before they are used in routine practice. Motility is the semen parameter most likely to be influenced by the external environment. Indeed, it is the main reason that laboratories insist on supplying their own approved specimen containers and ensuring that patients, as far as possible, adhere to strict conditions for sample collection and transport prior to testing. This differs to other indirect tests of toxicity such as the mouse embryo assay, whereby the rate of mouse pre-implantation embryo development to the blastocyst stage is compared. This guideline is aimed at health care scientists who deal with andrology in both general pathology and specialised fertility laboratories, and provides a model approach to sperm toxicity testing. For assisted reproduction clinics, the same methodology can be used to test any consumables that are used for sperm processing, and as an indirect guide for any consumables that come into direct contact with oocytes and pre-implantation embryos.

  18. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    . Sperm was diluted (1:4) in a solution of glucose, egg yolk and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Sperm concentration was determined using a Neubauer chamber, and motility evaluated after activation with 1% NaHCO3. In the laboratory, four sizes of straw (0.5, 1.8, 2.5 and 4.0 mL) and two thawing temperatures...... (35 °C or 80 °C water bath) were evaluated. To assess fertility, 2 g of eggs (ca. 2800) were inseminated with 500 μL of frozen-thawed sperm (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) from each straw thawed at 35 °C or 80 °C, or 160 μL (ca. 50,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of fresh sperm. Large scale fertility...... assays consisted of 40 g eggs inseminated with approximately 5.0 mL (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of cryopreserved sperm in large straws thawed at 35 °C. The fertilization rate was estimated 6 h post-insemination. In all straws, postthaw motility was significantly lower than for fresh sperm (pb0...

  19. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Philip J. Chan; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  20. Sperm motility under exposure of hydrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evdokimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains research data on the effect of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide on human sperm motility and specific enzyme activity of sperms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. It is shown that incubation of sperms with hydrogen dioxide in a low concentration leads to a change and motility in sperm and activity of sperm enzyme. Intensity of observed effect depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide: active mobility increased by 17–19 % and the total mobility – 11 %. Motility changes in sperms were accompanied by increased activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by 24 %, in normozoospermia response was higher than in pathozoospermia and also depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide. The use of sperm analyzer enabled revealing changes in the diapason of different speeds of the active fraction of sperm, which have been observed in the first 15 min of incubation with hydrogen dioxide. A possible mechanism of action of the detected effect is discussed. Reactive oxygen species easily oxidize enzyme for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of sperms, which leads to a loss of sperm motility, for example, in varicocele. Initially low enzyme activity in varicocele (pathozoospermia may be associated with the suppression of sperm antioxidant defense. Addition of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide into sperm samples leads to an increase in the concentration of reduced glutathione in a cell. Increase of sperm motility in this case can serve as an indicator of normal operation of the cellular antioxidant defense system. Obtained experimental results provide a background for their introduction into clinical practice in the program of assisted reproductive technologies. 

  1. Sperm motility under exposure of hydrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evdokimov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains research data on the effect of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide on human sperm motility and specific enzyme activity of sperms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. It is shown that incubation of sperms with hydrogen dioxide in a low concentration leads to a change and motility in sperm and activity of sperm enzyme. Intensity of observed effect depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide: active mobility increased by 17–19 % and the total mobility – 11 %. Motility changes in sperms were accompanied by increased activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by 24 %, in normozoospermia response was higher than in pathozoospermia and also depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide. The use of sperm analyzer enabled revealing changes in the diapason of different speeds of the active fraction of sperm, which have been observed in the first 15 min of incubation with hydrogen dioxide. A possible mechanism of action of the detected effect is discussed. Reactive oxygen species easily oxidize enzyme for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of sperms, which leads to a loss of sperm motility, for example, in varicocele. Initially low enzyme activity in varicocele (pathozoospermia may be associated with the suppression of sperm antioxidant defense. Addition of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide into sperm samples leads to an increase in the concentration of reduced glutathione in a cell. Increase of sperm motility in this case can serve as an indicator of normal operation of the cellular antioxidant defense system. Obtained experimental results provide a background for their introduction into clinical practice in the program of assisted reproductive technologies. 

  2. Enzyme assays

    OpenAIRE

    Bisswanger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The essential requirements for enzyme assays are described and frequently occurring errors and pitfalls as well as their avoidance are discussed. The main factors, which must be considered for assaying enzymes, are temperature, pH, ionic strength and the proper concentrations of the essential components like substrates and enzymes. Standardization of these parameters would be desirable, but the diversity of the features of different enzymes prevents unification of assay conditions. Neverthele...

  3. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  4. Phospholipase B is activated in response to sterol removal and stimulates acrosome exocytosis in murine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Atsushi; Nelson-Harrington, Jacquelyn L; Travis, Alexander J

    2013-09-27

    Despite a strict requirement for sterol removal for sperm to undergo acrosome exocytosis (AE), the mechanisms by which changes in membrane sterols are transduced into changes in sperm fertilization competence are poorly understood. We have previously shown in live murine sperm that the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome (APM) contains several types of microdomains known as membrane rafts. When characterizing the membrane raft-associated proteomes, we identified phospholipase B (PLB), a calcium-independent enzyme exhibiting multiple activities. Here, we show that sperm surface PLB is activated in response to sterol removal. Both biochemical activity assays and immunoblots of subcellular fractions of sperm incubated with the sterol acceptor 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-OHCD) confirmed the release of an active PLB fragment. Specific protease inhibitors prevented PLB activation, revealing a mechanistic requirement for proteolytic cleavage. Competitive inhibitors of PLB reduced the ability of sperm both to undergo AE and to fertilize oocytes in vitro, suggesting an important role in fertilization. This was reinforced by our finding that incubation either with protein concentrate released from 2-OHCD-treated sperm or with recombinant PLB peptide corresponding to the catalytic domain was able to induce AE in the absence of other stimuli. Together, these results lead us to propose a novel mechanism by which sterol removal promotes membrane fusogenicity and AE, helping confer fertilization competence. Importantly, this mechanism provides a basis for the newly emerging model of AE in which membrane fusions occur during capacitation/transit through the cumulus, prior to any physical contact between the sperm and the oocyte's zona pellucida.

  5. Micronutrients intake is associated with improved sperm DNA quality in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas E; Eskenazi, Brenda; Marchetti, Francesco; Young, Suzanne; Weldon, Rosana H; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    To investigate whether lifestyle factors such as increased dietary intake of micronutrients reduce the risks of sperm DNA damage, and whether older men benefit more than younger men. Cross-sectional study design with equalized assignments into age groups. National laboratory and university. Nonclinical group of 22-80-year-old nonsmoking men (n = 80) who reported no fertility problems. Sperm DNA damage measured by alkaline and neutral DNA electrophoresis (i.e., sperm Comet assay). Sociodemographics, occupational exposures, medical and reproductive histories, and lifestyle habits were determined by questionnaire. The average daily dietary and supplement intake of micronutrients (vitamin C, vitamin E, b-carotene, zinc, and folate) was determined using the 100-item Modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Men with the highest intake of vitamin C had approximately 16% less sperm DNA damage (alkaline sperm Comet) than men with the lowest intake, with similar findings for vitamin E, folate, and zinc (but not β-carotene). Older men (>44 years) with the highest vitamin C intake had approximately 20% less sperm DNA damage compared with older men with the lowest intake, with similar findings for vitamin E and zinc. The older men with the highest intake of these micronutrients showed levels of sperm damage that were similar to those of the younger men. However, younger men (micronutrients surveyed. Men with higher dietary and supplement intake of certain micronutrients may produce sperm with less DNA damage, especially among older men. This raises the broader question of how lifestyle factors, including higher intakes of antioxidants and micronutrients, might protect somatic as well as germ cells against age-associated genomic damage. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  7. A defined medium supports changes consistent with capacitation in stallion sperm, as evidenced by increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation and high rates of acrosomal exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartlin, L A; Littell, J; Mark, E; Nelson, J L; Travis, A J; Bedford-Guaus, S J

    2008-03-15

    Efficient in vitro capacitation of stallion sperm has not yet been achieved, as suggested by low sperm penetration rates reported in in vitro fertilization (IVF) studies. Our objectives were to evaluate defined incubation conditions that would support changes consistent with capacitation in stallion sperm. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation events and the ability of sperm to undergo acrosomal exocytosis under various incubation conditions were used as end points for capacitation. Sperm incubated 4-6h in modified Whitten's (MW) with the addition of 25 mM NaHCO3 and 7 mg/mL BSA (capacitating medium) yielded high rates of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Either HCO3(-) or BSA was required to support these changes, with the combination of both providing the most intense results. When a membrane-permeable form of cAMP and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (IBMX) were added to MW in the absence of HCO3(-) and BSA, the tyrosine phosphorylation results obtained in our capacitating conditions could not be replicated, suggesting either effects apart from cAMP were responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation, or that stallion sperm might respond differently to these reagents as compared to sperm from other mammals. Sperm incubation in capacitating conditions was also associated with high percentages (Phorse.

  8. Relationship between human semen parameters and deoxyribonucleic acid damage assessed by the neutral comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisini, Ana T; Singh, Narendra P; Duty, Susan M; Hauser, Russ

    2004-12-01

    To explore the association between semen parameters and sperm DNA damage. Cross-sectional. Andrology clinic. Two hundred fifty-seven men undergoing infertility assessment. None. Sperm concentration and motility were measured using computer-assisted sperm analysis; morphology was scored using the strict criteria. The neutral comet assay was used to measure sperm DNA damage. Comet assay parameters included comet extent, percent DNA in the comet tail, and tail distributed moment, an integrated measure of length and intensity. We also scored cells that were too long to measure (>300 microm), which we referred to as cells with high DNA damage. Men older than 35 years had a statistically significant increase in the number of cells with high DNA damage as compared with younger men. In age-adjusted regression analyses, the most consistent associations were found between semen parameters and the number of cells with high DNA damage. For an interquartile range change in the number of cells with high DNA damage, sperm concentration declined 14.2 x 10(6)/mL, motility declined 4.3%, and morphology declined 0.5%. Comet extent and percent DNA in the comet tail were also associated with a decline in sperm concentration and motility, respectively. Although there were associations between semen and comet assay parameters, their magnitudes were weak, suggesting that the comet assay provides additional independent information on sperm function.

  9. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    , method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre......-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models. OUTCOMES: SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P ...BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  10. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G.S.; Balhorn, R.; Friz, A.M.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.

    1994-09-28

    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility.

  11. Administration of high dose of methamphetamine has detrimental effects on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Sabour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methamphetamine (MA was shown to have harmful effects on male reproductive system. Objective: To investigate probable effects of daily administration of MA on sperm parameters and chromatin/DNA integrity in mouse. Material and Methods: Thirty-five NMRI male mice were divided into five groups including low, medium, and high dosage groups which were injected intraperitoneally with 4, 8 and 15 mg/kg/day for 35 days, respectively. Normal saline was injected in sham group and no medications were used in control group. Then, the mice were killed and caudal epididymis of each animal was cut and placed in Ham’s F10 medium for sperm retrieval. To evaluate sperm chromatin abnormalities, the aniline blue, toluidine blue and chromomycine A3 were used. For sperm DNA integrity and apoptosis, the acridine orange, sperm chromatin dispersion, and TUNEL assay were applied. For sperm morphology, Papanicolaou staining was done Results: Normal morphology and progressive motility of spermatozoa decreased in medium and high dosage groups in comparison with the control group (p=0.035. There was a significant increase in rate of aniline blue, toluidine blue, and chromomycine A3 positive spermatozoa in high dosage group. In a similar manner, there was an increase in rates of acridine orange, TUNEL and sperm chromatin dispersion positive sperm cells in high dosage group with respect to others. Conclusion: MA abuse in a dose-dependent manner could have detrimental effects on male reproductive indices including sperm parameters and sperm chromatin/DNA integrity in mice.

  12. Lipid profiles of sperm and seminal plasma from boars having normal or low sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am-in, N; Kirkwood, R N; Techakumphu, M; Tantasuparuk, W

    2011-03-15

    Sperm plasma membrane lipids have an important role to play in determining membrane fluidity and sperm motility. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in the lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition of boar sperm and seminal plasma in the ejaculates of boars having different sperm motilities. Semen was collected from two groups of boars having normal (> 60%; n = 53) or low (sperm and the semen was evaluated for motility, morphology and vitality. The semen was then centrifuged to separate the sperm from the seminal plasma and both were kept at -20 °C until analyzed for lipid content and FA profile by gas chromatography. Total antioxidant status (TAS) of seminal plasma was determined using a commercial kit. There were differences (P ≤ 0.05) in sperm total lipids, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids (SFA), phospholipids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA between boars with normal and low motility sperm. Total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, PUFA, DHA and n-3 PUFA were positively correlated with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membrane. In contrast, SFA and the ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA were negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membranes. The TAS of seminal plasma from boars having normal motility sperm was higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of boars having low motility sperm and TAS was positively correlated (P = 0.0001) with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membranes. In summary, differences in sperm motility were related to n-3 PUFA content in the sperm plasma membrane and extracellular antioxidants in seminal plasma which protect sperm plasma membranes from lipid peroxidation during periods of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Swedish sperm donors are driven by altruism, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerhovd, Erling; Faurskov, Anders; Werner, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Swedish legislation requires that sperm donors are identifiable to offspring. In Denmark sperm donors remain anonymous. The aim of this study was to examine sperm donation in Sweden by identifying socio-demographic backgrounds, motivations and attitudes among donors and to describe options and plans of sperm recipients. Furthermore, the willingness of Swedish health care providers to assist in treatment abroad, where sperm from an anonymous donor were to be used, was assessed. The extent of travelling to Denmark for reproductive purposes was also examined. Thirty Swedish sperm donors completed a questionnaire and were interviewed about their backgrounds, motivations and attitudes. Thirty couples where the infertility workup had shown azoospermia were interviewed about their options for achieving parenthood. The willingness to assist in fertility treatment abroad and the extent of reproductive cross border travelling were assessed by interviewing health care providers and by contacting Danish clinics. Almost all donors were Caucasian. The main motivation for sperm donors was to help others. Owing to shortage of sperm donors many Caucasian recipients intended to have treatment abroad. For most non-Caucasian recipients sperm from a donor of appropriate ethnicity were not available in Sweden. Whether the sperm donor was anonymous or identifiable was not of major importance to most sperm recipients. Health care providers expressed unanimous willingness to assist in treatment with sperm from an anonymous donor. Our inquiry indicated that more than 250 Swedish sperm recipients travel to Denmark annually. Identifiable sperm donors are driven by altruistic motives, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling. Recruitment strategies to increase the number of sperm donors in Sweden are therefore warranted.

  14. Ejaculated mouse sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently in vitro than epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honggang; Hung, Pei-Hsuan; Suarez, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an established and popular animal model for studying reproductive biology. Epididymal mouse sperm, which lack exposure to secretions of male accessory glands and do not precisely represent ejaculated sperm for the study of sperm functions, have been almost exclusively used in studies. We compared ejaculated and epididymal sperm in an in vitro fertilization setting to examine whether ejaculated sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently. In order to prepare sperm for fertilization, they were incubated under capacitating conditions. At the outset of incubation, ejaculated sperm stuck to the glass surfaces of slides and the incidences of sticking decreased with time; whereas, very few epididymal sperm stuck to glass at any time point, indicating differences in surface charge. At the end of the capacitating incubation, when sperm were added to cumulus-oocyte complexes, the form of flagellar movement differed dramatically; specifically, ejaculated sperm predominantly exhibited increased bending on one side of the flagellum (a process termed pro-hook hyperactivation), while epididymal sperm equally exhibited increased bending on one or the other side of the flagellum (pro-hook or anti-hook hyperactivation). This indicates that accessory sex gland secretions might have modified Ca2+ signaling activities in sperm, because the two forms of hyperactivation are reported to be triggered by different Ca2+ signaling patterns. Lastly, over time, more ejaculated than epididymal sperm entered the cumulus oocyte complexes. We concluded that modification of sperm by male accessory gland secretions affects the behavior of ejaculated sperm, possibly providing them with an advantage over epididymal sperm for reaching the eggs in vivo.

  15. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND SPERM PATHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evdokimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the level of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense of the ejaculate in different types of sperm pathologies caused by reproductive system disorders including varicocele, idiopathic asthenozoospermia, non-obstructive asthenozoospermia. Patients groups included 14, 11, and 16 men aged 20–45.Methods of ejaculate examination included study of morphological parameters in accordance with the 5th edition of the World Health Organization Guidelines. Biochemical parameters of the spermoplasm were measured according to the standard procedures described in previous articles.The study included men with abnormal sperm motility and morphology in the ejaculate, i. e. men with sperm pathologies in the form of asthenozoospermia. Morphological and biochemical changes were detected in the patient groups with varicocele and with asthenoand azoospermia compared to the normospermia group.In the separate varicocele group, patients were examined before and after varicocelectomy. Morphological parameters of the ejaculate didn’t show significant improvement, but biochemical parameters of the spermoplasm changed significantly: total antioxidant activity increased, the level of superoxide dismutase decreased which demonstrates decreased effect of oxidative stress after varicocelectomy.

  16. Sexing Mammalian Sperm - Where Do We Go from Here?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SEIDEL, Jr, George E

    2012-01-01

    The only commercially viable method of sexing mammalian sperm is to use a flow cytometer to measure sperm DNA content via fluorescence of the DNA-bound fluorophore Hoechst 33342, and then sort sperm...

  17. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres.

  18. Sperm cryopreservation update: Cryodamage, markers, and factors affecting the sperm freezability in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the most efficient method for long-term preservation of mammalian sperm. However, freeze-thawing procedures may strongly impair the sperm function and survival and thus decrease the reproductive performance. In addition, the sperm resilience to withstand cryopreservation, also known as freezability, presents a high individual variability. The present work summarizes the principles of cryoinjury and the relevance of permeating and nonpermeating cryoprotective agents. Descriptions about sperm cryodamage are mainly focused on boar sperm, but reference to other mammalian species is also made when relevant. Main cryoinjuries not only regard to sperm motility and membrane integrity, but also to the degradation effect exerted by freeze-thawing on other important components for sperm fertilizing ability, such as mRNAs. After delving into the main differences between good and poor freezability boar ejaculates, those protein markers predicting the sperm ability to sustain cryopreservation are also mentioned. Moreover, factors that may influence sperm freezability, such as season, diet, breed, or ejaculate fractions are discussed, together with the effects of different additives, like seminal plasma and antioxidants. After briefly referring to the effects of long-term sperm preservation in frozen state and the reproductive performance of frozen-thawed boar sperm, this work speculates with new research horizons on the preservation of boar sperm, such as vitrification and freeze-drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on miscarriage rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lynne; Gallos, Ioannis D; Conner, Sarah J; Rajkhowa, Madhurima; Miller, David; Lewis, Sheena; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2012-10-01

    Is there an association between high levels of sperm DNA damage and miscarriage? Miscarriage rates are positively correlated with sperm DNA damage levels. Most ejaculates contain a subpopulation of sperm with DNA damage, also referred to as DNA fragmentation, in the form of double or single-strand breaks which have been induced in the DNA prior to or following ejaculation. This DNA damage may be particularly elevated in some subfertile men, hence several studies have examined the link between sperm DNA damage levels and conception and miscarriage rates. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which examined the effect of sperm DNA damage on miscarriage rates was performed. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library without any language restrictions from database inception to January 2012. We used the terms 'DNA damage' or 'DNA fragmentation' combined with 'miscarriage', 'abortion' or 'pregnancy' to generate a set of relevant citations. Data extraction was performed by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis of relative risks of miscarriage was performed with a random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed by the type of DNA damage test, whether the sperm examined were prepared or from raw semen and for pregnancies resulting from IVF or ICSI treatment. We identified 16 cohort studies (2969 couples), 14 of which were prospective. Eight studies used acridine orange-based assays, six the TUNEL assay and two the COMET assay. Meta-analysis showed a significant increase in miscarriage in patients with high DNA damage compared with those with low DNA damage [risk ratio (RR) = 2.16 (1.54, 3.03), P < 0.00001)]. A subgroup analysis showed that the miscarriage association is strongest for the TUNEL assay (RR = 3.94 (2.45, 6.32), P < 0.00001). There is some variation in study characteristics, including the use of different assays and different thresholds for DNA damage and the

  20. Current status and potential of morphometric sperm analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Olga; Ramón, Manuel; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Santos, M. Rocío; Soler, Ana J.; Garde, José Julián

    2016-01-01

    The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cr...

  1. Evaluation of urinary metal concentrations and sperm DNA damage in infertile men from an infertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiao-Ming; He, Dong-Liang; Zou, Xue-Min; Wu, Cheng-Qiu; Guo, Wei-Zhen; Feng, Wei

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between urinary metal concentrations and sperm DNA damage. Thirteen metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn)] were detected in urine samples of 207 infertile men from an infertility clinic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and also, sperm DNA damage (tail length, percent DNA tail, and tail distributed moment) were assessed using neutral comet assay. We found that urinary Hg and Ni were associated with increasing trends for tail length (both p for trendsperm DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single blastocyst transfer after ICSI from ejaculate spermatozoa, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Staffan; Waldenström, Urban; Engström, Ann-Britt; Hellberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.

  3. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-04-16

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  4. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseok Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  5. Current status and potential of morphometric sperm analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Maroto-Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cryoresistance and male fertility is also discussed. For this, the evaluation of patterns of change of sperm head morphometry throughout a process, instead of the study of the morphometric characteristics of the sperm head at different stages, allows a better identification of the males with different sperm cryoconservation ability. These new approaches, together with more studies employing a greater number of individuals, are needed to obtain novel results concerning the role of sperm morphometry on sperm function. Future studies should aim at understanding the causes of sperm design diversity and the mechanisms that generate them, giving increased attention to other sperm structures besides the sperm head. The implementation of scientific and technological advances could benefit the simultaneous examination of sperm phenotype and sperm function, demonstrating that sperm morphometry could be a useful tool for sperm assessment.

  6. Current status and potential of morphometric sperm analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Olga; Ramón, Manuel; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Santos, M Rocío; Soler, A Josefa; Garde, José Julián

    2016-01-01

    The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cryoresistance and male fertility is also discussed. For this, the evaluation of patterns of change of sperm head morphometry throughout a process, instead of the study of the morphometric characteristics of the sperm head at different stages, allows a better identification of the males with different sperm cryoconservation ability. These new approaches, together with more studies employing a greater number of individuals, are needed to obtain novel results concerning the role of sperm morphometry on sperm function. Future studies should aim at understanding the causes of sperm design diversity and the mechanisms that generate them, giving increased attention to other sperm structures besides the sperm head. The implementation of scientific and technological advances could benefit the simultaneous examination of sperm phenotype and sperm function, demonstrating that sperm morphometry could be a useful tool for sperm assessment.

  7. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  8. Differential effects of human papillomavirus DNA types on p53 tumor-suppressor gene apoptosis in sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cathy A; Huang, Christopher T F; King, Alan; Chan, Philip J

    2002-06-01

    Sperm DNA undergoes apoptotic fragmentation when exposed to HPV DNA. Details of the specific gene regions targeted by HPV in sperm are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the integrity of exons 5 and 8 of the p53 gene in sperm exposed to HPV DNA. Washed sperm were exposed to either HLA-DQA1 (control) or HPV type 6b/11, 16, 18, 31, or 33 DNA fragments for 24 h at 37 degrees C. The integrity of sperm p53 exons 5 and 8 was assessed using a novel DNA disc chip assay based on comparative genomic hybridization. Fragmentation of exon 5 occurred after exposure to HPV DNA type 18. In contrast, only exon 8 was affected by HPV type 16. HPV DNA from type 31 or 33 was without effect on the p53 exons. Sperm motility but not hyperactivation was reduced in all HPV groups. The data suggest that different HPV types preferentially degrade different exons of important genes. Decreased motility but not hyperactivation in HPV-exposed sperm suggests retention of some fertilizing capacity and the possibility of transmitting virus-destabilized genes through fertilization.

  9. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  10. Sperm preparation after freezing improves motile sperm count, motility, and viability in frozen-thawed sperm compared with sperm preparation before freezing-thawing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar Rios, A; Gascón, A; Martínez, J V; Balasch, S; Molina Botella, I

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study is to evaluate which cryopreservation protocol, freezing before or after swim-up, optimizes cryopreservation outcomes in terms of motile sperm count, motility, morphology, and viability, and also to establish whether sperm viability could be assessed based on sperm motility. Fifty-three fresh and 53 swim-up prepared samples were considered for the first experiment. In parallel, total motility evaluation by CASA system (computer-assisted sperm analyzer) and hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS-test) was performed in each sample to compare the viability results of both methods. In the second experiment, 21 normozoospermic semen samples and 20 semen samples from male factor patients were included. After fresh ejaculate evaluation, the semen sample of each patient was divided into two aliquots, one of them was frozen before swim-up and the other was frozen after swim-up. Motility, sperm count, morphology, and viability were evaluated after thawing. A linear regression model allows prediction of HOS-test viability results based on total motility: HOS = 1.38 + 0.97 · TM (R (2) = 99.10, residual mean squares = 9.51). Freezing before sperm selection leads to higher total and progressive motility, total motile sperm count, and viability rates than when sperm selection is performed before freezing (P < 0.005 in all cases). In fact, sperm selection prior to freezing reaches critical values when subfertile patients are considered. To conclude, total motility evaluation can predict HOS-test viability results, resulting in a more objective and less time-consuming method to assess viability. In addition, sperm freezing prior to swim-up selection must be considered in order to achieve better outcomes after thawing, especially in patients presenting poor sperm baseline.

  11. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  12. Calcium/calmodulin and calmodulin kinase II stimulate hyperactivation in demembranated bovine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignotz, George G; Suarez, Susan S

    2005-09-01

    Hyperactivated motility is observed among sperm in the mammalian oviduct near the time of ovulation. It is characterized by high-amplitude, asymmetrical flagellar beating and assists sperm in penetrating the cumulus oophorus and zona pellucida. Elevated intracellular Ca2+ is required for the initiation of hyperactivated motility, suggesting that calmodulin (CALM) and Ca2+/CALM-stimulated pathways are involved. A demembranated sperm model was used to investigate the role of CALM in promoting hyperactivation. Ejaculated bovine sperm were demembranated and immobilized by brief exposure to Triton X-100. Motility was restored by addition of reactivation medium containing MgATP and Ca2+, and hyperactivation was observed as free Ca2+ was increased from 50 nM to 1 microM. However, when 2.5 mM Ca2+ was added to the demembranation medium to extract flagellar CALM, motility was not reactivated unless exogenous CALM was readded. The inclusion of anti-CALM IgG in the reactivation medium reduced the proportion hyperactivated in 1 microM Ca2+ to 5%. Neither control IgG, the CALM antagonist W-7, nor a peptide directed against the CALM-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK2) inhibited hyperactivation. However, when sperm were reactivated in the presence of CALM kinase II (CAMK2) inhibiting peptides, hyperactivation was reduced by 75%. Furthermore, an inhibitor of CAMK2, KN-93, inhibited hyperactivation without impairing normal motility of intact sperm. CALM and CAMK2 were immunolocalized to the acrosomal region and flagellum. These results indicate that hyperactivation is stimulated by a Ca2+/CALM pathway involving CAMK2.

  13. Successful chilling of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) sperm for use in artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Dávila, S G; Gil, M G; Blesbois, E

    2017-09-01

    The fertilizing capacity of pure, fresh avian semen may disappear in just half an hour, hindering its successful use in artificial insemination (AI) projects. Longer storage requires the use of infra-physiological temperatures and of semen diluents that help preserve the spermatozoa but that do not interfere with their fertilizing capacity. This study examines the effect on sperm quality of storing red-legged partridge sperm for 3 h at 5°C with 2 different semen extenders: 1) a medium referred to as L&R-84, composed of sodium glutamate, glucose, magnesium acetate, potassium acetate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 2) Lake 7.1 medium, composed of sodium glutamate, glucose, magnesium acetate, potassium citrate, and N,N-Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)taurine (BES). Extending with L&R-84 returned better curvilinear velocity (P straight-line velocity (P straightness (P < 0.05), and wobble (P < 0.05) values, while extending with the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages (P < 0.001) of motile sperm. The fertility rate was higher (P < 0.05) when birds were inseminated with L&R-84-extended sperm than with Lake 7.1-extended sperm. The mean number of penetrations of perivitelline layer samples (taken from above the germinal disc) was also higher for the L&R-84-extended sperm (P < 0.05). These results show L&R-84 can be recommended as an extender for red-legged partridge semen to be stored for at least 3 h at 5°C. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Panning for sperm gold: Isolation and purification of apyrene and eupyrene sperm from lepidopterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Timothy L; Walters, James R

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simple and straightforward procedure for the purification and separation of apyrene and eupyrene forms of lepidopteran sperm. The procedure is generally applicable to both butterfly and moth species with results varying according to the relative amounts of sperm produced and size of sperm storage organs. The technique relies upon inherent differences between eupyene sperm bundles and free apyrene sperm morphology. These differences allow for separation of the sperm morphs by repeated "panning" of sperm bundles into the center of a plastic dish. The purified eupyrene sperm bundles can then be removed and apyrene sperm collected from the supernatant by centrifugation. Efficacy of the purification process was confirmed by light microscopy and gel electrophoresis of the resulting fractions. Both one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified significant protein differences between the fractions further suggesting that the panning procedure effectively separated eurpyrene from apyrene sperm. The panning procedure should provide a convenient and accessible technique for further studies of sperm biology in lepidopterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  16. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flagellar apparatus of Crossodactylus sp. n. is very similar to that of most leptodactylids. The sperm of Megaelosia massarti and Hylodes phyllodes display a distinctive condition in their axial and juxtaxonemal fibers. This distinctive flagellar condition expands the already known variability in sperm structure within the ...

  17. SPE-44 implements sperm cell fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhura Kulkarni

    Full Text Available The sperm/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. The germline sex determination program that governs gamete fate has been well studied, but direct mediators of cell-type-specific transcription are largely unknown. We report the identification of spe-44 as a critical regulator of sperm gene expression. Deletion of spe-44 causes sperm-specific defects in cytokinesis, cell cycle progression, and organelle assembly resulting in sterility. Expression of spe-44 correlates precisely with spermatogenesis and is regulated by the germline sex determination pathway. spe-44 is required for the appropriate expression of several hundred sperm-enriched genes. The SPE-44 protein is restricted to the sperm-producing germline, where it localizes to the autosomes (which contain sperm genes but is excluded from the transcriptionally silent X chromosome (which does not. The orthologous gene in other Caenorhabditis species is similarly expressed in a sex-biased manner, and the protein likewise exhibits autosome-specific localization in developing sperm, strongly suggestive of an evolutionarily conserved role in sperm gene expression. Our analysis represents the first identification of a transcriptional regulator whose primary function is the control of gamete-type-specific transcription in this system.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Sperm Cells near Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, Jens; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Sperm are propelled by an actively beating tail, and display a wide variety of swimming patterns. When confined between two parallel walls, sperm swim either in circles or on curvilinear trajectories close to the walls. We employ mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations in combination with a mechanical sperm model to study the swimming behavior near walls. The simulations show that sperm become captured at the wall due to the hydrodynamic flow fields which are generated by the flagellar beat. The circular trajectories are determined by the chiral asymmetry of the sperm shape. For strong (weak) chirality, sperm swim in tight (wide) circles, with the beating plane of the flagellum oriented perpendicular (parallel) to the wall. For comparison, we also perform simulations based on a local anisotropic friction of the flagellum. In this resistive force approximation, surface adhesion and circular swimming patterns are obtained as well. However, the adhesion mechanism is now due to steric repulsion, and the orientation of the beating plane is different. Our model provides a theoretical framework that explains several distinct swimming behaviors of sperm near and far from a wall. Moreover, the model suggests a mechanism by which sperm navigate in a chemical gradient via a change of their shape. PMID:20712984

  19. Short communication Relationship between sperm plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matshidiso MB. Masenya

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... Abstract. Sperm quality plays an important role in determining fertility. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between sperm plasma membrane integrity and morphology, and fertility following artificial insemination (AI). A total of 16 ejaculates were collected from three Large White boars using ...

  20. Relationship between sperm plasma membrane integrity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm quality plays an important role in determining fertility. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between sperm plasma membrane integrity and morphology, and fertility following artificial insemination (AI). A total of 16 ejaculates were collected from three Large White boars using the gloved hand ...

  1. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  2. Milk proteins interact with goat Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins and decrease their binding to sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p sperm were treated with milk followed by seminal plasma, coating of sperm with BSP proteins was not significantly reduced (57.6 %; p > 0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.

  3. The single sperm curling test, a modified hypo-osmotic swelling test, as a potential technique for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Ng, S C

    1997-08-01

    To develop a technique for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), based on the phenomenon of sperm tail curling in a hypo-osmotic environment, through modification of the hypo-osmotic swelling test. Individual sperm were exposed to single sperm curling (SSC) medium and then injected into hamster oocytes to study the effect of SSC medium on fertilization. All materials were collected from the National University Hospital in Singapore. Semen of proven donors and hamster oocytes with intact zonae were used. ICSI and the SSC test. Sperm head decondensation and male pronucleus formation. Sperm head decondensation and male pronucleus formation were present in 59.4% and 42.4%, respectively, of the oocytes injected with sperm that had been exposed to SSC medium. These rates were 70% and 48.8%, respectively, when the sperm were washed thoroughly after exposure to SSC medium. In the control group (sperm that were not exposed to SSC medium), these rates were 68.8% and 46.2%, respectively. The SSC test is useful for the selection of viable sperm for ICSI. It allows the behavioral study of a single sperm in hypo-osmotic conditions. Thorough washing of the exposed sperm is important. This procedure would be of benefit especially in testicular biopsies or very severe cases of low sperm count in which only a few sperm are found among many other cells and artifact.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of ceftibuten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Nye, K; O'Neill, P; Wostenholme, M; Andrews, J M

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the cephalosporin ceftibuten were determined after the fifth and final dose of 200 mg given every 12 h. Concentrations in plasma and cantharidin-induced inflammatory fluid were determined by a microbiological assay. Samples for three volunteers were assayed by a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure to determine levels for both cis and trans ceftibuten. The mean peak level of ceftibuten in serum was 10.9 micrograms/ml at a mean time of 1.8 h after administration, and the mean elimination half-life from plasma was 2.5 h. Penetration into the inflammatory fluid was good, the mean peak level being 9.2 micrograms/ml at a mean time of 3.7 h. The mean percent penetration into the inflammatory fluid was 113.4%. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the mean peak level of the trans isomer was 5.7% that of the cis isomer. This study suggests that twice-daily doses of ceftibuten should be sufficient to treat urinary or systemic infections caused by susceptible pathogens. PMID:2393265

  5. Sperm DNA damage-the effect of stress and everyday life factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, M; Jurewicz, J; Merecz-Kot, D; Sobala, W; Radwan, P; Bochenek, M; Hanke, W

    2016-07-01

    The clinical significance of sperm DNA damage lies in its association with natural conception rates and also might have a serious consequence on developmental outcome of the newborn. The aim of the present study is to determine whether stress and everyday life factors are associated with sperm DNA damage in adult men. The study population consisted of 286 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 20-300 m ml(-1) or with slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20 m ml(-1)) (WHO, 1999). Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The sperm chromatin structure assay was assessed using flow cytometry. In the present study, we found evidence for a relationship between sperm DNA damage parameters and everyday life factors. High and medium level of occupational stress and age increase DNA fragmentation index (P=0.03, P=0.004 and P=0.03, respectively). Other lifestyle factors that were positively associated with percentage of immature sperms (high DNA stainability index) included: obesity and cell phone use for more than 10 years (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). Our findings indicate that stress and lifestyle factor may affect sperm DNA damage. Data from the present study showed a significant effect of age, obesity, mobile phone radiation and occupational stress on sperm DNA damage. As DNA fragmentation represents an extremely important parameter indicative of infertility and potential outcome of assisted reproduction treatment, and most of the lifestyle factors are easily modifiable, the information about factors that may affect DNA damage are important.

  6. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Metabolic Substrates Exhibit Differential Effects on Functional Parameters of Mouse Sperm Capacitation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Summer G.; Qiu, Yunping; Sutton, Keith A.; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei; O'Brien, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although substantial evidence exists that sperm ATP production via glycolysis is required for mammalian sperm function and male fertility, conflicting reports involving multiple species have appeared regarding the ability of individual glycolytic or mitochondrial substrates to support the physiological changes that occur during capacitation. Several mouse models with defects in the signaling pathways required for capacitation exhibit reductions in sperm ATP levels, suggesting regulatory interactions between sperm metabolism and signal transduction cascades. To better understand these interactions, we conducted quantitative studies of mouse sperm throughout a 2-h in vitro capacitation period and compared the effects of single substrates assayed under identical conditions. Multiple glycolytic and nonglycolytic substrates maintained sperm ATP levels and comparable percentages of motility, but only glucose and mannose supported hyperactivation. These monosaccharides and fructose supported the full pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas nonglycolytic substrates supported at least partial tyrosine phosphorylation. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired motility in the presence of glucose, fructose, or pyruvate but not in the presence of hydroxybutyrate. Addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation reduced motility with pyruvate or hydroxybutyrate as substrates but unexpectedly stimulated hyperactivation with fructose. Investigating differences between glucose and fructose in more detail, we demonstrated that hyperactivation results from the active metabolism of glucose. Differences between glucose and fructose appeared to be downstream of changes in intracellular pH, which rose to comparable levels during incubation with either substrate. Sperm redox pathways were differentially affected, with higher levels of associated metabolites and reactive oxygen species generated during incubations with fructose than during incubations with glucose. PMID

  8. Metabolic substrates exhibit differential effects on functional parameters of mouse sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Summer G; Qiu, Yunping; Sutton, Keith A; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei; O'Brien, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Although substantial evidence exists that sperm ATP production via glycolysis is required for mammalian sperm function and male fertility, conflicting reports involving multiple species have appeared regarding the ability of individual glycolytic or mitochondrial substrates to support the physiological changes that occur during capacitation. Several mouse models with defects in the signaling pathways required for capacitation exhibit reductions in sperm ATP levels, suggesting regulatory interactions between sperm metabolism and signal transduction cascades. To better understand these interactions, we conducted quantitative studies of mouse sperm throughout a 2-h in vitro capacitation period and compared the effects of single substrates assayed under identical conditions. Multiple glycolytic and nonglycolytic substrates maintained sperm ATP levels and comparable percentages of motility, but only glucose and mannose supported hyperactivation. These monosaccharides and fructose supported the full pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas nonglycolytic substrates supported at least partial tyrosine phosphorylation. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired motility in the presence of glucose, fructose, or pyruvate but not in the presence of hydroxybutyrate. Addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation reduced motility with pyruvate or hydroxybutyrate as substrates but unexpectedly stimulated hyperactivation with fructose. Investigating differences between glucose and fructose in more detail, we demonstrated that hyperactivation results from the active metabolism of glucose. Differences between glucose and fructose appeared to be downstream of changes in intracellular pH, which rose to comparable levels during incubation with either substrate. Sperm redox pathways were differentially affected, with higher levels of associated metabolites and reactive oxygen species generated during incubations with fructose than during incubations with glucose.

  9. Sperm mitochondria diaphorase activity--a gene mapping study of recombinant inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Aniela; Malek, Paulina; Piasecka, Malgorzata; Styrna, Jozefa

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic control of semen quality parameters, we derived a set of recombinant inbred (RI) mice from crosses between two inbred strains, KE and CBA/Kw, which differ significantly in gamete quality and fertility parameters. In this work, we used male mice from the two parental strains and from ten RI strains to map genes controlling quantitative traits such as sperm mitochondrial diaphorase activity, and assessed the correlation between this trait, sperm motility and in vivo fertilization efficiency. We analyzed sperm mitochondrial dehydrogenase (diaphorase) activity (NADH-dependent NBT assay) cytochemically by means of computerized image densitometry and obtained values for four parameters: 1) integrated optical density (IOD) for all pixels of the midpiece, 2) mean optical density (MOD) for the midpiece pixels, 3) length of sperm midpiece and 4) area of sperm midpiece. Polymorphic microsatellite marker profiles were prepared for 20 mouse chromosomes in the ten RI strains. We used Map Manager QTX software to correlate the strain distribution patterns (SDPs) of the four measured parameters with the SDPs of the analyzed markers. Hypothetical genes modifying diaphorase activity were mapped to chromosomal region 19q43-19q47, containing, for example, Poll, Sfxn2, Cyp17a1 and Usmg5 genes. Chromosomal regions 18q44 and 18q49-18q80 also showed correlation with the SDPs of diaphorase activity. Katnal2, Me2 and StARD6 candidate genes were proposed from this region. Diaphorase activity in the mouse sperm midpiece did not correlate with in vivo fertilization efficiency, but was negatively correlated with the linearity and straightness of sperm movement.

  10. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300 10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p = 0.04, p = 0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p = 0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations.

  11. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....

  12. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  14. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  15. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S Borges

    Full Text Available Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin

  16. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L

    2005-06-21

    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.

  17. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  18. Artificial fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a teleost fish, the medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Satoshi; Iwai, Toshiharu; Nakahata, Shingo; Sakai, Chiharu; Yamashita, Masakane

    2009-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a technique that has been successfully used for assisting reproduction in mammals. However, this method is still not reliable in nonmammalian species, including teleosts. We succeeded in producing medaka individuals by ICSI with a rate of 13.4% (28 hatched embryos out of 209 eggs fertilized by ICSI), the best value reported so far in teleosts, including zebrafish and Nile tilapia. Although the technique was based on that developed for mammalian eggs, some critical modifications were made to adjust it to the medaka egg, which has a thick and hard envelope (the chorion) and a single sperm entry site (the micropyle). Medaka ICSI was performed by injecting a demembranated spermatozoon into an egg cytoplasm through the micropyle 10-15 sec after egg activation induced by a piezo-actuated vibration, the site and timing of sperm penetration being consistent with those in normal fertilization in medaka. To increase the efficiency of ICSI in medaka, we found that the fertilization by ICSI should precisely mimic the fertilization by insemination with intact sperm, both spatially and temporally. The success rate of ICSI was highly variable in batches of eggs (ranging from 0% to 56%), suggesting that the conditions of eggs are important factors in stabilizing the production of individuals by ICSI. The success in medaka ICSI provides a basis for future research to understand the basic mechanisms in gamete biology of teleosts as well as for development of new technology that can yield valuable applications in fisheries science.

  19. Reproductive effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on mouse sperm function and early embryonic development in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Acetamiprid (ACE and imidacloprid (IMI are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (PIMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations.

  20. Reproductive effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on mouse sperm function and early embryonic development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-Hua; Li, Yan; Huang, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Ju-Fen; Yang, Jun; Diao, Hua; Yuan, Yao; Xu, Yan; Liu, Miao; Shi, Hui-Juan; Xu, Wen-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Acetamiprid (ACE) and imidacloprid (IMI) are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM) on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (PIMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05). These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations.

  1. Relationship between bovine fertility and the number of spermatozoa penetrating the cervical mucus within straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Muzaffer; Bacinoglu, Suleyman; Cirit, Umüt; Ozdaş, Ozen Banu; Ak, Kemal

    2007-09-01

    In this study, by using a recently developed test technique, the relationship between the total spermatozoa number penetrating determined sites of bovine cervical mucus in straws and potential fertility of bulls, and other spermatological characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the effect on the test results, of two different incubation temperatures (37 and 41 degrees C) and two sperm penetration distance ranges (PDRs). Frozen semen samples of six Holstein bulls were used in the study. The bulls were divided into two fertility groups (high and low fertility) according to the "non-return rates" (NRR). For the penetration test, cervical mucus was drawn into transparent plastic straws and incubated with semen at 37 and 41 degrees C for 15 min. After the incubation, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour and stored at -20 degrees C. On the evaluation day, concentrations of spermatozoa penetrated to the PDRs, each of which was 2.5 mm, between 32.5 and 35 mm (first penetration distance range, PDR1), and 50 and 52.5 mm (second penetration distance range, PDR2) distance in the straws from the open end, were measured. When compared with the low fertility group, bulls from the high fertility group showed a higher number of spermatozoa at the determined PDRs, and a significant positive correlation was found between the total number of spermatozoa at the penetration distances and the NRR scores of the bulls.

  2. Sperm DNA Integrity Assessment: A New Tool in Diagnosis and Treatment of Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bungum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 15% of all couples. Although male infertility factors with reduced semen quality are contributing to about half of all involuntary childlessness, the value of standard semen parameters in prediction of fertility in vivo and choice of proper method for assisted reproduction is limited. In the search for better markers of male fertility, during the last 10 years, assessment of sperm DNA integrity has emerged as a strong new biomarker of semen quality that may have the potential to discriminate between infertile and fertile men. Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI as assessed by the flow cytometric Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA can be used for evaluation of sperm chromatin integrity. The biological background for abnormal DFI is not completely known, but clinical data show that DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy in natural way or by insemination, but not in vitro. Already when the DFI is above 20%, the chance of natural pregnancy may be reduced, despite other sperm parameters being normal. Thus this method may explain a significant proportion of cases of unexplained infertility and can be beneficial in counselling involuntary childless couples need of in vitro fertilisation.

  3. Linear increase of structural and numerical chromosome 9 abnormalities in human sperm regarding age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Mercè; Rajmil, Osvaldo; Egozcue, Josep; Templado, Cristina

    2003-10-01

    A simultaneous four-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay was used in human sperm in order to search for a paternal age effect on: (1) the incidence of structural aberrations and aneuploidy of chromosome 9, and (2) the sex ratio in both normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with a numerical or structural abnormality of chromosome 9. The sperm samples were collected from 18 healthy donors, aged 24-74 years (mean 48.8 years old). Specific probes for the subtelomeric 9q region (9qter), centromeric regions of chromosomes 6 and 9, and the satellite III region of the Y chromosome were used for FISH analysis. A total of 190,117 sperms were evaluated with a minimum of 10,000 sperm scored from each donor. A significant linear increase in the overall level of duplications and deletions for the centromeric and subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9 (Pchromosome 9 disomy (Pchromosome 9 disomy, 18.8% for diploidy, and ranged from 14.6 to 28% for structural aberrations. Our results indicate a linear increase in structural aberrations and disomy for chromosome 9 in sperm with respect to age.

  4. Effects of X-irradiation on mouse testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, B.L.; Jost, L.K.; Erickson, K.R.; Tajiran, M.A.; Evenson, D.P. [South Dakota State Univ., Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The testicular regions of male mice were exposed to x-ray doses ranging from 0 to 400 rads. Forty days after exposure the mice were killed and the testes and cauda epididymal sperm removed surgically. Flow cytometric measurements of acridine orange stained testicular samples indicated a repopulation of testicular samples indicated a repopulation of testicular cell types following x-ray killing of stem cells. Cauda epididymal sperm were analyzed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a flow cytometric measurement of the susceptibility of the sperm nuclear DNA to in situ acid denaturation. The SCSA detected increased susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ after 12.5 rads of x-ray exposure, with significant increases following 25 rads. Abnormal sperm head morphology was not significantly increased until the testes were exposed to 60 rads of x-rays. These data suggest that the SCSA is currently the most sensitive, noninvasive method of detecting x-ray damage to testicular stem spermatogonia. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Miwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP, which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of sperm DNA damage on in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Simon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA damage is prevalent among infertile men and is known to influence natural reproduction. However, the impact of sperm DNA damage on assisted reproduction outcomes remains controversial. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on sperm DNA damage (assessed by SCSA, TUNEL, SCD, or Comet assay and clinical pregnancy after IVF and/or ICSI treatment from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PUBMED database searches for this analysis. We identified 41 articles (with a total of 56 studies including 16 IVF studies, 24 ICSI studies, and 16 mixed (IVF + ICSI studies. These studies measured DNA damage (by one of four assays: 23 SCSA, 18 TUNEL, 8 SCD, and 7 Comet and included a total of 8068 treatment cycles (3734 IVF, 2282 ICSI, and 2052 mixed IVF + ICSI. The combined OR of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.49-1.89; P < 0.0001 indicates that sperm DNA damage affects clinical pregnancy following IVF and/or ICSI treatment. In addition, the combined OR estimates of IVF (16 estimates, OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.34-2.04; P < 0.0001, ICSI (24 estimates, OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.08-1.59; P = 0.0068, and mixed IVF + ICSI studies (16 estimates, OR = 2.37; 95% CI: 1.89-2.97; P < 0.0001 were also statistically significant. There is sufficient evidence in the existing literature suggesting that sperm DNA damage has a negative effect on clinical pregnancy following IVF and/or ICSI treatment.

  7. The sperm structure of Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea) and sperm evolution in Dictyoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Romano; Thipaksorn, Apisit; Gottardo, Marco; Mercati, David; Machida, Ryuichiro; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-04-01

    Sperm of the dictyopteran key taxon Cryptocercus punctulatus was examined. It has largely maintained a blattodean groundplan condition, with a three-layered acrosome, an elongate nucleus, a single centriole, a conspicuous centriole adjunct material, two connecting bands (=accessory bodies), and a long functional flagellum with a 9+9+2 axoneme provided with accessory tubules with 16 protofilaments and intertubular material. These sperm characters are shared with several other polyneopterans. The sperm of C. punctulatus is very similar to what is found in Periplaneta americana and species of other groups of roaches, including the sperm of Loboptera decipiens described here for the first time. The general sperm organization here described can be assumed for the groundplan of Insecta and Pterygota. The following evolutionary path can be suggested: after the split between Cryptocercidae and the common ancestor of Isoptera, the typical pattern of sperm formation was altered very distinctly, resulting in a duplication or multiplication (Mastotermitidae) of the centrioles. Mastotermes has maintained a certain sperm motility, but with a very unusual apparatus of multiple flagella with a 9+0 axoneme pattern. After the split into Mastotermitidae and the remaining Isoptera, sperm motility was completely abandoned, and different modifications of sperm components occurred, and even the loss of the sperm flagellum. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sperm donor anonymity and compensation: an experiment with American sperm donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Glenn; Coan, Travis; Ottey, Michelle; Boyd, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Most sperm donation that occurs in the USA proceeds through anonymous donation. While some clinics make the identity of the sperm donor available to a donor-conceived child at age 18 as part of 'open identification' or 'identity release programs,' no US law requires clinics to do so, and the majority of individuals do not use these programs. By contrast, in many parts of the world, there have been significant legislative initiatives requiring that sperm donor identities be made available to children after a certain age (typically when the child turns 18). One major concern with prohibiting anonymous sperm donation has been that the number of willing sperm donors will decrease leading to shortages, as have been experienced in some of the countries that have prohibited sperm donor anonymity. One possible solution, suggested by prior work, would be to pay current anonymous sperm donors more per donation to continue to donate when their anonymity is removed. Using a unique sample of current anonymous and open identity sperm donors from a large sperm bank in the USA, we test that approach. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to examine what would happen if the USA adopted a prohibition on anonymous sperm donation that used the most ecologically valid population, current sperm donors. We find that 29% of current anonymous sperm donors in the sample would refuse to donate if the law changed such that they were required to put their names in a registry available to donor-conceived children at age 18. When we look at the remaining sperm donors who would be willing to participate, we find that they would demand an additional $60 per donation (using our preferred specification). We also discuss the ramifications for the industry.

  9. Automatic classification of human sperm head morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Violeta; Heutte, Laurent; Petitjean, Caroline; Härtel, Steffen; Hitschfeld, Nancy

    2017-05-01

    Infertility is a problem that affects up to 15% of couples worldwide with emotional and physiological implications and semen analysis is the first step in the evaluation of an infertile couple. Indeed the morphology of human sperm cells is considered to be a clinical tool dedicated to the fertility prognosis and serves, mainly, for making decisions regarding the options of assisted reproduction technologies. Therefore, a complete analysis of not only normal sperm but also abnormal sperm turns out to be critical in this context. This paper sets out to develop, implement and calibrate a novel methodology to characterize and classify sperm heads towards morphological sperm analysis. Our work is aimed at focusing on a depth analysis of abnormal sperm heads for fertility diagnosis, prognosis, reproductive toxicology, basic research or public health studies. We introduce a morphological characterization for human sperm heads based on shape measures. We also present a pipeline for sperm head classification, according to the last Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen of the World Health Organization (WHO). In this sense, we propose a two-stage classification scheme that permits to classify sperm heads among five different classes (one class for normal sperm heads and four classes for abnormal sperm heads) combining an ensemble strategy for feature selection and a cascade approach with several support vector machines dedicated to the verification of each class. We use Fisher's exact test to demonstrate that there is no statistically significant differences between our results and those achieved by domain experts. Experimental evaluation shows that our two-stage classification scheme outperforms some state-of-the-art monolithic classifiers, exhibiting 58% of average accuracy. More interestingly, on the subset of data for which there is a total agreement between experts for the label of the samples, our system is able to provide 73% of average

  10. Sperm dumping as a defense against meiotic drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tom; Lewis, Zenobia; Wedell, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sperm from Drosophila simulans that carry a sex-ratio distorter is preferentially lost from females' sperm-storage organs. This suggests that sperm dumping is a major factor affecting sperm competition in this species, and may have evolved in response to sex-ratio distorters. PMID:19216726

  11. Spermatogenesis and daily sperm production of rabbits fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in paired testes weight, relative testes weight, testes density, testicular element and daily sperm production from gonadal sperm reserve. However, gonadal sperm reserves and daily sperm production by quantitative testicular histology were significantly (p<0.05) higher in copper ...

  12. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  13. Enhancing Tumor Penetration of Nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingxue; Ojha, Tarun; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan; Shi, Yang

    2017-05-08

    Tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been extensively applied to alter the drawbacks and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Despite the large number of preclinical nanomedicine studies showing initial success, their therapeutic benefit in the clinic has been rather modest, which is partially due to the inefficient tumor penetration caused by the tumor microenvironment (high density of cells and extracellular matrix, increased interstitial fluid pressure). Furthermore, tumor penetration of nanomedicines is significantly influenced by physicochemical characteristics, such as size, surface chemistry, and shape. The effect of size on tumor penetration has been exploited to design nanomedicines with switchable size to tackle this challenge. Moreover, several pharmacological and physical approaches have been developed to enhance the tumor penetration of nanomedicines, by penetration-promoting ligands, intratumoral drug release, and modulating the tumor microenvironment and vasculature. Overall, these efforts have resulted in nanomedicines with better tumor penetration properties and with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Future research should be directed to penetration-promoting strategies with broad applicability and with high translational potential.

  14. Sperm Accumulated Against Surface: A novel alternative bioassay for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Laura J; Havenhand, Jon N; Styan, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    Forecasting the impacts of changes in water quality on broadcast spawning aquatic organisms is a key aspect of environmental monitoring. Rapid assays of reproductive potential are central to this monitoring, and there is a need to develop a variety of methods to identify responses. Here, we report a proof-of-concept study that assesses whether quantification of "Sperm Accumulated Against Surface" (SAAS) of tissue culture well-plates could be a rapid and simple proxy measure of fertilisation success. Our results confirm that motile sperm (but not immotile sperm) actively accumulate at surfaces and that the pattern of accumulation reflects fertilisation success in the model oyster species Crassostrea gigas. Furthermore, we confirm these patterns of SAAS for another marine species, the polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa, as well as for a freshwater species, the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. For all species considered, SAAS reflected changes in sperm performance caused by experimentally manipulated differences in water quality (here, salinity). These findings indicate that SAAS could be applied easily to a range of species when examining the effects of water quality. Measurement of SAAS could, therefore, form the basis of a rapid and reliable assay for bioassessments of broadcast spawning aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced sperm selection techniques for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Simon; Kroon, Ben; Ford, Emily; Hook, Ysanne; Glujovsky, Demián; Yazdani, Anusch

    2014-10-28

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) bring together gametes outside of the body to enhance the probability of fertilisation and pregnancy. Advanced sperm selection techniques are increasingly being employed in ART, most commonly in cycles utilising ICSI. Advanced sperm selection techniques are thought to improve the chance that structurally intact and mature sperm with high DNA integrity are selected for fertilisation. Advanced sperm selection strategies include selection according to surface charge; sperm apoptosis; sperm birefringence; ability to bind to hyaluronic acid; and sperm morphology under ultra-high magnification. These techniques theoretically improve ART outcomes. To evaluate the impact of advanced sperm selection techniques on ART outcomes. Systematic search of electronic databases (Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS)), trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), conference abstracts (Web of Knowledge) and grey literature (OpenGrey) for relevant randomised controlled trials. We handsearched the reference lists of included studies and similar reviews. The search was conducted in May 2014. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an advanced sperm selection technique versus standard IVF or ICSI or versus another advanced sperm selection technique. We excluded studies of sperm selection using ultra-high magnification (intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection, or IMSI), as they are the subject of a separate Cochrane review. Quasi-randomised and pseudo-randomised trials were

  16. Fluid viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Lin, Chungwei; Harvey, Benedict; Fiore, Alyssa G; Ardon, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S

    2017-06-09

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction was facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. In humans, as well as cattle, sperm are naturally deposited at the entrance to the cervix and must swim through viscoelastic cervical mucus and other mucoid secretions to reach the site of fertilization. Collective swimming induced by elasticity may thus facilitate sperm migration and contribute to successful fertilization. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, and this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function.

  17. Comparative profiling of the sperm proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Ashling; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-02-01

    The highly complex and species-selective mechanism of fertilization is a central theme of developmental biology. Gametogenesis, sperm activation, and egg-sperm recognition are fundamental biological processes, warranting detailed studies into the molecular composition of gametes. Biological MS has been instrumental for the comprehensive itemizing of gamete proteomes. The protein constellation of sperm cells and its subcellular structures has been established for a variety of animal species. Spermatogenesis and the crucial activation of sperm cells as a prerequisite of successful fertilization and physiological adaptations to external stressors was investigated using proteomics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of male infertility with respect to proteome-wide alterations. This review outlines recent achievements of sperm proteomics and exemplifies the usefulness of gel-based surveys by outlining the comparative analysis of abnormal spermatozoa in globozoospermia. Besides label-free MS techniques and cell-based labeling methodology, high-resolution fluorescence 2DE has been shown to be highly suitable as a proteomic biomarker discovery tool in sperm protein research. The appropriateness of novel protein markers for improving our understanding of normal spermatogenesis and sperm activation versus the molecular pathogenesis of male infertility will be discussed. New biomarker candidates might be useful to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of infertility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  19. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, B. M.; Jülicher, F.

    2008-12-01

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  20. The stochastic dance of circling sperm cells: sperm chemotaxis in the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: ben@pks.mpg.de, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-12-15

    Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.

  1. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-07-01

    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  2. Sperm immobilization by dental focus microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linossier, A; Thumann, A; Bustos-Obregon, E

    1982-01-01

    Focal infections and their ability to produce alterations in different tissues have been in dispute for long time. The purpose of this work was to observe "in vitro" the effect of an Escherichia coli filtrate obtained from open pulpar necrosis on human sperm motility. It was observed that the E. coli filtrate produced a loss in sperm motility. The immobilizating factor was studied and characterized as a heat-stable, resistant to lyophilization and non-dializable substance, which could via blood stream reach the male reproductive system and affect sperm motility.

  3. Chemical and physical requirements for lipid extraction by bovine binder of sperm BSP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Alexandre; Manjunath, Puttaswamy; Lafleur, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The bovine seminal plasma contains phosphocholine-binding proteins, which associate to sperm membranes upon ejaculation. These binder-of-sperm (BSP) proteins then induce a phospholipid and cholesterol efflux from these membranes. In this work, we determined physical and chemical parameters controlling this efflux by characterizing the lipid extraction induced by BSP1, the most abundant of BSP protein in bull seminal plasma, from model membranes with different composition. The model membranes were formed from binary mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) with 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Lyso-PC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (POPS) or cholesterol. The modulation of BSP1-induced lipid extraction from membranes by their chemical composition and their physical properties brings us to propose a 3-step extraction mechanism. First, the protein associates with membranes via specific binding to phosphocholine groups. Second, BSP1 penetrates in the membrane, essentially in the external lipid leaflet. Third, BSP1 molecules solubilize a lipid patch coming essentially from the outer lipid leaflet, without any lipid specificity, to ultimately form small lipid/protein auto-assemblies. The stoichiometry of these complexes corresponds to 10-15 lipids per protein. It is also shown that fluid-phase membranes are more prone to BSP1-induced lipid extraction than gel-phase ones. The inhibition of the lipid extraction in this case appears to be related to the inhibition of the protein penetration in the membrane (step 2) and not to the protein association with PC head groups (step 1). These findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanism by which BSP1 modify the lipid composition of sperm membranes, a key event in sperm capacitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  5. Ovarian control of very low sperm/egg ratios at the commencement of mammalian fertilisation to avoid polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H

    1996-07-01

    This essay considers the means whereby sperm/egg ratios close to unity are generated during the initial stages of fertilisation in placental mammals. Pre-ovulatory graafian follicles and their contents are seen to be key structures orchestrating the events of sperm progression and coordinating the subsequent meeting of male and female gametes. Three levels of control over the numbers of spermatozoa activated and released from the functional reservoir in the caudal region of the fallopian tube isthmus are proposed. A primary control would be obtained by means of a countercurrent transfer of ovarian follicular progesterone from the ovarian vein into the tubal branch of the ovarian artery. The concentration of progesterone so transferred would be proportional to the number of preovulatory follicles, and thus to the number of eggs to be shed, and would act progressively to reduce sperm binding to the endosalpinx of the caudal isthmus. Differential timing of the release from epithelial binding may be a crucial means of achieving the initial low sperm/egg ratios. a secondary regulation of the release of graded numbers of viable spermatozoa towards the ampullary-isthmic junction of the fallopian tubes would be by means of molecular messages derived from the mucified oocyte-cumulus complex shortly before and after the time of ovulation. Third would be reorientation of sperm trajectories by molecular gradients within the cumulus cell mass to direct competent spermatozoa to those oocytes as yet unpenetrated. Together these differing levels of control would impose low sperm/egg ratios during the initial stages of fertilisation, such strict quantitative regulation of male gametes lasting at least until the block to polyspermy is fully established and the vitellus is no longer at risk from further sperm penetration.

  6. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  7. Use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in men with high sperm DNA fragmentation: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Garrido, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval.

  8. Importance of sperm morphology during sperm transport and fertilization in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Francisco A; Gadea, Joaquín; Matás, Carmen; Holt, William V

    2016-01-01

    After natural or artificial insemination, the spermatozoon starts a journey from the site of deposition to the place of fertilization. However, only a small subset of the spermatozoa deposited achieves their goal: to reach and fertilize the egg. Factors involved in controlling sperm transport and fertilization include the female reproductive tract environment, cell-cell interactions, gene expression, and phenotypic sperm traits. Some of the significant determinants of fertilization are known (i.e., motility or DNA status), but many sperm traits are still indecipherable. One example is the influence of sperm dimensions and shape upon transport within the female genital tract towards the oocyte. Biophysical associations between sperm size and motility may influence the progression of spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract, but uncertainties remain concerning how sperm morphology influences the fertilization process, and whether only the sperm dimensions per se are involved. Moreover, such explanations do not allow the possibility that the female tract is capable of distinguishing fertile spermatozoa on the basis of their morphology, as seems to be the case with biochemical, molecular, and genetic properties. This review focuses on the influence of sperm size and shape in evolution and their putative role in sperm transport and selection within the uterus and the ability to fertilize the oocyte.

  9. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  10. Corneal epithelium following penetrating keratoplasty.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubota, K; Mashima, Y; Murata, H; Yamada, M.; Sato, N.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study was designed to observe any changes to the corneal epithelium after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS--The corneal epithelia of 26 patients were observed by specular microscopy 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following penetrating keratoplasty. RESULTS--After re-epithelialisation was confirmed by biomicroscopy 1 week after surgery, specular microscopy revealed many abnormal cells, including spindle shaped cells, nucleated cells, large cells, as well as irregular cell ...

  11. Enhancing Tumor Penetration of Nanomedicines

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qingxue; Ojha, Tarun; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan; Shi, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been extensively applied to alter the drawbacks and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Despite the large number of preclinical nanomedicine studies showing initial success, their therapeutic benefit in the clinic has been rather modest, which is partially due to the inefficient tumor penetration caused by tumor microenvironment (high density of cells and extracellular matrix, increased interstitial fluid pressure). Furthermore, tumor penetration of na...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF ACROSOME AS THE MAIN ANTIGEN OF THE SPERM CELLS PROVOKING AUTOANTIBODIES IN VASECTOMIZED IRANIAN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Nowroozi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nVasectomy is one of the extensively used methods of contraception in family planning programs. Antisperm antibodies (ASA develop after vasectomy which can result in auto-immune male infertility. The precise sperm antigens involved in the autoimmune response are still poorly defined, therefore we determined the circulating ASA and identified relevant sperm antigens based on localization of binding sites of ASA to sperm cell antigens, using a rapid, inexpensive and clinically relevant assay in vasectomized men. Results showed that 2.5% of men had ASA at the time of vasectomy, whereas 53.5% of the study population subsequently developed ASA. The numbers of men with circulating ASA increased significantly for the first three months after vasectomy. These antibodies were distinguishable into three groups based on their bindings to different sites of sperm cell antigens including against acrosome and tail in 67.56% and 10.8%, respectively; 21.6% of subjects had antibody to the other parts of the sperm cell antigens. The results of this study are discussed in terms of an autoimmune response against sperm antigens and development of ASA.

  13. Meiotic segregation and sperm DNA fragmentation in Tunisian men with dysplasia of the fibrous sheath (DFS) associated with head abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedir, H; Mehri, A; Mehdi, M; Brahem, S; Saad, A; Ibala-Romdhane, S

    2014-09-01

    Dysplasia of the Fibrous Sheath (DFS) is a primitive flagellar pathology for which a broad spectrum of ultrastructural flagellar abnormalities has been described responsible for a severe to total asthenozoospermia. To this phenotype other morphological abnormalities including cephalic and abnormalities in nuclear structure can be associated that could compromise embryonic development in case of use of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy rate in ejaculated spermatozoa of Tunisian men presented with DFS sperm defect associated to high percentage of head abnormalities and to compare the results with those from fertile men. Sperm DNA fragmentation was evaluated by the terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The study of meiotic segregation was performed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes X, Y and 18. The mean DNA fragmentation index was significantly higher in patients compared to the control group. FISH revealed a significantly higher incidence of sperm aneuploidies compared with controls. All patients showed elevated frequencies of sex chromosomes disomy, disomy 18 and diploidy. In some cases of syndromic teratozoospermia due to sperm tail structural abnormalities, such as DFS, other morphological cephalic abnormalities may be associated. In these cases we have demonstrated impaired sperm nuclear quality which will affect the results in ICSI. Hence the interest of a thorough study of the sperm nucleus in these forms of infertility in order to predict the chances of success in ART.

  14. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction.

  15. Function of the sperm nuclear matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey A; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, W Steven

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa contain some of the most highly compact chromatin. This is due to the DNA binding proteins, the protamines, which replace most of the histones during spermiogenesis. This chromatin, however, shares some features with somatic cell chromatin. One of these is the organization of DNA into loop domains attached at their bases to a proteinaceous nuclear matrix. Several groups have shown that the sites at which DNA associates with the sperm nuclear matrix contain chromatin structures that are linked with specific functions. Recent data also suggest that the sperm nuclear matrix plays essential roles in the paternal pronucleus of the newly fertilized oocyte, suggesting that the sperm cell provides more information to the new embryo than solely the genetic material it delivers. Here, we will review these data which together give insight into the functional significance and requirements of sperm nuclear structure.

  16. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sperm as (epigenetic) carrier of obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-03-01

    A demonstration of (somewhat) specific differential RNA content and DNA methylation in sperm from obese individuals opens the possibility of epigenetic transmission to offspring. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Intracellular pH in sperm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca(2+) channel; Slo3, a K(+) channel; the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal live birth after testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in variant primary ciliary dyskinesia with completely immotile sperm and structurally abnormal sperm tails

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLachlan, Robert I; Ishikawa, Tomomoto; Osianlis, Tiki; Robinson, Phil; Merriner, Donna Jo; Healy, David; de Kretser, David; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2012-01-01

    .... University-affiliated assisted reproductive technologies practice. A 40 year-old man presenting with 12 months' primary infertility, complete sperm immotility, severe morphologic defects, and moderate sinopulmonary disease...

  20. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  1. Is lithium essential for epididymal sperm maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tanmoy; Datta, Uttam; Basu, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Prasenjit

    2016-11-01

    A wider biological role of ultratrace element lithium in the mammalian reproduction has been reported, however, presence of lithium in the epididymal luminal fluid (ELF) and its influence on sperm during maturation events in the epididymal regions are still unknown. A pilot study was carried out in Jamunapari buck which revealed that levels of lithium in the ELF diminished gradually and significantly (Psperm were observed, except spermatozoan motility that was found absent in the caput epididymis. Therefore, we hypothesize that levels of lithium in the epididymal regions is one of the motility initiation and/or regulatory factor for epididymal sperm maturation essential for acquiring fertilizing competence of sperm cells, hence, lithium could also be considered as one of the biomarker of sperm maturation in any species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evolutionary psychology of sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2006-05-01

    A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for individuals across many species. The authors first describe mechanisms of sperm competition in insects and in birds. They suggest that the adaptive problems and evolved solutions in these species provide insight into human anatomy, physiology, psychology, and behavior. The authors then review recent theoretical and empirical arguments for the existence of sperm competition in humans and discuss proposed adaptations in humans that have analogs in insects or birds. The authors conclude by highlighting the heuristic value of a comparative evolutionary psychological approach in this field. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Adverse effect of paroxetine on sperm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanrikut, Cigdem; Feldman, Adam S; Altemus, Margaret; Paduch, Darius A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    .... Paroxetine administration for 5 weeks. Serum hormone levels, semen analyses, percent sperm DNA fragmentation, and questionnaire assessment of sexual function assessed before, during, and 1 month after drug administration...

  4. The sperm epigenome: implications for the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, John R; Emery, Benjamin R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances, including the human genome project and numerous studies of cancer and other diseases, have shown that the genetic code is not simply limited to the sequence of the four bases of DNA but also includes epigenetic programming, heritable changes that affect gene expression [Riggs A, Martinssen R, Russo V (2007) Introduction. In: Riggs A, Martinssen R, Russo V (eds) Epigenetics mechanisms of gene regulation. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York]. The science of epigenetics is important in understanding many diseases and biological processes, including in identifying the causes of disease and better understanding the mechanisms by which the environment can affect gene expression [Carrell Fertil Steril 97 (2):267-274, 2012]. This chapter will focus on the epigenome of sperm and particularly highlight the potential role of the sperm epigenome in embryogenesis.The sperm epigenome is unique and highly specialized because of the unique nature and function of sperm and because of the diverse requirements for successful fertilization. Due to the need for motility, sperm chromatin must be compacted and highly organized. During spermiogenesis the chromatin is packaged tightly into the sperm head by the replacement of most histones with protamines. This allows for protection of the DNA from the hostile environment in the female reproductive tract. Remaining histones can have chemical modifications to the tails of the protein that either facilitate or repress gene transcription. Sperm, like embryonic stem cells, have a unique pattern of histone modifications that includes both activating and silencing marks in the promoters of genes associated with development. These bivalent marks, along with DNA hypomethylation, comprise a unique state in which the key genes are "poised" for possible activation in embryogenesis. Sperm epigenetic abnormalities have been linked with multiple diseases including male factor infertility and poor embryogenesis.

  5. Association between Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites and Sperm DNA Damage: A Population Study in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Li, Ying; Ao, Lin; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of the most ubiquitous environmental contaminants, may reduce male reproductive functions, but the data from human population studies are very limited. Objectives We designed this study to determine whether environmental exposure to PAHs contributes to the alteration in semen quality, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis in the general male human population. Methods We measured urinary levels of four PAH metabolites and assessed semen quality, sperm apoptotic markers with Annexin V assay, and sperm DNA damage with comet assay in 232 men from Chongqing, China. Results We found that increased urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNa) levels were associated with increased comet parameters, including the percentage of DNA in the tail (tail%) [β coefficient = 13.26% per log unit 2-OHNa (micrograms per gram creatinine); 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.97–18.55]; tail length (12.25; 95% CI, 0.01–24.52), and tail distribution (7.55; 95% CI, 1.28–18.83). The urinary level of 1-hydroxypyrene was associated only with increased tail% (5.32; 95% CI, 0.47–10.17). Additionally, the increased levels of four urinary PAH metabolites were significantly associated with decreased vital Annexin V negative sperm counts. However, there was no significant association between urinary PAH metabolite levels and human semen parameters or morphology of the sperm samples. Conclusions Our data indicate that the environmental level of PAH exposure is associated with increased sperm DNA damage but not with semen quality. These findings suggest that exposure to PAHs may disrupt sperm DNA and thereby interfere with human male fertility. PMID:21147605

  6. Drosophila sperm surface alpha-L-fucosidase interacts with the egg coats through its core fucose residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Jari; Concetta, Veltri; Daniela, De Caro; Perotti, Maria Elisa; Pasini, Maria Enrica

    2015-08-01

    Sperm-oocyte interaction during fertilization is multiphasic, with multicomponent events, taking place between egg's glycoproteins and sperm surface receptors. Protein-carbohydrate complementarities in gamete recognition have observed in cases throughout the whole evolutionary scale. Sperm-associated α-L-fucosidases have been identified in various organisms. Their wide distribution and known properties reflect the hypothesis that fucose and α-L-fucosidases have fundamental function(s) during gamete interactions. An α-L-fucosidase has been detected as transmembrane protein on the surface of spermatozoa of eleven species across the genus Drosophila. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that the protein is localized in the sperm plasma membrane over the acrosome and the tail, in Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, efforts were made to analyze with solid phase assays the oligosaccharide recognition ability of fruit fly sperm α-L-fucosidase with defined carbohydrate chains that can functionally mimic egg glycoconjugates. Our results showed that α-L-fucosidase bound to fucose residue and in particular it prefers N-glycans carrying core α1,6-linked fucose and core α1,3-linked fucose in N-glycans carrying only a terminal mannose residue. The ability of sperm α-L-fucosidase to bind to the micropylar chorion and to the vitelline envelope was examined in in vitro assays in presence of α-L-fucosidase, either alone or in combination with molecules containing fucose residues. No binding was detected when α-L-fucosidase was pre-incubated with fucoidan, a polymer of α-L-fucose and the monosaccharide fucose. Furthermore, egg labeling with anti-horseradish peroxidase, that recognized only core α1,3-linked fucose, correlates with α-L-fucosidase micropylar binding. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis of the potential role of this glycosidase in sperm-egg interactions in Drosophila. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Requirement of sperm-oocyte plasma membrane fusion for establishment of the plasma membrane block to polyspermy in human pronuclear oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoku, K; Tamate, K; Takaoka, Y; Horikawa, M; Goishi, K; Okada, R; Tsuchiya, K; Ishikawa, M

    1999-02-01

    We investigated whether the incorporation of the sperm membrane into the oolemma contributes to the human plasma membrane block to polyspermy. We used zona pellucida-free oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or activated by parthenogenetic activation. Only two of the 35 pronuclear oocytes fertilized by spermatozoa (control) demonstrated one single penetrating spermatozoa. In contrast, the majority of ICSI and parthenogenetically activated pronuclear oocytes were penetrated with an average of three spermatozoa per oocyte. The number of fused and binding spermatozoa of ICSI and parthenogenetically activated oocytes were significantly higher than in control oocytes (3.5+/-0.6 and 4.3+/-0.6 for ICSI; 3.0+/-0.3 and 3.8+/-0.4 for activated and 0.2+/-0.1 and 0.6+/-0.2 for controls, respectively, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the cortical granules were released from the cortex of ICSI and calcium ionophore-puromycin-activated pronuclear oocytes to the same extent as that of pronuclear oocytes fertilized by spermatozoa. These results suggest that the establishment of the plasma membrane block to sperm penetration in the human oocyte may require a fusion process between sperm and oocyte plasma membranes.

  8. Differences in the endocannabinoid system of sperm from fertile and infertile men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E M Lewis

    Full Text Available Male infertility is a major cause of problems for many couples in conceiving a child. Recently, lifestyle pastimes such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana have been shown to have further negative effects on male reproduction. The endocannabinoid system (ECS, mainly through the action of anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG at cannabinoid (CB(1, CB(2 and vanilloid (TRPV1 receptors, plays a crucial role in controlling functionality of sperm, with a clear impact on male reproductive potential. Here, sperm from fertile and infertile men were used to investigate content (through LC-ESI-MS, mRNA (through quantitative RT-PCR, protein (through Western Blotting and ELISA expression, and functionality (through activity and binding assays of the main metabolic enzymes of AEA and 2-AG (NAPE-PLD and FAAH, for AEA; DAGL and MAGL for 2-AG, as well as of their binding receptors CB(1, CB(2 and TRPV1. Our findings show a marked reduction of AEA and 2-AG content in infertile seminal plasma, paralleled by increased degradation: biosynthesis ratios of both substances in sperm from infertile versus fertile men. In addition, TRPV1 binding was detected in fertile sperm but was undetectable in infertile sperm, whereas that of CB(1 and CB(2 receptors was not statistically different in the two groups. In conclusion, this study identified unprecedented alterations of the ECS in infertile sperm, that might impact on capacitation and acrosome reaction, and hence fertilization outcomes. These alterations might also point to new biomarkers to determine male reproductive defects, and identify distinct ECS elements as novel targets for therapeutic exploitation of ECS-oriented drugs to treat male fertility problems.

  9. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  10. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gallego-Calvo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001. No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05. After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05. These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer.

  11. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Calvo, L.; Gatica, M.C.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Guzmán, J.L.; Zarazaga, L.

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001). No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05). After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05). These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer. (Author)

  12. Profiling of sperm proteins and association of sperm PDC-109 with bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Selvaraju, Sellappan; Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2015-01-01

    The composition of sperm proteins influences the fertilizing ability of sperm and hence the present study was conducted (i) to profile sperm proteins expression patterns in bulls of differing fertility index and (ii) to identify and relate the abundant sperm proteins with bull fertility. The semen samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian bulls (n = 12) varying in conception rate (CR) (high/low). The frozen semen straws (three ejaculates, from each bull) were used to study (a) sperm kinetic parameters, (b) plasmalemma integrity, (c) mitochondrial membrane potential, and (d) chromatin distribution. Three bulls were randomly selected from each group (n = 3) and the neat sperm pellets were subjected to percoll purification, followed by protein isolation using 0.1% Triton X100. The sperm kinetic parameters, plasmalemma integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the chromatin distribution did not differ significantly between groups. The number of acidic (pI; 3.1-5.6, 37%) and basic (pI; 7.9-10.0, 27%) proteins and their pattern of expression varied significantly (p sperm protein spots in 2D-gel electrophoresis (2DE) were identified as seminal plasma protein PDC-109 (i.e., protein with N-terminus aspartic acid, D and carboxy terminus cystine, having 109 amino acids) and its isoform and spermadhesin-1 (SPADH1). The western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PDC-109 isoform proteins at 15.4 kDa (pI 5.3 and 5.5). The seminal plasma protein PDC-109 was abundant in the low fertile when compared to the high fertile group (p sperm proteins may influence sperm fertility and sperm PDC-109 levels above a certain threshold affects bull fertility.

  13. Artificial Sperm: New Horizons in Procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabataev, Valentin; Tal, Raanan

    2017-10-16

    Azoospermia, the absence of any sperm cells from the ejaculated semen, poses a real challenge to the fertility urologist. While there are options to create happy families for azoospermic couples, such as the use of donor sperm and adoption, most couples still want to have genetically related offspring. Advances in urology, gynecology, and fertility laboratory technologies allow surgical sperm retrieval in azoospermic men and achievement of live births for many, but not all azoospermic couples. At present, there are extensive research efforts in several directions to create new fertility options by creating "artificial sperm cells." While these new horizons are exciting, there are significant obstacles that must be overcome before such innovative solutions can be offered to azoospermic couples. The present review article defines the problem, describes the theoretical basis for creation of artificial genetically related sperm cells, and provides an update on current successes and challenges in the long tortuous path to achieve the ultimate goal: enabling every azoospermic couple to have their own genetically related offspring. Hopefully, these research efforts will ripen in the foreseeable future, resulting in the ability to create artificial sperm cells and provide such couples with off-the-shelf solutions and fulfilling their desire to parent genetically related healthy babies.

  14. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  15. Ofloxacin penetration into tuberculous pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, W W; Lee, J; Chan, C Y; Cheung, S W; Wong, P C; Kwan, S Y

    1991-10-01

    After 3 days of treatment with ofloxacin (300 mg given orally once daily), the drug levels in serum and pleural fluid 2 and 4 h after drug administration in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion were assessed by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The levels in serum (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) were 4.70 +/- 0.14 and 4.63 +/- 0.09 mg/liter 2 and 4 h after administration, respectively, and the levels in pleural fluid (mean +/- SEM) were 3.82 +/- 0.09 and 4.21 +/- 0.08 mg/liter, respectively. The pleural fluid-to-serum ofloxacin ratio at 2 h was 0.82 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM), and the ratio at 4 h was 0.92 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM). This study demonstrated very good penetration of ofloxacin into pleural fluid in tuberculous pleuritis.

  16. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number...... affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants....

  17. Should we evaluate and treat sperm DNA fragmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Cho, Chak-Lam; Esteves, Sandro C

    2016-06-01

    The clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation tests needs to be revisited in light of increasing evidence of detrimental effect of sperm DNA damage on reproductive outcomes. Current evidence supports the association between high sperm DNA fragmentation and poor outcomes with regards to natural conception and intrauterine insemination. The relationship between high sperm DNA fragmentation and impaired outcomes after in-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are more equivocal. However, recent studies indicate that poor sperm chromatin content is associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss after in-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Several strategies are proposed to alleviate sperm DNA fragmentation and/or select sperm with higher quality chromatin content for assisted reproductive techniques. The intake of oral antioxidants, varicocele repair, use of recurrent ejaculations alone or combined with micromanipulation-based sperm selection techniques, and the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection have been attempted with promising results. Sperm DNA fragmentation tests provide clinically relevant information for natural conception and artificial reproduction independent of those derived from conventional semen parameters. The increasing knowledge of paternal factors on pregnancy outcome and the improvement in treatment strategies should prompt routine evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile couples.

  18. Capacitation, acrosome function and chromatin structure in stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, D N; Gadella, B M; Agüero, A; Stout, T A E; Colenbrander, B

    2005-10-01

    In general, fertility in breeding stallions is lower and more variable than in the other farm animal species, primarily because selection is based on pedigree, looks and/or athletic performance, with little consideration of fertility or fertility potential. Moreover, because the average stallion breeds only a limited number of mares per year and in-field fertility is influenced significantly by non-stallion factors such as management and mare fertility, meaningful fertility data are hard to come-by. Unfortunately, generating usable figures would involve impractically high costs, time and numbers of mares. Instead, a breeding soundness examination (BSE), based on assessments of sperm number, motility and morphological normality and of mating ability, is often carried out with the ostensible aim of identifying animals with the "potential for good fertility". In fact, the BSE generally succeeds only in ruling out those stallions with a very clear reason for sub-fertility, and still fails to identify some seriously sub-fertile animals. Thus, the routine BSE has very limited use as a predictor of subsequent fertility. This paper reviews assays developed for identifying capacitated, acrosome-reacted and DNA-damaged sperm, and assesses their utility for improving our ability to predict a stallion's fertility prior to the onset of his breeding career.

  19. Effects of Panax ginseng, zearalenol, and estradiol on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R

    2016-07-01

    Estrogen signaling pathways are modulated by exogenous factors. Panax ginseng exerts multiple activities in biological systems and is classified as an adaptogen. Zearalenol is a potent mycoestrogen that may be present in herbs and crops arising from contamination or endophytic association. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of P. ginseng, zearalenol and estradiol in tests on spermatozoal function. The affinity of these compounds for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ)-was assessed in receptor binding assays. Functional tests on boar spermatozoa motility, movement and kinematic parameters were conducted using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Tests for capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were performed using microscopic analysis. Zearalenol-but not estradiol (E2)- or ginseng-treated spermatozoa-decreased the percentage of overall, progressive, and rapid motile cells. Zearalenol also decreased spontaneous AR and increased chromatin decondensation. Ginseng decreased chromatin decondensation in response to calcium ionophore and decreased AR in response to progesterone (P4) and ionophore. Zearalenol has adverse effects on sperm motility and function by targeting multiple signaling cascades, including P4, E2, and calcium pathways. Ginseng protects against chromatin damage and thus may be beneficial to reproductive fitness.

  20. Phenotypic plasticity in sperm traits in scorpionflies (Mecoptera : Panorpidae): Consequences of larval history and seasonality on sperm length and sperm transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Andreas; Engels, Sierk; Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of seasonality, larval food availability and larval rearing density on sperm length, sperm transfer rates and body size in the bivoltine scorpionfly Panorpa vulgaris. Males of the first annual generation were larger and had larger sperm. Comparing individuals of two summer

  1. Sperm protamine-status correlates to the fertility of breeding bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sule; Vargovic, Peter; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Belser, Lauren E; Kaya, Abdullah; Moura, Arlindo; Sutovsky, Peter; Parrish, John; Topper, Einko; Memili, Erdoğan

    2015-04-01

    During fertilization, spermatozoa make essential contributions to embryo development by providing oocyte activating factors, centrosomal components, and paternal chromosomes. Protamines are essential for proper packaging of sperm DNA; however, in contrast to the studies of oocyte-related female infertility, the influence of sperm chromatin structure on male infertility has not been evaluated extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility. Relationships between protamine 1 (PRM1) and the chromatin integrity were ascertained in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with varied (high vs. low) but acceptable fertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity (protamination) were tested using Halomax assay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. The PRM1 content was assayed using Western blotting and in-gel densitometry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Fragmentation of DNA was increased and chromatin maturity significantly reduced in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls compared to those from high-fertility bulls. Field fertility scores of the bulls were negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa displaying reduced protamination and fragmented DNA using toluidine blue and Halomax, respectively. Bull fertility was also positively correlated with PRM1 content by Western blotting and flow cytometry. However, detection of PRM1 content by Western blotting alone was not predictive of bull fertility. In immunocytochemistry, abnormal spermatozoa showed either a lack of PRM1 or scattered localization in the apical/acrosomal region of the nuclei. The nuclear shape was distorted in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls. In conclusion, we showed that inadequate amount and localization of PRM1 were associated with defects in sperm chromatin

  2. Sexual selection and the evolution of sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Lüpold, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success--fertilization--is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Human sperm chromosome analysis after subzonal sperm insemination of hamster oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, J. [Medical School of Grenoble (France)

    1994-09-01

    Sperm microinjection techniques, subzonal sperm insemination (SUZI) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), have achieved a wide spread clinical application for the treatment of male infertility. To date, only one study has focused on sperm karyotypes after microinjection. Martin et al. reported a very high incidence of abnormal human sperm complements after ICSI into hamster oocytes. In the present study, are reported the first human sperm karyotypes after SUZI of hamster oocytes. Spermatozoa from two control donors were treated by calcium ionophore A23187 and injected under the zona of hamster eggs. The microinjected eggs were then cultured for cytogenetic analysis of the pronuclei. Out of 47 analyzed sperm chromosome metaphases, 5 (10.6%) were abnormal, 4 (8.5%) were hypohaploid and 1 (2.1%) had a structural abnormality. The sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. Rates of chromosomal abnormalities in microinjected spermatozoa were similar to those observed in spermatozoa inseminated with zona free eggs, suggesting that SUZI procedure per se does not increase sperm chromosomal abnormalities.

  4. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  5. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  6. Quercetin inhibits human sperm functions by reducing sperm [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaolei; Xia, Zhili; Yan, Jiexi; Wang, Yiqing; Xue, Shilong; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin is widely known as potent natural antioxidant and scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin has a wide range of biological functions and health-promoting effects. There are more and more interests in the addition of this flavonol to various traditional food products. However, the in vitro toxicity of quercetin to mature human sperm remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of quercetin on human sperm functions. The results showed that the total sperm motility were significantly inhibited compared to the controls following exposure to 100, 200 and 400µM quercetin for 6 and 12h; quercetin did not affect human sperm viability. The acrosome reaction and capacitation induced by progesterone were dose-dependently inhibited by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin induced a significantly decrease of human sperm [Ca2+]i after 2 min above 50 μM, and dose-dependently decreased the protein-tyrosine phosphorylation of human sperm. Our results indicated that quercetin may decrease sperm [Ca2+]i, suppresse tyrosine phosphorylation, and subsequently inhibit sperm functions.

  7. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic informat......During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...

  8. Using the alkaline comet assay in prognostic tests for male infertility and assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheena E M; Agbaje, Ishola M

    2008-05-01

    Infertility affects one in six couples in Europe during their reproductive years with dysfunctional sperm being one of the most common causes. Conventional semen analysis has proven variable and lacking in prognostic value so, over the past decade, more useful molecular fertility biomarkers have been explored. Among the tests showing most promise are those measuring sperm DNA quality. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health, including, fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion and childhood diseases. It therefore has great potential as a prognostic test for assisted reproductive treatment (ART), when couples are presenting with male infertility. Unlike somatic cells, sperm have a unique tightly compacted chromatin structure. Our group has modified the alkaline comet assay for use with sperm. Sperm DNA also differs from somatic cells in its high susceptibility to oxidative damage; this is largely due to the presence of abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids acting as substrates for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its lack of repair mechanisms. Consequently, the effects of ROS and antioxidant protection on sperm DNA fragmentation have been widely investigated. In this review, the relationship between actual sperm DNA damage as determined by the alkaline comet assay and potential DNA damage as measured by DNA adduct testing will also be examined and the potential of routine clinical practices such as cryopreservation and prolonged incubation to induce further DNA damage was investigated. Finally, the usefulness of sperm DNA tests as prognostic markers and in particular, the opportunities and challenges provided by DNA testing in male fertility determination will be discussed.

  9. Effect of Lunasia amara Blanco on Sperm Number, Sperm Motility, and Testicular Histology of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sanrego (Lunasia amara, has been used in the folk medicine to increase and/or to treat male fertility. However there is no scientific evidence to confirm the positive effect of the plant on an improvement of male fertility. The objective of this research was to study the effects of the plant (on adult Sprague-Dawley male rats at the doses of 30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg, and 90 mg/kg on the sperm count, motility, and testicular histology. Administration were given by force-feeding between 10.00 am and 12.00 pm daily for a period of 42 days followed by sperm quality analysis and testicular histology evaluation. The sperm analysis showed that the sanrego increased the sperm count and sperm motility. The testicular histology also revealed positive effect of the plant on spermatogenesis.   Overall the present study showed the sanrego is potential plant to increase male fertility.

  10. What use is an infertile sperm? A comparative study of sperm-heteromorphic Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Freckleton, Robert P; Snook, Rhonda R

    2007-01-01

    , the evolutionary significance of parasperm remains unknown. Here we measured several male and female morphological, behavioral, and life-history traits in 13 obscura group species to test competing hypotheses of parasperm function using comparative methods. We found that parasperm size was unrelated to female......Sperm size and number are important determinants of male reproductive success. The genus Drosophila exhibits a remarkable diversity of sperm production strategies, including the production of multiple sperm morphs by individual males, a phenomenon called sperm heteromorphism. Sperm......-heteromorphic Drosophila species in the obscura group produce large numbers of infertile "parasperm" in addition to fertile eusperm. Parasperm have been hypothesized to perform a number of roles in place of fertilization, predominantly focused on their potential function in postcopulatory sexual selection. However...

  11. Passive neutron assay of irradiated nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Kaieda, K.; Halbig, J.K.; Phillips, J.R.; Lee, D.M.; Hatcher, C.R.

    1979-02-01

    Passive neutron assay of irradiated nuclear fuel has been investigated by calculations and experiments as a simple, complementary technique to the gamma assay. From the calculations it was found that the neutron emission arises mainly from the curium isotopes, the neutrons exhibit very good penetrability of the assemblies, and the neutron multiplication is not affected by the burnup. From the experiments on BWR and PWR assemblies, the neutron emission rate is proportional to burnup raised to 3.4 power. The investigations indicate that the passive neutron assay is a simple and useful technique to determine the consistency of burnups between assemblies.

  12. Lipid composition of the canine sperm plasma membrane as markers of sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, C F; Brito, M M; Angrimani, Dsr; Belaz, Kra; Morais, D; Zampieri, D; Losano, Jda; Assumpção, Meoa; Nichi, M; Eberlin, M N; Vannucchi, C I

    2017-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of the sperm membrane is an important factor involved in the overall sperm quality, including motility. However, in the canine species, the exact composition of the plasma membrane is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma membrane lipid composition of motile sperm cells and to compare it with asthenospermic samples, as an attempt to determine possible involvements of membrane lipids in dog sperm cell motility. The sperm-rich fraction of ten mature dogs was collected, and samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation by Percoll(®) , in order to separate motile and asthenospermic samples. Processed semen samples were evaluated for sperm motility, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Lipid plasma membrane composition was identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The motile sperm samples presented the following phospholipids in a high frequency in the plasma membrane: phosphatidylcholine 38:4 (composed of stearic and arachidonic fatty acids), phosphatidylcholine 36:1 (stearic and oleic fatty acids), phosphatidylethanolamine 34:4 (myristic and arachidonic fatty acids), glycerophosphatidic acid 36:4 (palmitic and arachidonic fatty acids), phosphatidylcholine 40:4 plasmanyl and phosphatidylcholine 40:5 plasmenyl. Furthermore, no lipid markers were found in the asthenospermic samples. Results also indicate that differences on plasma membrane composition between motile and asthenospermic samples are crucial factors for determining sperm motility, sperm functionality and susceptibility to oxidative stress. In conclusion, plasma membrane lipid composition varies considerable between motile and asthenospermic samples. Therefore, lipid markers of sperm motility can be considered, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine plasmanyl, phosphatidylcholine plasmenyl and phosphatidic acid. © 2016

  13. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid flow and sperm guidance: a simulation study of hydrodynamic sperm rheotaxis.

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    Ishimoto, Kenta; Gaffney, Eamonn A

    2015-05-06

    How does a sperm find its way? The study of guidance cues has fascinated sperm biologists and in particular the prospect of rheotaxis, that is a fluid flow orienting the direction of sperm swimming, has been the subject of extensive recent study, as readily motivated by the prospect that such guidance may be active in the mammalian female reproductive tract. For instance, it has been hypothesized that helical sperm flagellar beating is necessary for such guidance, whereas there is an extensive diversity of flagellar beating patterns, with planar sperm beating readily observed in human cells for example. In particular, such cells will not be guided by fluid flow according to hypothesized mechanisms for rheotaxis presented thus far. Here, using simulation methods, we investigate rheotaxis for a wide range of flagellar beat patterns. Providing the virtual sperm firstly does not possess a tightly circling trajectory in the absence of a background flow and secondly, remains within a region of low shear to prevent being washed away by the background flow, rheotaxis is generally observed with the sperm swimming into the flow together with a possible transverse velocity. Tight circling sperm motility, as observed in select hyperactivated sperm and CatSper mutants, is predicted to disrupt the rheotactic response, whereas confinement to low shear regions generally requires boundary accumulation, thus introducing subtleties in the relationship between rheotactic behaviours and the flagellar waveform and sperm characteristics. Nonetheless, such predictions suggest such rheotactic guidance may be more common and robust than previously thought, and we document simple criteria for the presence of rheotaxis that are consistent with our simulations and understanding, as well as reported observations to date. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence that a functional fertilin-like ADAM plays a role in human sperm-oolemmal interactions.

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    Bronson, R A; Fusi, F M; Calzi, F; Doldi, N; Ferrari, A

    1999-05-01

    Fertilin is a protein initially identified in guinea pig spermatozoa; it is the prototype of a larger family of conserved, proteins designated as a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM). These heterodimers which consist of alpha and beta subunits, containing metalloproteinase-like and disintegrin-like domains, appear to play a role in mammalian fertilization. Peptides derived from the disintegrin domains of two ADAMs, fertilin and cyritestin, interfere with gamete adhesion and sperm-egg membrane fusion in non-human species. It has been suggested that fertilin-beta binds to an oolemmal integrin, and it is proposed that the tripeptide FEE (Phe-Glu-Glu) is the integrin recognition sequence in human fertilin-beta. We evaluated whether fertilin beta plays a role in human fertilization by studying the effects of a linear octapeptide containing the FEE sequence, SFEECDLP, and a scrambled octapeptide with the same amino acids, SFPCEDEL, on the incorporation of human spermatozoa by human zona-free eggs. The effects of G4120, a potent RGD-containing (Arg-Gly-Asp) thioether-bridged cyclic peptide which blocks both fibronectin and vitronectin receptors, and the relationship between FEE- and RGD-receptor interactions on sperm-egg interactions were also studied. The FEE-containing peptide, but not the scrampled peptide, inhibited sperm adhesion to oocytes and their penetration, over the range 1-5 microM. The inhibition induced by SFEECDLP was reversible and occurred only in the presence of peptide itself. The G4120 peptide exhibited 10-fold less inhibitory effects on sperm adhesion and penetration than did SFEECDLP. When combined, SFEECDLP and G4120 exhibited strong inhibition of both adhesion and penetration at concentrations that individually had been ineffective, suggesting co-operation between the two receptor-ligand interactions during fertilization. We propose that a fertilin-like molecule is functionally active on human spermatozoa and that its interaction with an

  16. The Influence of Sperm Morphology, Total Motile Sperm Count of Semen and the Number of Motile Sperm Inseminated in Sperm Samples on the Success of Intrauterine Insemination

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    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of sperm morphology , totalmotile sperm count (TMSC and the number of motile sperm inseminated (NMSI on the outcomeof intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out 445 women undergoing 820IUI cycles. All of the patients underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation with clomiphencitrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG followed by intrauterine inseminationwith the husband’s sperm. Pregnancy rate (PR per cycle in correlation to sperm morphology,TMSC and NMSI was obtained. Statistical analysis of the data was done by the SPSS version13 (Chicago,USA.Results: A total of 81 clinical pregnancies were obtained for a pregnancy rate per cycle of 9.9%.When the TMSC was 5×106 to <10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher than thesubgroups <1×106, 1×106 to <5×106 and ≥10×106 (15%, 5.6%, 5.1%, 10.8%, respectively. Spermmorphology was in itself a significant factor that affected the likelihood of IUI success. Nonetheless,the most significant difference of the PR per cycle with sperm morphology was in the subgroup <5% (2.1% vs. 97.9%.When the NMSI was ≥10×106, the PR per cycle was significantly higher thanthe subgroups<5×106 and 5×106 to< 10× 106 (11.2%, 4.1%, 5.2%, respectively.Conclusion: The study showed that TMSC 5×106 to < 10×106 and normal sperm morphology ≥ 5%and NMSI ≥ 10×106 are useful prognostic factors of IUI cycles.

  17. Endocannabinoids and Human Sperm Cells

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    Giovanna Zolese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acylethanolamides (NAEs are naturally occurring signaling lipids consisting of amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Usually they are present in a very small amounts in many mammalian tissues and cells, including human reproductive tracts and fluids. Recently, the presence of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, the most characterised member of endocannabinoids, and its congeners palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and oleylethanolamide (OEA in seminal plasma, oviductal fluid, and follicular fluids was demonstrated. AEA has been shown to bind not only type-1 (CB1 and type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptors, but also type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1, while PEA and OEA are inactive with respect to classical cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 but activate TRPV1 or peroxisome proliferator activate receptors (PPARs. This review concerns the most recent experimental data on PEA and OEA, endocannabinoid-like molecules which appear to exert their action exclusively on sperm cells with altered features, such as membrane characteristics and kinematic parameters. Their beneficial effects on these cells could suggest a possible pharmacological use of PEA and OEA on patients affected by some forms of idiopathic infertility.

  18. Occupational Exposure to Benzene and Chromosomal Structural Aberrations in the Sperm of Chinese Men

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    Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Li, Guilan; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Schmid, Thomas E.; Xing, Caihong; Kurtovich, Elaine; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benzene is an industrial chemical that causes blood disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia. We previously reported that occupational exposures near the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (8 hr) of 1 ppm was associated with sperm aneuploidy. Objective: We investigated whether occupational exposures near 1 ppm increase the incidence of sperm carrying structural chromosomal aberrations. Methods: We applied a sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization assay to measure frequencies of sperm carrying partial chromosomal duplications or deletions of 1cen or 1p36.3 or breaks within 1cen-1q12 among 30 benzene-exposed and 11 unexposed workers in Tianjin, China, as part of the China Benzene and Sperm Study (C-BASS). Exposed workers were categorized into low-, moderate-, and high-exposure groups based on urinary benzene (medians: 2.9, 11.0, and 110.6 µg/L, respectively). Median air benzene concentrations in the three exposure groups were 1.2, 3.7, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. Results: Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all structural aberrations combined were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.83), 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.85), and 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.24) and for deletion of 1p36.3 alone were 4.31 (95% CI: 1.18, 15.78), 6.02 (95% CI: 1.69, 21.39), and 7.88 (95% CI: 2.21, 28.05) for men with low, moderate, and high exposure, respectively, compared with unexposed men. Chromosome breaks were significantly increased in the high-exposure group [IRR 1.49 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.02)]. Conclusions: Occupational exposures to benzene were associated with increased incidence of chromosomally defective sperm, raising concerns for worker infertility and spontaneous abortions as well as mental retardation and inherited defects in their children. Our sperm findings point to benzene as a possible risk factor for de novo 1p36 deletion syndrome. Because chromosomal aberrations in sperm can arise from defective stem

  19. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

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    Simmons Leigh W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.

  20. Fluorescent sperm marking to improve the fight against the pest insect Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Scolari, Francesca; Schetelig, Marc F; Bertin, Sabrina; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involving area-wide release of mass-reared and sterilized pest insects has proven successful to reduce, control and eradicate economically important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly). For the efficient application, effective monitoring to assess the number and mating success of the released medflies is essential. Here, we report sperm-specific marking systems based on the spermatogenesis-specific Ceratitis capitata beta2-tubulin (Ccbeta2t) promoter. Fluorescent sperm can be isolated from testes or spermathecae. The marking does not cause general disadvantages in preliminary laboratory competitiveness assays. Therefore, transgenic sperm marking could serve as a major improvement for monitoring medfly SIT programs. The use of such harmless transgenic markers will serve as an ideal initial condition to transfer insect transgenesis technology from the laboratory to field applications. Moreover, effective and easily recognizable sperm marking will make novel studies possible on medfly reproductive biology which will help to further improve SIT programs.

  1. Sperm motility, fertilization, and larval development of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen in copper-contaminated water

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    Robie Allan Bombardelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper-contaminated water on sperm motility, fertilization, and embryonic and larval development of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. A randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates was used. Two experiments were carried out: (1 controlled fertilization was performed under different levels of copper contamination and egg hatching was performed in clean water; and (2 copper-contaminated water was used for both fertilization and hatching assays. The time of sperm motility and sperm motility rates linearly decreased with increasing copper concentration in the water. Fertilization and hatching rates were also affected when the concentrations of copper in the water were above 0.0979 mg Cu+2 L-1 and 0.0331 mg Cu+2 L-1, respectively. Gamete exposure to levels between 15 mg Cu+2 L-1 and 60 mg Cu+2 L-1 for short periods of time negatively affected sperm motility, oocyte fertilization, and egg hatching rates. In addition, when gametes and embryos were exposed at levels above 0.03 mg Cu+2 L-1 during long periods of time, egg hatching rates were reduced, and at levels between 0.05 mg Cu+2 L-1 and 0.20 mg Cu+2 L-1 the number of abnormal larvae increased.

  2. Perfringolysin O as a useful tool to study human sperm physiology.

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    Pocognoni, Cristián A; De Blas, Gerardo A; Heuck, Alejandro P; Belmonte, Silvia A; Mayorga, Luis S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate perfringolysin O, a cholesterol-dependent pore-forming cytolysin, as a tool to study several aspects of human sperm physiology. Prospective study. Basic research laboratory. Human semen samples with normal parameters obtained from healthy donors. Interaction of recombinant perfringolysin O with human spermatozoa. Assessment of perfringolysin O binding to spermatozoa, tests for acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, and acrosomal exocytosis assays. Perfringolysin O associated with human spermatozoa at 4°C. The binding was sensitive to changes in cholesterol concentrations and distribution occurring in the plasma membrane of these cells during capacitation. When perfringolysin O-treated sperm were incubated at 37°C, the plasma membrane became permeable, whereas the acrosome membrane remained intact. Permeabilized spermatozoa were able to respond to exocytic stimuli. The process was inhibited by proteins that interfere with membrane fusion, indicating that large molecules, including antibodies, were able to permeate into the spermatozoa. PFO is a useful probe to assess changes in the amount and distribution of the active sterol fraction present in the sperm plasma membrane. The toxin can be used for the efficient and selective permeabilization of this membrane, rendering a flexible experimental model suitable for studying molecular processes occurring in the sperm cytoplasm. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Widespread epigenetic abnormalities suggest a broad DNA methylation erasure defect in abnormal human sperm.

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    Sahar Houshdaran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis.We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm.This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line.

  4. Sperm DNA adducts impair fertilization during ICSI but not during IVF.

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    Piotr Widłak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies emphasize the influence of the status of spermatozoal nucleus on fertilization, mainly with regard to DNA fragmentation. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of DNA adducts content in spermatozoa on fertilization during assisted reproduction. Ovarian hyperstimulation, oocyte retrieval and laboratory work-up in 61 IVF (in vitro fertilization and 118 ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection first cycles were performed according to the same protocol. Semen analysis was made according to WHO Manual (1999. DNA adducts assay in spermatozoa was performed by 32Ppostlabeling method. In total 331 fertilizable oocytes were obtained during IVF and 659 during ICSI. Both groups differed significantly by sperm count, motility and morphology but not by the concentration of DNA adducts in spermatozoa (0.0306 +/- 0.0217 in IVF versus 0.0373 +/- 0.0321 in ICSI. The fertilization rate during IVF was significantly influenced by sperm count (p=0.0002 and motility (p=0.0037 but not by DNA adducts concentration (p=0.30528, whereas during ICSI was positively influenced by sperm motility (p=0.04669 and negatively by DNA adducts concentration (p=0.00796. DNA adducts concentration in spermatozoa significantly negatively influences fertilization rate during ICSI, but not during IVF.

  5. The observed human sperm mutation frequency cannot explain the achondroplasia paternal age effect

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    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Navidi, William; Grewal, Raji; Cohn, Dan; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Arnheim, Norman

    2002-01-01

    The lifelong spermatogonial stem cell divisions unique to male germ cell production are thought to contribute to a higher mutation frequency in males. The fact that certain de novo human genetic conditions (e.g., achondroplasia) increase in incidence with the age of the father is consistent with this idea. Although it is assumed that the paternal age effect is the result of an increasing frequency of mutant sperm as a man grows older, no direct molecular measurement of the germ-line mutation frequency has been made to confirm this hypothesis. Using sperm DNA from donors of different ages, we determined the frequency of the nucleotide substitution in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene that causes achondroplasia. Surprisingly, the magnitude of the increase in mutation frequency with age appears insufficient to explain why older fathers have a greater chance of having a child with this condition. A number of alternatives may explain this discrepancy, including selection for sperm that carry the mutation or an age-dependent increase in premutagenic lesions that remain unrepaired in sperm and are inefficiently detected by the PCR assay. PMID:12397172

  6. Association between the MTHFR-C677T isoform and structure of sperm DNA.

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    Cornet, Dominique; Cohen, Marc; Clement, Arthur; Amar, Edouard; Fournols, Laetitia; Clement, Patrice; Neveux, Paul; Ménézo, Yves

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the MTHFR contribution to male decreased fertility can be attributable to anomalies in sperm nucleus DNA structure in relation to defective methylation. The presence of MTHFR C677T, contributing at most for male infertility, was determined from a venous blood sample, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and sperm nucleus decondensation index (SDI) measurements were performed using acridine orange and flow cytometry. SDF and SDI of men MTHFR C677T heterozygous or homozygous were compared to a general population of hypo-fertile patients RESULTS: SDF is not increased either in homozygous or heterozygous carriers of MTHFR C677T. In contrast, SDI is increased with a higher incidence in homozygous (p = 0.0006) than in heterozygous (p = 0.029) patients when compared with the control population. Using a critical threshold of 20% for either SDI or SDF assayed with our technique, the percentage of patients with results higher than this value is not significant with respect to fragmentation (0.128), but is significantly increased for decondensation (0.0003). Defective methylation linked to MTHFR may contribute to sperm pathogenesis via increased SDI. After DNA structure analysis, especially SDI, treatment with 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), the metabolite downstream from the action of MTHFR, should be recommended as a therapeutic approach. Patients with a high SDI should be tested for MTHFR isoforms as part of a healthcare policy.

  7. Sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation and its association with semen quality in Greek men.

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    Evgeni, E; Lymberopoulos, G; Touloupidis, S; Asimakopoulos, B

    2015-12-01

    Due to the limitations of conventional semen analysis in predicting a man's fertility potential, sperm DNA fragmentation was recently introduced as a novel marker of sperm quality. This prospective study was undertaken to investigate the associations between conventional seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation in Greek men. A total of 669 subject data were evaluated in two groups, normozoospermic (n = 184) and non-normozoospermic (n = 485), according to the WHO 2010 (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, 5th edn. World Health Organization), reference limits. For all the subjects, semen volume, sperm concentration, total count, rapid and total progressive motility and morphology were recorded following the WHO 2010 methods and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay. An inverse correlation was established between DNA fragmentation and all conventional seminal parameters except semen volume in men with seminal profiles below the reference limits, with statistical significance for rapid and total progressive motility. Normozoospermic men exhibited lower levels of DNA fragmentation than their non-normozoospermic counterparts, even though the values were not always below 30%. DNA fragmentation testing and traditional semen analysis should therefore be considered as complementary diagnostic tools in a comprehensive evaluation of male infertility. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Protective effect of alpha glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) on chronic vanadium induced testicular toxicity and sperm nuclear DNA damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Vijaya Bharathi, B; Jaya Prakash, G; Krishna, K M; Ravi Krishna, C H; Sivanarayana, T; Madan, K; Rama Raju, G A; Annapurna, A

    2015-06-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and its effect on sperm parameters, sperm nuclear DNA damage and histological alterations in Sprague Dawley rats and to assess the protective effect of G-hesperidin against this damage. Treatment of rats with vanadium at a dose of 1 mg kg bw(-1) for 90 days resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone levels, sperm count and motility. Further, a parallel increase in abnormal sperm morphology and adverse histopathological changes in testis was also associated with vanadium administration when compared to normal control. Moreover, sperm chromatin dispersion assay revealed that vanadium induces sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation. A marked increase in testicular malondialdehyde levels and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase indicates vanadium-induced oxidative stress. Co-administration of G-hesperidin at a dose of 25 and 50 mg kg bw(-1) significantly attenuated the sperm parameters and histological changes by restoring the antioxidant levels in rat testis. These results suggested that vanadium exposure caused reduced bioavailability of androgens to the tissue and increased free radical formation, thereby causing structural and functional changes in spermatozoa. G-hesperidin exhibited antioxidant effect by protecting the rat testis against vanadium-induced oxidative damage, further ensures antioxidant potential of bioflavonoids. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

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    Archana B Siva

    addition, the observations made in the IVF studies in hamsters suggest that capacitation failures could be a plausible cause of unsuccessful fertilization encountered during human assisted reproductive technologies, like IVF and ICSI. Our studies indicate a role of sperm capacitation in the post-penetration events during fertilization.

  10. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters

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    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-01-01

    observations made in the IVF studies in hamsters suggest that capacitation failures could be a plausible cause of unsuccessful fertilization encountered during human assisted reproductive technologies, like IVF and ICSI. Our studies indicate a role of sperm capacitation in the post-penetration events during fertilization. PMID:24852961

  11. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors.

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    Visser, M; Mochtar, M H; de Melker, A A; van der Veen, F; Repping, S; Gerrits, T

    2016-05-01

    What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that donor-offspring actually sought contact. Most studies on sperm donors are on anonymous donors and focus on recruitment, financial compensation, anonymity and motivations. There is limited knowledge on the value that identifiable sperm donors place on psychosocial counselling and what their needs are in this respect. We performed a qualitative study from March until June 2014 with 25 identifiable sperm donors, who were or had been a donor at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam any time between 1989 and 2014. We held semi-structured in-depth interviews with identifiable sperm donors with an average age of 44 years. The interviews were fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Twelve out of 15 donors (former donors ITALIC! n = 8, active donors ITALIC! n = 7) who had received a counselling session during their intake procedure found it important that they had been able to talk about issues such as the emotional consequences of donation, disclosure to their own children, family and friends, future contact with donor-offspring and rules and regulations. Of the 10 former donors who had received no counselling session, 8 had regretted the lack of intensive counselling. In the years following their donation, most donors simply wanted to know how many offspring had been born using their sperm and had no need for further counselling. Nevertheless, they frequently mentioned that they were concerned about the well-being of 'their' offspring. In addition, they would value the availability of psychosocial counselling in the event that donor-offspring actually sought contact. A limitation of our study is its

  12. Techniques for sperm evaluation using fluorescent probes

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    Andrielle Thainar Mendes Cunha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  A variety of laboratory tests were developed to obtain more reliable results of sperm evaluation and increase the accuracy of sperm fertility predictions. These tests detected damage of sperm specific compartments or organelles, which cannot be detected in routine sperm analysis. The use of fluorescent probes and detection using fluorescent microscopy or flow cytometry is an important tool but a more precise and accurate laboratory test is needed. Propidium iodide and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate are used for evaluations of plasmatic membrane integrity. Fluorescein isothiocyanate, associated with conjugated lecithin Psium sativum or Arachis hypogaea, are used for evaluations of acrosome integrity. Two probes, MitoTracker or Rhodamine123, are generally used to measure the absence or presence of mitochondrial potential. However, a better option is 5,5’; 6,6’ - tetrachloro - 1,1’; 3,3’ -tetraetilbenzimidazolil-carbocyanine (JC-1 dye, which assesses not only the presence of mitochondrial potential and distinguished spermatozoa with poorly and highly functional mitochondria. Two techniques, TUNEL or COMETA, and the Acridine Orange Test (AOT dye are used to evaluate chromatin integrity. A fluorescence technique based on chlortetracycline (CTC or Merocyanine 540 is used to estimate whether sperm pass by or through the capacitation process. This review focuses on the fluorescent probes that are most widely used to evaluate plasma membrane integrity, capacitation, acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity and mitochondrial potential.

  13. Sperm Donation and the Right to Privacy.

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    Hallich, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.

  14. Sperm Cells of a Primitive Strepsipteran.

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    Nardi, James B; Delgado, Juan A; Collantes, Francisco; Miller, Lou Ann; Bee, Charles M; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney

    2013-09-04

    The unusual life style of Strepsiptera has presented a long-standing puzzle in establishing its affinity to other insects. Although Strepsiptera share few structural similarities with other insect orders, all members of this order share a parasitic life style with members of two distinctive families in the Coleoptera-the order now considered the most closely related to Strepsiptera based on recent genomic evidence. Among the structural features of several strepsipteran families and other insect families that have been surveyed are the organization of testes and ultrastructure of sperm cells. For comparison with existing information on insect sperm structure, this manuscript presents a description of testes and sperm of a representative of the most primitive extant strepsipteran family Mengenillidae, Eoxenos laboulbenei. We compare sperm structure of E. laboulbenei from this family with that of the three other families of Strepsiptera in the other strepsipteran suborder Stylopidia that have been studied as well as with members of the beetle families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae that share similar life histories with Strepsiptera. Meloids, Rhipiphorids and Strepsipterans all begin larval life as active and viviparous first instar larvae. This study examines global features of these insects' sperm cells along with specific ultrastructural features of their organelles.

  15. Sperm Cells of a Primitive Strepsipteran

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    Charles M. Bee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The unusual life style of Strepsiptera has presented a long-standing puzzle in establishing its affinity to other insects. Although Strepsiptera share few structural similarities with other insect orders, all members of this order share a parasitic life style with members of two distinctive families in the Coleoptera—the order now considered the most closely related to Strepsiptera based on recent genomic evidence. Among the structural features of several strepsipteran families and other insect families that have been surveyed are the organization of testes and ultrastructure of