Sample records for spent lignocellulose hydrolysates

  1. Inhibitory Compounds in Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates during Hydrolysate Fermentation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.C.; Punt, P.J.


    To compare the composition and performance of various lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media, 8 hydrolysates were generated from a grass-like and a wood biomass. The hydrolysate preparation methods used were 1) dilute acid, 2) mild alkaline, 3) alkaline/peracetic acid, and 4) con

  2. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production. (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei


    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized.

  3. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K. [Lund Univ. Chemical Center (Sweden)


    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  4. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen


    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 productionfor the sustainable energy resource development asthey are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable.In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosicmaterials are firstly converted to monosaccharidesby enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since thestructures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, thehydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the samelignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change withdifferent pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriatehydrolysate compositions can dramatically improvethe biological activities and bio-H2 production performances.Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to differentlignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widelyinvestigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogenyields have also been examined. In this review, recentstudies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogenproduction performance are summarized. [BMBReports 2013; 46(5: 244-251

  5. The fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates with xylose isomerases and yeasts

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    Linden, T.


    Untreated spent sulphite liquor (SSL) was fermented with Canida tropicalis, Pichia stipitis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a co-culture of P. Tannophilus and A. cerevisiae, in the presence of xylose isomerases and 4.6 mM azide. The highest yield of ethanol, 0.41 g/g total sugar was obtained with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, and P. tannophilus produced considerble amounts of polyoles, mainly xylitol. With P. stipitis sugar uptake was rapidly inhibited in untreated SSL. The presence of azide contributed to the yield by about 0.04. The fermentation of hydrogen fluoride-pretreated and acid-hydrolysed wheat straw with S. cerevisiae, xylose isomerase, and azide gave a yield of 0.40 g ethanol/g total sugar. In this substrate the xylose utilisation was 84% compared with 51% in SSL. In the concentration range appropriate for enzymatic xylose isomerization, xylulose was measured in a lignocellulose hydrolysate using HPLC with two hydrogen loaded ion exchange columns in series. SSL was used as a model for lignocellulose hydrolysates. The enzymatic isomerization of xylose to xylulose was followed directly in SSL, providing a method for the direct determination of xylose isomerase activity in lignocellulose hydrolysates. Three different xylose isomerase preparations of L. brevis whole cells were compared with a commercial enzyme preparation Maxazyme GI-immob., with respect to activity and stability. From a continuous SSL fermentation plant, two species of yeasts were isolated, S. cerevisiae and Pichia membranaefaciens. One of the isolates of S. cerevisiae, no. 3 was heavily flocculating. Without acetic acid present, both bakers' yeast and isolate no. 3 showed catabolite repression and fermented glucose and galactose sequentially. Galactose fermentation with bakers' yeast was strongly inhibited by acetic acid at pH values below 6. Isolate no. 3 fermented galactose, glucose and mannose, in the presence of acetic acid

  6. The fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates with xylose isomerases and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, T.


    Untreated spent sulphite liquor (SSL) was fermented with Canida tropicalis, Pichia stipitis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a co-culture of P. Tannophilus and A. cerevisiae, in the presence of xylose isomerases and 4.6 mM azide. The highest yield of ethanol, 0.41 g/g total sugar was obtained with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, and P. tannophilus produced considerble amounts of polyoles, mainly xylitol. With P. stipitis sugar uptake was rapidly inhibited in untreated SSL. The presence of azide contributed to the yield by about 0.04. The fermentation of hydrogen fluoride-pretreated and acid-hydrolysed wheat straw with S. cerevisiae, xylose isomerase, and azide gave a yield of 0.40 g ethanol/g total sugar. In this substrate the xylose utilisation was 84% compared with 51% in SSL. In the concentration range appropriate for enzymatic xylose isomerization, xylulose was measured in a lignocellulose hydrolysate using HPLC with two hydrogen loaded ion exchange columns in series. SSL was used as a model for lignocellulose hydrolysates. The enzymatic isomerization of xylose to xylulose was followed directly in SSL, providing a method for the direct determination of xylose isomerase activity in lignocellulose hydrolysates. Three different xylose isomerase preparations of L. brevis whole cells were compared with a commercial enzyme preparation Maxazyme GI-immob., with respect to activity and stability. From a continuous SSL fermentation plant, two species of yeasts were isolated, S. cerevisiae and Pichia membranaefaciens. One of the isolates of S. cerevisiae, no. 3 was heavily flocculating. Without acetic acid present, both bakers` yeast and isolate no. 3 showed catabolite repression and fermented glucose and galactose sequentially. Galactose fermentation with bakers` yeast was strongly inhibited by acetic acid at pH values below 6. Isolate no. 3 fermented galactose, glucose and mannose, in the presence of acetic acid even at pH.

  7. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.


    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Succinic Acid Production from Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens

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    Salvachua, Davinia; Smith, Holly; John, Peter C.; Mohagheghi, Ali; Peterson, Darren J.; Black, Brenna A.; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T.


    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60 g/L reached up to 30 g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69 g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43 g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates.

  9. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zha; J.A. Westerhuis; B. Muilwijk; K.M. Overkamp; B.M. Nijmeijer; L. Coulier; A.K. Smilde; P.J. Punt


    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. RESULTS: We studied the co

  10. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.


    Background: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.Results: We studied the com

  11. Electrochemical detoxification of phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for Clostridium fermentation. (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Min, Kyoungseon; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Um, Youngsoon


    Lignocellulosic biomass is being preferred as a feedstock in the biorefinery, but lignocellulosic hydrolysate usually contains inhibitors against microbial fermentation. Among these inhibitors, phenolics are highly toxic to butyric acid-producing and butanol-producing Clostridium even at a low concentration. Herein, we developed an electrochemical polymerization method to detoxify phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for efficient Clostridium fermentation. After the electrochemical detoxification for 10h, 78%, 77%, 82%, and 94% of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, and syringaldehyde were removed, respectively. Furthermore, 71% of total phenolics in rice straw hydrolysate were removed without any sugar-loss. Whereas the cell growth and metabolite production of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii were completely inhibited in un-detoxified hydrolysate, those in detoxifying rice straw hydrolysate were recovered to 70-100% of the control cultures. The electrochemical detoxification method described herein provides an efficient strategy for producing butanol and butyric acid through Clostridium fermentation with lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

  12. Fractionation and Characterization of Brewers' Spent Grain Protein Hydrolysates


    Celus, Inge; BRIJS, Kristof; Delcour, Jan


    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of th...

  13. Utilization of hydrolysate from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment to generate electricity by enzymatic fuel cell system. (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Kim, Dong Sup; Yang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Junyoung; Kim, Seung Wook


    The waste hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) of lignocellulosic biomass was utilized to generate electricity using an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) system. During DAP, the components of biomass containing hemicellulose and other compounds are hydrolyzed, and glucose is solubilized into the dilute acid solution, called as the hydrolysate liquid. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and laccase (Lac) were assembled on the electrode of the anode and cathode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured, and the maximum power density was found to be 1.254×10(3) μW/cm(2). The results indicate that the hydrolysate from DAP is a reliable electrolyte containing the fuel of EFC. Moreover, the impurities in the hydrolysate such as phenols and furans slightly affected the charge transfer on the surface of the electrode, but did not affect the power generation of the EFC system in principal.

  14. The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus


    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana


    In this study brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast (1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 %) addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-lactic acid and reducing sugars concentration an...

  15. Phenolic compounds: Strong inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysate for 2,3-butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Kim, Sung Bong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook


    Lignocellulosic biomass are attractive feedstocks for 2,3-butanediol production due to their abundant supply and low price. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, various byproducts are formed and their effects on 2,3-butanediol production were not sufficiently studied compared to ethanol production. Therefore, the effects of compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass (weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolics) on the cell growth, the 2,3-butanediol production and the enzymes activity involved in 2,3-butanediol production were evaluated using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007. The phenolic compounds showed the most toxic effects on cell growth, 2,3-butanediol production and enzyme activity, followed by furan derivatives and weak acids. The significant effects were not observed in the presence of acetic acid and formic acid. Also, feasibility of 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated using Miscanthus as a feedstock. In the fermentation of Miscanthus hydrolysate, 11.00 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was obtained from 34.62 g/L of reducing sugar. However, 2,3-butanediol was not produced when the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate increased to more than 1.5 g/L. The present study provides useful information to develop strategies for biological production of 2,3-butanediol and to establish biorefinery for biochemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Corrected: The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus


    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana


    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates were used for lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for LA fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-LA and reducing sugar concentration and number of viable cell-viability). Very high L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cell viability was achieved in a...

  17. Influence of the propagation strategy for obtaining robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that efficiently co-ferment xylose and glucose in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. (United States)

    Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Olsson, Lisbeth


    Development of xylose-fermenting yeast strains that are tolerant to the inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is crucial to achieve efficient bioethanol production processes. In this study, the importance of the propagation strategy for obtaining robust cells was studied. Addition of hydrolysate during propagation of the cells adapted them to the inhibitors, resulting in more tolerant cells with shorter lag phases and higher specific growth rates in minimal medium containing acetic acid and vanillin than unadapted cells. Addition of hydrolysate during propagation also resulted in cells with better fermentation capabilities. Cells propagated without hydrolysate were unable to consume xylose in wheat straw hydrolysate fermentations, whereas 40.3% and 97.7% of the xylose was consumed when 12% and 23% (v/v) hydrolysate, respectively, was added during propagation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed changes in gene expression, depending on the concentration of hydrolysate added during propagation. This study highlights the importance of using an appropriate propagation strategy for the optimum performance of yeast in fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  18. Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor


    Johansson, Emma; Xiros, Charilaos; Larsson, Christer


    Background Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and ...

  19. Repeated-batch fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol using a hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain metabolically engineered for tolerance to acetic and formic acids. (United States)

    Sanda, Tomoya; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko


    A major challenge associated with the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived hydrolysates is improved ethanol production in the presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as acetic and formic acids. Enhancement of transaldolase (TAL) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) activities through metabolic engineering successfully conferred resistance to weak acids in a recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Moreover, hybridization of the metabolically engineered yeast strain improved ethanol production from xylose in the presence of both 30 mM acetate and 20mM formate. Batch fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of glucose, fructose and xylose as carbon sources, as well as the fermentation inhibitors, acetate and formate, was performed for five cycles without any loss of fermentation capacity. Long-term stability of ethanol production in the fermentation phase was not only attributed to the coexpression of TAL and FDH genes, but also the hybridization of haploid strains.

  20. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S Parreiras

    Full Text Available The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  1. Limited adsorption selectivity of active carbon toward non-saccharide compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Zhuang, Jingshun; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Zongquan; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua


    Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose produces abundant hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDS). To obtain pure HDS for application in food or pharmaceutical industries, the prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) must be refined to remove non-saccharide compounds (NSC) derived from lignin depolymerization and carbohydrate degradation. In this work, activated carbon (AC) adsorption was employed to purify HDS from NSC with emphasis on adsorption selectivity. The adsorption isotherms showed the priority of NSC to be absorbed over HDS at low AC level. However, increase of AC over 90% of NSC removal made adsorption non-selective due to competitive adsorption between NSC and HDS. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the adsorption of oligomeric HDS was dominant while monomeric HDS was inappreciable. The limited selectivity suggested that AC adsorption is infeasibility for HDS purification, but applicable as a pretreatment method.

  2. Growth of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor by using lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate as the carbon source. (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chang, Jung-Tzu


    The conversion of abundant lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to valuable compounds has become a very attractive idea recently. This study successfully used LCB (rice straw) hydrolysate as a carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis in an airlift bioreactor. The lipid content of 34.3 ± 0.6% was obtained in an airlift batch with 60 g reducing sugars/L of LCB hydrolysate at a 2 vvm aeration rate. While using LCB hydrolysate as the carbon source, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the predominant fatty acids of the microbial lipids. Using LCB hydrolysate in the airlift bioreactor at 2 vvm achieved the highest cell mass growth as compared to the agitation tank. Despite the low lipid content of the batch using LCB hydrolysate, this low cost feedstock has the potential of being adopted for the production of β-carotene instead of lipid accumulation in the airlift bioreactor for the cultivation of R. glutinis.

  3. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213. (United States)

    Liu, Siqing; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Leathers, Timothy D; Qureshi, Nasib; Rich, Joseph O; Hughes, Stephen R


    A novel Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L(-1) butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH), corn stover (CSH), rice hull (RHH), and switchgrass (SGH). Results indicated that 50% WSH with a Clostridia medium (Ct) produced the most butyric acid (8.06 g L(-1), 0.46 g/g glucose), followed by 50% SGH with Ct (6.01 g L(-1), 0.44 g/g glucose), however, 50% CSH Ct showed growth inhibition. RPT-4213 was then used in pH-controlled bioreactor fermentations using 60% WSH and SGH, with a dilute (0.5×) Ct medium, resulting 9.87 g L(-1) butyric acid in WSH (yield 0.44 g/g) and 7.05 g L(-1) butyric acid in SGH (yield 0.42 g/g). The titer and productivity could be improved through process engineering.

  4. Co-expression of TAL1 and ADH1 in recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of furfural. (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Nambu, Yumiko; Kondo, Akihiko


    Lignocellulosic biomass dedicated to bioethanol production usually contains pentoses and inhibitory compounds such as furfural that are not well tolerated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus, S. cerevisiae strains with the capability of utilizing both glucose and xylose in the presence of inhibitors such as furfural are very important in industrial ethanol production. Under the synergistic conditions of transaldolase (TAL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) overexpression, S. cerevisiae MT8-1X/TAL-ADH was able to produce 1.3-fold and 2.3-fold more ethanol in the presence of 70 mM furfural than a TAL-expressing strain and a control strain, respectively. We also tested the strains' ability by mimicking industrial ethanol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing fermentation inhibitors, and ethanol production was further improved by 16% when using MT8-1X/TAL-ADH compared to the control strain. Transcript analysis further revealed that besides the pentose phosphate pathway genes TKL1 and TAL1, ADH7 was also upregulated in response to furfural stress, which resulted in higher ethanol production compared to the TAL-expressing strain. The improved capability of our modified strain was based on its capacity to more quickly reduce furfural in situ resulting in higher ethanol production. The co-expression of TAL/ADH genes is one crucial strategy to fully utilize undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, leading to cost-competitive ethanol production.

  5. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain


    Rossana Liguori; Carlos Ricardo Soccol; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Vincenza Faraco


    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG) was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, fo...

  6. Enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve biogas production. (United States)

    Ziemiński, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska, M


    The effect of enzymatic pretreatment of sugar beet pulp and spent hops prior to methane fermentation was determined in this study. These industrial residues were subjected to enzymatic digestion before anaerobic fermentation because of high fiber content (of 85.1% dry matter (DM) and 57.7% DM in sugar beet pulp and spent hops, respectively). Their 24h hydrolysis with a mix of enzymatic preparations Celustar XL and Agropect pomace (3:1, v/v), with endoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase activities, was most effective. Reducing sugars concentrations in hydrolysates of sugar beet pulp and spent hops were by 88.9% and 59.4% higher compared to undigested materials. The highest yield of biogas was obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sugar beet pulp (183.39 mL/d from 1g COD at fermenter loading with organic matter of 5.43 g COD/L × d). Fermentation of sugar beet pulp gave 19% less biogas. Methane fermentation of spent hops hydrolysate yielded 121.47 mL/d biogas from 1g COD (at 6.02 g COD/L × d, 13% more than from spent hops). These results provide evidence that suitable enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes improve biogas yield from anaerobic fermentation.

  7. 转基因pYBGAl酵母发酵木质纤维素水解液制备燃料乙醇%Ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysate by yeast-pYBGA1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鲜香; 吉田孝; 金日光


    he glucose and cellobiose was fermented by using pYBGA1 recombinant yeast, study the effects of the temperature and concentration of yeast-pYBGA1 on the ferment ethanol rate by using cross experiments; the lig-nocellulosic was pretreated through steam explosion pretreatment method, the glucose and cellobiose content in the pretreatment hydrolysate was 50 % ; the pretreatment hydrolysate was fermented by using yeast-pYBGA1 to prepare the ethanol. Results shows that, the best fermentation temperature was 28℃ and the best to the ethanol productivity was 10~8 mL~(-1) ; the highest concentration of ethanol by direct fermentation of mixed sugar in ligno-cellulose-pretreatment hydrolysate is 6.8 g/L when the suger concentration is 20 g/L in the hydrolysate.%采用转基因pYBGA1酵母发酵葡萄糖及纤维二糖培养基,通过交叉实验研究了温度、酵母投入量对乙醇产率的影响;对木质纤维素进行爆破预处理,得到葡萄糖和纤维二糖的质量分数占50%预处理水解液,采用转基因pYBGA1酵母对预处理水解液发酵制备乙醇.结果表明,转基因pYBGA1酵母最佳发酵温度为28℃,最佳酵母投入量为10~8mL~(-1);当水解液中糖浓度为20g/L时,预处理水解液发酵得到乙醇的最大浓度可达6.8g/L.

  8. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori


    Full Text Available Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, for fermentation by the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 selected as the best producer among five ethanologenic microorganims. When the hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract, 12.79 g/L of ethanol, corresponding to 0.28 g of ethanol per grams of glucose consumed (55% efficiency, was obtained within 24 h, while in the non-supplemented hydrolysate, a similar concentration was reached within 48 h. The volumetric productivity increased from 0.25 g/L·h in the un-supplemented hydrolysate to 0.53 g/L h in the yeast extract supplemented hydrolysate. In conclusion, the strain S. cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 was shown able to produce ethanol from BSG. Although an equal amount of ethanol was reached in both BSG hydrolysate media, the nitrogen source supplementation reduced the ethanol fermentation time and promoted glucose uptake and cell growth.

  9. Effect of Lignocellulose Related Compounds on Microalgae Growth and Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Miazek


    Full Text Available Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates, phenolics, organic acids and other secondary compounds. As growth of microalgae on organic substances was confirmed during heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation, lignocellulose derived compounds can become a feedstock to cultivate microalgae and produce target compounds. In this review, different treatment methods to hydrolyse lignocellulose into organic substrates are presented first. Secondly, the effect of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, organic substances typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as well as minor co-products, on growth and accumulation of target compounds in microalgae cultures is described. Finally, the possibilities of using lignocellulose hydrolysates as a common feedstock for microalgae cultures are evaluated.

  10. LSM蛋白增强木糖发酵重组酵母抗逆性能的研究%Sm-Like Protein Enhanced Tolerance of Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Inhibitors in Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岚; 夏黎明


    There are variety of compounds which inhibit the fermenting microorganism formed in the pretreatment process of raw materials from lignocelluloses. These inhibitors, such as weak acids, furaldehydes and phenolic negatively affect the growth of S. cerevisiae, ethanol yield and productivity. A current challenge of the cellulosic ethanol industry is to improve the resistivity against inhibitors present at in biomass hydrolysates. RNA-binding protein LSM6 was cloned from host industrial strain ZU-E8 which was preliminary constructed to conferment glucose and xylose, and transformed into ZU-E8 via expression vector pRS426. Positive transformant ZU-910 with over-expressing LSM6 was isolated on the culture plates using high concentration of acetate and rescreened by fermentation test. Fermentation of the recombinants was performed in fermentation medium containing 8% xylose and 2 g×L-1 acetic acid. Using ZU-910, after 96 h shaking-flask fermentation, 90.2%xylose is utilized with an ethanol yield of 26.9 g×L-1, which is 8.5 and 10 fold as high as that of using ZU-E8. Further, in the corn stover hydrolysates fermentation, both the xylose conversion and ethanol production performed by using ZU-910 enhanced 10.5% and 7.7% than that of using ZU-E8. ZU-910 also enhances the tolerance against furfural and SO42-. This result is very significant for the research of improving tolerance against inhibitors eresented in multiple lignocellulosic pretreatment, and is of benefit to accelerate the bioconversion of renewable cellulosic resources.%木质纤维素原料预处理过程中产生的弱酸、呋喃醛类和酚类化合物等对酿酒酵母的乙醇发酵有抑制作用,提高基因重组酵母对抑制物的耐受性,是利用植物秸秆水解液生产燃料乙醇的关键技术之一。研究从前期构建的戊糖、己糖共发酵重组酿酒酵母Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-E8基因组DNA中克隆出RNA结合蛋白LSM6,将其连入含有PADH启动子的质粒构

  11. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus


    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose and hemi......The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology...... issues within pretreatment and hydrolysis remain to be solved. However, significant improvements in yield and cost reductions are expected, thus making large-scale fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates possible. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  12. 生物转化食用菌菌糠木质纤维素产燃料乙醇的研究进展%Research progresses on bioconversion of spent mushroom substrate lignocellulose for fuel ethanol production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞志强; 余水静; 李昆太


    近年来,食用菌生产技术在世界各国得以广泛普及,全球食用菌菌糠(spent mushroom substrate,SMS)总产量也随之大幅增长.随着全球性能源危机的到来,利用可再生纤维素类物质生产燃料乙醇已引起世界各国的高度重视.食用菌菌糠是食用菌子实体采收后的固体废弃物,其含有纤维素、半纤维素、木质素、抗营养因子和胞外纤维素降解酶类等组分,具备了作为第二代生物乙醇转化基质的潜力,基于此,该文对当前利用食用菌菌糠生物转化生产乙醇的研究进展和应用前景进行了阐述.%In recent years,edible fungus production technology has been widely spread all over the world,and the total output of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) has been significantly increased.With the severe circumstances of the global energy crisis,more and more attention has been focused on how to use the renewable fiber material to produce bioethanol.As the solid waste of mushroom,SMS contains lots of nutritional ingredients,such as cellulose,hemicellulose,lignin,anti-nutrition factor and extracellular cellulose degradation enzymes,and possesses the potential of second-generation bioethanol conversion.The second-generation bioethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass is considered to be one of the most promising biofuels.Based on this fact,this paper mainly elaborated the research progresses and application prospect on the utilization of SMS for ethanol bioconversion.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysatembt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.; Koopman, F.; Bandounas, L.; Winde,; Ruijssenaars, H.J.


    The formation of toxic fermentation inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxy-2-methylfurfural (HMF) during acid (pre-)treatment of lignocellulose, calls for the efficient removal of these compounds. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be efficiently detoxified biologically with microorganisms that spe

  14. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica. (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata


    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  15. Grass Lignocellulose (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  16. Pretreatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.; Hazewinkel, O.; Bakker, R.R.C.


    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting lignocellulosic biomass with 70% sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulfuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes

  17. Lignocellulose-based bioproducts

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Keikhosro


    This volume provides the technical information required for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. It starts with a brief overview of the importance, applications, and production processes of different lignocellulosic products. Further chapters review the perspectives of waste-based biofuels and biochemicals; the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production; cellulolytic enzyme systems for the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses; and basic and applied aspects of the production of bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, and biobutanol from lignocelluloses.

  18. Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid. (United States)

    Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung


    A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol.

  19. Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Eva


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate.

  20. A comparative study of the hydrolysis of gamma irradiated lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Betiku


    Full Text Available The effect of high-dose irradiation as a pretreatment method on two common lignocellulosic materials; hardwood (Khaya senegalensis and softwood (Triplochiton scleroxylon were investigated by assessing the potential of cellulase enzyme derived from Aspergillus flavus Linn isolate NSPR 101 to hydrolyse the materials. The irradiation strongly affected the materials, causing the enzymatic hydrolysis to increase by more than 3 fold. Maximum digestibility occurred in softwood at 40kGy dosage of irradiation, while in hardwood it was at 90kGy dosage. The results also showed that, at the same dosage levels (p < 0.05, hardwood was hydrolysed significantly better compared to the softwood.

  1. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (United States)

    Samad, Abdul

    The present study investigated the feasibility of production of sophorolipids (SLs) using yeast Candida bombicola grown on hydrolysates derived lignocellulosic feedstock either with or without supplementing oil as extra carbon source. Several researchers have reported using pure sugars and various oil sources for producing SLs which makes them expensive for scale-up and commercial production. In order to make the production process truly sustainable and renewable, we used feedstocks such as sweet sorghum bagasse, corn fiber and corn stover. Without oil supplementation, the cell densities at the end of day-8 was recorded as 9.2, 9.8 and 10.8 g/L for hydrolysate derived from sorghum bagasse, corn fiber, and corn fiber with the addition of yeast extract (YE) during fermentation, respectively. At the end of fermentation, the SL concentration was 3.6 g/L for bagasse and 1.0 g/L for corn fiber hydrolysate. Among the three major sugars utilized by C. bombicola in the bagasse cultures, glucose was consumed at a rate of 9.1 g/L-day; xylose at 1.8 g/L-day; and arabinose at 0.98 g/L-day. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, cultures with bagasse hydrolysates, corn fiber hydrolysates and standard medium had a cell content of 7.7 g/L; 7.9 g/L; and 8.9 g/L, respectively after 10 days. The yield of SLs from bagasse hydrolysate was 84.6 g/L and corn fiber hydrolysate was15.6 g/L. In the same order, the residual oil in cultures with these two hydrolysates was 52.3 g/L and 41.0 g/L. For this set of experiment; in the cultures with bagasse hydrolysate; utilization rates for glucose, xylose and arabinose was recorded as 9.5, 1.04 and 0.08 g/L-day respectively. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and non-sugar compounds in the hydrolysates and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of SLs than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. Based on the SL concentrations and considering all sugars consumed

  2. Production of Ethanol from Sugars and Lignocellulosic Biomass by Thermoanaerobacter J1 Isolated from a Hot Spring in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Jessen


    Full Text Available Thermophilic bacteria have gained increased attention as candidates for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study investigated ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter strain J1 from hydrolysates made from lignocellulosic biomass in batch cultures. The effect of increased initial glucose concentration and the partial pressure of hydrogen on end product formation were examined. The strain showed a broad substrate spectrum, and high ethanol yields were observed on glucose (1.70 mol/mol and xylose (1.25 mol/mol. Ethanol yields were, however, dramatically lowered by adding thiosulfate or by cocultivating strain J1 with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen with acetate becoming the major end product. Ethanol production from 4.5 g/L of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (grass, hemp stem, wheat straw, newspaper, and cellulose pretreated with acid or alkali and the enzymes Celluclast and Novozymes 188 was investigated. The highest ethanol yields were obtained on cellulose (7.5 mM·g−1 but the lowest on straw (0.8 mM·g−1. Chemical pretreatment increased ethanol yields substantially from lignocellulosic biomass but not from cellulose. The largest increase was on straw hydrolysates where ethanol production increased from 0.8 mM·g−1 to 3.3 mM·g−1 using alkali-pretreated biomass. The highest ethanol yields on lignocellulosic hydrolysates were observed with hemp hydrolysates pretreated with acid, 4.2 mM·g−1.

  3. Exometabolomics Approaches in Studying the Application of Lignocellulosic Biomass as Fermentation Feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.


    Lignocellulosic biomass is the future feedstock for the production of biofuel and bio-based chemicals. The pretreatment-hydrolysis product of biomass, so-called hydrolysate, contains not only fermentable sugars, but also compounds that inhibit its fermentability by microbes. To reduce the toxicity o

  4. Pre-treatment of ligno-cellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.W.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Bakker, R.R.


    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting ligno-cellulosic biomass with 70% sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulphuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membra

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain. (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish


    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  6. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yubin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH. The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11 mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production.

  7. Effect of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on growth and hydrogen production by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum W16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guang-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Wang, Ai-Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Xu, Ji-Fei; Liu, Bing-Feng [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)


    In the process of producing H{sub 2} from lignocellulosic materials, inhibitory compounds could be potentially formed during pre-treatment. This work experimentally investigated the effect of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on growth and hydrogen production by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum W16. Representative compounds presented in corn stover acid hydrolysate were added in various concentrations, individually or in various combinations and subsequently inhibitions on growth and H{sub 2} production were quantified. Acetate sodium was not inhibitory to T. thermosaccharolyticum W16, rather than it was stimulatory to the growth and H{sub 2} production. Alternatively, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin and syringaldehyde were potent inhibitors of growth and hydrogen production even though these compounds showed inhibitory effect depending on their concentrations. Synergistic inhibitory effects were exhibited in the introduction of combinations of inhibitors to the medium and in hydrolysate with concentrated inhibitors. Fermentation results from hydrolysates revealed that to increase the efficiency of this bioprocess from corn stover hydrolysate, the inhibitory compounds concentration must be reduced to the levels present in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  8. Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12. (United States)

    Ye, Lidan; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Zhou, Xingding; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan


    Cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose hydrolysate to optically pure lactic acid is commercially attractive but very challenging. Bacillus coagulans JI12 was isolated from natural environment and used to produce L-lactic acid (optical purity > 99.5 %) from lignocellulose sugars and acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50 °C and pH 6.0 without sterilization of the medium. In fed-batch fermentation with 85 g/L initial xylose and 55 g/L xylose added after 7.5 h, 137.5 g/L lactic acid was produced with a yield of 98 % and a productivity of 4.4 g/L h. In batch fermentation of a sugar mixture containing 8.5 % xylose, 1 % glucose, and 1 % L-arabinose, the lactic acid yield and productivity reached 98 % and 4.8 g/L h, respectively. When EFB hydrolysate was used, 59.2 g/L of lactic acid was produced within 9.5 h at a yield of 97 % and a productivity of 6.2 g/L h, which are the highest among those ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. These results indicate that B. coagulans JI12 is a promising strain for industrial production of L-lactic acid from lignocellulose hydrolysate.

  9. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms. (United States)

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K


    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  10. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H


    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  11. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  12. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino


    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C. Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days. After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic. However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity and carbon release.

  13. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions. (United States)

    Bottino, Flávia; Cunha-Santino, Marcela Bianchessi; Bianchini, Irineu


    Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40°C). Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days). After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic). However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity) and carbon release.

  14. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad


    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms.

  15. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)


    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  16. The chemistry involved in the steam treatment of lignocellulosic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pereira Ramos


    Full Text Available Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials is essential for bioconversion because of the various physical and chemical barriers that greatly inhibit their susceptibility to bioprocesses such as hydrolysis and fermentation. The aim of this article is to review some of the most important pretreatment methods developed to date to enhance the conversion of lignocellulosics. Steam explosion, which precludes the treatment of biomass with high-pressure steam under optimal conditions, is presented as the pretreatment method of choice and its mode of action on lignocellulosics is discussed. The optimal pretreatment conditions for a given plant biomass are defined as those in which the best substrate for hydrolysis is obtained with the least amount of soluble sugars lost to side reactions such as dehydration. Therefore, pretreatment optimization results from a compromise between two opposite trends because hemicellulose recovery in acid hydrolysates can only be maximized at lower pretreatment severities, whereas the development of substrate accessibility requires more drastic pretreatment conditions in which sugar losses are inevitable. To account for this heterogeneity, the importance of several process-oriented parameters is discussed in detail, such as the pretreatment temperature, residence time into the steam reactor, use of an acid catalyst, susceptibility of the pretreated biomass to bioconversion, and process design.

  17. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol. (United States)

    Arslan, Yeşim; Eken-Saraçoğlu, Nurdan


    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study

  18. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Keating


    Full Text Available Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass, phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(PH, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts.

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocelluloses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolasa, Marta; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen;


    Lignocellulosic materials form a huge part of the plant biomass from agricultural and forestry wastes. They consist of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose, the main constituent of plant cell wall, is a polymer of D–glucopyranose units linked by β-1,4-glucosidic...... bonds. Cellulose can be degraded to simple sugar components by means of enzymatic hydrolysis. However, due to its complex, crystalline structure it is difficult to break it down and the cooperative action of a variety of cellulolytic enzymes is necessary. Fungi are known to have potential in production...... using suppression subtractive hybridization and a targeted genomic screening approach using degenerate PCR. Suppression subtractive hybridization facilitates identification of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes that are expressed when cultivating a fungal strain in medium with cellulose as the carbon...

  20. Steam explosion of Brewer's spent grain improves enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates and affects solubility and stability of proteins. (United States)

    Kemppainen, K; Rommi, K; Holopainen, U; Kruus, K


    Steam explosion was studied as a means to improve the enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates in Brewer's spent grain, a protein and lipid-rich lignocellulosic by-product of the brewing industry. Having temperature, treatment time and the presence of acid catalyst as variables, a treatment at 200 °C for 10 min without an acid catalyst was found to be the most efficient, dissolving 12.1 % of the dry matter. Mainly oligomeric non-cellulosic glucan and arabinoxylan were dissolved, and the remaining insoluble carbohydrates could be efficiently hydrolysed by an enzyme cocktail (75 % hydrolysis yield). The process also caused partial protein degradation and dissolved over a third of the total nitrogen. Meanwhile, the insoluble protein appeared to become more strongly associated with acid-insoluble lignin. Compositional changes observed in the proteins and carbohydrates were supported by the results of epifluorescence microscopy. The process yielded three chemically different fractions which could serve as biorefinery products or intermediates.

  1. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Sade, Hagit; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)


    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  3. Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition (United States)

    McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

    The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

  4. Electricity generation from rapeseed straw hydrolysates using microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Jablonska, Milena A; Rybarczyk, Maria K; Lieder, Marek


    Rapeseed straw is an attractive fuel material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to its high content of carbohydrates (more than 60% carbohydrates). This study has demonstrated that reducing sugars can be efficiently extracted from raw rapeseed straw by combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis followed by utilization as a fuel in two-chamber MFCs for electrical power generation. The most efficient method of saccharification of this lignocellulosic biomass (17%) turned out hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Electricity was produced using hydrolysate concentrations up to 150 mg/dm(3). The power density reached 54 mW/m(2), while CEs ranged from 60% to 10%, corresponding to the initial reducing sugar concentrations of 10-150 mg/dm(3). The COD degradation rates based on charge calculation increased from 0.445 g COD/m(2)/d for the hydrolysate obtained with the microwave treatment to 0.602 g COD/m(2)/d for the most efficient combination of hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  5. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain. (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping


    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate.

  6. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

  7. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock. (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  8. Lignosulfonate and elevated pH can enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZJ


    corresponding pretreatment hydrolysate coupled with increasing hydrolysis pH to above 5.5 compared with only 51% for the control run without lignosulfonate at pH 5.0. The pH-induced lignin surface modification at pH 5.5 further reduced nonspecific binding of cellulase by lignosulfonate. Conclusions The results reported in this study suggest significant advantages for SPORL-pretreatment in terms of reducing water usage and enzyme dosage, and simplifying process integration, i.e., it should eliminate washing of SPORL solid fraction for direct simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation of enzymatic and pretreatment hydrolysates (SSCombF. Elevated pH 5.5 or higher, rather than the commonly believed optimal and widely practiced pH 4.8-5.0, should be used in conducting enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses.

  9. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karimi


    Full Text Available Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane or fermentation to ethanol. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses with no pretreatment is usually not so effective because of high stability of the materials to enzymatic or bacterial attacks. The present work is dedicated to reviewing the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes for conversion to ethanol or biogas. Effective parameters in pretreatment of lignocelluloses, such as crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose are described first. Then, several pretreatment methods are discussed and their effects on improvement in ethanol and/or biogas production are described. They include milling, irradiation, microwave, steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX, supercritical CO2 and its explosion, alkaline hydrolysis, liquid hot-water pretreatment, organosolv processes, wet oxidation, ozonolysis, dilute- and concentrated-acid hydrolyses, and biological pretreatments.

  10. Trends and challenges in the microbial production of lignocellulosic bioalcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christian; Farwick, Alexander; Benisch, Feline; Brat, Dawid; Dietz, Heiko; Subtil, Thorsten; Boles, Eckhard [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. of Molecular Biosciences


    Bioalcohols produced by microorganisms from renewable materials are promising substitutes for traditional fuels derived from fossil sources. For several years already ethanol is produced in large amounts from feedstocks such as cereals or sugar cane and used as a blend for gasoline or even as a pure biofuel. However, alcohols with longer carbon chains like butanol have even more suitable properties and would better fit with the current fuel distribution infrastructure. Moreover, ethical concerns contradict the use of food and feed products as a biofuel source. Lignocellulosic biomass, especially when considered as a waste material offers an attractive alternative. However, the recalcitrance of these materials and the inability of microorganisms to efficiently ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysates still prevent the production of bioalcohols from these plentiful sources. Obviously, no known organism exist which combines all the properties necessary to be a sustainable bioalcohol producer. Therefore, breeding technologies, genetic engineering and the search for undiscovered species are promising means to provide a microorganism exhibiting high alcohol productivities and yields, converting all lignocellulosic sugars or are even able to use carbon dioxide or monoxide, and thereby being highly resistant to inhibitors and fermentation products, and easy to cultivate in huge bioreactors. In this review, we compare the properties of various microorganisms, bacteria and yeasts, as well as current research efforts to develop a reliable lignocellulosic bioalcohol producing organism. (orig.)

  11. SO{sub 2}-ethanol-water (SEW) fractionation of lignocellulosics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iakovlev, M.


    fractionation, but the cellulose degree of polymerisation decreases by hydrolysis following zero-order kinetics. The products include cellulosic fibres and a spent liquor containing lignin and hydrolysed hemicellulose sugars, the latter present up to 50% in monomeric form. The investigated overall and carbohydrate material balances show no carbohydrate losses as further supported by very low amounts of formed oxidation and dehydration products. The properties of the fibre products are evaluated and their potential applications are discussed. The amount of sulfur bound to lignin is 2-3 times lower than that in acid sulfite cooking, and accounts for less than 1.1% on wood. The rest of SO{sub 2} (95-97%) can be fully recovered by distillation. (orig.)

  12. Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vrije Truus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Results Batch cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana produced hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid as the main products from soluble saccharides in Miscanthus hydrolysate. The presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural and 5-hydroxylmethyl furfural, in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate was avoided by the mild alkaline-pretreatment conditions at a low temperature of 75°C. Both microorganisms simultaneously and completely utilized all pentoses, hexoses and oligomeric saccharides up to a total concentration of 17 g l-1 in pH-controlled batch cultures. T. neapolitana showed a preference for glucose over xylose, which are the main sugars in the hydrolysate. Hydrogen yields of 2.9 to 3.4 mol H2 per mol of hexose, corresponding to 74 to 85% of the theoretical yield, were obtained in these batch fermentations. The yields were higher with cultures of C. saccharolyticus compared to T. neapolitana. In contrast, the rate of substrate consumption and hydrogen production was higher with T. neapolitana. At substrate concentrations exceeding 30 g l-1, sugar consumption was incomplete, and lower hydrogen yields of 2.0 to 2.4 mol per mol of consumed hexose were obtained. Conclusion Efficient hydrogen production in combination with simultaneous and complete utilization of all saccharides has been obtained during the growth of thermophilic bacteria on hydrolysate of the lignocellulosic feedstock Miscanthus. The use of thermophilic bacteria will therefore significantly contribute to the energy efficiency of a bioprocess for hydrogen production from biomass.

  13. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel


    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  14. Modulation of the Acetone/Butanol Ratio during Fermentation of Corn Stover-derived Hydrolysate by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yong; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ze-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Yu; Li, Fu-Li


    Producing biobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass has shown promise to ultimately reduce greenhouse gases and alleviate the global energy crisis. However, because of the recalcitrance of a lignocellulosic biomass, a pretreatment of the substrate is needed which in many cases releases soluble lignin compounds (SLCs), which inhibit growth of butanol-producing clostridia. In this study, we found that SLCs changed the acetone/butanol ratio (A/B ratio) during butanol fermentation. The typical A/B molar ratio during Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 batch fermentation with glucose as the carbon source is about 0.5. In the present study, the A/B molar ratio during batch fermentation with a lignocellulosic hydrolysate as the carbon source was 0.95 at the end of fermentation. Structural and redox potential changes of the SLCs were characterized before and after fermentation by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and electrochemical analyses, which indicated that some exogenous SLCs were involved in distributing electron flow to C. beijerinckii, leading to modulation of the redox balance. This was further demonstrated by the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and trxB gene expression profile assays at the onset of solventogenic growth. As a result, the A/B ratio of end-products changed significantly during C. beijerinckii fermentation using corn stover-derived hydrolysate as the carbon source compared to that with glucose. These results revealed that SLCs not only inhibited cell growth, but also modulated the A/B ratio during C. beijerinckii butanol fermentation.

  15. Cell surface engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with membrane separation technology for xylitol production from rice straw hydrolysate. (United States)

    Guirimand, Gregory; Sasaki, Kengo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko


    Xylitol, a value-added polyol deriving from D-xylose, is widely used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite extensive studies aiming to streamline the production of xylitol, the manufacturing cost of this product remains high while demand is constantly growing worldwide. Biotechnological production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste may constitute an advantageous and sustainable option to address this issue. However, to date, there have been few reports of biomass conversion to xylitol. In the present study, xylitol was directly produced from rice straw hydrolysate using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 strain expressing cytosolic xylose reductase (XR), along with β-glucosidase (BGL), xylosidase (XYL), and xylanase (XYN) enzymes (co-)displayed on the cell surface; xylitol production by this strain did not require addition of any commercial enzymes. All of these enzymes contributed to the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of the lignocellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol to produce 5.8 g/L xylitol with 79.5 % of theoretical yield from xylose contained in the biomass. Furthermore, nanofiltration of the rice straw hydrolysate provided removal of fermentation inhibitors while simultaneously increasing sugar concentrations, facilitating high concentration xylitol production (37.9 g/L) in the CBP. This study is the first report (to our knowledge) of the combination of cell surface engineering approach and membrane separation technology for xylitol production, which could be extended to further industrial applications.

  16. Hemicellulase production by Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 in hydrothermal palm oil empty fruit bunch hydrolysate and transcriptome analysis. (United States)

    Ottenheim, Christoph; Verdejo, Carl; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Wu, Jin Chuan


    Palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) is an abundant and cheap lignocellulose material in Southeast Asia. Its use as the sole medium for producing lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes would increase its commercial value. A newly isolated Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 was investigated for its capability of producing hemicellulases in EFB hydrolysate obtained by treatment with pressurized hot water (1-20%, w/v) at 120-180°C in a 1 L Parr reactor for 10-60 min. The optimal hydrolysate for the fungal growth and endoxylanase production was obtained when 10% (w/v) of empty fruit bunch was treated at 120°C or 150°C for 10 min, giving an endoxylanase activity of 24.5 mU ml(-1) on RBB-Xylan and a saccharification activity of 5 U ml(-1) on xylan (DNS assay). When the hydrolysates were produced at higher temperatures, longer treatment times or higher biomass contents, only less than 20% of the above maximal endoxylanase activity was detected, possibly due to the higher carbohydrate concentrations in the medium. Transcriptome analysis showed that 3 endoxylanases (expression levels 59-100%, the highest level was set as 100%), 2 β-xylosidases (4%), 4 side chain-cleaving arabinofuranosidases (1-95%), 1 acetyl xylan esterase (9%) and 2 ferulic acid esterases (0.3-9%) were produced together.

  17. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates. (United States)


    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  18. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan


    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  19. Food engineering residues: amino acid composition of hydrolysates and application for the decontamination of metal polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. (GSF-Forschungszentrum, Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany) TU Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)); Riemschneider, P. (GSF-Forschungszentrum, Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)); Bieniek, D. (GSF-Forschungszentrum, Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)); Kettrup, A. (GSF-Forschungszentrum, Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany) TU Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany))


    Several residues of the brewing industry and slaughtering offals were investigated in order to evaluate their potential as raw materials for the hydrolytic preparation of amino acid containing solutions, applicable as extractants in amelioration processes for metal polluted soils. The residues were hydrolysed with 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid and the hydrolysates were analysed for their total nitrogen, TOC, amino acid and heavy metal contents. Then, the leaching capacities of the hydrolysates were examined in a series of batch tests with a contaminated soil. High amino acid yields in relation to the weight of the air-dried raw materials were achieved with blood meal (72.5%) and poultry feather meal (56.6%). The portion of the detected amino acids of the total organic carbon content of the hydrolysates ranged from 38.9% (brewer's spent grain) to 93.6% (blood meal). In extraction tests with hydrolysates adjusted to a total amino acid concentration of 60 mmol/L and to a pH value of 7.0, maximum extraction yields of 50.3% for copper (soil content 279 mg kg[sup -1]) and 38.7% for nickel (soil content 54 mg kg[sup -1]) were reached. An increase of the hydrolysate concentration and of the pH of an amino acid mixture resulted in higher solubilisation of the metals. (orig.)

  20. Optimization of Two-Step Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for High Sugar Concentration in Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhang


    Full Text Available Getting high sugar concentrations in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate with reasonable yields of sugars is commercially attractive but very challenging. Two-step acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was conducted to get high sugar concentrations in the hydrolysate. The biphasic kinetic model was used to guide the optimization of the first step dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of EFB. A total sugar concentration of 83.0 g/L with a xylose concentration of 69.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 84.0% was experimentally achieved, which is in well agreement with the model predictions under optimal conditions (3% H2SO4 and 1.2% H3PO4, w/v, liquid to solid ratio 3 mL/g, 130°C, and 36 min. To further increase total sugar and xylose concentrations in hydrolysate, a second step hydrolysis was performed by adding fresh EFB to the hydrolysate at 130°C for 30 min, giving a total sugar concentration of 114.4 g/L with a xylose concentration of 93.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 56.5%. To the best of our knowledge, the total sugar and xylose concentrations are the highest among those ever reported for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

  1. Sequential hydrolysis of waste newspaper and bioethanol production from the hydrolysate. (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Huang, Shu-Sing; Shih, Ing-Lung


    A practical process was developed for production of a high quality hydrolysate of waste newspaper that ensured its complete fermentability to bioethanol. After pretreatment with 0.1N NaOH for 12h and sequential acid and enzyme hydrolysis, 10.1g/L of glucose (50.5%), 1.38 g/L of mannose (6.9%) and 0.28 g/L of galactose (1.4%), a total of 11.76 g/L of fermentable sugars was obtained, which accounts for 88.7% of saccharification efficiency. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BCRC20271 showed excellent co-fermentability of glucose, mannose and galactose in hydrolysate of waste newspaper. After cultivation of the hydrolysate at 24°C in static culture for 48 h, the final ethanol concentration of 5.72 g/L (96% conversion efficiency) was produced. Overall, 1000 kg of waste newspaper will produce 286 kg (362 L) of ethanol by the process developed, which reveals that waste newspaper has higher potential than many other lignocellulosic and seaweed feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  2. Metabolism of Multiple Aromatic Compounds in Corn Stover Hydrolysate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris. (United States)

    Austin, Samantha; Kontur, Wayne S; Ulbrich, Arne; Oshlag, J Zachary; Zhang, Weiping; Higbee, Alan; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Hodge, David B; Donohue, Timothy J; Noguera, Daniel R


    Lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates hold great potential as a feedstock for microbial biofuel production, due to their high concentration of fermentable sugars. Present at lower concentrations are a suite of aromatic compounds that can inhibit fermentation by biofuel-producing microbes. We have developed a microbial-mediated strategy for removing these aromatic compounds, using the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. When grown photoheterotrophically in an anaerobic environment, R. palustris removes most of the aromatics from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH), while leaving the sugars mostly intact. We show that R. palustris can metabolize a host of aromatic substrates in ACSH that have either been previously described as unable to support growth, such as methoxylated aromatics, and those that have not yet been tested, such as aromatic amides. Removing the aromatics from ACSH with R. palustris, allowed growth of a second microbe that could not grow in the untreated ACSH. By using defined mutants, we show that most of these aromatic compounds are metabolized by the benzoyl-CoA pathway. We also show that loss of enzymes in the benzoyl-CoA pathway prevents total degradation of the aromatics in the hydrolysate, and instead allows for biological transformation of this suite of aromatics into selected aromatic compounds potentially recoverable as an additional bioproduct.

  3. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona


    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  4. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass (United States)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  5. Industrial scale chromatographic separation of valuable compounds from biomass hydrolysates and side streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P.


    Carbohydrates are composed of a number of various monosaccharides, glucose being the most abundant. Some of the monosaccharides are valuable compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. They can be separated from biomass hydrolysates e.g. by chromatographic methods. In this thesis, chromatographic separation of valuable compounds using ion exchange resins was studied on an industrial scale. Of special interest were rare monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A novel chromatographic separation process was developed for fucose, starting from pre-processed spent sulfite liquor. The core of the process consists of three chromatographic separations with different types of ion exchange resins. Chromatographic separation of galactose was tested with three biomass hydrolysates; lactose, gum arabic and hemicellulose hydrolysates. It was demonstrated that also galactose can be separated from complex carbohydrate mixtures. A recovery process for arabinose from citrus pectin liquid residual and for mannose from wood pulp hydrolysate were also developed and experimentally verified. In addition to monosaccharides, chromatographic separation of glycinebetaine from vinasse was examined with a hydrogen form weak acid cation exchange resin. The separation involves untypical peak formation depending, for example, on the pH and the cation composition. The retention mechanism was found to be hydrogen bonding between glycinebetaine and the resin. In the experimental part, all four resin types - strong acid cation, strong base anion, weak acid cation and weak base anion exchange resins - were used. In addition, adsorption equilibria data of seven monosaccharides and sucrose were measured with the resins in sodium and sulfate forms because such data have been lacking. It was found out that the isotherms of all sugars were linear under industrial conditions. A systematic method for conceptual process design and sequencing of chromatographic separation steps were developed

  6. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R.


    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  7. Improving the bioconversion yield of carbohydrates and ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass (United States)

    Ewanick, Shannon M.

    Improving the efficiency of lignocellulosic ethanol production is of the utmost importance if cellulosic bioethanol is to be competitive with fossil fuels and first generation bioethanol from starch and sucrose. Improvements in individual processes (pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation) have been ongoing, but few researchers have considered the effect that the incoming raw biomass can have on the process. It is important to understand how biomass can be altered to provide the maximum yield of hydrolysable and fermentable sugars from whatever is available. Since the moisture content is highly variable and easily altered, the effect of drying and rewetting on bioconversion was studied on switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse and hybrid poplar. For switchgrass and sugarcane bagasse, the ethanol yield after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was improved 18-24% by increasing the moisture content by soaking prior to pretreatment. It was also found that soaking had no effect when the samples were not catalyzed with SO2 confirming that the effect of moisture content is directly related to SO2 uptake and diffusion into the biomass. In hybrid poplar, the results were similar to herbaceous biomass for chips with less than 2% absorbed SO2. However, when the SO2 uptake was increased to 3% even the air dried chips exhibited high digestibility, indicating that increased SO2 uptake can overcome the poor diffusion in dried biomass. Alongside controlling the biomass moisture content, improving knowledge and control of the processes can also increase efficiency and product yields. By monitoring reactions continuously with accurate, robust, on-line sensors, operators can detect when reactions deviate from the norm, and when they are complete. Avoiding process upsets and contamination could be the difference between an economically viable biorefinery and one that struggles to compete. Real time, continuous Raman spectroscopy was used to continuously monitor both a

  8. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates. (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K


    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses.

  9. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production. (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K; Yang, Zhonghua; Yan, Jiabao; Zhao, Mi


    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0g/100g and 0.13g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step.

  10. Industrial robustness: understanding the mechanism of tolerance for the Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Linville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An industrially robust microorganism that can efficiently degrade and convert lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol and next-generation fuels is required to economically produce future sustainable liquid transportation fuels. The anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate microorganism for such conversions but it, like many bacteria, is sensitive to potential toxic inhibitors developed in the liquid hydrolysate produced during biomass processing. Microbial processes leading to tolerance of these inhibitory compounds found in the pretreated biomass hydrolysate are likely complex and involve multiple genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant strain of C. thermocellum by directed evolution. The genome of the wild type strain, six intermediate population samples and seven single colony isolates were sequenced to elucidate the mechanism of tolerance. Analysis of the 224 putative mutations revealed 73 high confidence mutations. A longitudinal analysis of the intermediate population samples, a pan-genomic analysis of the isolates, and a hotspot analysis revealed 24 core genes common to all seven isolates and 8 hotspots. Genetic mutations were matched with the observed phenotype through comparison of RNA expression levels during fermentation by the wild type strain and mutant isolate 6 in various concentrations of Populus hydrolysate (0%, 10%, and 17.5% v/v. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that there are multiple mutations responsible for the Populus hydrolysate tolerant phenotype resulting in several simultaneous mechanisms of action, including increases in cellular repair, and altered energy metabolism. To date, this study provides the most comprehensive elucidation of the mechanism of tolerance to a pretreated biomass hydrolysate by C. thermocellum. These findings make important contributions to the

  11. Optimization study of ethanolic fermentation from oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Chin, K L; H'ng, P S; Wong, L J; Tey, B T; Paridah, M T


    Ethanolic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out on three types of hydrolysates produced from lignocelulosic biomass which are commonly found in Malaysia such as oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood. The effect of fermentation temperature and pH of hydrolysate was evaluated to optimize the fermentation efficiency which defined as maximum ethanol yield in minimum fermentation time. The fermentation process using different temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, 30 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius were performed on the prepared fermentation medium adjusted to pH 4, pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. Results showed that the fermentation time was significantly reduced with the increase of temperature but an adverse reduction in ethanol yield was observed using temperature of 40 degrees Celsius. As the pH of hydrolysate became more acidic, the ethanol yield increased. Optimum fermentation efficiency for ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using S. cerevisiae can be obtained using 33.2 degrees Celsius and pH 5.3.

  12. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari


    Full Text Available Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp. were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%, followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%. Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

  13. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  14. Efficient production of fermentable sugars from oil palm empty fruit bunch by combined use of acid and whole cell culture-catalyzed hydrolyses. (United States)

    Li, Qingxin; Ng, Wei Ting; Puah, Sze Min; Bhaskar, Ravindran Vijay; Soh, Loon Siong; MacBeath, Calum; Parakattil, Pius; Green, Phil; Wu, Jin Chuan


    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm trees was converted to fermentable sugars by the combined use of dilute acids and whole fungal cell culture-catalyzed hydrolyses. EFB (5%, w/v) was hydrolyzed in the presence of 0.5% H2 SO4 and 0.2% H3 PO4 at 160 °C for 10 Min. The solid fraction was separated from the acid hydrolysate by filtration and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C using the whole cell culture of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 (2%, w/v), which was prepared by cultivation at 30 °C for 7 days to reach its maximal cellulase activity. The combined hydrolyses of EFB gave a total sugar yield of 82.0%. When used as carbon sources for cultivating Escherichia coli in M9 medium at 37 °C, the combined EFB hydrolysates were shown to be more favorable or at least as good as pure glucose for cell growth in terms of the higher (1.1 times) optical density of E. coli cells. The by-products generated during the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis did not seem to obviously affect cell growth. The combined use of acid and whole cell culture hydrolyses might be a commercially promising method for pretreatment of lignocellulose to get fermentable sugars.

  15. Antioxidant, Liver Protective and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Old Laying Hen Hydrolysate in Crab Meat Analogue. (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Yeung Joon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of Crab meat analogue prepared with protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) from spent laying hens. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was increased by adding MDCM hydrolysates during storage, and activity correlated with the concentration of DPPH added up to 6 weeks of storage. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity was increased in all analogues containing MDCM hydrolysates. At 0 days of storage, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity was increased by the addition of MDCM hydrolysates. Activity did not correlate after 6 weeks of storage, in which ACE-inhibitory activity was increased with low concentrations of MDCM hydrolysates, but no ACE-inhibitory activity was observed at higher concentrations. The liver-protecting activity of crab meat analogue was shown to be around 60% of the positive control; however, it was not significantly different among the samples during storage. These results support the use of MDCM as a source of health-promoting constituents in crab meat analogue.

  16. Developing symbiotic consortia for lignocellulosic biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuroff, Trevor R.; Curtis, Wayne R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The search for petroleum alternatives has motivated intense research into biological breakdown of lignocellulose to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol. Degradation of lignocellulose for biofuel production is a difficult process which is limited by, among other factors, the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and biological toxicity of the products. Consolidated bioprocessing has been suggested as an efficient and economical method of producing low value products from lignocellulose; however, it is not clear whether this would be accomplished more efficiently with a single organism or community of organisms. This review highlights examples of mixtures of microbes in the context of conceptual models for developing symbiotic consortia for biofuel production from lignocellulose. Engineering a symbiosis within consortia is a putative means of improving both process efficiency and stability relative to monoculture. Because microbes often interact and exist attached to surfaces, quorum sensing and biofilm formation are also discussed in terms of consortia development and stability. An engineered, symbiotic culture of multiple organisms may be a means of assembling a novel combination of metabolic capabilities that can efficiently produce biofuel from lignocellulose. (orig.)

  17. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria. (United States)

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek


    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques.

  18. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.


    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  19. Ectoine production from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars by engineered Halomonas elongata. (United States)

    Tanimura, Kosuke; Nakayama, Hideki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko


    In this study, the water-retaining cyclic amino acid ectoine was produced from a variety of sugars, including glucose, xylose, cellobiose, and glucose/xylose mixture using engineered Halomonas elongata. When grown on xylose as the sole carbon source, H. elongata produced 333 mmol/kg fresh cell weight (FW) of ectoine, which was 1.4-fold higher than that produced from glucose. To improve ectoine production, an ectD deficient H. elongata mutant was constructed. The engineered H. elongata produced 377 mmol/kg FW of ectoine from a glucose/xylose mixture. Ectoine was also produced from rice straw hydrolysate. These results show that H. elongata can produce ectoine from a variety of sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass and thus has tremendous potential as a host for producing useful compounds from biomass resources.

  20. Wastewater treatment enhancement by applying a lipopeptide biosurfactant to a lignocellulosic biocomposite. (United States)

    Perez-Ameneiro, M; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B


    In this work, a natural lipopeptide biosurfactant obtained from corn steep liquor was included in the formulation of a lignocellulosic biocomposite used for the treatment of wastewater. The results obtained indicate that the dye sorption capacity of the hydrogel containing hydrolysed vineyard pruning waste can be significantly promoted via surfactant modification using natural detergents. The elimination of dye compounds and the removal of sulphates were increased around 10% and 62%, respectively, when the biocomposite modified with biosurfactant was used. This outcome can be intrinsically related to the rougher, rounder, more compact and better-emulsified sphere achieved after the addition of the lipopeptide biosurfactant. The bioadsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model and both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion were involved in the bioadsorption mechanism. Therefore, the utilisation of biosurfactants shows great potential in the formulation of eco-friendly adsorbents for environmental application.

  1. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan


    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation.

  2. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  3. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX. (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E


    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  4. Lipid accumulation by pelletized culture of Mucor circinelloides on corn stover hydrolysate. (United States)

    Reis, Cristiano E R; Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo


    Microbial oil accumulated by fungal cells is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and lignocellulosic materials can serve as the carbon source to support the fungal growth. The dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover can effectively break down its lignin structure, and this process generates a hydrolysate containing mostly xylose at very dilute concentration and numerous by-products that may significantly inhibit the cell growth. This study utilized corn stover hydrolysate as the culture media for the growth of Mucor circinelloides. The results showed that Mucor cells formed pellets during the cell growth, which facilitates the cell harvest from dilute solution. The results also showed that the inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid could be avoided if their concentration was low. In fact, all these by-products may be assimilated as carbon sources for the fungal growth. The results proved the feasibility to reuse the cultural broth water for acid pretreatment and then use for subsequent cell cultivation. The results will have a direct impact on the overall water usage of the process.

  5. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales. (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim


    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  6. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar


    Full Text Available Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides, is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose towards improved saccharification. In this review we: 1 summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, 2 present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, 3 describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, 4 give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and 5 discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation.

  7. Time well spent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter


    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early...... care on income and labor market participation....

  8. Two Step Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation Strategy for Conversion of Acid Treated Hydrolysate of Corn Cob to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Geetanjali Swaroop Wakade


    Full Text Available For economic production of ethanol from corncobs, it is very crucial that lignocellulosic fractions containing glucose and xylose are simultaneously fermented to ethanol in a single operation i.e. cofermentation. Cofermentation of mixed acid treated corn cob hydrolysate containing mixed sugars at low concentration (<50 g L -1 using Pichia stipitis showed 92.35% ethanol fermentation efficiency. However cofermentation of corn cob hydrolysate comprising sugar above 50 g L-1 showed only 46.71% ethanol fermentation efficiency. Therefore a two step enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation strategy was designed for cofermentation of corn cob hydrolysate containing high concentration of sugars which resulted in 86.74% enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and 75.32% ethanol fermentation efficiency. Using two step hydrolysis and fermentation, there was 1.1 fold improvement in the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Final ethanol concentration, ethanol yield and volumetric productivity were improved by 1.7, 1.66 and 2.6 fold respectively as compared to single step hydrolysis and fermentation process.

  9. Laccase Application for Upgrading of Lignocellulose Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vaukner Gabrič


    Full Text Available Laccases have the ability to oxidize both phenolic and trough mediators non-phenolic lignin related compounds. When reacting on lignin, they can display both ligninolytic and polymerizing (cross-inking abilities, which makes them very useful for their application in industries based on lignocellulose material. Most of the published papers and applications of laccase and laccase-mediator systems on lignocellulose material relate to the pulp, paper and textile industry. Recent research has been done in terms of laccase assisted biografting of phenols and other compounds on wood surface and use of laccase for adhesion enhancement in fiberboard production. They can be introduced to wood technology as environmentally friendly enzymes. The paper reviews the application of laccases in industries based on lignocellulose material and discusses the future outlook and development in the above mentioned fields.

  10. Engineering L-arabinose metabolism in triacylglycerol-producing Rhodococcus opacus for lignocellulosic fuel production. (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kazuhiko; Plassmeier, Jens; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Sinskey, Anthony J


    Advanced biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass have been considered as a potential solution for the issues of energy sustainability and environmental protection. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are potential precursors for the production of lipid-based liquid biofuels. Rhodococcus opacus PD630 can accumulate large amounts of TAGs when grown under physiological conditions of high carbon and low nitrogen. However, R. opacus PD630 does not utilize the sugar L-arabinose present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Here, we report the engineering of R. opacus to produce TAGs on L-arabinose. We constructed a plasmid (pASC8057) harboring araB, araD and araA genes derived from a Streptomyces bacterium, and introduced the genes into R. opacus PD630. One of the engineered strains, MITAE-348, was capable of growing on high concentrations (up to 100 g/L) of L-arabinose. MITAE-348 was grown in a defined medium containing 16 g/L L-arabinose or a mixture of 8 g/L L-arabinose and 8 g/L D-glucose. In a stationary phase occurring 3 days post-inoculation, the strain was able to completely utilize the sugar, and yielded 2.0 g/L for L-arabinose and 2.2 g/L for L-arabinose/D-glucose of TAGs, corresponding to 39.7% or 42.0%, respectively, of the cell dry weight.

  11. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.


    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  12. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter


    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  13. Ethanol Production from Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw Hydrolysate by Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a Continuous Immobilized Reactor (United States)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie J.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    Thermophilic ethanol fermentation of wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in a continuous immobilized reactor system. The experiments were carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at 70°C. Undetoxified wheat straw hydrolysate was used (3-12% dry matter), corresponding to sugar mixtures of glucose and xylose ranging from 12 to 41 g/1. The organism, thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1, exhibited significant resistance to high levels of acetic acid (up to 10 g/1) and other metabolic inhibitors present in the hydrolysate. Although the hydrolysate was not detoxified, ethanol yield in a range of 0.39-0.42 g/g was obtained. Overall, sugar efficiency to ethanol was 68-76%. The reactor was operated continuously for approximately 143 days, and no contamination was seen without the use of any agent for preventing bacterial infections. The tested microorganism has considerable potential to be a novel candidate for lignocellulose bioconversion into ethanol. The work reported here also demonstrates that the use of FBR configuration might be a viable approach for thermophilic anaerobic ethanol fermentation.

  14. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol. (United States)

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J


    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Oechsner, Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass provides an excellent opportunity to convert abundant bioresources into renewable energy. Rumen microorganisms, in contrast to conventional microorganisms, are an effective inoculum for digesting lignocellulosic biomass due to their intrinsic ability to degrade substrate rich in cellulosic fiber. However, there are still several challenges that must be overcome for the efficient digestion of lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobic biorefinery is an emerging concept that not only generates bioenergy, but also high-value biochemical/products from the same feedstock. This review paper highlights the current status of lignocellulosic biomass digestion and discusses its challenges. The paper also discusses the future research needs of lignocellulosic biomass digestion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang


    Full Text Available Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feed-stocks is of growing interest worldwide in recent years. However, we are currently still facing significant technical challenges to make it economically feasible on an industrial scale. Genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass has provided a potential alternative to address such challenges. Some studies have shown that genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass can increase its yield, decreasing its enzymatic hydrolysis cost and altering its composition and structure for ethanol production. Moreover, the modified lignocellulosic biomass also makes it possible to simplify the ethanol production procedures from lignocellulosic feed-stocks.

  17. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong


    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production and corn kernels using different nutrient media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Carrasco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the supply of starch grain and sugar cane, currently the main feedstocks for bioethanol production, become limited, lignocelluloses will be sought as alternative materials for bioethanol production. Production of cellulosic ethanol is still cost-inefficient because of the low final ethanol concentration and the addition of nutrients. We report the use of simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production (furfural residue, FR and corn kernels to compare different nutritional media. The final ethanol concentration, yield, number of live yeast cells, and yeast-cell death ratio were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of integrating cellulosic and starch ethanol. Results Both the ethanol yield and number of live yeast cells increased with increasing corn-kernel concentration, whereas the yeast-cell death ratio decreased in SSCF of FR and corn kernels. An ethanol concentration of 73.1 g/L at 120 h, which corresponded to a 101.1% ethanol yield based on FR cellulose and corn starch, was obtained in SSCF of 7.5% FR and 14.5% corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. SSCF could simultaneously convert cellulose into ethanol from both corn kernels and FR, and SSCF ethanol yield was similar between the organic and mineral-salt media. Conclusions Starch ethanol promotes cellulosic ethanol by providing important nutrients for fermentative organisms, and in turn cellulosic ethanol promotes starch ethanol by providing cellulosic enzymes that convert the cellulosic polysaccharides in starch materials into additional ethanol. It is feasible to produce ethanol in SSCF of FR and corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. It would be cost-efficient to produce ethanol in SSCF of high concentrations of water-insoluble solids of lignocellulosic materials and corn kernels. Compared with prehydrolysis and fed-batch strategy using lignocellulosic materials, addition of starch

  19. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates. (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier


    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  20. Antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates evaluated in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-hui; WANG Zhang; XU Shi-ying


    Wheat germ protein hydrolysates were prepared by protease hydrolysis, ultrafiltration and dynamical adsorption of resin. The total amount of amino acids in 100 g wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 93.95 g. Wheat germ protein hydrolysates are primarily composed of 4 fractions: 17.78 % in the relative molecular mass range of 11 563 -1 512, 17.50% in 1512 -842, 27.38% in 842- 372 and 30.65% in 372- 76, respectively. The antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates were evaluated by using different antioxidant tests in vitro. 1.20 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit 78.75% inhibition of peroxidation in linolei acid system; and 1.6 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates show 81.11% scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhrazyl radical. The reducing power of 2.50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 0. 84. Furthermore, the scavenging activity of 0.60 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates against superoxide radical is 75. 40%; 0. 50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit63.35 % chelating effect on ferrous ion. These antioxidant activities of wheat germ protein hydrolsates increase with the increase of its concentration. Experimental results suggest that wheat germ protein hydrolysate is a suitable natural antioxidant rich in nutrition and nontoxic.

  1. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton


    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  2. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email:; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)


    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  3. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M


    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  4. Laccase Enzymology in Relation to Lignocellulose Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna

    -to-glucose conversion is to either get rid of the inhibitory substances or to alter them in a way, so they no longer decrease the action of cellulases. The main focus in the present work was the investigation of the influence of the enzymes that are being expressed from the white-rot fungi when lignin was present...... for their ability to grow on lignocellulosic material, such as sugarcane bagasse – a competitive substrate for grain bioethanol. From this investigation, four white-rot fungi (Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes versicolor, Polyporus brumalis, and Polyporus ciliatus), were selected for the growth on lignin (lignin alkaline......) and investigated for production of enzymes under such conditions (Paper I). G. lucidum was found to produce high amounts of laccase which corresponded to its exceptional growth on lignocellulosic substrate and lignin. This observation led to a hypothesis that this particular laccase might act in a synergistic way...

  5. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials (United States)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina


    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ⩾ 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  6. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production. (United States)

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L


    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  7. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin


    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  8. Engineering microbial surfaces to degrade lignocellulosic biomass (United States)

    Huang, Grace L; Anderson, Timothy D; Clubb, Robert T


    Renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass is a promising feedstock from which to produce biofuels, chemicals, and materials. One approach to cost-effectively exploit this resource is to use consolidating bioprocessing (CBP) microbes that directly convert lignocellulose into valuable end products. Because many promising CBP-enabling microbes are non-cellulolytic, recent work has sought to engineer them to display multi-cellulase containing minicellulosomes that hydrolyze biomass more efficiently than isolated enzymes. In this review, we discuss progress in engineering the surfaces of the model microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compare the distinct approaches used to display cellulases and minicellulosomes, as well as their surface enzyme densities and cellulolytic activities. Thus far, minicellulosomes have only been grafted onto the surfaces of B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the absence of an outer membrane in fungi and Gram-positive bacteria may make their surfaces better suited for displaying the elaborate multi-enzyme complexes needed to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. PMID:24430239

  9. Effect of varying feedstock-pretreatment chemistry combinations on the formation and accumulation of potentially inhibitory degradation products in biomass hydrolysates. (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Sharma, Lekh N; Becker, Christopher; Chen, Shou-Feng; Mowery, Richard A; van Walsum, G Peter; Chambliss, C Kevin


    A variety of potentially inhibitory degradation products are produced during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Qualitative and quantitative interrogation of pretreatment hydrolysates is paramount to identifying potential correlations between pretreatment chemistries and microbial inhibition in downstream bioconversion processes. In the present study, corn stover, poplar, and pine feedstocks were pretreated under eight different chemical conditions, which are representative of leading pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes included: 0.7% H(2)SO(4), 0.07% H(2)SO(4), liquid hot water, neutral buffer solution, aqueous ammonia, lime, lime with oxygen pressurization, and wet oxidation. Forty lignocellulosic degradation products resulting from pretreatment were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV spectroscopy or tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Of these compounds, several have been reported to be inhibitory, including furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, ferulic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, syringic acid among others. Formation and accumulation of monitored compounds in hydrolysates is demonstrated to be a function of both the feedstock and pretreatment conditions utilized.

  10. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding


    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  11. Advancing lignocellulose bioconversion through direct assessment of enzyme action on insoluble substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goacher, Robyn E.; Selig, Michael J.; Master, Emma R.


    Microbial utilization of lignocellulose from plant cell walls is integral to carbon cycling on Earth. Correspondingly, secreted enzymes that initiate lignocellulose depolymerization serve a crucial step in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Genome and metagenome...

  12. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A


    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Production d'éthanol a partir de biomasse lignocellulosique Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogier J. C.


    'enzymes. Les principales voies de recherche devraient porter sur l'amélioration de l'activité des cellulases, afin de se rapprocher le plus possible de celles d'enzymes telles que les amylases. Le développement du procédé SFS (saccharification et fermentation simultanées permet d'améliorer l'efficacité des enzymes en minimisant les réactions d'inhibition des enzymes par les produits formés. Son inconvénient est lié aux différences entre les températures optimales de l'hydrolyse enzymatique et de la fermentation. La recherche de micro-organismes conservant de bonnes performances fermentaires à température élevée doit donc se poursuivre. Un autre verrou technologique du procédé concerne la fermentation alcoolique des pentoses, qui peuvent représenter jusqu'à 25 à 40 % des sucres totaux contenus dans la biomasse lignocellulosique. C'est pourquoi il est indispensable de les valoriser en éthanol. Contrairement à la fermentation alcoolique du glucose, largement connue et maîtrisée, celle des pentoses n'est toujours pas résolue, en raison des performances fermentaires médiocres des micro-organismes utilisés. Le développement des outils génétiques et les nouvelles voies de recherche portant sur la transformation de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et de Zymomonas mobilis afin de leur faire acquérir la capacité à fermenter les pentoses, devraient permettre d'améliorer les performances, et éventuellement de se rapprocher de celles enregistrées sur glucose par Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reported study intends to describe the state of the art in the domain of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It was sustained and managed by a specialized group of the French Agrice (Agriculture for Chemical and Energy Organization. Its first goal was to pinpoint the main technical and economical bottlenecks of the processes which are today under consideration, and to identify which research and development efforts could be implemented to overcome them (in

  14. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid. (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza


    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  15. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers’ Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori


    Full Text Available Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers’ spent grain (BSG into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46% glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g, 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  16. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza


    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  17. Metabolic engineering of Enterobacter cloacae for high-yield production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol from lignocellulose-derived sugars. (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Chao; Xu, Youqiang; Zhang, Lijie; Han, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping


    Biotechnological production of biofuels is restricted by toxicity of the products such as ethanol and butanol. As its low toxicity to microbes, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a fuel and platform bio-chemical, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production from renewable bioresources. In addition, no bacterial strains have been reported to produce enantiopure 2,3-BD using lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In this study, Enterobacter cloacae strain SDM was systematically and metabolically engineered to construct an efficient biocatalyst for production of the fuel and enantiopure bio-chemical-(2R,3R)-2,3-BD. First, the various (2R,3R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding genes were expressed in a meso-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding gene disrupted E. cloacae strain under native promoter Pb of the 2,3-BD biosynthetic gene cluster of E. cloacae. Then, carbon catabolite repression was eliminated via inactivation of the glucose transporter encoding gene ptsG and overexpression of a galactose permease encoding gene galP. The resultant strain could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously. To improve the efficiency of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production, the byproduct-producing genes (ldh and frdA) were knocked out, thereby enhancing the yield of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD by 16.5% in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks. By using fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor, 152.0 g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>97.5%) was produced within 44 h with a specific productivity of 3.5 g/[Lh] and a yield of 97.7% from a mixture of glucose and xylose, two major carbohydrate components in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition, when a lignocellulosic hydrolysate was used as the substrate, 119.4 g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>96.0%) was produced within 51 h with a productivity of 2.3g/[Lh] and a yield of 95.0%. These results show that the highest records have been acquired for enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production by a native or engineered strain from biomass-derived sugars. In addition to producing the 2,3-BD, our systematic

  18. Effect of Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo G.; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    Effect of Fish Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells Carlo G. Ossum1, Lisa Lystbæk Andersen2, Henrik Hauch Nielsen2, Else K. Hoffmann1, and Flemming Jessen2 1University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Denmark, 2Technical University of Denmark (DTU), National Food Institute, Denmark...... hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis on cancer cell proliferation. Skin and belly flap muscle from trout were hydrolysed with the unspecific proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, or UE1 (all from Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark) to a hydrolysis degree of 1-15%. The hydrolysates were tested for biological...... activities affecting cell proliferation and ability to modulate caspase activity in pancreatic cancer cells COLO357 and BxPC-3 in vitro. A number of the hydrolysates showed caspase promoting activity; in particular products containing muscle tissue, i.e. belly flap, were able to stimulate caspase activity...

  19. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process. (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei


    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  20. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  1. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.


    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a go

  2. Bacterial biodegradation and bioconversion of industrial lignocellulosic streams. (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M


    Lignocellulose is a term for plant materials that are composed of matrices of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignocellulose is a renewable feedstock for many industries. Lignocellulosic materials are used for the production of paper, fuels, and chemicals. Typically, industry focuses on transforming the polysaccharides present in lignocellulose into products resulting in the incomplete use of this resource. The materials that are not completely used make up the underutilized streams of materials that contain cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These underutilized streams have potential for conversion into valuable products. Treatment of these lignocellulosic streams with bacteria, which specifically degrade lignocellulose through the action of enzymes, offers a low-energy and low-cost method for biodegradation and bioconversion. This review describes lignocellulosic streams and summarizes different aspects of biological treatments including the bacteria isolated from lignocellulose-containing environments and enzymes which may be used for bioconversion. The chemicals produced during bioconversion can be used for a variety of products including adhesives, plastics, resins, food additives, and petrochemical replacements.

  3. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.


    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Avasn Maruthi


    Full Text Available The continual expansion of urbanization and industrial activity has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of lignocellulosic residues throughout the world. In particular, large quantities of paper and bagasse are largely produced in Visakhapatnam. In this work we present the study of the degradability of these substrates with fungi. Three cultures of soil fungi were screened for their ability to degrade cellulose. Aspergillus flavus degraded the most, as shown by the highest CO2 release. Further, Aspergillus flavus was tested with the standard fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium for cellulose degradation, which showed nearly equivalent potential.

  5. Genetic manipulation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Dudareva, Natalia; Morgan, John A; Chapple, Clint


    Lignocellulosic biomass represents an abundant and sustainable raw material for biofuel production. The recalcitrance of biomass to degradation increases the estimated cost of biofuel production and limits its competitiveness in the market. Genetic engineering of lignin, a major recalcitrance factor, improves saccharification and thus the potential yield of biofuels. Recently, our understanding of lignification and its regulation has been advanced by new studies in various systems, all of which further enhances our ability to manipulate the biosynthesis and deposition of lignin in energy crops for producing cost-effective second generation biofuels.

  6. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F. [and others


    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD`s work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools.

  7. Energy performance of an integrated bio-and-thermal hybrid system for lignocellulosic biomass waste treatment. (United States)

    Kan, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyi; Zhang, Jingxin; Tong, Yen Wah; Yang, Wenming; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa


    Lignocellulosic biomass waste, a heterogeneous complex of biodegradables and non-biodegradables, accounts for large proportion of municipal solid waste. Due to limitation of single-stage treatment, a two-stage hybrid AD-gasification system was proposed in this work, in which AD acted as pre-treatment to convert biodegradables into biogas followed by gasification converting solid residue into syngas. Energy performance of single and two-stage systems treating 3 typical lignocellulosic wastes was studied using both experimental and numerical methods. In comparison with conventional single-stage gasification treatment, this hybrid system could significantly improve the quality of produced gas for all selected biomass wastes and show its potential in enhancing total gas energy production by a maximum value of 27% for brewer's spent grain treatment at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3gVS/L/day. The maximum overall efficiency of the hybrid system for horticultural waste treatment was 75.2% at OLR of 11.3gVS/L/day, 5.5% higher than conventional single-stage system.

  8. Downstream processing for xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using aluminium polychloride. (United States)

    Silva, S S; Ramos, R M; Rodrigues, D C; Mancilha, I M


    Xylitol, a sweetener comparable to sucrose, is anticariogenic and can be consumed by diabetics. This sugar has been employed successfully in many foods and pharmaceutical products. The discovery of microorganisms capable of converting xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol offers the opportunity of producing this poliol in a simple way. Xylitol production by biotechnological means using sugar cane bagasse is under study in our laboratories, and fermentation parameters have already been established. However, the downstream processing for xylitol recovery is still a bottleneck on which there is only a few data available in the literature. The present study deals with xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using 5.2 g/l of aluminium polychloride associated with activated charcoal. The experiments were performed at pH 9, 50 degrees C for 50 min. The results showed that aluminium polychloride and activated charcoal promoted a 93.5% reduction in phenolic compounds and a 9.7% loss of xylitol from the fermented medium, which became more discoloured, facilitating the xylitol separation.

  9. Enzymatic Production of Bioxylitol from Sawdust Hydrolysate: Screening of Process Parameters. (United States)

    Rafiqul, I S M; Sakinah, A M M; Zularisam, A W


    Xylose-rich sawdust hydrolysate can be an economic substrate for the enzymatic production of xylitol, a specialty product. It is important to identify the process factors influencing xylitol production. This research aimed to screen the parameters significantly affecting bioxylitol synthesis from wood sawdust by xylose reductase (XR). Enzymatic bioxylitol production was conducted to estimate the effect of different variables reaction time (2-18 h), temperature (20-70 °C), pH (4.0-9.0), NADPH (1.17-5.32 g/L), and enzyme concentration (2-6 %) on the yield of xylitol. Fractional factorial design was followed to identify the key process factors. The screening design identified that time, temperature, and pH are the most significant factors influencing bioxylitol production among the variables with the values of 12 h, 35 °C, and 7.0, respectively. These conditions led to a xylitol yield of 71 % (w/w). This is the first report on the statistical screening of process variables influencing enzyme-based bioxylitol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain. (United States)

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N


    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l(-1) of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v(-1) ) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60-80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g(-1) of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9-1.0 g g(-1) of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7.

  11. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)


    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  12. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.


    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  13. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd


    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  14. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.


    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  15. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander


    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  16. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.


    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  17. Production, characterization and application of activated carbon from brewer’s spent grain lignin


    Mussatto, Solange I.; Fernandes, Marcela; George J. M. Rocha; Órfão, José J.M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Roberto,Inês Conceição


    Different types of activated carbon were prepared by chemical activation of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) lignin using H3PO4 at various acid/lignin ratios (1, 2, or 3 g/g) and carbonization temperatures (300, 450, or 600 °C), according to a 22 full-factorial design. The resulting materials were characterized with regard to their surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution, and used for detoxification of BSG hemicellulosic hydrolysate (a mixture of sugars, phenolic compounds, metallic i...

  18. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.


    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  19. Selection of the best chemical pretreatment for lignocellulosic substrate Prosopis juliflora. (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Srilekha Yadav, K; Sateesh, L; Manikyam, Ananth; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L


    Pretreatment is a pre-requisite step in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass required to remove lignin and increase the porosity of the substrate for saccharification. In the present study, chemical pretreatment of Prosopis juliflora was performed using alkali (NaOH, KOH, and NH3), reducing agents (Na2S2O4, Na2SO3) and NaClO2 in different concentration ranges at room temperature (30±2 °C) to remove maximum lignin with minimum sugar loss. Further, biphasic acid hydrolysis of the various pretreated substrates was performed at mild temperatures. Considering the amount of holocellulose hydrolyzed and inhibitors released during hydrolysis, best chemical pretreatment was selected. Among all the chemicals investigated, pretreatment with sodium dithionite at concentration of 2% (w/v) removed maximum lignin (80.46±1.35%) with a minimum sugar loss (2.56±0.021%). Subsequent biphasic acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite pretreated substrate hydrolyzed 40.09±1.22% of holocellulose and released minimum amount of phenolics (1.04±0.022 g/L) and furans (0.41±0.012 g/L) in the hydrolysate.

  20. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O. Westman


    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of corn stover and switchgrass for lignocellulosic ethanol production. (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Naveen; Faik, Ahmed; Goetz, Douglas J; Gu, Tingyue


    Supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)), a green solvent suitable for a mobile lignocellulosic biomass processor, was used to pretreat corn stover and switchgrass at various temperatures and pressures. The CO(2) pressure was released as quickly as possible by opening a quick release valve during the pretreatment. The biomass was hydrolyzed after pretreatment using cellulase combined with β-glucosidase. The hydrolysate was analyzed for the amount of glucose released. Glucose yields from corn stover samples pretreated with SC-CO(2) were higher than the untreated sample's 12% glucose yield (12 g/100g dry biomass) and the highest glucose yield of 30% was achieved with SC-CO(2) pretreatment at 3500 psi and 150°C for 60 min. The pretreatment method showed very limited improvement (14% vs. 12%) in glucose yield for switchgrass. X-ray diffraction results indicated no change in crystallinity of the SC-CO(2) treated corn stover when compared to the untreated, while SEM images showed an increase in surface area.

  2. Renewable liquid fuels from biomass containing lignocellulose; Regenerative Fluessigkraftstoffe aus Lignocellulose haltiger Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, D.; Witzelsperger, J. [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technologie Biogener Rohstoffe; Prechtl, S. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)


    The authors review the production processes of liquid fuels from lignocellulose, current research programs and developments. The two principal routes to biofuels are thermochemical processes, like pyrolysis and gasification, and fermentation. One produces pyrolytic oils and gases, the other bio-ethanol. Since energy efficiency of large-scale plants is not yet good enough, small-scale dispersed fuel production in the agricultural areas can be profitable. (uke)

  3. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus). (United States)

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R


    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  4. Superhydrophobic lignocellulosic wood fiber/mineral networks. (United States)

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter


    Lignocellulosic wood fibers and mineral fillers (calcium carbonate, talc, or clay) were used to prepare paper samples (handsheets), which were then subjected to a fluorocarbon plasma treatment. The plasma treatment was performed in two steps: first using oxygen plasma to create nanoscale roughness on the surface of the handsheet, and second fluorocarbon deposition plasma to add a layer of low surface energy material. The wetting behavior of the resulting fiber/mineral network (handsheet) was determined. It was found the samples that were subjected to oxygen plasma etching prior to fluorocarbon deposition exhibit superhydrophobicity with low contact angle hysteresis. On the other hand, those that were only treated by fluorocarbon plasma resulted in "sticky" hydrophobicity behavior. Moreover, as the mineral content in the handsheet increases, the hydrophobicity after plasma treatment decreases. Finally, it was found that although the plasma-treated handsheets show excellent water repellency they are not good water vapor barriers.

  5. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng


    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  6. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    the production and use of alternative and sustainable energy sources as rapidly as possible. Biofuel is a type of alternative energy that can be produced from many sources including sugar substances (such as sugarcane juice and molasses), starchy materials (such as corn and cassava), and lignocellulosic...... available, and are also non-food crops. In this respect, Cassava rhizome has several characteristics that make it a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production. It has high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses . The objective of this paper is to present a study focused on the sustainable process...... design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome using various computer aided tools through a systematic and effiicient work-flow, The study includes process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA) according to a well-defined workflow that guarantees...

  7. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    and lignocellulosic silage was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Addition of mechanically pretreated silage in the feedstock positively affected the methane yield (+16%) and in parallel, reduced the risk of ammonia inhibition compared to mono-digestion of pig manure. Furthermore, metagenomic...... analysis was performed to determine differences among the microbial communities in CSTRs operating under mono- and co-digestion. Species similar to Clostridium thermocellum, with increased cellulolytic activity, were detected to be adherent to the solid fraction of digested feedstock and concluded...... be periodically applied in biogas reactors in order to extract the residual methane from the amassing materials and avoid potential accumulation. Additionally, the facultative anaerobic Melioribacter roseus was inoculated in a replicate CSTR following different bioaugmentation strategies, either strictly...

  8. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H


    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  9. Evaluation of sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolysate treatments for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, P.V.; Mancilha, I.M. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Furlan, S.A.; Martinez, S.E.R. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia


    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolysate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolysate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH showed the best hydrolysate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolysate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  10. Renewable biofuels bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial community

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, Vandana


    This book offers a complete introduction for novices to understand key concepts of biocatalysis and how to produce in-house enzymes that can be used for low-cost biofuels production. The authors discuss the challenges involved in the commercialization of the biofuel industry, given the expense of commercial enzymes used for lignocellulose conversion. They describe the limitations in the process, such as complexity of lignocellulose structure, different microbial communities’ actions and interactions for degrading the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic materials, hydrolysis mechanism and potential for bio refinery. Readers will gain understanding of the key concepts of microbial catalysis of lignocellulosic biomass, process complexities and selection of microbes for catalysis or genetic engineering to improve the production of bioethanol or biofuel.

  11. Effect of moisture on pretreatment efficiency for anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates. (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J


    The present study evaluates the effect of moisture in low-temperature and ultrasound pretreatment on lignocellulosic substrates anaerobic biodegradability, where brewer's spent grain was used as model substrate. Besides moisture content, low-temperature pretreatment was also evaluated in terms of temperature (60-80°C) and exposure time (12-72 h). Likewise, ultrasonication was also evaluated in terms of specific energy (1000-50,000 kJ kg TS(-1)). In addition, the effect of substrate particle size reduction by milling pretreatment was also considered. The results clearly demonstrated that substrate moisture (total solid concentration) is a significant parameter for pretreatment performance, although it has been rarely considered in pretreatment optimisation. Specifically, moisture optimisation increased the methane yield of brewer's spent grain by 6% for low-temperature pretreatment (60°C), and by 14% for ultrasound pretreatment (1000 kJ kg TS(-1)) towards the control (without pretreatment). In both pretreatments, the experimental optimum total solid concentration was 100 gTS kg(-1). Thus, lowering substrate moisture, a strategy suggested attaining energetic pretreatment feasibility, needs to be analysed as another pretreatment variable since it might have limited correlation. Finally, a preliminary energetic balance of the pretreatments under study showed that the extra methane production could not cover the energetic pretreatment expenses.

  12. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)



    Lucian A. Lucia


    Sustainability considerations for product and energy production in a future US economy can be met with lignocellulosic biomass. The age of petroleum as the key resource to meet the US economy requirements is rapidly dwindling, given the limited resources of petroleum, the growing global population, and concurrent detrimental effects on environmental safety. The use of natural and renewable feedstocks such as trees and switchgrass is becoming more attractive; indeed, lignocellulosic biomass i...

  14. Correlations between biochemical characteristics and foam-forming and -stabilizing ability of whey and casein hydrolysates. (United States)

    van der Ven, Cornelly; Gruppen, Harry; de Bont, Dries B A; Voragen, Alphons G J


    Whey protein and casein were hydrolyzed with 11 commercially available enzymes. Foam properties of 44 samples were measured and were related to biochemical properties of the hydrolysates using statistical data analysis. All casein hydrolysates formed high initial foam levels, whereas whey hydrolysates differed in their foam-forming abilities. Regression analysis using the molecular weight distribution of whey hydrolysates as predictors showed that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides of 3-5 kDa was most strongly related to foam formation. Foam stability of whey hydrolysates and of most casein hydrolysates was inferior to that of the intact proteins. The foam stability of casein hydrolysate foams was correlated to the molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysates; a high proportion of peptides >7 kDa, composed of both intact casein and high molecular weight peptides, was positively related to foam stability.

  15. Antioxidant Effect and Water-Holding Capacity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatoumata Tounkara


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestion of proteins extracted from Roselle seed on the production of bioactive peptides. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract different protein fractions namely globulin, albumin and glutelin. The proteins were digested using pepsin (1 h followed by pancreatin (1 h in order to produce hydrolysates with good antioxidant activity. The prepared hydrolysates were as effective as antioxidants in model systems, in scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and was also influenced by the type of protein fraction. The albumin fraction hydrolysates prepared showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by Glutelin and Globulin hydrolysates respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. All of the prepared hydrolysates were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a meat model system. Albumin hydrolysates showed the highest improved meat cooking ability followed by Glutelin and Globulin respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. The molecular weight distribution analysis of the hydrolysates was determined and most of the peptides were found between 1000 Da and below. The study findings suggest that Roselle seed protein hydrolysates can be applied as functional food ingredients and that their composition determines their functional properties thus their potential application in the food and feed industries.

  16. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates. (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne


    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bandopadhyay Mukhopadhyay


    Full Text Available The fast growing aquatic weed water hyacinth, which is available almost year-round in the tropics and subtropics, was utilized as the chief source of cellulose for production of fuel ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Fungal cellulases produced on-site by utilizing acid-alkali pretreated water hyacinth as the substrate were used as the crude enzyme source for hydrolysis of identically pretreated biomass. Four different modes of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were trialed in the present study for optimization of the yield of ethanol. Two common yeasts viz., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus, were used for fermentation of hexose and pentose sugars in the hydrolysate. Significant enhancement of concentration (8.3 g/L and yield (0.21 g/g of ethanol was obtained through a prefermentation hydrolysis-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PH-SSF process, over the other three processes viz., separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and single batch bioconversion (SBB by utilizing fungal culture broth with and without filtration as crude enzyme source.

  18. Amylase binding to starch granules under hydrolysing and non-hydrolysing conditions. (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Gidley, Michael J


    Although considerable information is available about amylolysis rate, extent and pattern of granular starches, the underlying mechanisms of enzyme action and interactions are not fully understood, partly due to the lack of direct visualisation of enzyme binding and subsequent hydrolysis of starch granules. In the present study, α-amylase (AA) from porcine pancreas was labelled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) fluorescent dye with maintenance of significant enzyme activity. The binding of FITC/TRITC-AA conjugate to the surface and interior of granules was studied under both non-hydrolysing (0 °C) and hydrolysing (37 °C) conditions with confocal microscopy. It was observed that enzyme binding to maize starch granules under both conditions was more homogenous compared with potato starch. Enzyme molecules appear to preferentially bind to the granules or part of granules that are more susceptible to enzymic degradation. The specificity is such that fresh enzyme added after a certain time of incubation binds at the same location as previously bound enzyme. By visualising the enzyme location during binding and hydrolysis, detailed information is provided regarding the heterogeneity of granular starch digestion.

  19. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.


    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  20. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption (United States)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  1. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion (United States)


    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  2. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klose Holger


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354 isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications.

  3. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess


    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  4. Reprocessing method for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Sawa, Toshio; Suzuoki, Akira [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, Yoichi; Kumagai, Mikiro


    The present invention provides a method of reprocessing spent fuels to form MOX having a Pu/U ratio suitable to fuels of LWR or fast reactors and uranium oxides of fuels of an LWR reactor. In a brief separation step for uranium, carbonate is added to a nitric acid solution in which spent fuels are dissolved, to dissolve a portion of uranium in the nitric acid solution. The residual uranium, plutonium and fission products are made into complexes of carboxylic acid ions and precipitated. The precipitated complexes of carboxylic acid ions are brought into contact with a different nitric acid solution to recover the uranium, plutonium and fission products. The concentration of the carbonate in the nitric acid solution in which uranium is partially dissolved is determined in accordance with the plutonium/uranium ratio based on the relation between the saturation concentration of uranium to the concentration of carbonate in the nitric acid solution. (T.M.)

  5. Agronomic assessment of spent substrates for mushroom cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picornell-Buendía, R.


    Full Text Available Description of the subject. In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spent Agaricus bisporus Imbach (Lange substrates (SAS and spent Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrates (SPS is studied. Objectives. The aim of this work is the qualitative agronomic evaluation of SPS and SAS and the mixture of thereof in different proportions, such as lignocellulosic sources in new growing cycles of P. ostreatus. Method. In addition to the commercial substrate used as a control reference, six different treatments are considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different amounts. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in cameras. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C – 65 °C, 8 h and a progressive temperature decrease for at least 15 h to a "seeding" temperature (25 °C. Results. SPS (3,600 g + SAS (2,400 g and SPS (3,000 g + SAS (3,000 g were prepared substrates that achieved acceptable crude protein content in their fruiting bodies. Additionally, we obtained higher ash content, lightness, yellow-blue (y-b and red-green (r-g chromaticity, breaking strength (Bs, and compression energy (CE in these mushrooms. These values were higher than the mean values, and even higher than the commercial substrate. Conclusions. Increased SAS participation in the mixture of the processed substrate (and the consequent reduction of SPS participation resulted in mushrooms that require higher Bs, and CE. These formulation-based composts degraded by the growth of P. ostreatus, could be a low-cost substrate with selective and balanced nutrients for growth and development of oyster mushrooms.

  6. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.


    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  7. Developments in spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.A. [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States)


    The author gives a brief review of the his efforts to negotiate a site for monitored retrieval storage (MRS) of spent fuels in 1994. His efforts were centered on finding a voluntary host for the MRS site. He found politician were not opposed but did not want to make it a campaign issue during 1994. The author and his office came to the conclusion that to find a site voluntarily, the project would have to be an economic opportunity for the region.

  8. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, E M


    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  9. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanto


    Full Text Available AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nutrition drinks based on marine peptides through Octopus protein hydrolyzate. Octopus protein hydrolysate has 77.78±2.69% degree of hydrolysis and 751.02±10.63 mg / 100g taurine. Sports nutrition drinks with the addition of 4% Octopus protein hydrolyzate was acceptable sensory panelists, and the serving size of 600 ml contained taurine 726.06±0.82 mg and detected 17 types of amino acids.

  10. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam


    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  11. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii). (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek


    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  12. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada. (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N


    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market.

  13. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids. (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana


    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić


    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  15. Applying functional metagenomics to search for novel lignocellulosic enzymes in a microbial consortium derived from a thermophilic composting phase of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure. (United States)

    Colombo, Lívia Tavares; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Carneiro, Deisy Guimarães; de Souza, Robson Assis; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Dos Santos, Josenilda Carlos; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes


    Environments where lignocellulosic biomass is naturally decomposed are sources for discovery of new hydrolytic enzymes that can reduce the high cost of enzymatic cocktails for second-generation ethanol production. Metagenomic analysis was applied to discover genes coding carbohydrate-depleting enzymes from a microbial laboratory subculture using a mix of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure in the thermophilic composting phase. From a fosmid library, 182 clones had the ability to hydrolyse carbohydrate. Sequencing of 30 fosmids resulted in 12 contigs encoding 34 putative carbohydrate-active enzymes belonging to 17 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families. One third of the putative proteins belong to the GH3 family, which includes β-glucosidase enzymes known to be important in the cellulose-deconstruction process but present with low activity in commercial enzyme preparations. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of seven selected proteins, including three β-glucosidases, showed low relatedness with protein sequences deposited in databases. These findings highlight microbial consortia obtained from a mixture of decomposing biomass residues, such as sugar cane bagasse and cow manure, as a rich resource of novel enzymes potentially useful in biotechnology for saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate.

  16. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  17. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  18. Rheology of Lignocellulose Suspensions and Impact of Hydrolysis: A Review. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Cuong; Anne-Archard, Dominique; Fillaudeau, Luc


    White biotechnologies have several challenges to overcome in order to become a viable industrial process. Achieving highly concentrated lignocellulose materials and releasing fermentable substrates, with controlled kinetics in order to regulate micro-organism activity, present major technical and scientific bottlenecks. The degradation of the main polymeric fractions of lignocellulose into simpler molecules is a prerequisite for an integrated utilisation of this resource in a biorefinery concept. The characterisation methods and the observations developed for rheology, morphology, etc., that are reviewed here are strongly dependent on the fibrous nature of lignocellulose, are thus similar or constitute a good approach to filamentous culture broths. This review focuses on scientific works related to the study of the rheological behaviour of lignocellulose suspensions and their evolution during biocatalysis. In order to produce the targeted molecules (synthon), the lignocellulose substrates are converted by enzymatic degradation and are then metabolised by micro-organisms. The dynamics of the mechanisms is limited by coupled phenomena between flow, heat and mass transfers in regard to diffusion (within solid and liquid phases), convection (mixing, transfer coefficients, homogeneity) and specific inhibitors (concentration gradients). As lignocellulose suspensions consist of long entangled fibres for the matrix of industrial interest, they exhibit diverse and complex properties linked to this fibrous character (rheological, morphological, thermal, mechanical and biochemical parameters). Among the main variables to be studied, the rheological behaviour of such suspensions appears to be determinant for process efficiency. It is this behaviour that will determine the equipment to be used and the strategies applied (substrate and biocatalysis feed, mixing, etc.). This review provides an overview of (i) the rheological behaviour of fibrous materials in suspension, (ii) the

  19. Removal and recovery of molybdenum from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Surfactant-Modified coir pith, a lignocellulosic polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namasivayam, Chinnaiya [Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Sureshkumar, Molagoundanpalayam Venkatachalam [Department of Chemistry, PARK College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India)


    Coconut coir pith, a lignocellulosic polymer, is an unwanted by-product of the coir fiber industry. The pith was used as a biosorbent for the removal of Molybdenum(VI) after modification with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption of Mo(VI) was found to be 3.0. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data and the system was seen to follow all three isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 57.5 mg g{sup -1}. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption generally obeyed a second-order kinetic model. Desorption studies showed that the recovery of Mo(VI) from the spent adsorbent was feasible. The effect of foreign anions on the adsorption of Mo(VI) was also examined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. [Application of process engineering to remove lignocellulose fermentation inhibitors]. (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Xia, Menglei; Chen, Hongzhang


    Fermentation inhibitors are toxic to cells, which is one of the bottlenecks for lignocellulose bio-refinery process. How to remove those inhibitors serves a key role in the bioconversion of lignocellulose. This article reviews the sources and the types of the inhibitors, especially the updated removal strategies including physical methods, chemical methods, biological methods and inhibitor-tolerant strain construction strategies. Based on these, we introduce a new bio-refinery model named "fractional conversion", which reduces the production of inhibitors at pretreatment stage, and a novel in situ detoxification method named "fermentation promoter exploitation technology". This review could provide new research ideas on the removal of fermentation inhibitors.

  1. Integration of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Renewable Energy Generation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSCH Sigrid


    Full Text Available In all European countries various lignocellulosic biomasses such as agricultural residues (straw, strawcontaining dung or fractions from municipal solid waste are available in large amounts, but currently hardly any of thispotential is being used for energy generation. This paper reviews the different options for including lignocellulosicbiomass into renewable energy generation schemes. Not all wastes are suitable to be treated by principally availabletechniques such as anaerobic digestion, ethanol production or thermal valorisation. The present paper gives an overviewof utilisation options for lignocellulosic biomass to either produce biofuels or to integrate such biomass into anaerobicdigestion. Biorefinery concepts are discussed as well.

  2. Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin


    A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD.

  3. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander


    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  4. A new panaxadiol from the acid hydrolysate of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Na Tao; Qin Meng; Jian Yuan Yin; Rui Xing; Hao Ran Guo


    A new panaxadiol (compound 1) was obtained from the acid hydrolysate of the total ginsenosides of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, its chemical structure was elucidated to be dammar-(E)-20(22)-ene-3β,12β,25-triol.

  5. Characterisation and foaming properties of hydrolysates derived from rapeseed isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larré, C.; Mulder, W.J.; Sánchez-Vioque, R.; Lazko, J.; Bérot, S.; Guéguen, J.; Popineau, Y.


    Two hydrolysis methods used to obtain rapeseed isolate derivates were compared: chemical hydrolysis performed under alkaline conditions and pepsic proteolysis performed under acidic conditions. The mean molecular weights obtained for the hydrolysates varied from 26 to 2.5 kDa, depending on the level

  6. Origins of the poor filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Steeneken, P.A.M.


    The effects of wheat starch components on the filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates were investigated with a model-based approach. The filtration rate was not affected by the removal of the pentosans or by altering the conformation of the protein. On the other hand, the filtration

  7. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhidar Tchorbanov


    Full Text Available Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10 h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200 AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1 L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45∘C for 10 h by 10 AP U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4 h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10 h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%. Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72 h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40% obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value after both treatments were free of bitterness.

  8. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini;


    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation...... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted...

  9. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco


    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  10. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals (United States)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  11. Protein hydrolysates and recovery of muscle damage following eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M.J.


    Full Text Available Background: A whey protein hydrolysate (NatraBoost XR; WPHNB has been shown to speed repair muscle damage. We sought to determine whether this benefit is specific to this hydrolysate to evaluate a marker for quality control. Methods: Three hydrolysates of the same whey protein isolate (WPI were prepared (WPHNB, WPH1 and WPH2. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured in 39 sedentary male participants before and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Participants were then randomised to consume 250 ml of flavoured water (FW, n=9, or 250 ml of FW containing 25 g of either NatraBoost XR (n=3, WPH1 (n=9, WPH2 (n=9 or WPI (n=9. Strength was reassessed over the next seven days while the supplements were consumed daily. Fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the different hydrolysates, WPI, saline or fetal bovine serum to ascertain effects on cell proliferation. Results: Strength was reduced in all treatment groups after eccentric exercise (P<0.001. Strength recovered steadily over 7 days in the FW, WPI, WPH1 and WPH2 treatment groups (P<0.001, with no difference between treatments (P=0.87. WPHNB promoted faster strength recovery compared with the other treatments (P<0.001. Fibroblast proliferation was greater with WPHNB compared with saline, WPI or the other hydrolysates (P<0.001. Conclusions: Promoting recovery from muscle damage seems unique to WPHNB. In vitro fibroblast proliferation may be a useful marker for quality control. It is not clear whether effects on fibroblast proliferation contribute to the in vivo effect of WPHNB on muscle damage.

  12. Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Forghani


    Full Text Available Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8% followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%. Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.41 mg/mL followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.24 mg/mL, trypsin hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.28 mg/mL, papain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.48 mg/mL, bromelain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 4.21 mg/mL, and protamex hydrolysate (IC50 value of 6.38 mg/mL. The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20 kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC50 values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits.

  13. Improved lignocellulose conversion to biofuels with thermophilic bacteria and thermostable enzymes. (United States)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Kumar, Sudhir; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Sani, Rajesh K


    Second-generation feedstock, especially nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is a potential source for biofuel production. Cost-intensive physical, chemical, biological pretreatment operations and slow enzymatic hydrolysis make the overall process of lignocellulosic conversion into biofuels less economical than available fossil fuels. Lignocellulose conversions carried out at ≤ 50 °C have several limitations. Therefore, this review focuses on the importance of thermophilic bacteria and thermostable enzymes to overcome the limitations of existing lignocellulosic biomass conversion processes. The influence of high temperatures on various existing lignocellulose conversion processes and those that are under development, including separate hydrolysis and fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and extremophilic consolidated bioprocess are also discussed.

  14. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince. (United States)

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming


    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince.

  15. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhan S. Scully


    Full Text Available Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h reaction time, and 1246 and 250 µL of cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Industrially important sugars (glucose, galactose and mannose were identified as the principal hydrolysis products under the studied conditions. Total flavonoids (p = 0.0002, total polyphenols (p = 0.03 and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (p = 0.004 increased significantly after processing. A 14-fold increase in caffeine levels was also observed. This study provides insight into SEGs as a promising source of industrially important sugars and polyphenols.

  16. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee


    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  17. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation (United States)

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  18. Ionic liquid-facilitated preparation of lignocellulosic composites (United States)

    Lignocellulosic composites (LCs) were prepared by partially dissolving cotton along with steam exploded Aspen wood and burlap fabric reinforcements utilizing an ionic liquid (IL) solvent. Two methods of preparation were employed. In the first method, a controlled amount of IL was added to preassembl...

  19. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh


    Full Text Available Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc., which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.

  20. Process Simulation of Biobutanol Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procentese, A.; Guida, T.; Raganati, F.; Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.


    A potential flowsheet to produce butanol production by conversion of a lignocellulosic biomass has been simulated by means of the software Aspen Plus®. The flowsheet has included upstream, fermentation, and downstream sections and the attention has been focused on the upstream section. The proposed

  1. Lignocellulosic biomass utilization toward biorefinery using meshophilic Clostridial species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamaru, Yutaka; Lopez Contreras, A.M.


    Lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural, industrial, and forestry residues as well as
    dedicated crops constitute renewable and abundant resources with great potential for a lowcost
    and uniquely sustainable bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. Thus, many
    organic fuels and chemic

  2. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms]. (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie


    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  3. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)


    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  4. Decolorization of hair dye by lignocellulosic waste materials from contaminated waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib eZahir


    Full Text Available Basic yellow 57 (BY57 was chosen as a model hair dye due to its prevalence in cosmetics wastewaters. This study proposes the use of lignocellulosic materials like spent tea leaves of peppermint (PM, chai tea (CT and chamomile (CM as raw adsorbents for the removal of BY57 from contaminated solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at room temperature to achieve the maximum adsorption capacity. Results indicate that the highest removal is achieved at pH 6 – 8, with a minimum adsorbent mass of 75 mg and in the absence of salinity, crowding agents and heavy metals. Adsorption equilibria were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm theories and reported the following trend: PM>CT>CM, reaching qmax values of 105, 80, and 38 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that diluted solution of HCl is able to desorb the up to 80% of the dye and recover the adsorbent to be used in consecutive cycles. Finally, the adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, indicating that the adsorbents have a porous and heterogeneous surface, showing pockets and protrusions that are potential adsorption sites for the dye.

  5. The effect of Pleurotus ostreatus arabinofuranosidase and its evolved variant in lignocellulosic biomasses conversion. (United States)

    Marcolongo, Loredana; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Amore, Antonella; Giacobbe, Simona; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza


    The fungal arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus PoAbf recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris rPoAbf and its evolved variant rPoAbf F435Y/Y446F were tested for their effectiveness to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of three lignocellulosic biomasses, namely Arundo donax, corn cobs and brewer's spent grains (BSG), after chemical or chemical-physical pretreatment. All the raw materials were subjected to an alkaline pretreatment by soaking in aqueous ammonia solution whilst the biomass from A. donax was also pretreated by steam explosion. The capability of the wild-type and mutant rPoAbf to increase the fermentable sugars recovery was assessed by using these enzymes in combination with different (hemi)cellulolytic activities. These enzymatic mixtures were either entirely of commercial origin or contained the cellulase from Streptomyces sp. G12 CelStrep recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in substitution to the commercial counterparts. The addition of the arabinofuranosidases from P. ostreatus improved the hydrolytic efficiency of the commercial enzymatic cocktails on all the pretreated biomasses. The best results were obtained using the rPoAbf evolved variant and are represented by increases of the xylose recovery up to 56.4%. These data clearly highlight the important role of the accessory hemicellulolytic activities to optimize the xylan bioconversion yields.

  6. What does time spent on searching indicate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Jensen, Sabine Dreier Elgaard; Byström, Katriina


    . This phenomenon of time spent is interesting from an IR evaluation point of view with reference to how time spent is to be interpreted. A comparison of time spent between a semi-lab interactive IR (IIR) study using simulated work task situations and a naturalistic IIR study is presented. The findings...... of this comparison are further related to a study on information searching and seeking in the real work environment that provides a resonance board for the reported IIR studies. The main conclusion is that time spent searching depends not only on interest, but also on circumstances such as prior knowledge...

  7. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Belniak


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  8. Biological activities of lignin hydrolysate-related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siseon Lee


    Full Text Available Lignin hydrolysates contain many different chemical species,including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, vanillic acid, vanillin,syringaldehyde and furfural. From the perspective of biofuels,these compounds are problematic and can cause downstreamloss of product if not removed prior to beginning the fermentativeprocess. In contrast, a search for these compounds withinthe literature turns up many papers where the same compoundshave beneficial properties pertaining to human health,including as antioxidants and in cancer prevention, or are involvedin bacterial cell-to-cell signaling. Consequently, this articlereviews the dual nature of these and other compoundsfound in lignin hydrolysates, highlighting both their detrimentaland beneficial activities. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(5:265-274

  9. Calcium-binding ability of soy protein hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lan Bao; Mei Song; Jing Zhang; Yang Chen; Shun Tang Guo


    This present study investigated the ability of various soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) in binding calcium. It was demonstrated that the amount of Ca-bound depended greatly on the SPHs obtained using different proteases, which included: neutrase,flavourzyme, protease M and pepsin. The maximum level of Ca-bound (66.9 mg/g) occurred when protease M was used to hydrolyze soy protein. Peptide fragments exhibiting high Ca-binding capacity had molecular weights of either 14.4 or 8-9 kDa. The level of Ca-bound increased linearly with the increment of carboxyl content in SPHs, and further deamidation on SPHs from protease M improved Ca-binding of the hydrolysate.

  10. Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Slizyte


    Full Text Available Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH. FPH obtained by Trypsin, Bromelain + Papain and Protamex showed the highest ACE inhibitory, cellular glucose transporter (GLUT/SGLT inhibitory and in vitro antioxidative activities, respectively. Correlation was observed between the measured bioactivities, degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight profiles, supporting prolonged hydrolysis to obtain high bioactivities.

  11. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.


    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  13. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry


    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson


    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  15. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon


    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  16. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)


    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  17. Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates. (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yi; Niu, Jun; Liu, Shuying


    Walnut proteins were hydrolyzed separately using three different proteases to obtain antioxidant peptides. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Among hydrolysates, pepsin hydrolysate obtained by 3h exhibited the highest antioxidant activities, which could also quench the hydroxyl radical, chelate ferrous ion, exhibit reducing power and inhibit the lipid peroxidation. Then, 3-h pepsin hydrolysates were purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The sequence of the peptide with the highest antioxidative activity was identified to be Ala-Asp-Ala-Phe (423.23 Da) using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which was identified for the first time from walnut protein hydrolysates. Last, the inhibition of the peptide on lipid peroxidation was similar with that of reduced glutathione (GSH). These results indicate that the protein hydrolysates and/or its isolated peptides may be effectively used as food additives.

  18. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms. (United States)

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina


    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach.

  19. Antioxidative, DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting peptides from fish protein hydrolysed with intestinal proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    of secondary marine products. The approach in this study is to hydrolyse skin and belly flap tissue from Salmon with the use of mammalian digestive proteases from pancreas and intestinal mucosa and test hydrolysates for antioxidative capacity, intestinal DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE...... amino groups, antioxidative capacity by ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)), DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates was approximately 13% and 10% for belly flap and skin respectively. No clear difference was observed in DH between pancreatin...... and pancreatin + mucosa hydrolysates. No DH was obtained for tissues hydrolysed with only intestinal mucosa extract. Preliminary results showed antioxidant activity and intestinal DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity in 10 kDa fraction from both belly flap and skin hydrolysates but with a higher antioxidative...

  20. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio


    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  1. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass (United States)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John


    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  2. Adsorption of Congo Red onto Lignocellulose/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yahong; XUE Zhenhua; WANG Ximing; WANG Li; WANG Aiqin


    Lignocellulose/montmorillonite (LNC/MMT) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by FTIR and XRD.The adsorption of congo red (CR) on LNC/MMT nanocomposite was studied in detail.The effects of contact temperature,pH value of the dye solutions,contact time and concentration of dye solutions on the adsorption capacities of lignocellulose (LNC),montmorillonite (MMT) and the nanocomposite were investigated.The adsorption kinetics and isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics of the nanocomposite for CR were also studied.The results show that the adsorption capacity of LNC/MMT nanocomosite is higher than that of LNC and MMT.All the adsorption processes fit very well with the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir equation.From thermodynamic studies,it is seen that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  3. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting. (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun


    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw.

  4. Bioprocessing of bio-based chemicals produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko


    The feedstocks used for the production of bio-based chemicals have recently expanded from edible sugars to inedible and more recalcitrant forms of lignocellulosic biomass. To produce bio-based chemicals from renewable polysaccharides, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed and include separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). In the last decade, SHF, SSF, and CBP have been used to generate macromolecules and aliphatic and aromatic compounds that are capable of serving as sustainable, drop-in substitutes for petroleum-based chemicals. The present review focuses on recent progress in the bioprocessing of microbially produced chemicals from renewable feedstocks, including starch and lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, the technological feasibility of bio-based chemical production is discussed in terms of the feedstocks and different bioprocessing approaches, including the consolidation of enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation.

  5. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review. (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W


    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  6. Lignocellulosic biomass utilization toward biorefinery : technologies, products and perspectives


    Mussatto, Solange I.


    Lignocellulosic biomass wastes (LBW) are generated and accumulated in large amounts around the world every year. The disposal of large amounts of such wastes in the nature may cause environmental problems, affecting the quality of the soil, lakes and rivers. In order to avoid these problems, efforts have been directed to use LBW in a biorefinery to maximize the reutilization of these wastes with minimal or none production of residual matter. Through biorefiner...



    Jacquet, Nicolas; Vanderghem, Caroline; Danthine, Sabine; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel


    Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the process and shearing forces due to the expansion of the moisture. The process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. Cumul effects of both phases include modification of the physical properties of the material (specific surface area, water retention capaci...

  8. A review on bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to H2: Key challenges and new insights. (United States)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Chuan; Guo, Wan-Qian; Cao, Guang-Li


    With the increasing energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of great importance. Biohydrogen produced from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising candidate, because of its positives such as readily available, no harmful emissions, environment friendly, efficient, and renewable. However, obstacles still exist to enable the commercialization of biological hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus the objective of this work is to provide update information about the recent progress on lignocellulosic hydrogen conversion via dark fermentation. In this review, the most important technologies associated with lignocellulosic hydrogen fermentation were covered. Firstly, pretreatment methods for better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass are presented, at the same time, hydrolysis methods assisting to achieve efficient hydrogen fermentation were discussed. Afterwards, issues related to bioprocesses for hydrogen production purposes were presented. Additionally, the paper gave challenges and new insights of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production.

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Lignocellulose: A Cell-scale Study down to 41K

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Zhe; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinwei


    Thermal energy transport is of great importance in lignocellulose pyrolysis for bio-fuels. The thermophysical properties of lignocellulose significantly affect the overall properties of bio-composites and the related thermal transport. In this work, cell-scale lignocellulose (mono-layer plant cells) is prepared to characterize their thermal properties from room temperature down to 41 K. The thermal conductivities of cell-scale lignocellulose along different directions show a little anisotropy due to the cell structure anisotropy. It is found that with temperature going down, the volumetric specific heat of the lignocellulose shows a slower decreasing trend against temperature than that of microcrystalline cellulose, and its value is always higher than that of microcrystalline cellulose. The thermal conductivity of lignocellulose decreases with temperature from 243 K to 317 K due to increasing phonon-phonon scatterings. From 41 K to 243 K, the thermal conductivity rises with temperature and its change mainly d...

  10. Thermophysical properties of lignocellulose: a cell-scale study down to 41 K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Cheng

    Full Text Available Thermal energy transport is of great importance in lignocellulose pyrolysis for biofuels. The thermophysical properties of lignocellulose significantly affect the overall properties of bio-composites and the related thermal transport. In this work, cell-scale lignocellulose (mono-layer plant cells is prepared to characterize their thermal properties from room temperature down to ∼ 40 K. The thermal conductivities of cell-scale lignocellulose along different directions show a little anisotropy due to the cell structure anisotropy. It is found that with temperature going down, the volumetric specific heat of the lignocellulose shows a slower decreasing trend against temperature than microcrystalline cellulose, and its value is always higher than that of microcrystalline cellulose. The thermal conductivity of lignocellulose decreases with temperature from 243 K to 317 K due to increasing phonon-phonon scatterings. From 41 K to 243 K, the thermal conductivity rises with temperature and its change mainly depends on the heat capacity's change.

  11. Unlocking the potential of lignocellulosic biomass through plant science. (United States)

    Marriott, Poppy E; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J


    The aim of producing sustainable liquid biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass remains high on the sustainability agenda, but is challenged by the costs of producing fermentable sugars from these materials. Sugars from plant biomass can be fermented to alcohols or even alkanes, creating a liquid fuel in which carbon released on combustion is balanced by its photosynthetic capture. Large amounts of sugar are present in the woody, nonfood parts of crops and could be used for fuel production without compromising global food security. However, the sugar in woody biomass is locked up in the complex and recalcitrant lignocellulosic plant cell wall, making it difficult and expensive to extract. In this paper, we review what is known about the major polymeric components of woody plant biomass, with an emphasis on the molecular interactions that contribute to its recalcitrance to enzymatic digestion. In addition, we review the extensive research that has been carried out in order to understand and reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance and enable more cost-effective production of fuel from woody plant biomass.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review. (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud


    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  13. Proteins for breaking barriers in lignocellulosic bioethanol production. (United States)

    Ulaganathan, Kandasamy; Goud, Burragoni S; Reddy, Mettu M; Kumar, Vanaparthi P; Balsingh, Jatoth; Radhakrishna, Surabhi


    Reduction in fossil fuel consumption by using alternate sources of energy is a major challenge facing mankind in the coming decades. Bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass is the most viable option for addressing this challenge. Industrial bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, though possible now, is not economically viable due to presence of barriers that escalate the cost of production. As cellulose and hemicellulose are the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, which is available in massive quantities, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose by the microorganisms are the most prominent biochemical processes happening in the earth. Microorganisms possess different categories of proteins associated with different stages of bioethanol production and a number of them are already found and characterized. Many more of these proteins need to be identified which suit the specificities needed for the bioethanol production process. Discovery of proteins with novel specificities and application of genetic engineering technologies to harvest the synergies existing between them with the aim to develop consolidated bioprocess is the major direction of research in the future. In this review, we discuss the different categories of proteins used for bioethanol production in the context of breaking the barriers existing for the economically feasible lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

  14. Efficient production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose. (United States)

    An, Chao; Ma, Sai-Jian; Chang, Fan; Xue, Wen-Jiao

    Pullulan is a natural exopolysaccharide with many useful characteristics. However, pullulan is more costly than other exopolysaccharides, which limits its effective application. The purpose of this study was to adopt a novel mixed-sugar strategy for maximizing pullulan production, mainly using potato starch hydrolysate as a low-cost substrate for liquid-state fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans. Based on fermentation kinetics evaluation of pullulan production by A. pullulans 201253, the pullulan production rate of A. pullulans with mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose (potato starch hydrolysate:sucrose=80:20) was 0.212h(-1), which was significantly higher than those of potato starch hydrolysate alone (0.146h(-1)) and mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate, glucose, and fructose (potato starch hydrolysate:glucose:fructose=80:10:10, 0.166h(-1)) with 100gL(-1) total carbon source. The results suggest that mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose could promote pullulan synthesis and possibly that a small amount of sucrose stimulated the enzyme responsible for pullulan synthesis and promoted effective potato starch hydrolysate conversion effectively. Thus, mixed sugars in potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of pullulan.

  15. In vitro antioxidant properties of chicken skin enzymatic protein hydrolysates and membrane fractions. (United States)

    Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E; Aliani, Michel


    Chicken thigh and breast skin proteins were hydrolysed using alcalase or a combination of pepsin and pancreatin (PP), each at concentrations of 1-4%. The chicken skin protein hydrolysates (CSPHs) were then fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration into different molecular weight peptides (antioxidant properties. Results showed that the CSPHs had a significantly (pskin hydrolysates had significantly higher DPPH scavenging activity than the chicken thigh skin hydrolysates. DPPH scavenging and metal ion chelation increased significantly (pantioxidant properties decreased as peptide size increased. We conclude that CSPHs and their peptide fractions may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the control and management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  16. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  17. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  18. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks. (United States)

    Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival


    Developing feedstock-independent biomass pretreatment would be vital to second generation biorefineries that would fully utilize diverse non-food lignocellulosic biomass resources, decrease transportation costs of low energy density feedstock, and conserve natural biodiversity. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) was applied to a variety of feedstocks, including Miscanthus, poplar, their mixture, bagasse, wheat straw, and rice straw. Although non-pretreated biomass samples exhibited a large variation in enzymatic digestibility, the COSLIF-pretreated biomass samples exhibited similar high enzymatic glucan digestibilities and fast hydrolysis rates. Glucan digestibilities of most pretreated feedstocks were ∼93% at five filter paper units per gram of glucan. The overall glucose and xylose yields for the Miscanthus:poplar mixture at a weight ratio of 1:2 were 93% and 85%, respectively. These results suggested that COSLIF could be regarded as a feedstock-independent pretreatment suitable for processing diverse feedstocks by adjusting pretreatment residence time only.

  19. 3-year midterm results following hydrolyser{sup TM} thrombolysis; Langzeit-Ergebnisse nach Hydrolyser-unterstuetzter Angioplastie - eine prospektive Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Deichen, J.; Zeitler, E. [Staedtisches Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie


    Purpose: Data of a three-year follow-up after mechanical thrombolysis with the Hydrolyser catheter were evaluated. Patients have otherwise been treated by local thrombolysis. Method: 35 patients were treated by thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty, aspiration, local thrombolysis, and stent placement, if necessary. Morphological results following Hydrolyser treatment and additional treatment were evaluated. Results: Following Hydrolyser treatment a significant reduction of the degree and length of the occlusion was observed. Primary clinical success was 80%. Patency rate after 3 years was 0.5. 23% of all patients died in the follow-up period. Conclusion: The Hydrolyser treatment is a relevant alternative to local thrombolysis. This method reduces the time of treatment. The authors favor the lateral opening of the catheter to remove mural thrombus. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Auswertung der Nachkontrollen von Patienten, die anstelle einer lokalen Lyse mit dem Hydrolyser {sup trademark} -Thrombektomiekatheter (HT), Ballondilatation (PTA), Aspirationsthrombektomie (PAT) oder Stent behandelt wurden. Methode: 35 Patienten wurden behandelt und ueber drei Jahre nachbeobachtet. Alle Patienten hatten thromotische/thrombembolische Verschluesse der unteren Extremitaet. Die Laesionen wurden alle mit dem Hydrolyser {sup trademark} -Katheter behandelt. Abhaengig von der Art der Laesion wurden die unterschiedlichen Zusatzverfahren eingesetzt. Das morphologische Resultat wurde sowohl nach dem Einsatz des Hydrolysers {sup trademark} als auch nach der sekundaeren Therapie beurteilt. Ergebnis: Nach Verwendung des Hydrolysers konnte in 21 Faellen eine weitgehende Rekanalisation erreicht werden. Nach sekundaerer Angioplastie wurde in 31 Faellen ein zufrieden-stellendes Resultat (keine relevante Reststenose) erzielt. Die primaere klinische Erfolgsrate lag bei 28/35 (80%). Die Offenheitsrate nach drei Jahren betrug 0,5. 8 Patienten (23%) waren verstorben. Schlussfolgerung: Das System verkuerzt

  20. A novel convenient process to obtain a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction using a lignocellulose column. (United States)

    Sakanaka, Senji


    Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination.

  1. Hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes for improved conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to monosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanson Spencer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. This is especially important for alkaline pretreatments such as Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreated corn stover. Hence, a diverse set of hemicellulases supplemented along with cellulases is necessary for high recovery of monosaccharides. Results The core fungal cellulases in the optimal cocktail include cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I; glycoside hydrolase (GH family 7A], cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II; GH family 6A, endoglucanase I (EG I; GH family 7B and β-glucosidase (βG; GH family 3. Hemicellulases tested along with the core cellulases include xylanases (LX1, GH family 10; LX2, GH family 10; LX3, GH family 10; LX4, GH family 11; LX5, GH family 10; LX6, GH family 10, β-xylosidase (LβX; GH family 52, α-arabinofuranosidase (LArb, GH family 51 and α-glucuronidase (LαGl, GH family 67 that were cloned, expressed and/or purified from different bacterial sources. Different combinations of these enzymes were tested using a high-throughput microplate based 24 h hydrolysis assay. Both family 10 (LX3 and family 11 (LX4 xylanases were found to most efficiently hydrolyze AFEX pretreated corn stover in a synergistic manner. The optimal mass ratio of xylanases (LX3 and LX4 to cellulases (CBH I, CBH II and EG I is 25:75. LβX (0.6 mg/g glucan is crucial to obtaining monomeric xylose (54% xylose yield, while LArb (0.6 mg/g glucan and LαGl (0.8 mg/g glucan can both further increase xylose yield by an additional 20%. Compared with Accellerase 1000, a purified cocktail of cellulases supplemented with accessory hemicellulases will not only increase both glucose and xylose yields but will also decrease the total enzyme loading

  2. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU (United States)

    ... page: Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one- ... of former intensive care unit (ICU) patients have depression, a new review finds. Each year, more than ...

  3. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges.

  4. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch


    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO{sub 2} fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO{sub 2} dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with {sup 238}Pu doped UO{sub 2} M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO{sub 2} studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with {alpha} doped UO{sub 2} in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO{sub 2} / water interfaces under He{sup 2+} beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO{sub 2} alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines

  5. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds. (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros


    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production.

  6. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S


    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  7. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment. (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E


    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (PProtein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (Pprotein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP.

  8. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp (United States)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  9. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zarei


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain. Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1% and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25% compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.

  10. Study on Hydrolysis Conditions of Flavourzyme in Soybean Polypeptide Alcalase Hydrolysate and Soybean Polypeptide Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ma


    Full Text Available Soybean protein Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed by adopting Flavourzyme as hydrolytic enzyme. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Flavourzyme was that pH was 7.0 at temperature 50°C and E/S(ratio of enzyme and substrate was 20LAPU/g. Bitterness value was reduced to 2 after Flavourzyme hydrolysis reaction in optimal hydrolysis conditions. The change of molecular weight distribution range from Alcalase hydrolysate to Flavourzyme hydrolysate was not obvious. DH (Degree of hydrolysis of soybean protein hydrolysate was increased to 24.2% which was improved 3.5% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Protein recovery proportion was increased to 73.2% which was improved 0.8% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Soybean polypeptide Flavourzyme hydrolysate was decolorized with activated carbon which optimal dosage was 1.2% solution amount (w/w. Anion/cation exchange process was used in the desalination processing of soybean polypeptide. Ratio of anion resin and cation resin was 2:3(V/V. The volume of hydrolysate processed was 5 times as the volume of anion resin. Ash content of soybean peptide solution reduced to 2.11% (dry basis, salinity decreased by 86% after desalination processing.

  11. Comparison of Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Properties of Hydrolysates from Soybean, Walnut, and Peanut Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Li


    Full Text Available Hydrolysates were prepared from soybean, walnut, and peanut protein by papain, respectively. Their amino acid compositions and molecular weight distributions, the effects of various hydrolysates on H2O2-induced injury PC12 cells, and cognition of mice were investigated, respectively. Results showed that the three hydrolysates were dominated by the peptides with 1–3 KDa with large amount of neurotrophic amino acids. All the hydrolysates exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against H2O2-induced toxicity than cerebrolysin, and soy protein hydrolysate showed the highest activity. Moreover, the hydrolysates also could reduce the rate of nonviable apoptotic cells at the concentration of 2 mg/mL. The test of animal’s cognition indicated that three hydrolysates could present partly better effect of improving recurred memory ability of normal mice and consolidated memory ability of anisodine-treated mice than piracetam. Therefore, soybean, walnut, and peanut protein hydrolysates were recommended as a potential food raw material for prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Salmon protein hydrolysate as a protein source in feed for young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard


    Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) is made from fresh by-products from farmed salmon that are minced and acidified to hydrolyse proteins into peptides and free amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate SPH in young pigs compared to soy protein concentrate (SPC), fish meal (FM...

  13. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SINDAYIKENGERA Séverin; XIA Wen-shui


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard.The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  14. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex. (United States)

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  15. Correlations between biochemical characteristics and foam-forming and -stabilizing ability of whey and casein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Bont, D.B.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    Whey protein and casein were hydrolyzed with 11 commercially available enzymes. Foam properties of 44 samples were measured and were related to biochemical properties of the hydrolysates using statistical data analysis. All casein hydrolysates formed high initial foam levels, whereas whey hydrolysat

  16. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic...

  17. Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of collagen and protective effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan. (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna


    FTIR spectra of collagen (PC) and partially hydrolysed fucoidan (PHF) incorporated into collagen films were investigated at different temperatures between 20°C and 100°C. Changes within the bands of amide I, amide II and amide III may indicate stabilization of collagen by hydrogen bonds during its interaction with partially hydrolysed fucoidan. Spectroscopic studies revealed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan was bound to the collagen without affecting its triple helicity. Interactions of fucoidan with H2SO4 (mild acid hydrolysis), leading to changes of the sulphated band positions in the 800-590 cm(-1) region of IR spectra were observed. The effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking of proteins in vitro was evaluated. It was observed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan incorporated into collagen films can be used as therapeutically active biomaterials that speed up the process of wound healing and may increase the anticancer activity of fucoidan.

  18. Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gadus morrhua Skin Collagen and Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jian-xin; ZHAO Zheng


    Process parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight (MW) distribution of collagen hydrolysates from Gadus morrhua skin were investigated.The optimal process parameters were obtained by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments.The molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates was determined using both Sephadex G25 partition and high speed liquid chromatography electricity spray mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS).Collagen hydrolysates were first gained by an alkaline protease "alcalase" for 3 h at temperature (50℃),pH (10.0),substrate concentration (75 g L-1),and E/S (3%).The molecular weight distribution of collagen hydrolysates ranged from 300 to 1 500 Da,and most of peptides were under 1 200 Da.Sephadex G25 partition and HPLC-ESI-MS should be successfully employed to determine the molecular weight distribution of collagen hydrolysates.

  19. Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of collagen and protective effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna


    FTIR spectra of collagen (PC) and partially hydrolysed fucoidan (PHF) incorporated into collagen films were investigated at different temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C. Changes within the bands of amide I, amide II and amide III may indicate stabilization of collagen by hydrogen bonds during its interaction with partially hydrolysed fucoidan. Spectroscopic studies revealed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan was bound to the collagen without affecting its triple helicity. Interactions of fucoidan with H2SO4 (mild acid hydrolysis), leading to changes of the sulphated band positions in the 800-590 cm-1 region of IR spectra were observed. The effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking of proteins in vitro was evaluated. It was observed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan incorporated into collagen films can be used as therapeutically active biomaterials that speed up the process of wound healing and may increase the anticancer activity of fucoidan.

  20. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of hydrolysed proteins of delimed tannery fleshings: comparison of acid hydrolysis and fermentation methods. (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bijinu; Prasad, Binod; Rai, Amit Kumar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Subbanna, Mahendrakar Namadev; Narayan, Bhaskar


    Proteins in delimed tannery fleshings were fermentatively hydrolysed using Enterococcus faecium NCIM5335 and also hydrolysed using mild organic acids (formic acid and propionic acid). The liquor portion containing hydrolysed proteins was spray dried, in both the cases, to obtain a powder. The spray dried powder was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activities with respect to scavenging different free radicals and antibacterial properties against nine different pathogens. Fermentation and acid hydrolysates scavenged 83 and 75.3% of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals, respectively, at a protein concentration of 0.25 mg. Further, fermentation hydrolysate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of 59% as compared to 56% scavenging by acid hydrolysate at a protein concentration of 5 mg. Acid hydrolysate exhibited lesser (82.3%) peroxy radical scavenging compared to hydrolysate from fermentation (88.2%) at a protein concentration of 10 mg. However, acid hydrolysate exhibited higher (89.2%) superoxide anion scavenging while its fermentation counterpart showed lower activity (85.4%) at 2.5 mg hydrolysate protein. Well as superoxide anion scavenging properties. All the in vitro antioxidant properties exhibited dose dependency. Fermentation hydrolysate exhibited maximum antagonistic activity against Salmonella typhi FB231, from among host of pathogens evaluated. Both the hydrolysates have potential to be ingredients in animal feeds and can help reduce oxidative stress in the animals.

  1. Macstor dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)


    AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

  2. Liquefaction of lignocellulose in light cycle oil: A process concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Segins, A.; Lange, J.P.; Rossum, van G.; Kersten, S.R.A.


    Lignocellulosic biocrude can be produced by direct liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass, which can be further upgraded into biofuels in an oil refinery. Refinery streams, namely vacuum gas oil (VGO) and light cycle oil (LCO), were found suitable liquefaction solvents in our previous study. This p

  3. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose......-containing material by enzymatically sulfating the phenolic inhibitors and toxins using aryl sulfotranseferases....

  4. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Malomo


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin of hemp seed proteins (HSP. The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300–9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05 SBP-reducing agent (−32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h, while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (−23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h. We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  5. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates. (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E


    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300-9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (-32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (-23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  6. Fermentation of wood-derived acid hydrolysates in a batch bioreactor and in a continuous dynamic immobilized cell bioreactor by Pichia stipitis R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, S.R.; Parekh, R.S.; Wayman, M.


    Ethanolic fermentation of sugar solutions obtained on acid prehydrolysis of aspen and pine woods and from those present in spent sulphite liquor (SSL) were investigated in batch culture and in a continuous dynamic immobilized cell (CDIC) fermenter. The inhibitory effect of acetic acid on the fermentation of such liquors was overcome by steam-stripping. Major benefits were obtained when Pichia stipitis R was employed in fermenting and removing sugar from SSL compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol yields were 38% higher along with 40% more sugar removal from softwood SSL. S. cerevisiae was not able to ferment hardwood SSL effectively. Using immobilized cells of P. stipitis R in a CDIC bioreactor, we found that softwood SSL could be fermented in seven hours with 90% xylose fermentation, while hemicellulose hydrolysates were fermented in four to five hours, with an average volumetric ethanol productivity of about 2.6 g/l/h. The merits of using P. stipitis R for efficient and rapid fermentation of xylose-rich hydrolysates, and the possible application of the CDIC bioreactor to continuous ethanolic fermentations are discussed. (Refs. 28).

  7. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)


    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  8. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  9. Removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation. (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Mi, Xigeng; Huang, He


    In this study, vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was used to remove two prototypical fermentation inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural) from lignocellulose hydrolyzates. The effect of operating parameters, such as feed temperature and feed velocity, on the removal efficiencies of inhibitors was investigated. Under optimal conditions, more than 98% of furfural could be removed by VMD. However, the removal efficiency of acetic acid was considerably lower. After furfural and acetic acid were selectively removed from hydrolyzates by VMD, ethanol production efficiency increased by 17.8% compared to original hydrolyzates.

  10. Mixed Enzyme Systems for Delignification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Woolridge


    Full Text Available The application of enzymes such as laccase and xylanase for the preparation of cellulose from lignocellulosic material is an option for those industries seeking to reduce the use of chlorine-containing bleach agents, thus minimizing the environmental impact of their processes. Mixed hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme systems have been well described in the context of biopulping, and thus provide good precedent regarding effectiveness, despite the susceptibility of xylanase to inactivation by laccase-generated oxidants. This paper examines the progress towards development of sequential and simultaneous mixed enzyme systems to accomplish delignification.

  11. Enhancing Cellulase Commercial Performance for the Lignocellulosic Biomass Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnigan, Alisha [Danisco, US Inc., Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Cellulase enzyme loading (Bt-G) for the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is on of the key challenges identified in the Biomass Program of DOE/EERE. The goal of Danisco’s project which ran from 2008 to 2012, was to address the technical challenge by creating more efficient enzyme that could be used at lower doses, thus reducing the enzymes’ cost contribution to the conversio process. We took the approach of protein engineering of cellulase enzymes to overcome the enzymati limitations in the system of cellulosic-hydrolyzing enzymes to improve performance in conversion o biomass, thereby creating a more effective enzyme mix.

  12. Dynamic Changes of Microbial Community for Degradation of Lignocellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenzhe; LIU Shuang; WANG Chunying; ZHENG Guoxiang


    Dynamic changes of a microbial community for lignocellulose degradation were explored in details.Community composition and development were investigated by the means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE),and results showed that the microbial community was constituted of 14 kinds of bacteria and presented the fluctuation in some degrees with fermentation.Furthmore,the result of cluster analysis of DGGE pattern was accordant with growth curve,and the degradation process was divided into three stages: initial stage(0-12 h),intermediate stage(24-144 h)and end stage(144-216 h).

  13. Development of sustainable dye adsorption system using Nutraceutical Industrial Fennel Seed Spent - Studies with Congo Red dye. (United States)

    Taqui, Syed Noeman; Yahya, Rosiyah; Hassan, Aziz; Nayak, Nayan; Syed, Akheel Ahmed


    Fennel seed spent (FSS) - an inexpensive nutraceutical industrial spent has been used as an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous media. Results show that pH of 2 - 4 and temperature of 30°C was ideal for maximum adsorption. Based on regression fitting of the data it was determined that the SIPS isotherm (R(2) = 0.994, χ(2) = 0.5) adequately described the mechanism of adsorption, suggesting that the adsorption occurs in a homogeneous layer by layer with favourable interaction between layers. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption is favourable (negative values for ΔG°) and endothermic (ΔH° = 12-20 kJ mol(-1)) for an initial dye concentration of 25, 50 and 100 ppm. The low ΔH° value indicates that the adsorption is a physical process involving weak chemical interactions like hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. The kinetics revealed that the adsorption process showed pseudo second order tendencies with the equal influence of intra-particle as well as film diffusion. The SEM images of FSS show a highly fibrous matrix with a hierarchical porous structure. The FTIR analysis of the spent confirmed the presence of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic matter giving it both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. The investigations indicate that FSS is a cost-effective and efficient biosorbent for the remediation of toxic Congo Red dye.

  14. Chemical and ultrastructural studies of lignocellulose biodegradation during Agaricus bisporus cultivation. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Hexiang; Liu, Qinghong; Ng, TziBun


    During Agaricus bisporus cultivation, lignocellulose degradation is the result of the activity of both the mushroom and microbial communities developed during the composting. To investigate the lignocellulose degradation in detail from the beginning to the end of the process, the functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin have been studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the morphological changes of lignocelluloses were elucidated with scanning electron microscopy. The aperture of lignin and cellulose increased to enable the mycelia of A. bisporus to penetrate into the medium and to degrade lignocelluloses in a more direct way. The chemical structure changes implied a preferential use of lignin that could make for better use of cellulose to boost growth of A. bisporus. Changes in chemical structure together with ultrastructural changes induced by the microbial flora during cultivation substrate production by the composting substrate are important in promoting the utilization of lignocelluloses by A. bisporus.

  15. Green Composites Using Lignocellulosic Waste and Cellulosic Fibers from Corn Husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumolva Terence P.


    Full Text Available This study explores the feasibility of using lignocellulosic waste and cellulosic fibers from corn husks in the production of green composites, with orthophthalic unsaturated polyester (ortho-UP resin as a matrix. Lignocellulose was extracted from corn husk fibers by alkali treatment using 1M NaOH, and the dried lignocellulose extract was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. Composites containing varying weight fractions of lignocellulose, treated fibers and ortho-UP were fabricated, and the tensile and flexural strengths and moduli were measured. Based on the results, it was observed that the composite containing 15wt% fiber possesses the highest tensile modulus, while the one with 20wt% lignocellulose showed the highest flexural modulus. The composites were also subjected to scanning electron microscopy to examine the fracture surfaces of the composites. Furthermore, the water sorption behavior of the composites was also studied, and it was observed that all the composites obey Fickian diffusion.

  16. Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. State of the art and perspectives; Bioethanolproduktion aus Lignocellulose. Stand der Technik und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroner, T. [ia GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Prechtl, S. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Igelspacher, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Schieder, D.; Schwarz, W.H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrobiologie; Antoni, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik der Lebensmittelindustrie; Faulstich, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhls fuer Technologie Biogener Rohstoffe; ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)


    While many kinds of renewable energy sources are suitable for power and heat generation, at present only biomass can be used as fuel for transportation. Biodiesel from rape seed and ethanol from corn are the most common biofuels in Germany. Due to the limited and expensive feedstock, an increasing number of fast growing and economic alternatives is being researched. One possibility could be the use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of ethanol. The following article gives a survey to suitable processes and shows their advantages and disadvantages. (orig.)

  17. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)


    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.


    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  19. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah


    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  20. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo


    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  1. Development of a Commerical Enzyme System for Lignocellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Incorporated, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  2. Compounds inhibiting the bioconversion of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulose. (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon


    Hydrothermal pretreatment using liquid hot water, steam explosion, or dilute acids enhances the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose by altering the chemical and/or physical structures of lignocellulosic biomass. However, compounds that inhibit both enzymes and microbial activity, including lignin-derived phenolics, soluble sugars, furan aldehydes, and weak acids, are also generated during pretreatment. Insoluble lignin, which predominantly remains within the pretreated solids, also acts as a significant inhibitor of cellulases during hydrolysis of cellulose. Exposed lignin, which is modified to be more recalcitrant to enzymes during pretreatment, adsorbs cellulase nonproductively and reduces the availability of active cellulase for hydrolysis of cellulose. Similarly, lignin-derived phenolics inhibit or deactivate cellulase and β-glucosidase via irreversible binding or precipitation. Meanwhile, the performance of fermenting microorganisms is negatively affected by phenolics, sugar degradation products, and weak acids. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the contributions of inhibitors present in whole pretreatment slurries to the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and fermentation. Furthermore, we discuss various biological strategies to mitigate the effects of these inhibitors on enzymatic and microbial activity to improve the lignocellulose-to-biofuel process robustness. While the inhibitory effect of lignin on enzymes can be relieved through the use of lignin blockers and by genetically engineering the structure of lignin or of cellulase itself, soluble inhibitors, including phenolics, furan aldehydes, and weak acids, can be detoxified by microorganisms or laccase.

  3. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)


    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  4. Spent fuel management of Jose Cabrera NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Zurro, J.E.; Garcia Costilla, M. [Area de Generacion - Unidad Nuclear, Gas Natural Fenosa, Avda. de San Luis, 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Lavara Sanz, A. [Division Nuclear, SOCOIN, P. del Club Deportivo, 1 - Edificio 5, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain); Martinez Abad, J.E. [Departamento de Residuos de Alta Actividad, ENRESA, C/ Emilio Vargas, 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)


    The definitive shutdown of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant took place on 30. of April 2006. From this moment, cooperation agreements between ENRESA and GAS NATURAL FENOSA were established to reach, among others objectives, its decommissioning, 3 years after the shutdown of the reactor. In order to accomplish the Spanish nuclear regulation, a spent fuel management plan was developed. This plan determined that the fuel assemblies placed in the spent fuel pool would be managed by means of their storage in an interim installation. For this reason, an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) was built at plant site, pioneer in Spain by its characteristics of design. Different administrative authorizations from the point of view of nuclear safety as well as from the environmental were required for ISFSI licensing process. The transference and storage of spent fuel was carried out using the HI-STORM 100Z Dry Storage System, developed by HOLTEC INTERNATIONAL. This system, designed for the spent fuel storage in casks, supports abnormal and very hard accident conditions. The system has three main components: Storage Cask (HI-STORM), Transfer Cask (HI-TRAC) and Multipurpose Canister (MPC). In addition to this, the system has a specific Transport Cask (HI-STAR) for the future transport out of the Plant. More than 30 Design Modifications to the system and plant were implemented to solve structural problems and to include safety and ALARA improvements. The transfer of the spent fuel and its emplacement in the ISFSI began on January 2009 and finished on September of that year allowing starting the decommissioning process, three years and a half after Jose Cabrera NPP shutdown. (authors)

  5. Spent fuel container and a material thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, Motoji; Kikuchi, Masaaki


    The material of a vessel for containing spent fuels of the present invention is prepared by compositing boron fibers in a volume rate of about 30% in a metal base of Al-Mg-Si alloy containing 3% of boron. It has characteristics of the maximum strength at break being 1.8 times or more at a room temperature and at 200degC, a neutron transmittance being about 1/4, and a specific gravity being 1/3 or less compared with those of conventional austenite stainless steel to which 6% of boron is added. With such a constitution, spent fuels can be used smoothly. (T.M.)

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL


    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  7. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories


    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  8. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  9. Comparative evaluation of 13 yeast species in the Yarrowia clade on lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate and genetic engineering of inhibitor tolerant strains for lipid and biofuel production (United States)

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast that has garnered interest for commercial production of single cell oil and other fatty acid-derived chemicals because of its GRAS status and genetic tractability. Three recent peer-reviewed studies have highlighted the possibility of lipid production by th...

  10. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad


    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  12. Generation, Fractionation, and Characterization of Iron-Chelating Protein Hydrolysate from Palm Kernel Cake Proteins. (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ghanbari, Rahele; Tajabadi, Naser; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid


    Palm kernel cake protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases namely papain, bromelain, subtilisin, flavourzyme, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin to generate different protein hydrolysates. Peptide content and iron-chelating activity of each hydrolysate were evaluated using O-phthaldialdehyde-based spectrophotometric method and ferrozine-based colorimetric assay, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between peptide contents and iron-chelating activities of the protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain exhibited the highest peptide content of 10.5 mM and highest iron-chelating activity of 64.8% compared with the other hydrolysates. Profiling of the papain-generated hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography fractionation indicated a direct association between peptide content and iron-chelating activity in most of the fractions. Further fractionation using isoelectric focusing also revealed that protein hydrolysate with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) had the highest iron-chelating activity, although a few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good metal chelating potential. After identification and synthesis of papain-generated peptides, GGIF and YLLLK showed among the highest iron-chelating activities of 56% and 53%, whereas their IC50 were 1.4 and 0.2 μM, respectively.

  13. Collagen metabolism of human osteoarthritic articular cartilage as modulated by bovine collagen hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Schadow

    Full Text Available Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA. Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000 were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE(2, MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n = 5-12. The significance was set to p≤0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan™ B 5000 elevated NO and PGE(2 levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate

  14. Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate. (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, María; Angelidaki, Irini


    The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195 degrees C for 10-12 min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept. Bioresource Technology 100 (9), 2562-2568]. Results from batch assays showed that hydrolysate had a methane potential of 384 ml/g-volatile solids (VS)(added). Process performance in CTSR and UASB reactors was investigated by varying hydrolysate concentration and/or organic loading rate (OLR). In CSTR, methane yields increased with increase in hydrolysate concentration and maximum yield of 297 ml/g-COD was obtained at an OLR of 1.9 g-COD/l d and 100% (v/v) hydrolysate. On the other hand, process performance and methane yields in UASB were affected by OLR and/or substrate concentration. Maximum methane yields of 267 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%) was obtained in UASB reactor when operated at an OLR of 2.8 g-COD/l d but with only 10% (v/v) hydrolysate. However, co-digestion of hydrolysate with pig manure (1:3 v/v ratio) improved the process performance and resulted in methane yield of 219 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%). Thus, anaerobic digestion of hydrolysate for biogas production was feasible in both CSTR and UASB reactor types. However, biogas process was affected by the reactor type and operating conditions.

  15. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G


    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and β-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution.

  16. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  17. Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions. (United States)

    Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine


    The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)μm)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved.

  18. Wheat gluten hydrolysate affects race performance in the triathlon. (United States)

    Koikawa, Natsue; Aoki, Emi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Nagaoka, Isao; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimmura, Yuki; Sawaki, Keisuke


    Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is a food ingredient, prepared by partial enzymatic digestion of wheat gluten, which has been reported to suppress exercise-induced elevation of serum creatinine kinase (CK) activity. However, its effects on athletic performance have not yet been elucidated. This is the presentation of an experiment performed on five female college triathletes who completed an Olympic distance triathlon with or without ingestion of 21 g of WGH during the cycling leg. The experiment was performed in a crossover double-blind manner. The race time of the running leg and thus the total race time was significantly shorter when WGH was ingested. However, serum CK levels exhibited no apparent differences between the two WGH or placebo groups.

  19. Optimization of Brewery's spent grain dilute-acid hydrolysis for the production of pentose-rich culture media. (United States)

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Medeiros, Raquel; Gírio, Francisco M


    Dilute-acid hydrolysis of brewery's spent grain to obtain a pentose-rich fermentable hydrolysate was investigated. The influence of operational conditions on polysaccharide hydrolysis was assessed by the combined severity parameter (CS) in the range of 1.39-3.06. When the CS increased, the pentose sugars concentration increased to a maximum at a CS of 1.94, whereas the maximum glucose concentration was obtained for a CS of 2.65. The concentrations of furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), as well as formic and levulinic acids and total phenolic compounds increased with severity. Optimum hydrolysis conditions were found at a CS of 1.94 with >95% of feedstock pentose sugars recovered in the monomeric form, together with a low content of furfural, HMF, acetic and formic acids, and total phenolic compounds. This hydrolysate containing glucose, xylose, and arabinose (ratio 10:67:32) was further supplemented with inorganic salts and vitamins and readily fermented by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii CCMI 941 without any previous detoxification stage. The yeast was able to consume all sugars, furfural, HMF, and acetic acid with high biomass yield, 0.68 C-mol/C-mol, and productivity, 0.92 g/(L.h). Detoxification with activated charcoal resulted in a similar biomass yield and a slight increase in the volumetric productivity (11%).

  20. Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus. (United States)

    Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai


    In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at pbiomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus.

  1. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike


    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  2. In vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of collagen hydrolysates of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez


    Full Text Available AbstractHydrolysates from two different jumbo squid byproducts (fins and arms, produced by trypsin and protease type XIV were compared on the basis of their antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, antimutagenic (Ames test and antiproliferative (Transformation cell proliferation in M12.C3F6 murine cells activities. Jumbo squid arms had higher content of collagen than fins, and their hydrolysates had the highest antioxidant activity. Also, jumbo squid arm-derived collagen hydrolyzed with protease XIV showed the highest antimutagenic activity. The four hydrolysates obtained showed low antiproliferative activity, however they are susceptible for further studies to be applied as food additives.

  3. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin in a liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuhong; GAO Tian; ZHANG Ligang


    Gelatin extracted from deer bone was hydrolyzed for 3.5-120 min. The degree of hydrolysis was higher from Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin than that from neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than that of neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Hydrolysates showed strong radical-scavenging ability and Fe2+-chelating activity, both of which were influenced by hydrolysis time. Although nonhydrolyzed gelatin displayed a certain antioxidative effect, it was far less than that of hydrolysates. The hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin can work as a radical stabilizer and metal ion chelator to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  4. 低浓度的酸碱及双酶解预处理对麦糟发酵乙醇的影响%Fermentation of Brewers’ Spent Grain Pretreated by Acid or Alkali with Dilute Concentration and Two-Hydrolases to Produce Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏兰; 张兰; 王镇发; 方柏山


    This paper deals with the biological transformation process of the three main ingredients in lignocellulose. Alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) of brewers’ spent grain (BSG) was put into the 0.1 mol×L-1 NaOH solution at the ratio of 1:8(W/V) and soaked for 24 h. After being treated with 264 W microwave for 20 min, the sample reacts with crude enzyme solution of xylanase (50 U×mL-1) at pH 5.0 and 45℃ for 12 h. Then the crude enzyme solution of feruloyl esterase (40 mU×mL-1) was added and reacts with the sample for another 12 h. The enzyme-treated BSG-AIR was obtained by eluting, drying, and ethanol extracting the precipitate obtained by above-mentioned process. The obtained sample was hydrolyzed with cellulose (200 U per g AIR-BSG) at the ratio of 1:40(W/V), pH 4.5 and 50℃ for 36 h, and its saccharification ratio is 78.5%. The hydrolyzate of AIR-BSG was fermented and the ethanol product of 0.27 g×g-1AIR-BSG) was obtained, the corresponding conversion ratio is 48.72%, which is 86.06% of the theoretical one. Our results show that it is feasible for BSG fermentation to produce alcohol via pretreating the BSG with dilute concentration of acid or alkaline and two kinds of enzymatic hydrolyses. It may provide foundation for research on the multipurpose use of the lignocellulose.%  研究综合利用木质纤维三大组分的生物转化过程。将麦糟的醇不溶物按料液比1:8(W/V)加入0.1 mol×L-1 NaOH,浸泡24 h,264 W微波处理20 min后,调pH 5.0、45℃,加50 U×mL-1的木聚糖酶粗酶液反应12 h后,再加入40 mU×mL-1的阿魏酸酯酶粗酶液反应12 h,将沉淀洗至中性,烘干,乙醇抽提,得到酶降解后麦糟的醇不溶物残渣。此残渣在料液比1:40(W/V),纤维素酶量200 U/g (麦糟的醇不溶物),反应时间36 h,初始pH值为4.5,50℃条件下进行水解,此残渣的纤维素酶解糖化率为78.5%。将残渣的水解液进行乙醇发酵,其乙醇的产量为0.27 g×g-1(麦糟的

  5. Electro Static Precipitator for Spent Wash Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulagala Srinivas Rama Kumar (M.S.Rama Kumar


    Full Text Available The distillery sector is major polluting industries in India & world. These units generate large volume of dark brown colored wastewater, which is known as “spent wash”. Liquid wastes from breweries and distilleries possess a characteristically high pollution load and have continued to pose a critical problem of environmental pollution in India and many countries.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  8. Reconstruction of Spent Fuel Dissolver Critical Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Shu-hong; ZHU; Qing-fu; ZHOU; Qi; QUAN; Yan-hui; YANG; Li-jun; LUO; Huang-da; LIU; Yang; ZHANG; Wei; ZHOU; Xiao-ping; LIU; Dong-hai


    During the twelfth Five-Year period,Reactor Physics Laboratory has taken on the research item about spent fuel dissolver critical experiment in nuclear power development project,which should be accomplished by using the uranium solution nuclear critical safety experiment device.Due to the differences of experimental content

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Technical Databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, M.A.


    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Technical Databook is developed for use as a common authoritative source of fuel behavior and material parameters in support of the Hanford SNF Project. The Technical Databook will be revised as necessary to add parameters as their Databook submittals become available.

  10. Evolution of Lignocellulosic Macrocomponents in the Wastewater Streams of a Sulfite Pulp Mill: A Preliminary Biorefining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano


    Full Text Available The evolution of lignin, five- and six-carbon sugars, and other decomposition products derived from hemicelluloses and cellulose was monitored in a sulfite pulp mill. The wastewater streams were characterized and the mass balances throughout digestion and total chlorine free bleaching stages were determined. Summative analysis in conjunction with pulp parameters highlights some process guidelines and valorization alternatives towards the transformation of the traditional factory into a lignocellulosic biorefinery. The results showed a good separation of cellulose (99.64% during wood digestion, with 87.23% of hemicellulose and 98.47% lignin dissolved into the waste streams. The following steps should be carried out to increase the sugar content into the waste streams: (i optimization of the digestion conditions increasing hemicellulose depolymerization; (ii improvement of the ozonation and peroxide bleaching stages, avoiding deconstruction of the cellulose chains but maintaining impurity removal; (iii fractionation of the waste water streams, separating sugars from the rest of toxic inhibitors for 2nd generation biofuel production. A total of 0.173 L of second-generation ethanol can be obtained in the spent liquor per gram of dry wood. The proposed methodology can be usefully incorporated into other related industrial sectors.

  11. Removal and recovery of cobalt from aqueous solutions by adsorption using low cost lignocellulosic biomass--coir pith. (United States)

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Sudersanan, M; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, Umashankar


    The applicability of low-cost lignocellulosic biosorbent-coir pith, for removal of cobalt (II) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption studies has been explored herein. Adsorption characteristics of coir pith were investigated systematically by varying the experimental parameters such as, solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature. The studies revealed that optimum adsorption of cobalt onto coir pith occurred in the pH range of 4.0 - 7.0. Sorption kinetics of cobalt was found to be quite rapid under ambient conditions and the process followed second-order kinetics. The experimental data have been analyzed using non-linearized forms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherms for mathematical description of the process. Desorption studies showed that the quantitative recovery of Co (II) from the spent coir pith was achieved by using 0.5 N HCl. The suitability of this adsorbent for real situation has been observed, when complete removal of cobalt from nuclear power plant coolant water was obtained. The present studies successfully demonstrated the use of coir pith as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and microbial degradation of specifically radiolabeled [C]lignocelluloses from marine and freshwater macrophytes. (United States)

    Benner, R; Maccubbin, A E; Hodson, R E


    Specifically radiolabeled [C-lignin]lignocelluloses were prepared from the aquatic macrophytes Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, Rhizophora mangle, and Carex walteriana by using [C]phenylalanine, [C]tyrosine, and [C]cinnamic acid as precursors. Specifically radiolabeled [C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses were prepared by using [C]glucose as precursor. The rates of microbial degradation varied among [C-lignin]lignocelluloses labeled with different lignin precursors within the same plant species. To determine the causes of these differential rates, [C-lignin]lignocelluloses were thoroughly characterized for the distribution of radioactivity in nonlignin contaminants and within the lignin macromolecule. In herbaceous plants, significant amounts (8 to 24%) of radioactivity from [C]phenylalanine and [C]tyrosine were found associated with protein, although very little (3%) radioactivity from [C]cinnamic acid was associated with protein. Microbial degradation of radiolabeled protein resulted in overestimation of lignin degradation rates in lignocelluloses derived from herbaceous aquatic plants. Other differences in degradation rates among [C-lignin]lignocelluloses from the same plant species were attributable to differences in the amount of label being associated with ester-linked subunits of peripheral lignin. After acid hydrolysis of [C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses, radioactivity was detected in several sugars, although most of the radioactivity was distributed between glucose and xylose. After 576 h of incubation with salt marsh sediments, 38% of the polysaccharide component and between 6 and 16% of the lignin component (depending on the precursor) of J. roemerianus lignocellulose was mineralized to CO(2); during the same incubation period, 30% of the polysaccharide component and between 12 and 18% of the lignin component of S. alterniflora lignocellulose was mineralized.

  13. High-throughput Saccharification assay for lignocellulosic materials. (United States)

    Gomez, Leonardo D; Whitehead, Caragh; Roberts, Philip; McQueen-Mason, Simon J


    Polysaccharides that make up plant lignocellulosic biomass can be broken down to produce a range of sugars that subsequently can be used in establishing a biorefinery. These raw materials would constitute a new industrial platform, which is both sustainable and carbon neutral, to replace the current dependency on fossil fuel. The recalcitrance to deconstruction observed in lignocellulosic materials is produced by several intrinsic properties of plant cell walls. Crystalline cellulose is embedded in matrix polysaccharides such as xylans and arabinoxylans, and the whole structure is encased by the phenolic polymer lignin, that is also difficult to digest (1). In order to improve the digestibility of plant materials we need to discover the main bottlenecks for the saccharification of cell walls and also screen mutant and breeding populations to evaluate the variability in saccharification (2). These tasks require a high throughput approach and here we present an analytical platform that can perform saccharification analysis in a 96-well plate format. This platform has been developed to allow the screening of lignocellulose digestibility of large populations from varied plant species. We have scaled down the reaction volumes for gentle pretreatment, partial enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar determination, to allow large numbers to be assessed rapidly in an automated system. This automated platform works with milligram amounts of biomass, performing ball milling under controlled conditions to reduce the plant materials to a standardised particle size in a reproducible manner. Once the samples are ground, the automated formatting robot dispenses specified and recorded amounts of material into the corresponding wells of 96 deep well plate (Figure 1). Normally, we dispense the same material into 4 wells to have 4 replicates for analysis. Once the plates are filled with the plant material in the desired layout, they are manually moved to a liquid handling station (Figure 2

  14. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilke, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Margraf, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  15. Improving Aspergillus carbonarius crude enzymes for lignocellulose hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    The primary aim of this thesis was to determine ways for enhancing the lignocellulose conversion potential of Aspergillus carbonarius. Approaches for enhancing the degradation of lignocellulose included: screening for fungal cellulase producers, media and growth optimization, genetic engineering....... Six different media were composed, all based on lignocellulosic waste as substrate. With regards to highest glucose release achieved in wheat straw hydrolysis by crude enzyme application, the most optimal medium was garden and park waste (GPW) supplemented by two nitrogen sources (GPW/N). The nitrogen...

  16. The conversion of lignocellulosics to fermentable sugars - A survey of current research and applications to CELSS (United States)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Baresi, Larry


    This report provides an overview options for converting lignocellulosics into fermentable sugars in CELSS. A requirement for pretreatment is shown. Physical-chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis processes for producing fermentable sugars are discussed. At present physical-chemical methods are the simplest and best characterized options, but enzymatic processes will be the likely method of choice in the future. The use of pentose sugars by microorganisms to produce edibles is possible. The use of mycelial food production on pretreated but not hydrolyzed lignocellulosics is also possible. Simple trade-off analyses to regenerate waste lignocellulosics for two pathways are made, one of which is compared to complete oxidation.

  17. The application of biotechnology on the enhancing of biogas production from lignocellulosic waste. (United States)

    Wei, Suzhen


    Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic waste is considered to be an efficient way to answer present-day energy crisis and environmental challenges. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic material forms a major obstacle for obtaining maximum biogas production. The use of biological pretreatment and bioaugmentation for enhancing the performance of anaerobic digestion is quite recent and still needs to be investigated. This paper reviews the status and perspectives of recent studies on biotechnology concept and investigates its possible use for enhancing biogas production from lignocellulosic waste with main emphases on biological pretreatment and bioaugmentation techniques.

  18. Fractal-Based Research Approach for Lignocellulose-to-Ethanol Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Chi


    Full Text Available The microstructure of porous lignocellulose has irregularity, which represents self-similarity within the scope of a certain scale, and the conversion process of lignocellulose to bioethanol is complex. The fractal theory appears to be well suited to be an effective tool for describing and studying such irregularity and complexity. Why not introduce the fractal theory as a potentially efficient and effective way to describe the process? Here in this paper, the research development of fractal theory and its potential application in lignocellulose microstructure and enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics are discussed.

  19. Functionalized Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Vermerris


    Full Text Available Since the realization that global sustainability depends on renewable sources of materials and energy, there has been an ever-increasing need to develop bio-based polymers that are able to replace petroleum-based polymers. Research in this field has shown strong potential in generating high-performance functionalized polymers from plant biomass. With the anticipated large-scale production of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulosic polysaccharides will be abundantly available renewable feedstocks for biopolymers and biocomposites with physico-chemical properties that match or exceed those of petroleum-based compounds. This review examines the state of the art regarding advances and challenges in synthesis and applications of specialty polymers and composites derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, ending with a brief assessment of genetic modification as a route to tailor crop plants for specific applications.

  20. Commercial feasibility of lignocellulose biodegradation: possibilities and challenges. (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Foda, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric; Ball, Andrew


    The main source of energy supply worldwide is generated from fossil fuels, which undoubtedly are finite and non-environmental friendly resources. Bioethanol generated from edible resources also has economic and environmental concerns. Despite the immense attention to find an alternative (inedible) source of energy in the last two decades, the total commercial production of 1st generation biofuels is limited and equivalent only to approximately 3% of the total road transport fuel consumption. Lignocellulosic waste represents the most abundant biomass on earth and could be a suitable candidate for producing valuable products including biofuels. However, cellulosic bioethanol has not been produced on a large scale due to the technical barriers involved that make the commercial production of cellulosic bioethanol not economically feasible. This review examines some of the current barriers to commercialization of the process.

  1. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project......Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods......, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment...

  2. Biorefining of lignocellulosic feedstock--Technical, economic and environmental considerations. (United States)

    Luo, Lin; van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt


    Biorefinery, an example of a multiple products system, integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass. This study focuses on technical design, economic and environmental analysis of a lignocellulosic feedstock (LCF) biorefinery producing ethanol, succinic acid, acetic acid and electricity. As the potential worldwide demand of succinic acid and its derivatives can reach 30 million tons per year, succinic acid is a promising high-value product if production cost and market price are substantially lowered. The results of the economic analysis show that the designed refinery has great potentials compared to the single-output ethanol plant; even when the price of succinic acid is lowered or the capital investment doubled. In terms of eco-efficiency, the LCF biorefinery shows better environmental performances mainly in global warming potential due to CO(2) fixation during acid fermentation. The overall evaluation of the eco-efficiency depends on the importance attached to each impact category.

  3. Production of nanocrystalline cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass: technology and applications. (United States)

    Brinchi, L; Cotana, F; Fortunati, E; Kenny, J M


    The use of renewables materials for industrial applications is becoming impellent due to the increasing demand of alternatives to scarce and unrenewable petroleum supplies. In this regard, nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, derived from cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer, is one of the most promising materials. NCC has unique features, interesting for the development of new materials: the abundance of the source cellulose, its renewability and environmentally benign nature, its mechanical properties and its nano-scaled dimensions open a wide range of possible properties to be discovered. One of the most promising uses of NCC is in polymer matrix nanocomposites, because it can provide a significant reinforcement. This review provides an overview on this emerging nanomaterial, focusing on extraction procedures, especially from lignocellulosic biomass, and on technological developments and applications of NCC-based materials. Challenges and future opportunities of NCC-based materials will be are discussed as well as obstacles remaining for their large use.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shulga


    Full Text Available Energy and environmental crisis facing the world force us to reconsider the effectiveness or find an alternative use of renewable natural resources, especially organic «waste» by using environmentally friendly technologies. Microbial conversion of renewable resources of biosphere to produce useful products, including biofuels, currently is an actual biotech problem. Anaerobic bacteria of Clostridiaceae family are known as butanol producers, but unfortunately, the microbiological synthesis is currently not economical one. In order to make cost-effective aceton-butanol-ethanol fermentation, solventproducing strains using available cheap raw materials, such as agricultural waste or plant biomass, are required. Opportunities and ways to obtaine economic and ecological processing of lignocellulosic wastes for biobutanol creation are described in the review .

  5. Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Brodeur


    Full Text Available Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  6. Lignocellulosic ethanol production at high-gravity: challenges and perspectives. (United States)

    Koppram, Rakesh; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Xiros, Charilaos; Olsson, Lisbeth


    In brewing and ethanol-based biofuel industries, high-gravity fermentation produces 10-15% (v/v) ethanol, resulting in improved overall productivity, reduced capital cost, and reduced energy input compared to processing at normal gravity. High-gravity technology ensures a successful implementation of cellulose to ethanol conversion as a cost-competitive process. Implementation of such technologies is possible if all process steps can be performed at high biomass concentrations. This review focuses on challenges and technological efforts in processing at high-gravity conditions and how these conditions influence the physiology and metabolism of fermenting microorganisms, the action of enzymes, and other process-related factors. Lignocellulosic materials add challenges compared to implemented processes due to high inhibitors content and the physical properties of these materials at high gravity.

  7. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.


    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... steps, various inhibitors towards microbial fermentation are generated along with the monomeric sugars. The inhibitors can be removed by various detoxification methods but the inclusion of this extra process step increases significantly the ethanol production cost. Compared with glucose, which can....... In order to keep ethanol production cost at a minimum, the major sugars in lignocellulosic biomass (glucose and xylose) must be converted into ethanol due to high raw material cost, typically about 40% of the total ethanol production cost. The need for a microorganism able to utilize both glucose...

  8. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery. (United States)

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael


    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further.

  9. Fuel lignocellulosic briquettes, die design and products study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Moran, J. [Vigo Univ. (Spain). E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales y Minas; Lopez Gonzalez, L.M. [Universidad de La Rioja (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica


    Briquetting of biomass can be done through various techniques. The present work describes the process of designing a taper die and its optimisation for use in a hydraulic machine. The application of an experimental design technique, and the later statistical analysis of the results is presented, applied to a laboratory hydraulic press densification process of lignocellulosic biomass. The most appropriate experiment type is determined for a first set of experiments; calculating, among other things: minimum number of tests to carry out to obtain binding conclusions, most influential factors, and search paths to improve fuel quality. Another experiment type is determined for a second set of experiments, taking account of the most influential factors (pressure, temperature and moisture content), and also the number of tests to carry out considering the improvement of density and friability. Finally, an approximation study of the best product allows conclusions to be reached on product behaviour beyond the experimental design range factors. (Author)

  10. Lab-scale Technology for Biogas Production from Lignocellulose Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Krátký


    Full Text Available Currently-operating biogas plants are based on the treatment of lignocellulose biomass, which is included in materials such as agriculture and forestry wastes, municipal solid wastes, waste paper, wood and herbaceous energy crops. Lab-scale biogas technology was specially developed for evaluating the anaerobic biodegrability and the specific methane yields of solid organic substrates. This technology falls into two main categories – pretreatment equipments, and fermentation equipments. Pretreatment units use physical principles based on mechanical comminution (ball mills, macerator orhydrothermal treatment (liquid hot water pretreatment technology. The biochemical methane potential test is used to evaluate the specific methane yields of treated or non-treated organic substrates. This test can be performed both by lab testing units and by lab fermenter.

  11. Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj


    DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

  12. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency. (United States)

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel


    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  13. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  14. Partially hydrolysed guar gum supplemented comminuted chicken diet in persistent diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial


    N. Alam; Meier, R.; Sarker, S; Bardhan, P.; Schneider, H.; Gyr, N


    Background: Partially hydrolysed guar gum (Benefiber) added to a diet is fermented in the colon, producing short chain fatty acids, which improve intestinal function, including colonic salt and water absorption.

  15. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-In-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Fish Protein Hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M.;


    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were...... hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against...... prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3...

  16. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber (United States)


    Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano–membranes (Millipore – YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers

  17. Optimization of the Preparation of Fish Protein Anti-Obesity Hydrolysates Using Response Surface Methodology



    The enzymatic condition for producing the anti-obesity hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology, which also derived a statistical model for experimental validation. Compared with neutral protease, papain and protamex, the porcine pancreas lipase inhibitory rate of hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was higher with alkaline protease. Results showed that the model terms were significant, the terms of lack of fit were not s...

  18. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment


    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.


    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and C-13- and N-15 content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholip...

  19. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling. (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E


    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only.

  20. 77 FR 28406 - Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2125, ``Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA...): You may access publicly-available documents online in the NRC Library at...

  1. Experience on management of CANDU spent fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.-Y.; Choi, B.-I.; Yoon, J.-H.; Seo, U.-S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Nuclear Environment Technology Inst. (KHNP/NETEC), Yusung-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In Korea, national policy on the management of spent fuel from both PWR and CANDU reactors demands that all the spent fuel be kept within reactor site in until 2016 the time spent fuel interim storage facility might open. Based on the end of 2001, KHNP has 4 CANDU reactors in operation generating approximately 5,000 bundles of spent fuels per each unit annually. The generation, accumulation, and management of CANDU spent fuel by KHNP in Korea are reviewed. CANDU spent fuel storage technology including pool storage in fuel building, concrete silo storage, and on going project for consolidating storage adapting modular vault type MACSTOR concept are outlined. Especially current joint development of storage of CANDU spent fuel for improving land usage is addressed. The explanation of the new consolidated dry storage system includes description of the storage facility, its safety evaluations, and final implementation. Finally future movement on management of spent fuel in Korea is also briefly introduced. (author)

  2. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng


    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  3. Production of hydrolysate from processed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus residues and assessment of its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Miotto BERNARDI


    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to produce protein hydrolysates from by-products of the Nile tilapia fileting process, and to assess the effects of different hydrolysis times on the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysed animal-based protein, in free form and incorporated into a food matrix. Gutted tilapia heads and carcasses were hydrolysed by Alcalase® for different hydrolysis times producing six hydrolysates. The protein content, degree of hydrolysis, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity by the ORAC, FRAP and TEAC methods were analysed. Three mini-hamburger formulations were produced and the lipidic oxidation of mini-hamburger was determined by TBARS. The protein contained in the residue was completely recovered in the process. The hydrolysates varied in their degree of hydrolysis, but presented similar levels of antioxidant activity. In the mini-hamburgers the hydrolysate was capable of delaying oxidation after 7 days of storage. Hydrolysis of tilapia processing by-products produced peptides may be used in the formulation of functional foods.

  4. Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Huijgen, W.; Bermudez, L.; Bakker, R.


    Different pretreatment technologies published in public literature are described in terms of the mechanisms involved, advantages and disadvantages, and economic assessment. Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic biomass include biological, mechanical, chemical methods and various combinations

  5. Investigation of adsorption kinetics and isotherm of cellulase and B-Glucosidase on lignocellulosic substrates (United States)

    Clear understanding of enzyme adsorption during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to enhance the cost-efficiency of hydrolysis. However, conclusions from literatures often contradicted each other because enzyme adsorption is enzyme, biomass/pretreatment and experimental co...

  6. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar


    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Polymer-Grafted Montmorillonite-Lignocellulose Nanocomposites by In Situ Intercalative Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavengwa Bunhu


    Full Text Available Lignocellulose-clay nanocomposites were synthesized using an in situ intercalative polymerization method at 60°C and a pressure of 1 atm. The ratio of the montmorillonite clay to the lignocellulose ranged from 1 : 9 to 1 : 1 (MMT clay to lignocelluloses, wt%. The adsorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. FTIR results showed that the polymers were covalently attached to the nanoclay and the lignocellulose in the nanocomposites. Both TEM and XRD analysis showed that the morphology of the materials ranged from phase-separated to intercalated nanocomposite adsorbents. Improved thermal stability, attributable to the presence of nanoclay, was observed for all the nanocomposites. The nanocomposite materials prepared can potentially be used as adsorbents for the removal of pollutants in water treatment and purification.

  8. [Lignocellulose degrading bacteria and their genes encoding cellulase/hemicellulase in rumen--a review]. (United States)

    Chen, Furong; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lihua; Huang, Li; Dai, Xin


    Rumen of ruminant animals is known as a natural reactor involved in highly efficient lignocelluloses degradation. Rumen fibrolytic microbes have attracted an increasing attention for their potential value in biofuel research. Studies on rumen microbes have traditionally entailed the isolation of fibrolytic bacteria and subsequent analysis of fibrolytic enzymes. Developments in genomic and metagenomic approaches have made it possible to isolate directly genes and gene clusters encoding fibrolytic activities from rumen samples, permitting a global analysis of mechanisms of degradation of lignocellulose in rumen. Research in this field shows that lignocellulose degradation in rumen is a complex process involving a number of different microbes and is effected by a huge array of hydrolytic enzymes in a concerted fashion. This review briefly summarizes results from recent studies, especially metagenomic studies, on lignocellulose degradation in rumen.

  9. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  10. Solar assisted alkali pretreatment of garden biomass: Effects on lignocellulose degradation, enzymatic hydrolysis, crystallinity and ultra-structural changes in lignocellulose. (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Vaidya, Atul N; Das, Sera; Wate, Satish R


    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of solar assisted alkali pretreatment (SAAP) on garden biomass (GB). The pretreatment efficiency was assessed based on lignocellulose degradation, conversion of cellulose into reducing sugars, changes in the ultra-structure and functional groups of lignocellulose and impact on the crystallinity of cellulose, etc. SAAP was found to be efficient for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose that facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. FTIR and XRD studies provided details on the effectiveness of SAAP on lignocellulosic moiety and crystallinity of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed ultra-structural disturbances in the microfibrils of GB as a result of pretreatment. The mass balance closer of 97.87% after pretreatment confirmed the reliability of SAAP pretreatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that SAAP is not only an efficient means of pretreatment but also economical as it involved no energy expenditure for heat generation during pretreatment.

  11. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))


    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A.L.


    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  13. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care (United States)


    WAIl TIME 9 741 5.3 5.3 1000 -.- *; ICTAL 13932 100.0 100.0 VALID CASES 13932 PI SSING CASES 0 18-G °. Table 10 Darnal1 TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT NURSING...91C 4 1668 180C 18.0 67.8 LPN 5 192 29 1 2.1 69.9 91B 91F 91G 6 1452 15.6 15.6 85.5 AIDE 7 762 8.2 8.2 93.7 WARD CLERK 8 582 6.3 6.3 100.0 ICTAL 9282...27o8 94.9 SATURDAY 7 168 5.1 .o1 100.0 ICTAL 3276 100.0 300.0 VALID CASES 3276 MISSING CASES 0 24-C Table 3 ’I" Ft Devens TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT

  14. Occurrence of Priming in the Degradation of Lignocellulose in Marine Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Gontikaki

    Full Text Available More than 50% of terrestrially-derived organic carbon (terrOC flux from the continents to the ocean is remineralised in the coastal zone despite its perceived high refractivity. The efficient degradation of terrOC in the marine environment could be fuelled by labile marine-derived material, a phenomenon known as "priming effect", but experimental data to confirm this mechanism are lacking. We tested this hypothesis by treating coastal sediments with 13C-lignocellulose, as a proxy for terrOC, with and without addition of unlabelled diatom detritus that served as the priming inducer. The occurrence of priming was assessed by the difference in lignocellulose mineralisation between diatom-amended treatments and controls in aerobic sediment slurries. Priming of lignocellulose degradation was observed only at the initial stages of the experiment (day 7 and coincided with overall high microbial activity as exemplified by total CO2 production. Lignocellulose mineralisation did not differ consistently between diatom treatments and control for the remaining experimental time (days 14-28. Based on this pattern, we hypothesize that the faster initiation of lignocellulose mineralisation in diatom-amended treatments is attributed to the decomposition of accessible polysaccharide components within the lignocellulose complex by activated diatom degraders. The fact that diatom-degraders contributed to lignocellulose degradation was also supported by the different patterns in 13C-enrichment of phospholipid fatty acids between treatments. Although we did not observe differences between treatments in the total quantity of respired lignocellulose at the end of the experiment, differences in timing could be important in natural ecosystems where the amount of time that a certain compound is subject to aerobic degradation before burial to deeper anoxic sediments may be limited.

  15. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch


    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin; Mohd Ali Hassan,; Umi Kalsom Md Shah; Norhani Abdullah; Mitsunori Tokura; Hisashi Yasueda; Yoshihito Shirai; Kenji Sakai; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin


    Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content fro...

  16. Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials


    Jacquet, Nicolas; Vanderghem, Caroline; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel


    Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials. Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the process and shearing forces due to the expansion of the moisture. The process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. Cumul effects of both phases include modification...

  17. Production of fuel range oxygenates by supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulosic model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup


    Lignocellulosic model compounds and aspen wood are processed at supercritical hydrothermal conditions to study and understand feedstock impact on biocrude formation and characteristics. Glucose and xylose demonstrate similar yield of biocrude and biochar, similar biocrude characteristics, and it ......Lignocellulosic model compounds and aspen wood are processed at supercritical hydrothermal conditions to study and understand feedstock impact on biocrude formation and characteristics. Glucose and xylose demonstrate similar yield of biocrude and biochar, similar biocrude characteristics...

  18. Direct reuse of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Nader M.A., E-mail:


    Highlights: • A new design for the PWR assemblies for direct use of spent fuel was proposed. • The PWR spent fuel will be transferred directly (after a certain cooling time) to CANDU reactors. • The proposed assembly has four zircaloy-4 tubes contains a number of CANDU fuel bundles (7 or 8 bundles per tube) stacked end to end. • MCNPX is used for the calculations that showed that the burnup can be increased by about 25%. • Acceptable linear heat generation rate in hot rods and improved Pu proliferation resistance. - Abstract: In this paper we proposed a new design for the PWR fuel assembly for direct use of the PWR spent fuel without processing. The PWR spent fuel will be transferred directly (after a certain cooling time) to CANDU reactors which preferably built in the same site to avoid the problem of transportations. The proposed assembly has four zircaloy-4 tubes contains a number of CANDU fuel bundles (7 or 8 bundles per tube) stacked end to end. Each tube has the same inner diameter of that of CANDU pressure tube. The spaces between the tubes contain low enriched UO{sub 2} fuel rods and guide tubes. MCNPX code is used for the simulation and calculation of the burnup of the proposed assembly. The bundles after the discharge from the PWR with their materials inventories are burned in a CANDU cell after a certain decay time. The results were compared with reference results and the impact of this new design on the uranium utilization improvement and on the proliferation resistance of plutonium is discussed. The effect of this new design on the power peaking, moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity and CANDU coolant void reactivity are discussed as well.

  19. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)


    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, K.G.


    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  1. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  2. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.


    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  4. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates – A Study in Brown Norway Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard


    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which...... and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity...... in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey‐based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro...

  5. Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners. (United States)

    Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M


    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  6. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry. (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sánchez


    Full Text Available Nowadays agricultural wastes represent an alternative source of renewable raw materials. Different processes can be applied to these alternative materials to separate their components and obtain chemical products with high added value, such as bioethanol, organic acids, monomers, and biopolymers. The main objective of this work is to study the extraction of hemicelluloses from corn stalks using different reagents [H2SO4, HNO3, HCL, CH3COOH, CF3COOH, Ca(OH2, NaOH]. The raw material was characterized and fractionated with autoclave hydrolysis processes (121 ºC, 1:20 solid/liquid ratio, 60 min, pH = 4 or 8. Monomeric sugars concentration, TDS, MO, MI, density, and final pH of the hydrolysate were determined. Hemicelluloses were precipitated and analyzed by different techniques (FTIR, TGA and GPC. The highest yield of hemicelluloses extraction was achieved by sulphuric acid (0.98 g/L total sugar content and the less effective reagent was Ca(OH2 (0.52 g/L total sugar content.

  8. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates


    Raheleh Ghanbari; Mohammad Zarei; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Amin Ismail; Nazamid Saari


    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and......The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nadalian


    Full Text Available Poultry by-products are great economic sources that need to be exploited. Poultry skin could be utilized to extract protein particularly elastin, which is often incorporated in the production of functional food, cosmetic industry or medicine due to its antioxidative properties. In this study, water-soluble elastin was successfully extracted from broiler and spent hen skin and analysed for antioxidant activities including DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, ABTS and metal chelating activity. Antioxidant activity of elastin extracted from broiler skin hydrolysed by Alcalase (EBA and Elastase (EBE also elastin extracted from spent hen skin hydrolyzed by Alcalase (ESA and Elastease (ESE. The EBE, EBA, ESE and ESA had higher DPPH (16-30, 19-35, 29-48 and 31-50%, respectively, ABTS activity ( 73-79, 60-79, 67-79 and 72-79 %, respectively, and Fe2+chelating activity ( 65-69, 50-56, 71-77 and 62-70 %, respectively. This concluded that water-soluble elastin is a bioactive component that could potentially be used in the formulation of functional foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry

  12. Uses of mechanically separated chicken meat for production from protein hydrolysates different proteolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Silvia Rodrigues de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The use of hydrolyzed protein, derived from animal and vegetable sources, in specific formulations, is an area of growing interest. The aim of this study was to develop different powder hydrolysates with high protein value, from the enzymatic hydrolysis of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, a byproduct of the poultry industry, which can be a low-cost source for the production of these hydrolysates. The raw material used was frozen poultry mechanically deboned meat (MDM purchased from an abattoir in southern Brazil, before use it was thawed under refrigeration and homogenized in a processor by 2 minutes. Three commercial enzymes were used, Papain, Protamex® and Flavourzyme®. The hydrolysis occurred in a thermostatized bath with temperature, time and pH controlled. Proximal composition of the raw material and lyophilized hydrolysates, control analysis such as hydrolysis degree of hydrolysis, protein, total solids, ash and amino acid characterization of the hydrolysates were performed. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey’s averages test. The hydrolyzed obtained from the papain enzyme showed the best behavior, followed by Protamex and Flavourzyme. The hydrolysates from papain enzyme had higher protein content, soluble solids and lower ash content compared to other hydrolysates. The amino acid composition showed that the hydrolyzate from papain has a closer composition to what is recommended by the control organs. It was concluded that the protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken had high protein content characterizing them as a promising raw material in the formulation of special diets.

  13. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and bioactive peptides in human nutrition. (United States)

    Schaafsma, G


    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed and evaluated. A new concept for the safety assessment of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof is developed. Benchmarks for the evaluation are safety of total protein intake, safety of free amino acid intake, documented history of safe use, outcome of questionnaires in efficacy studies and safety studies. Similar to the intake of intact proteins with a history of safe use, the intake of hydrolysates made from them, does not raise concern about safety, provided the applied proteolytic enzymes are food grade and thus of suitable quality. The safety of hydrolysates and of fractions thereof, including the so-called bioactive peptides, should always be assessed by the company before market introduction (company safety assessment). Only when a novel protein source is used or a novel production process is applied, which results in significant changes in nutritional value, metabolic effect or increased level of undesirable substances, that products might fall under novel food regulations. This means that company safety assessment should be reviewed and approved by external independent experts (external safety evaluation) and the novel protein hydrolysate (fraction) is authorized by competent authorities before market introduction. It is argued that good judgement on the safety of hydrolysates and the fractions thereof can be obtained by comparing the anticipated intake of amino acids by these products with those levels to be reasonably expected to be ingested under normal conditions of consumption of a balanced and varied diet. The paper shows a decision tree that can be used for safety assessment.

  14. Preparation, Characterization, and Microbial Degradation of Specifically Radiolabeled [14C]Lignocelluloses from Marine and Freshwater Macrophytes †



    Specifically radiolabeled [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses were prepared from the aquatic macrophytes Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, Rhizophora mangle, and Carex walteriana by using [14C]phenylalanine, [14C]tyrosine, and [14C]cinnamic acid as precursors. Specifically radiolabeled [14C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses were prepared by using [14C]glucose as precursor. The rates of microbial degradation varied among [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses labeled with different lignin precursors within...

  15. A present status for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Park, H. Y.; Seo, K. S


    National policy for management of a spent nuclear fuel does not establish in Korea yet. A storage capacity of a storage pool that is to store the spent nuclear fuel will be exceeded an amount of accumulation from the first Woljin nuclear power plant in 2007. Therefore it is necessary that dry storage facility is secured to store safely the spent nuclear fuel on site of the nuclear power plant until national policy for a back-end spent nuclear fuel cycle is established. In order to store safely spent nuclear fuel, it is important that the present status and technology on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel is looked over. Therefore, the present status on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed so as to develop dry storage system and choose a proper dry storage method domestic.

  16. Effects of Different Substrates on Lignocellulosic Enzyme Expression, Enzyme Activity, Substrate Utilization and Biological Efficiency of Pleurotus Eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunliang Xie


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most valued and delicious mushrooms which are commercially cultivated on various agro-wastes. How different substrates affect lignocellulosic biomass degradation, lignocellulosic enzyme production and biological efficiency in Pleurotus eryngii was unclear. Methods and Results: In this report, Pleurotus eryngii was cultivated in substrates including ramie stalks, kenaf stalks, cottonseed hulls and bulrush stalks. The results showed that ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were found to best suitable to cultivate Pleurotus eryngii with the biological efficiency achieved at 55% and 57%, respectively. In order to establish correlations between different substrates and lignocellulosic enzymes expression, the extracellular proteins from four substrates were profiled with high throughput TMT-based quantitative proteomic approach. 241 non-redundant proteins were identified and 74 high confidence lignocellulosic enzymes were quantified. Most of the cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were highly up-regulated when ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were used as carbon sources. The enzyme activities results suggested cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were significantly induced by ramie stalks and kenaf stalks. Conclusion: The lignocelluloses degradation, most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities of Pleurotus eryngii had positive correlation with the biological efficiency, which depend on the nature of lignocellulosic substrates. In addition, the lignocellulosic enzymes expression profiles during Pleurotus eryngii growth in different substrates were obtained. The present study suggested that most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities can be used as tools for selecting better performing substrates for commercial mushroom cultivation.

  17. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  18. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.


    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  19. Development of process variants for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose in a double-lead screw reactor; Entwicklung von Verfahrensvarianten zur Schnellpyrolyse von Lignocellulose im Doppelschneckenreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornmayer, C.; Dinjus, E.; Henrich, E.; Weirich, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Inst., Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Karlsruhe Research Center (FZK) is working on a two-stage concept for synfuel production from lignocellulose. The contribution describes the process, including properties of and requirements on educts, products, and working fluids. The development of process variants is discussed on the basis of experimental results. (orig.)

  20. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis. (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M


    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.

  1. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol. (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A


    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian A. Lucia


    Full Text Available It is ironic to think that the venerable pulp and paper industry is now considering ways to degrade cellulose. This notion can be understood as a way that the industry can face a protracted downturn in profitability and ever-mounting socio-economic pressures to enhance the efficiency of biofuels production. Many approaches have been recently taken to deconstruct cellulosic biomass, but this Editorial explores one key that may start to explain the increasing momentum in the biofuels community – biotechnology. Two approaches appear to be possible as scientists search for an effective way to unzip cellulose to its key constituents through the use of biotechnology. On the one hand, there are efforts to re-engineer the chemical composition of the tree, rendering it more digestible by enzymes and decreasing the need for mechanical or chemical pretreatment. On the other hand, what we are learning about lignocellulose biosynthesis can be of potential help in designing more efficient systems to essentially reverse that process.

  3. Engineering nonphosphorylative metabolism to generate lignocellulose-derived products. (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Shu; Xiong, Mingyong; Jambunathan, Pooja; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Jilong; Stapleton, Cole; Zhang, Kechun


    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products provides important environmental and economic benefits. Here we report the engineering of an unconventional metabolism for the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle derivatives from D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galacturonate. We designed a growth-based selection platform to identify several gene clusters functional in Escherichia coli that can perform this nonphosphorylative assimilation of sugars into the TCA cycle in less than six steps. To demonstrate the application of this new metabolic platform, we built artificial biosynthetic pathways to 1,4-butanediol (BDO) with a theoretical molar yield of 100%. By screening and engineering downstream pathway enzymes, 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and alcohol dehydrogenases, we constructed E. coli strains capable of producing BDO from D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galacturonate. The titers, rates and yields were higher than those previously reported using conventional pathways. This work demonstrates the potential of nonphosphorylative metabolism for biomanufacturing with improved biosynthetic efficiencies.

  4. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass. (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R


    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson


    A direct conversion of cellulosic wastes, including resin-bonded furniture and building waste, to levulinate esters is being investigated with the view to producing fuels, solvents, and chemical intermediates as well as other useful by-products in an inexpensive process. The acid-catalyzed reaction of cellulosic materials with ethanol or methanol at 200 C gives good yields of levulinate and formate esters, as well as useful by-products, such as a solid residue (charcoal) and a resinous lignin residue. An initial plant design showed reasonable rates of return for production of purified ethyl levulinate and by-products. In this project, investigations have been performed to identify and develop reactions that utilize esters of levulinic acid produced during the acid-catalyzed ethanolysis reaction. We wish to develop uses for levulinate esters that allow their marketing at prices comparable to inexpensive polymer intermediates. These prices will allow a sufficient rate of return to justify building plants for utilizing the waste lignocellulosics. If need is demonstrated for purified levulinate, the initial plant design work may be adequate, at least until further pilot-scale work on the process is performed.

  6. Switchable ionic liquids as delignification solvents for lignocellulosic materials. (United States)

    Anugwom, Ikenna; Eta, Valerie; Virtanen, Pasi; Mäki-Arvela, Päivi; Hedenström, Mattias; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka


    The transformation of lignocellulosic materials into potentially valuable resources is compromised by their complicated structure. Consequently, new economical and feasible conversion/fractionation techniques that render value-added products are intensely investigated. Herein an unorthodox and feasible fractionation method of birch chips (B. pendula) using a switchable ionic liquid (SIL) derived from an alkanol amine (monoethanol amine, MEA) and an organic super base (1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene, DBU) with two different trigger acid gases (CO2 and SO2 ) is studied. After SIL treatment, the dissolved fractions were selectively separated by a step-wise method using an antisolvent to induce precipitation. The SIL was recycled after concentration and evaporation of anti-solvent. The composition of undissolved wood after MEA-SO2 -SIL treatment resulted in 80 wt % cellulose, 10 wt % hemicelluloses, and 3 wt % lignin, whereas MEA-CO2 -SIL treatment resulted in 66 wt % cellulose, 12 wt % hemicelluloses and 11 wt % lignin. Thus, the MEA-SO2 -SIL proved more efficient than the MEA-CO2 -SIL, and a better solvent for lignin removal. All fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

  7. Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong XIA; Xiao-qian XIE; Yao-wu SHI; Yong-ping LEI; Fu GUO


    Spent lithium ion battery is a useful resource of cobalt. In this paper, cobalt was recovered by a chemical process based upon the analysis of the structure and com-position of the lithium ion battery. X-ray diffraction results show that cobalt oxalate and cobaltous sulfate have been obtained in two different processes. Compared with the cobaltous oxalate process, the cobaltous sulfate process was characterized by less chemical substance input and a cobalt recovery rate of as much as 88%. A combination of these two processes in the recycling industry may win in the aspects of compact process and high recovery rate.

  8. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells (United States)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  9. Affinity purification of copper-chelating peptides from sunflower protein hydrolysates. (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier


    Copper-chelating peptides were purified from sunflower protein hydrolysates by affinity chromatography using immobilized copper. A variety of protein hydrolysates were obtained by incubation with the proteases Alcalase and Flavourzyme for different periods of time. Chelating activity was indirectly determined by measuring the inhibitory effect of hydrolysates on the oxidation of beta-carotene by copper. Copper-binding peptides purified from the two hydrolysates that inhibited oxidation by copper the most contained 25.4 and 42.0% histidine and inhibited beta-carotene oxidation 8 and 3 times more than the original hydrolysates, which had 2.4 and 2.6% histidine, respectively. Thus, histidine content is not the only factor involved in antioxidant activity, and probably other factors such as peptide size and amino acid sequence are also important. This work shows that affinity chromatography can be used for the purification of copper-chelating peptides and probably other metals of nutritional interest such as calcium, iron, and zinc. In addition to their antioxidant potential, chelating peptides are of nutritional interest because they increase bioavailability of minerals.

  10. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-cui Duan


    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg.

  11. Production of pullulan from raw potato starch hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans. (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Chen, Jing; Fang, Yaowei; Wu, Leilei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Shujun


    In the present study, hydrolysis of potato starch with marine cold-adapted α-amylase and pullulan production from the hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans isolated from sea mud were conducted. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized as follows: reaction time 2h, pH 6.5, temperature 20°C, and α-amylase amount 12 U/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the DE value of the potato starch hydrolysates reached to 49.56. The potato starch hydrolysates consist of glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and trace of other maltooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ranged 4-7. The maximum production of pullulan at 96 h from the hydrolysate of potato starch was 36.17 g/L, which was higher than those obtained from glucose (22.07 g/L, p<0.05) and sucrose (31.42 g/L, p<0.05). Analysis of the high performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysates of the pullulan product with pullulanase indicated that the main composition is maltotriose, thus confirming the pullulan structure of this pullulan product.

  12. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions. (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O


    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes 3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  13. Amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions from porcine collagen. (United States)

    Ao, Jing; Li, Bo


    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of different hydrolysates from porcine collagen were analyzed. The gelatin was hydrolyzed for antioxidative peptides with various proteases, namely papain, protease from bovine pancreas, protease from Streptomyces, and cocktail mixture of protease from bovine pancreas and protease from Streptomyces. The hydrolysates were assessed using methods of DPPH radical-scavenging ability, metal-chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. It was found that the collagen hydrolysates by different protease treatments had different amino acid compositions and antioxidant properties. However, the contents of Hyp and Pro were improved and the content of Gly was decreased in each collagen hydrolysate compared with collagen. The hydrolysate prepared with the cocktail mixture of proteases, which exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, was separated into 6 fractions by gel filtration chromatography. Fraction 2 was further separated by ion exchange chromatography. Fraction 2b with abundant basic amino acids and Fraction 2d which was slightly acidic fractions had higher radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities, and both Fraction 2b and 2d contained more hydrophobic amino acids. The results confirmed that the antioxidative peptides were rich in Hyp, Pro and Gly, which accounted for half of amino acid composition. This article added further support to the preparation of natural antioxidative peptides from porcine skin collagen.

  14. Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii. (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A


    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9 g L(-1) glucose (initial sugar 62.0 g L(-1)) was used to produce 20.1 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2 g L(-1) total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of 86 g L(-1) wheat straw) was used, the culture produced 25.0 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.60 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.42, respectively. These results are superior to the control experiment and productivity was improved by 214%. When WSH was supplemented with 35 g L(-1) glucose, a reactor productivity was improved to 0.63 g L(-1 )h(-1) with a yield of 0.42. In this case, ABE concentration in the broth was 28.2 g L(-1). When WSH was supplemented with 60 g L(-1) glucose, the resultant medium containing 128.3 g L(-1) sugars was successfully fermented (due to product removal) to produce 47.6 g L(-1) ABE, and the culture utilized all the sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose). These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii P260 has excellent capacity to convert biomass derived sugars to solvents and can produce over 28 g L(-1) (in one case 41.7 g L(-1) from glucose) ABE from WSH. Medium containing 250 g L(-1) glucose resulted in no growth and no ABE production. Mixtures containing WSH + 140 g L(-1) glucose (total sugar approximately 200 g L(-1)) showed poor growth and poor ABE production.

  15. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn


    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  16. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  17. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass. (United States)

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin


    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip.

  18. Antineutrino monitoring of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim


    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries world wide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this letter, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel elements as a function of time, and we illustrate the usefulness of antineutrino detectors in several benchmark scenarios. In particular, we demonstrate how a measurement of the antineutrino flux can help to re-verify the contents of a dry storage cask in case the monitoring chain by conventional means gets disrupted. We then comment on the usefulness of antineutrino detectors at long-term storage facilities such as Yucca mountain. Finally, we put forward antineutrino detection as a tool in locating underground "hot spots" in ...

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL; Yan, Yong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL


    The objective of this research is to collect dynamic experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), the hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The collected CIRFT data will be utilized to support ongoing spent fuel modeling activities, and support SNF transportation related licensing issues. Recent testing to understand the effects of hydride reorientation on SNF vibration integrity is also being evaluated. CIRFT results have provided insight into the fuel/clad system response to transportation related loads. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance, Fuel structure contributes to the SNF system stiffness, There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interaction, and SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous. Because of the non-homogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, finite element analyses (FEA) are needed to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles. The detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained directly from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, detailed FEA is used to understand the global test response, and that data will also be presented.

  20. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S. (and others)


    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP.

  1. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ozmen,


    Full Text Available Biosorption of dyes by lignocelluloses may be an effective method for removing dyes from textile effluents. However, the resulting dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic materials may constitute another pollution problem. An integrated method can solve this problem. Here, various lignocelluloses were tested for their Astrazon Black and Astrazon Blue dyes removal activities. The dye adsorbed after 30 min contact time was 90% (45 mg/L, 70% (35 mg/L, and 98% (49 mg/L for wheat bran, pine cone, and cotton stalk, respectively. These dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic wastes then were used as solid substrates to produce laccase enzyme with Funalia trogii and Trametes versicolor under solid state fermentation (SSF. Among the lignocellulosic substrates, the dye-adsorbed wheat bran served as the best solid substrate for laccase production under SSF. Therefore, it was also tested as a solid source for laccase production under submerged fermentation. During solid state fermentation, these two fungi were able to highly decolorize these dyes. While F. trogii decolorized 80% of Astrazon Black dye adsorbed onto wheat bran, T. versicolor decolorized 86%. On the other hand, the decolorization values for Astrazon Blue dye were 69% and 84%, respectively.

  3. A review of biological delignification and detoxification methods for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes


    Future biorefineries will integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, heat and value-added chemicals. Due to its low price and wide distribution, lignocellulosic biomass is expected to play an important role toward this goal. Regarding renewable biofuel production, bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered the most feasible option for fossil fuels replacement since these raw materials do not compete with food or feed crops. In the overall process, lignin, the natural barrier of the lignocellulosic biomass, represents an important limiting factor in biomass digestibility. In order to reduce the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose, biological pretreatments have been promoted as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional physico-chemical technologies, which are expensive and pollute the environment. These approaches include the use of diverse white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes, which disrupt lignin polymers and facilitate the bioconversion of the sugar fraction into ethanol. As there is still no suitable biological pretreatment technology ready to scale up in an industrial context, white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes have also been proposed to overcome, in a separated or in situ biodetoxification step, the effect of the inhibitors produced by non-biological pretreatments. The present work reviews the latest studies regarding the application of different microorganisms or enzymes as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technologies for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This review also points out the main challenges and possible ways to make these technologies a reality for the bioethanol industry.

  4. The Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Power Generation from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Shen


    Full Text Available In order to solve the energy crisis and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG, renewable energy resources are exploited for power generation. Because lignocellulosic biomass resources are abundant and renewable, various technologies are applied to using lignocellulosic biomass to derive biofuel and electricity. This paper focuses on power generation from lignocellulosic biomass and comparison of the effects of different feedstocks, transportation, and power generation technologies evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA. The inputs and boundaries of LCA vary with different feedstocks, such as forestry wood, agricultural residues, and fast-growing grass. For agricultural residues and fast-growing grass, the transportation cost from field to power plant is more critical. Three technologies for power generation are analyzed both with and without pelletization of lignocellulosic biomass. The GHG emissions also vary with different feedstocks and depend on burning technologies at different plant scales. The daily criteria pollutant emissions of power generation from different lignocellulosic biomass were evaluated with a life cycle assessment model of 2014. It is concluded that bio-power generation is critical with the urgency of greenhouse effects.

  5. Higher heating value prediction of lignocellulosic crop based on their content of main components [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin, B.


    Full Text Available The efficiency of the energy recovery potential of lignocellulosic crops as solid biofuel depends on various characteristics. One of the main characteristics in this field is the higher heating value. It is defined as the amount of heat emitted by the combustion of a fuel, including the heat coming from the condensation of the water vapor. Its value depends on the content of main components of the lignocellulosic crops. Two models predicting the higher heating value have been built based on the content of main components of the following lignocellulosic crops: miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J.M.Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., Jerusalem artichoke (aerial part (Helianthus tuberosus L., fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, fiber corn (Zea mays L. and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. [trials made at Libramont (Belgium in 2007 and 2008]. The first model predicts the higher heating value of the lignocellulosic crops based on sum of the products between the higher heating value of each component and its amount. The second model predicts the higher heating value of the lignocellulosic crop based on a multiple linear regression using step by step least mean squares.

  6. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin


    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  7. Quantitative analysis of complex casein hydrolysates based on chromatography and membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei; Yu Yanjun; He Zhimin


    The enzymatic hydrolysates of casein are so complex that there is no effective method to do quantitative analysis.The common techniques,such as high performance chromatography and SDS-PAGE,can only carry out qualitative analysis.On the basis of membrane separation and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC),standard peptides with different molecular mass range were prepared,and the linear relationships between mass concentration of the standard peptides and the ultraviolet absorption of corresponding peak areas were established.Consequently,mass concentration of the different hydrolysates at different reaction times could be accurately calculated.The combination of chromatography and membrane separation is of great importance to the quantitative analysis of the complex hydrolysates,which can also be applied to the other macromolecular systems,such as carbohydrates.

  8. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates. (United States)

    Kuipers, Bas J H; Alting, Arno C; Gruppen, Harry


    Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and beta-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates obtained was studied as a function of pH. At neutral pH, all soy-derived protein hydrolysates, particularly those from glycinin, obtained by hydrolysis with subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, bromelain, and papain showed a stronger aggregation compared to the non-hydrolyzed ones. This increase in aggregation was not observed upon hydrolysis by trypsin. None of the whey-derived protein hydrolysates exhibited an increase in aggregation at neutral pH. The high abundance of theoretical cleavage sites in the hydrophobic regions of glycinin probably explains the stronger exposure of hydrophobic groups than for the other proteins, which is suggested to be the driving force in the aggregate formation.

  9. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies. (United States)

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh


    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (ΔE) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests.

  10. Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Sea Cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) Gelatin Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  11. The NILE Project — Advances in the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Materials into Ethanol Le projet NILE et la conversion des matériaux lignocellulosiques en éthanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monot F.


    Full Text Available NILE ("New Improvements for Lignocellulosic Ethanol" was an integrated European project (2005-2010 devoted to the conversion of lignocellulosic raw materials to ethanol. The main objectives were to design novel enzymes suitable for the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and new yeast strains able to efficiently converting all the sugars present in lignocellulose into ethanol. The project also included testing these new developments in an integrated pilot plant and evaluating the environmental and socio-economic impacts of implementing lignocellulosic ethanol on a large scale. Two model raw materials – spruce and wheat straw – both preconditioned with similar pretreatments, were used. Several approaches were explored to improve the saccharification of these pretreated raw materials such as searching for new efficient enzymes and enzyme engineering. Various genetic engineering methods were applied to obtain stable xylose- and arabinose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that tolerate the toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The pilot plant was able to treat 2 tons of dry matter per day, and hydrolysis and fermentation could be run successively or simultaneously. A global model integrating the supply chain was used to assess the performance of lignocellulosic ethanol from an economical and environmental perspective. It was found that directed evolution of a specific enzyme of the cellulolytic cocktail produced by the industrial fungus, Trichoderma reesei, and modification of the composition of this cocktail led to improvements of the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated raw material. These results, however, were difficult to reproduce at a large scale. A substantial increase in the ethanol conversion yield and in specific ethanol productivity was obtained through a combination of metabolic engineering of yeast strains and fermentation process development. Pilot trials confirmed the good behaviour of the yeast strains

  12. Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Collagen Hydrolysates from Spanish Mackerel Skin as Influenced by Average Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi


    Full Text Available In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ≤ AMW ≤ 47.82 kDa from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates.

  13. Novel Penicillium cellulases for total hydrolysis of lignocellulosics. (United States)

    Marjamaa, Kaisa; Toth, Karolina; Bromann, Paul Andrew; Szakacs, George; Kruus, Kristiina


    The (hemi)cellulolytic systems of two novel lignocellulolytic Penicillium strains (Penicillium pulvillorum TUB F-2220 and P. cf. simplicissimum TUB F-2378) have been studied. The cultures of the Penicillium strains were characterized by high cellulase and β-glucosidase as well moderate xylanase activities compared to the Trichoderma reesei reference strains QM 6a and RUTC30 (volumetric or per secreted protein, respectively). Comparison of the novel Penicillium and T. reesei secreted enzyme mixtures in the hydrolysis of (ligno)cellulose substrates showed that the F-2220 enzyme mixture gave higher yields in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and similar yields in hydrolysis of pre-treated spruce and wheat straw than enzyme mixture secreted by the T. reesei reference strain. The sensitivity of the Penicillium cellulase complexes to softwood (spruce) and grass (wheat straw) lignins was lignin and temperature dependent: inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of wheat straw lignin was minor at 35°C while at 45°C by spruce lignin a clear inhibition was observed. The two main proteins in the F-2220 (hemi)cellulase complex were partially purified and identified by peptide sequence similarity as glycosyl hydrolases (cellobiohydrolases) of families 7 and 6. Adsorption of the GH7 enzyme PpCBH1 on cellulose and lignins was studied showing that the lignin adsorption of the enzyme is temperature and pH dependent. The ppcbh1 coding sequence was obtained using PCR cloning and the translated amino acid sequence of PpCBH1 showed up to 82% amino acid sequence identity to known Penicillium cellobiohydrolases.

  14. Functional and Comparative Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation by Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; Lee, Hanbyul; Park, Hongjae; Brewer, Heather M.; Carver, Akiko; Copeland, Alex; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Purvine, Samuel O.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Tegelaar, Martin; Tritt, Andrew; Baker, Scott; Choi, In-Geol; Lugones, Luis G.; Wosten, Han A. B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.


    The Basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune is a wood-decaying fungus and is used as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation. Version 3.0 of the genome assembly filled 269 of 316 sequence gaps and added 680 kb of sequence. This new assembly was reannotated using RNAseq transcriptomics data, and this resulted in 3110 (24percent) more genes. Two additional S. commune strains with different wood-decaying properties were sequenced, from Tattone (France) and Loenen (The Netherlands). Sequence comparison shows remarkably high sequence diversity between the strains. The overall SNP rate of > 100 SNPs/kb is among the highest rates of within-species polymorphisms in Basidiomycetes. Some well-described proteins like hydrophobins and transcription factors have less than 70percent sequence identity among the strains. Some chromosomes are better conserved than others and in some cases large parts of chromosomes are missing from one or more strains. Gene expression on glucose, cellulose and wood was analyzed in two S. commune strains. Overall, gene expression correlated between the two strains, but there were some notable exceptions. Of particular interest are CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) that are regulated in different ways in the different strains. In both strains the transcription factor Fsp1 was strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose and wood, when compared to glucose. Over-expression of Fsp1 using a constitutive promoter resulted in higher cellulose and xylose-degrading enzyme activity, which suggests that Fsp1 is involved in regulating CAZyme gene expression. Two CAZyme genes (of family GH61 and GH11) were shown to be strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose, compared to glucose. Proteomics on the secreted proteins in the growth medium confirmed this. A promoter analysis revealed the shortest active promoters for these two genes, as well as putative transcription factor binding sites.

  15. Durable titania films for solar treatment of biomethanated spent wash (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Rokhsareh; S. Ghole, Vikram; Javadpour, Sirus


    The use of TiO2 films for treatment of biomethanated spent wash is reported. The films of TiO2 were formed and photocatalytic performance of the prepared films in degradation of methylene blue and biomethanated spent wash were studied. Photocatalytic use of these films was found to be effective for degradation of biomethanated spent wash. The photocatalyst was used up for 20 cycles without significant reduction in activities showing long life of the catalyst.

  16. Influence of the concentration of locust bean gum on the gelling ability of whey peptic hydrolysates


    Rocha, Cristina M. R.; Hilliou, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; M. P. Gonçalves


    The gelling ability of whey proteins can be changed by limited hydrolysis and by the presence of other components such as polysaccharides; depending on the environmental conditions it can either be improved or impaired. In this work the effect of LBG on the heat-set gelation of aqueous whey protein hydrolysates (10 % w/w) from pepsin was assessed at pH 7.0 by small deformation rheology. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 1.5, ...

  17. Comparison of solubility of pea protein hydrolysate by three analytical methods. (United States)

    Soral-Smietana, M; Amarowicz, R; Swigoń, A; Sijtsma, L


    Pea protein hydrolysate was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis with trypsin. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was controlled by using the pH-stat method. Solubility of the trypsin-treated hydrolysate was tested at nine different pH values starting from 2 up to 10. Protein determinations were carried out using Kjeldahl, Lowry and modified Lowry methods. The results revealed that samples analysed with either the Kjeldahl or Lowry method gave similar values. However, systematic consistent differences existed for those results obtained by the Kjeldahl and the modified Lowry as well as between those results obtained by the Lowry and the modified Lowry.

  18. Two-step process for conversion of lignocellulose into methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, S.R.; Spendler, F.H.


    On-field burning of straw becoming prohibited throughout the EEC. Straw can represent a large potential source of energy for the production of biogas (methane) by anaerobic digestion but the lignocellolosic nature of the straw means that digestion is slow and yields may be poor. This study aims to examine the potential for a biological pretreatment using white-rot fungi to enhance the digestibility of barley straw, and to optimise the subsequent anaerobic digestion of partially delignified material. Among a wide range of white-rot fungi tested, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS strains selectively delignify barly straw and produced a cellulose-rich straw. This cellulose-rich straw more than doubled the yield of reducing sugars during a cellulase digestion, and increased the methane yield by 22% more compared with untreated straw. However, when the dry matter lossed in the pretreatment are included in the estimations, there is no net increase in methane yield compared to untreated straw. As expected the methane yield increased with retention times when straw is digested in continously-fed digesters. Loading rates higher than 1.25 g straw/l digester/day resulted in a rapid drop in pH and inhibition of methanogenesis. Straw pretreated with PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS strains and digested in continously-fed reactors gave the similar results as batch-fed digestion. During anaerobic digestion hemicellulose was hydrolysed to the same extent over the range of retention times studied (10 to 47.5 days) whereas cellulose hydrolysis increased with increasing retention time. Chemical pretreatment of straw was found to be a more efficient method than biological pretreatment. Sodium hydroxide, mild acid and alkaline perioxide pretreatment increased the biogas yield between 15 and 160%. (AB).

  19. Effects of soy protein hydrolysates on maize starch retrogradation studied by IR spectra and ESI-MS analysis. (United States)

    Lian, Xijun; Zhu, Wei; Wen, Yan; Li, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoshuang


    Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The purpose of this study is to find out whether certain soy protein polypeptide in hydrolysates will retard maize starch retrogradation. The results show that all soy protein hydrolysates retard maize starch retrogradation to a certain extent. The IR spectra of hydrolysates and the blends of hydrolysates and maize starch show that the polypeptides might act with reducing end of maize starch during retrogradation. The results of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI-MS] show that the polypeptide (m/z 863) is present in all three hydrolysates remarkedly retarding maize starch retrogradation and its relative abundence is also the highest. So the polypeptide containing seven amino acids probably is the key component to significantly inhibit maize starch retrogradation.

  20. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations. (United States)

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A


    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties.

  1. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  2. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage.

  3. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  4. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.


    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic bioma

  5. By-products resulting from lignocellulose pretreatment and their inhibitory effect on fermentations for (bio)chemicals and fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.; Bakker, R.R.; Baets, P.; Eggink, G.


    Lignocellulose might become an important feedstock for the future development of the biobased economy. Although up to 75 % of the lignocellulose dry weight consists of sugar, it is present in a polymerized state and cannot be used directly in most fermentation processes for the production of chemica

  6. Augmented digestion of lignocellulose by steam explosion, acid and alkaline pretreatment methods: a review. (United States)

    Singh, Joginder; Suhag, Meenakshi; Dhaka, Anil


    Lignocellulosic materials can be explored as one of the sustainable substrates for bioethanol production through microbial intervention as they are abundant, cheap and renewable. But at the same time, their recalcitrant structure makes the conversion process more cumbersome owing to their chemical composition which adversely affects the efficiency of bioethanol production. Therefore, the technical approaches to overcome recalcitrance of biomass feedstock has been developed to remove the barriers with the help of pretreatment methods which make cellulose more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes, secreted by the microorganisms, for its conversion to glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in cost effective manner is a major challenge to bioethanol technology research and development. Hence, in this review, we have discussed various aspects of three commonly used pretreatment methods, viz., steam explosion, acid and alkaline, applied on various lignocellulosic biomasses to augment their digestibility alongwith the challenges associated with their processing.

  7. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy. (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza


    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy.

  8. Factors governing dissolution process of lignocellulosic biomass in ionic liquid: current status, overview and challenges. (United States)

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M


    The utilisation of non-feed lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable bio-energy and synthesis of fine chemical products is necessary for the sustainable development. The methods for the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in conventional solvents are complex and tedious due to the complex chemical ultra-structure of biomass. In view of this, recent developments for the use of ionic liquid solvent (IL) has received great attention, as ILs can solubilise such complex biomass and thus provides industrial scale-up potential. In this review, we have discussed the state-of-art for the dissolution of lignocellulosic material in representative ILs. Furthermore, various process parameters and their influence for biomass dissolution were reviewed. In addition to this, overview of challenges and opportunities related to this interesting area is presented.

  9. The conversion of lignocellulosics to fermentable sugars: A survey of current research and application to CELSS (United States)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Baresi, Larry


    An overview of the options for converting lignocellulosics into fermentable sugars as applied to the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is given. A requirement for pretreatment is shown as well as the many available options. At present, physical/chemical methods are the simplest and best characterized options, but enzymatic processes will likely be the method of choice in the future. The use of pentose sugars by microorganisms to produce edibles at levels comparable to conventional plants is shown. The possible use of mycelial food production on pretreated but not hydrolyzed lignocelluloscis is also presented. Simple tradeoff analysis among some of the many possible biological pathways to regeneration of waste lignocellulosics was undertaken. Comparisons with complete oxidation processes were made. It is suggested that the NASA Life Sciences CELSS program maintain relationships with other government agencies involved in lignocellulosic conversions and use their expertise when the actual need for such conversion technology arises rather than develop this expertise within NASA.

  10. The Challenge of Efficient Synthesis of Biofuels from Lignocellulose for Future Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Mäki-Arvela


    Full Text Available Dehydration of sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF has recently been under intensive study by a multitude of research groups. On the other hand, when lignocellulosic biomass is applied as the starting material, very few studies can be found in the open literature. The direct synthesis of HMF, in line with the idea of “one-pot” synthesis strategy from lignocellulose, is demanding since the overall process should encompass dissolution, hydrolysis, and dehydration steps in a single processing unit. Ionic liquid-assisted methods to produce hydroxymethyl-furfural directly from lignocellulosic biomass are reported here together with a short overview of the most important biofuels. In reality, HMF is not suitable to be used as a single-component fuel as such, and, consequently, methods to produce HMF derivatives suitable as liquid fuels are reported.

  11. Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G


    In a prospective study of a 1-year birth cohort of 158 high-risk infants the effect of feeding breastmilk, a casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) or a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate (Profylac) on the development of cow milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) was assessed and compared. All...... period this regimen was combined with avoidance of solid foods and cow milk protein. All mothers had unrestricted diets and were encouraged to do breastfeeding only. Moreover, avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoking, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom was advised. The infants....... None of the infants showed reactions against Nutramigen or Profylac. In 4 infants symptoms were provoked by breastmilk when the mother ingested cow milk and in 1 only by cow milk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  12. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.


    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project technical databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, M.A.


    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project technical databook provides project-approved summary tables of selected parameters and derived physical quantities, with nominal design and safety basis values. It contains the parameters necessary for a complete documentation basis of the SNF Project technical and safety baseline. The databook is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 presents K Basins SNF related information. Volume 2 (not yet available) will present selected sludge and water information, as it relates to the sludge and water removal projects. The values, within this databook, shall be used as the foundation for analyses, modeling, assumptions, or other input to SNF project safety analyses or design. All analysis and modeling using a parameter available in this databook are required to use and cite the appropriate associated value, and document any changes to those values (i.e., analysis assumptions, equipment conditions, etc). Characterization and analysis efforts are ongoing to validate, or update these values.

  14. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.


    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed.

  15. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates--A Study in Brown Norway Rats. (United States)

    Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B


    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant.

  16. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka


    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  17. Options for decentralized production of bioethanol from lignocelluloses; Moeglichkeiten zur dezentralen Produktion von Bioethanol aus Lignocellulosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, D.; Schneider, R.; Prechtl, S.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ-EVUS, Entwicklungszentrum Verfahrenstechnik, Abt. Umwelt, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)


    The report discusses possibilities for a decentralized production of bioethanol from lignocelluloses. An agricultural distillery is used as an example for a concept of applying lignocelluloses in order to achieve a partial substitution of 'costly' material by products from set-aside agricultural land as well as agricultural by- and waste-products. Target is to reduce production costs to such an extent that a marketable selling price for the produced alcohol may be achieved. This, on the one hand, requires appropriate processes for the decomposition of raw materials and, on the other hand, a systematic recycling of the occurring waste material. (orig.)




    Mixtures of starch and lignocelluloses are available in many industrial, agricultural, and municipal wastes and residuals. In this work, dilute sulfuric acid was used for simultaneous pretreatment of lignocellulose and hydrolysis of starch, to obtain a maximum amount of fermentable sugar after enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase and β-glucosidase. The acid treatment was carried out at 70-150°C with 0-1% (v/v) acid concentration and 5-15% (w/v) solids concentration for 0-40 minutes. Under the ...

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of biofuels: A wiki-based platform for lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Simmons, Blake A.


    We present a process model for a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery that is open to the biofuels academic community. Beyond providing a series of static results, the wiki-based platform provides a dynamic and transparent tool for analyzing, exploring, and communicating the impact of process...... advances and alternatives for biofuels production. The model is available for download (at and will be updated based on feedback from the community of experts in biofuel-related fields. By making the assumptions and performance metrics of this model transparent, we anticipate...... this tool can provide a consensus on the energy-related, environmental, and economic performance of lignocellulosic ethanol....

  20. Functional Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation in the Basidiomycete White Rot Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tegelaar, Martin [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Henrissat, Bernard [Univ. of Marseille (France); Brewer, Heather M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wosten, Han A. B. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Grigoriev, Igor V. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lugones, Luis G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)


    White and brown rot fungi are among the most important wood decayers in nature. Although more than 50 genomes of Basidiomycete white and brown rots have been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, there is still a lot to learn about how these fungi degrade the tough polymers present in wood. In particular, very little is known about how these fungi regulate the expression of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. Here, we used transcriptomics, proteomics, and promoter analysis in an effort to gain insight into the process of lignocellulose degradation.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T.D.


    Movement of Spent N Reactor fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to Dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basins into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogenand oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit ofthe MCOS. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

  2. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)


    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  3. Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana


    Full Text Available This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization

  4. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  5. Preparation of squid skin collagen hydrolysate as an antihyaluronidase, antityrosinase, and antioxidant agent. (United States)

    Nakchum, Ladawan; Kim, Sang Moo


    A collagen was isolated from squid skin, a processing waste product. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid skin collagen hydrolysates were determined to produce a value-added material. Five low-molecular-mass hydrolysate fractions, F1 (>30 kD), F2 (10-30 kD), F3 (3-10 kD), F4 (1-3 kD), and F5 (<1 kD), were manufactured from its enzymatic hydrolysate by ultrafiltration. Fraction F3 had the strongest antihyaluronidase inhibitory activity. Gly, Val, and Pro were major amino acids in F3, while Met, Tyr, and His were minor ones. The molecular mass of F3 was in the range of 3.4 to 10 kD. F3 exhibited copper chelating ability in a concentration-dependent manner. The ferrous chelating ability of F3 was almost 50% at 200 µg/mL. F3 also inhibited tyrosinase activity by 39.65% at 1 mg/mL. Furthermore, F3 had stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 149.94 µg/mL) than ascorbic acid (IC50 = 212.94 µg/mL). Therefore, the squid collagen hydrolysate can be utilized as a nutraceutical or cosmeceutical agent.

  6. Correlating composition and functionality of soy protein hydrolysates used in animal cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.J.


    Abstract Soy protein hydrolysates are often supplemented to chemically defined (CD) media in cell cultures, but there is little understanding of the effect of their composition on their functionality (viable cell density, total immunoglobulin (IgG), and specific IgG production). To

  7. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate. (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan


    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab


    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  9. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.


    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates ob

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein with papain and antioxidation activity of hydrolysate (United States)

    The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of rice protein and the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate were studied. Substrate concentration,enzyme dose,pH value and temperature were selected as factors to optimize the hydrolysis parameters with single—factor and orthogonal tests. Results show the opti...

  11. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application (United States)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati


    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  12. Enhanced succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate by microbial electrolysis cells. (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Bowen; Chen, Kequan; Ouyang, Pingkai


    In this study, Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113 microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to enhance the reducing power responsible for succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate. During corncob hydrolysate fermentation, electric MECs resulted in a 1.31-fold increase in succinic acid production and a 1.33-fold increase in the reducing power compared with those in non-electric MECs. When the hydrolysate was detoxified by combining Ca(OH)2, NaOH, and activated carbon, succinic acid production increased from 3.47 to 6.95 g/l. Using a constant potential of -1.8 V further increased succinic acid production to 7.18 g/l. A total of 18.09 g/l of succinic acid and a yield of 0.60 g/g total sugar were obtained after a 60-h fermentation when NaOH was used as a pH regulator. The improved succinic acid yield from corncob hydrolysate fermentation using A. succinogenes NJ113 in electric MECs demonstrates the great potential of using biomass as a feedstock to cost-effectively produce succinate.

  13. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield. (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O


    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio.

  14. Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. (United States)

    Zhou, Kequan; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene


    Corn protein was hydrolysed by three microbial proteases and further separated by sequential ultra-filtration to 12 hydrolysate fractions which were investigated for free radical scavenging capacity and chelating activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the hydrolysates varied significantly between 65.6 and 191.4μmoles Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dried weight with a small peptide fraction (NP-F3) produced by neutral protease (NP) possessing the highest antioxidant activity. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH()) scavenging activities of the hydrolysate fractions also varied significantly between 18.4 and 38.7μmoles TE/g. Two fractions (AP-F2 and AP-F3) produced by alkaline protease (AP) showed the strongest activity. However, no significant difference was detected on the chelating activity of the fractions. NP-F3, AP-F2, and AP-F3 were incorporated into ground beef to determine their effects on lipid oxidation during 15-day storage period. NP-F3 was the only fraction that inhibited lipid oxidation at both 250 and 500μg/g levels by as much as 52.9%.

  15. In vitro bioactive properties of intact and enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein: targeting the enteroinsular axis. (United States)

    Power-Grant, O; Bruen, C; Brennan, L; Giblin, L; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J


    Enzymatically hydrolysed milk proteins have a variety of biofunctional effects some of which may be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercially available intact and hydrolysed whey protein ingredients (DH 32, DH 45) on markers of the enteroinsular axis (glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, insulin secretion and antioxidant activity) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). A whey protein hydrolysate, DH32, significantly enhanced (P whey protein hydrolysates inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, yielding half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg mL(-1) for the DH 32 and DH 45, samples respectively, and were significantly more potent than the intact whey (P whey protein significantly enhanced (P whey, as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). This antioxidant activity was maintained (DH 32, P > 0.05) or enhanced (DH 45, P whey stimulated GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells compared to vehicle control (P whey proteins and peptides can act through multiple targets within the enteroinsular axis and as such may have glucoregulatory potential.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate. (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Matsushika, Akinori


    We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes.

  17. Characterization of collagen from haddock skin and wound healing properties of its hydrolysates. (United States)

    Dang, Qi Feng; Liu, Han; Yan, Jing Quan; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Liu, Ya; Li, Jing; Li, Jing Jing


    Collagen, one of the most abundant structural proteins found in vertebrates, has been extensively used for biomedical applications. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) skins and to investigate the biological function of ASC hydrolysates in wound healing. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE and FTIR suggested that the ASC is most likely type I collagen with well-maintained helical structures. Both the denaturation and shrinkage temperatures of ASC isolated from haddock skins were lower than those of mammalian collagens. The average molecular weights of hydrolysates decreased with the increase in HCl concentration as well as hydrolysis times. ASC and hydrolysates with more molecules (53.8 kDa) decreased the bleeding and clotting times and promoted order 2 vessel formation effectively. All the experimental groups, including the ASC group and its hydrolysate groups, could accelerate epithelialization and shorten the wound healing time of mice. The ASC from haddock skin could therefore serve as an alternative collagen for skin wound healing.

  18. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova


    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L. were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%, total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder, and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder, respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition. The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  19. Separation of FFA from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Hydrolysate by Means of Membrane Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing


    Different types of commercial porous and non-porous polymeric membranes have been investigated for their capabilities to separate free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysate of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. A regenerated cellulose (RC, PLAC) membrane exhibited the most prominent difference...

  20. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; van Oevelen, D.; Middelburg, J.J.


    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up

  1. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; Van Oevelen, D.; Middelburg, J.J.


    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with 13C-enriched glucose and 15N-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up t

  2. The Secondary Structure of Heated Whey Protein and Its Hydrolysates Antigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANGZhi-hua; ZHU Jun; WU Wei-jing; WANG Fang; RENFa-zheng; ZHANG Lu-daa; GUOHui-yuan


    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FFIR) and circular dichroism (CD) were used to investigate the conformational changes of heated whey protein (WP) and the corresponding changes in the hydrolysates immunoreactivity were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results showed that the contents of α- helix and β-sheet of WP did not decrease much under mild heating conditions and the antigenicity was relatively high; when the heating intensity increased (70 ℃ for 25 min or 75 ℃ for 20 min),the content of α- helix and β-sheet decreased to the minimum,so was the antigenicity; However,when the WP was heated at even higher temperature and for a longer time,the β-sheet associated with protein aggregation begun to increase and the antigenicity increased correspondingly.It was concluded that the conformations of heated WP and the antigenicity of its hydrolysates are related and the optimum structure for decreasing the hydrolysates antigeniity is the least content of α-helix and β-sheet.Establishing the elationship between the WP secondary structure and WP hydrolysates antigenicity is significant to supply the reference for antigenicity reduction by enzymolysis.

  3. Effect of hydrolysable tannins on intestinal morphology, proliferation and apoptosis in entire male pigs. (United States)

    Bilić-Šobot, Diana; Kubale, Valentina; Škrlep, Martin; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Prevolnik Povše, Maja; Fazarinc, Gregor; Škorjanc, Dejan


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydrolysable tannin supplementation on morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the intestine and liver of fattening boars. A total of 24 boars (Landrace × Large white) were assigned to four treatment groups: Control (fed commercial feed mixture) and three experimental groups fed the same diet supplemented with 1%, 2% and 3% of hydrolysable tannin-rich extract. Animals were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and then slaughtered at 193 d of age and 122 ± 10 kg body weight. Diets supplemented with hydrolysable tannin affected the morphometric traits of the duodenum mucosa as reflected in increased villus height, villus perimeter and mucosal thickness. No effect was observed on other parts of the small intestine. In the large intestine, tannin supplementation reduced mitosis (in the caecum and descending colon) and apoptosis (in the caecum, ascending and descending colon). No detrimental effect of tannin supplementation on liver tissue was observed. The present findings suggest that supplementing boars with hydrolysable tannins at concentrations tested in this experiment has no unfavourable effects on intestinal morphology. On the contrary, it may alter cell debris production in the large intestine and thus reduce intestinal skatole production.

  4. Safety evaluation of an IPP tripeptide-containing milk protein hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponstein-Simarro Doorten, A.Y.; Wiel, J.A.G. van de; Jonker, D.


    Tensguard™ is a milk protein hydrolysate containing the lactotripeptide IPP. It is derived from cow's milk, which is present in the human diet and has a safe history of consumption. The final Tensguard™ product, a supplement or a functional food ingredient, is intended for use by people who want to

  5. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  6. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian


    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  7. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  8. Evaluation of the hypotensive potential of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates. (United States)

    Faria, Mariza; da Costa, Elizabete Lourenço; Gontijo, José Antônio Rocha; Netto, Flávia Maria


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive activity of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The hydrolyzed collagens were subjected to ultrafiltration using membranes with cutoffs of 30-50 kDa (permeate P1), 5-8 kDa (permeate P2), or 1-2 kDa (permeate P3) in order to obtain products with a narrower range of molecular size. The hydrolyzed bovine and porcine collagens and their permeates showed low ACE inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 5.42-15.58 mg of protein/mL). However, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, a significant increase in the ACE inhibitory potency of the hydrolyzed collagens was observed (IC(50) = 0.97-4.02 mg of protein/mL). Permeates had a higher ACE inhibitory activity and hypotensive activity than non-ultrafiltered hydrolysates. The P1 permeate of bovine and porcine collagen and the P3 fraction of the porcine collagen hydrolysate exhibited the best antihypertensive activity in vivo, promoting a maximum reduction in blood pressure of 22 mm Hg, 21.33 mm Hg, and 21.33 mm Hg, respectively, while lisinopril promoted a maximum reduction of 51.00 mm Hg. These results suggest that the commercial collagen hydrolysates of bovine and porcine origin may be a potential source of bioactive peptides.

  9. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  10. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhijani, A. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)


    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard.

  11. The First Dissolution of Real Spent Fuel in CRARL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Fang; CHANG; Shang-wen; LUO; Fang-xiang; YAN; Tai-hong; HE; Hui; ZHENG; Wei-fang


    The dissolution of the spent fuel was accomplished in CRARL under the cooperation among three divisions of department of radiochemistry.The experiment was started in 22September,and was completed in 27September.Two batches spent fuel of xx reactor was dissolved in these 6days.About 13liters feed of the co-decontamination

  12. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.


    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  13. Solar assisted alkali pretreatment of garden biomass: Effects on lignocellulose degradation, enzymatic hydrolysis, crystallinity and ultra-structural changes in lignocellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabhane, Jagdish [Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra (India); William, S.P.M. Prince, E-mail: [Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra (India); Vaidya, Atul N. [Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra (India); Das, Sera [Analytical Instrumentation Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra (India); Wate, Satish R. [Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra (India)


    Highlights: • SAAP is an efficient and economic means of pretreatment. • SAAP was found to be efficient in lignin and hemicellulose removal. • SAAP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis. • FTIR, XRD and SEM provided vivid understanding about the mode of action of SAAP. • Mass balance closer of 98% for pretreated GB confirmed the reliability of SAAP. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of solar assisted alkali pretreatment (SAAP) on garden biomass (GB). The pretreatment efficiency was assessed based on lignocellulose degradation, conversion of cellulose into reducing sugars, changes in the ultra-structure and functional groups of lignocellulose and impact on the crystallinity of cellulose, etc. SAAP was found to be efficient for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose that facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. FTIR and XRD studies provided details on the effectiveness of SAAP on lignocellulosic moiety and crystallinity of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed ultra-structural disturbances in the microfibrils of GB as a result of pretreatment. The mass balance closer of 97.87% after pretreatment confirmed the reliability of SAAP pretreatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that SAAP is not only an efficient means of pretreatment but also economical as it involved no energy expenditure for heat generation during pretreatment.

  14. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Field

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat. Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10 were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive

  15. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  16. Some factors to consider in handling and storing spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.


    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Wet storage experience has been summarized earlier in several other reports. This report summarizes pertinent items noted during FY 1985 concerning recent developments in the handling and storage of spent fuel and associated considerations. The subjects discussed include recent publications, findings, and developments associated with: (1) storage of water reactor spent fuel in water pools, (2) extended-burnup fuel, (3) fuel assembly reconstitution and reinsertion, (4) rod consolidation, (5) variations in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition of failed fuel, (6) detection of failed fuel rods, and (7) extended integrity of spent fuel. A list of pertinent publications is included.

  17. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jamhari


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitoryactivity of hydrolysate in meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck. Themeats of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck were used in this study. The meatswere ground using food processor added with aquadest to obtain meat extract. The meat extracts werethen hydrolyzed using protease enzymes to obtain hydrolysate of meat protein. Protein concentration ofmeat extract and hydrolysate of meat protein were determined, and were confirmed by sodium dodecylsulfate - poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate ofmeat protein derived from Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck was also determined.The results showed that protein concentration of hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat,native chicken, and local duck meat was significantly higher than their meat extracts. SDS-PAGEanalysis indicated that hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and localduck had more peptides with lower molecular weight, compared to their meat extracts. Hydrolysate ofmeat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck had potencies in inhibiting ACEactivity, so it will potentially reduce blood pressure.

  19. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong


    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  20. The effect of soy hydrolysates on changes in cholesterol content and its oxidation products in fine - ground model sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bilska


    Full Text Available Background. Meat products belong to products particularly at risk of fat oxidation processes. One of the methods to prevent disadvantageous oxidative changes of lipids in food is the application of antioxidants. Material and methods. The experimental material consisted of fine – ground model sausages. Produced processed meats differed in terms of the presence and amount of acid and enzymatic soy hydrolysates (0.3% and 0.7%. The reference sample comprised processed meat product with no hydrolysate added. Model processed meat products were stored at 4°C for 29 days. The analyses included changes in peroxide value, changes in cholesterol and its oxidation products. Results. It was found that changes of peroxide value, 7α-OHC, 7β-OHC, α-epoxy-C, β-epoxy-C, 20α-OHC, 25-OHC and total oxisterols were statistically significantly affected, apart from storage time, also by the type and level of applied hydrolysates. The addition of enzymatic and acid hydrolysates to batter of experimental sausages effectively inhibited the process of fat oxidation. Conclusions. In samples with enzymatic hydrolysate an approx. 20% loss of initial cholesterol content was recorded. In contrast, in the other samples this loss amounted to approx. 10%. The process of cholesterol metabolism in tested processed meat products was affected by their storage time and the type of added hydrolysate. It was observed that the highest dynamics of cholesterol metabolism occurred in a sample with no hydrolysate added. The level of total oxisterols in the sample with no addition of hydrolysate was over two times higher than in samples with an addition of hydrolysate.