WorldWideScience

Sample records for spent coffee grounds

  1. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  2. Malachite Green Adsorption by Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamimie Atirah Mat, Siti; Zati Hanani Syed Zuber, Sharifah; Rahim, Siti Kartini Enche Ab; Sohaimi, Khairunissa Syairah Ahmad; Halim, Noor Amirah Abdul; Fauziah Zainudin, Nor; Aida Yusoff, Nor; Munirah Rohaizad, Nor; Hidayah Ishak, Noor; Anuar, Adilah; Sarip, Mohd Sharizan Md

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the ability of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions was studied. Batch adsorption tests were carried out to observe the effect of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of malachite green and adsorbent dosage on the removal of dye. The results obtained show that the percentage of dye removal will decreased with the increased of initial concentration of dye in the range of 50 mg/L to 250 mg/L. Besides, percentage removal of dye was also found to be increased as the contact time increased until it reached equilibrium condition. The results also showed that the adsorbent dosage in range of 0.2 g to 1.0 g is proportional to the percentage removal of malachite green dye. Study on the kinetic adsorption and isotherm adsorption has also been investigated. The adsorption isotherm data were described by Langmuir isotherm with high-correlation coefficients while the experimental data showed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model was the best model for the adsorption of MG by SCG with the coefficients of correlation R2 > 0.9978.

  3. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  4. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifa Fan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state cultivation (SSC was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent-ground as substrates for the production of edible mushroom Flammulina under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The strain of F. velutipes LPB 01 was adapted for a coffee husk extract medium. Best results were obtained with 25% spawn rate, though there was not much difference when lower spawn rates (10-20% were used. Ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60% and 55% for coffee husk and spent-ground, respectively. With coffee husk as substrate, first fructification occurred after 25 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 56% with two flushes after 40 days. With spent-ground as substrate, first fructification occurred 21 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 78% in 40 days. There was decrease in the caffeine and tannins contents (10.2 and 20.4%, respectively in coffee husk after 40 days. In coffee spent-ground, the tannin contents decreased by 28% after 40 days. These decrease was attributed to the degradation of caffeine or tannins by the culture because these were not adsorbed in the fungal mycelia. Results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee spent-ground as substrate without any nutritional supplementation for cultivation of edible fungus in SSC. Spent ground appeared better than coffee husk.

  5. Integrated volarization of spent coffee grounds to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtu Haile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable energy source produced from natural oils and fats, and is being used as a substitute for petroleum diesel. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production and its by-products to produce pelletized fuel, which is expected to help the biodiesel production process achieve zero waste. For this experiment, spent coffee grounds sample was collected from Kaldis coffee, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Extraction of the spent coffee grounds oil was then conducted using n-hexane, ether and mixture of isopropanol to hexane ratio (50:50 %vol, and resulted in oil yield of 15.6, 17.5 and 21.5 %w/w respectively. A two-step process was used in biodiesel production with conversion of about 82 %w/w. The biodiesel quality parameters were evaluated using the American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D 6751. The major fatty acid compositions found by Gas chromatography were linoleic acid (37.6%, palmitic acid (39.8%, oleic (11.7%, and stearic acid (8.6%. In addition, solid waste remaining after oil extraction and glycerin ratio (glycerin content from 20-40% was evaluated for fuel pellet (19.3-21.6 MJ/Kg applications. Therefore, the results of this work could offer a new perspective to the production of biofuel from waste materials without growing plants and/or converting food to fuel.

  6. Phenol adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cínthia S; Abreu, Anelise L; Silva, Carmen L T; Guerreiro, Mário C

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) using spent coffee grounds, an agricultural residue, as carbon precursor and two different activating agents: water vapor (ACW) and K(2)CO(3) (ACK). These ACs presented the microporous nature and high surface area (620-950 m(2) g(-1)). The carbons, as well as a commercial activated carbon (CAC) used as reference, were evaluated as phenol adsorbent showing high adsorption capacity (≈150 mg g(-1)). The investigation of the pH solution in the phenol adsorption was also performed. The different activating agents led to AC with distinct morphological properties, surface area and chemical composition, although similar phenol adsorption capacity was verified for both prepared carbons. The production of activated carbons from spent coffee grounds resulted in promising adsorbents for phenol removal while giving a noble destination to the residue.

  7. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudeckova, H; Neureiter, M; Obruca, S; Frühauf, S; Marova, I

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the potential bioconversion of spent coffee grounds (SCG) into lactic acid (LA). SCG were hydrolysed by a combination of dilute acid treatment and subsequent application of cellulase. The SCG hydrolysate contained a considerable amount of reducing sugars (9·02 ± 0·03 g l -1 , glucose; 26·49 ± 0·10 g l -1 galactose and 2·81 ± 0·07 g l -1 arabinose) and it was used as a substrate for culturing several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LA-producing Bacillus coagulans. Among the screened micro-organisms, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1825 was identified as the most promising producer of LA on a SCG hydrolysate. Despite the inhibitory effect exerted by furfural and phenolic compounds in the medium, reasonably high LA concentrations (25·69 ± 1·45 g l -1 ) and yields (98%) were gained. Therefore, it could be demonstrated that SCG is a promising raw material for the production of LA and could serve as a feedstock for the sustainable large-scale production of LA. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) represent solid waste generated in millions of tonnes by coffee-processing industries. Their disposal represents a serious environmental problem; however, SCG could be valorized within a biorefinery concept yielding various valuable products. Herein, we suggest that SCG can be used as a complex carbon source for the lactic acid production. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Bio-refinery approach for spent coffee grounds valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Martins, António A; Caetano, Nídia S

    2018-01-01

    Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorization, following the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods. In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other products, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carotenoids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown on soil enriched with spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rebeca; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, José Alberto; Casal, Susana

    2012-02-07

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%). This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  10. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Casal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v. All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%. This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  11. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A spent coffee grounds based biorefinery for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, antioxidants and biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas. The in-situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds was carried out in a large scale (4 kg), which led to 80-83% biodiesel yield. In addition, a large number of value added and diversified products viz. polyhydroxyalkanoates, biosorbent, activated carbon, polyol, polyurethane foam, carotenoid, phenolic antioxidants, and green composite are obtained from spent coffee grounds. The principles of circular economy are applied to develop a sustanaible biorefinery based on valorisation of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  14. Magnetically modified spent coffee grounds for dyes removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Horská, Kateřina; Svobodová, Barbora; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 234, č. 2 (2012), s. 345-350 ISSN 1438-2377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09052; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : coffee grounds * magnetic fluid * adsorption * dyes * magnetic solid-phase extraction Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2012

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spent coffee grounds as air-propelled abrasive grit for weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) represent a significant food waste residue. Value-added uses for this material would be beneficial. Gritty agricultural residues, such as corncob grit, can be employed as abrasive air-propelled agents for organically-compatible postemergence shredding of weed seedlings sel...

  17. Production and physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose films enriched with spent coffee grounds polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Teixeira, Jose A.

    2018-01-01

    Extracts rich in polysaccharides were obtained by alkali pretreatment (PA) or autohydrolysis (PB) of spent coffee grounds, and incorporated into a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based film aiming at the development of bio-based films with new functionalities. Different concentrations of PA or PB (up...

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee grounds with different waste feedstocks for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Baek, Gahyun; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-02-01

    Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane. Meanwhile, the other co-substrates enhanced the reaction rate while maintaining methane production at a comparable or higher level to that of the mono-digestion of spent coffee ground. The reaction rate increased with the proportion of co-substrates without a significant loss in methanation potential. These results suggest the potential to reduce the reaction time and thus the reactor capacity without compromising methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crude ethanolic extract from spent coffee grounds: Volatile and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Julio C; Arruda, Neusa P; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-11-01

    Espresso capsule consumption and spent coffee ground (SCG) generation have increased, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the volatile profile (VP), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the Crude ethanolic extract obtained from the SCG in capsules. The extract yield was superior to the ether yield because a higher unsaponifiable matter (U.M.) amount was recovered by ethanol. The obtained VP (70 compounds) was typical of roasted coffee oil. Furthermore, chemometric analysis using principal components (PCA) discriminated the extracts and grouped the replicates for each sample, which showed the repeatability of the extraction process. The AA ranged from 18.4 to 23.6 (mg extract mg DPPH -1 ) and the SPF from 2.27 to 2.76. The combination of the coffee VP, AA and SPF gave the espresso SCG's crude ethanolicextract, desirable properties that can be used in cosmetic and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Converting environmental risks to benefits by using spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a valuable resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Marinos; Agapiou, Agapios; Omirou, Michalis; Vyrides, Ioannis; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Maratheftis, Grivas; Fasoula, Dionysia

    2018-06-02

    Coffee is perhaps one of the most vital ingredients in humans' daily life in modern world. However, this causes the production of million tons of relevant wastes, i.e., plastic cups, aluminum capsules, coffee chaff (silver skin), and spent coffee grounds (SCG), all thrown untreated into landfills. It is estimated that 1 kg of instant coffee generates around 2 kg of wet SCG; a relatively unique organic waste stream, with little to no contamination, separated directly in the source by the coffee shops. The produced waste has been under researchers' microscope as a useful feedstock for a number of promising applications. SCG is considered a valuable, nutrients rich source of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lipids, chlorogenic and protocatechuic acid, melanoidins, diterpenes, xanthines, vitamin precursors, etc.) and a useful resource material in other processes (e.g., soil improver and compost, heavy metals absorbent, biochar, biodiesel, pellets, cosmetics, food, and deodorization products). This paper aims to provide a holistic approach for the SCG waste management, highlighting a series of processes and applications in environmental solutions, food industry, and agricultural sector. Thus, the latest developments and approaches of SCG waste management are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of autohydrolysis conditions to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Autohydrolysis, which is an eco-friendly technology that employs only water as extraction solvent, was used to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). Experimental assays were carried out using different temperatures (160–200 °C), liquid/solid ratios (5–15 ml/g SCG.......46 mg TE/g SCG, and TAA = 66.21 mg α-TOC/g SCG) consisted in using 15 ml water/g SCG, at 200 °C during 50 min. Apart from being a green technology, autohydrolysis under optimized conditions was demonstrated to be an efficient method to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from SCG....

  3. Effect of feeding spent coffee grounds on the feedlot performance and carcass quality of fattening pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S S; Chawla, J S

    1986-01-01

    Twelve fattening pigs of large white Yorkshire breed, divided into three equal groups, were fed isonitrogenous concentrate mixture containing 0, 10 and 15% spent coffee grounds (SCG) for 70 days. The crude fibre and ether extract content increased while that of nitrogen-free extract decreased with the increase in the level of SCG. The daily live weight gain and the feed conversion efficiency were depressed significantly at a 15% level of SCG. However, the inclusion of SCG in the rations did not have any adverse effect on carcass quality. It was concluded that SCG at 10% can be included in the ration of pigs safely without affecting their health. 10 references.

  4. Spent coffee grounds-based activated carbon preparation for sequestering of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Lam, Keat-Ying; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Yeong, Yin-Fong; Lam, Man-Kee; Ho, Yeek-Chia

    2016-11-01

    The key of reported work was to optimize the fabricating factors of spent coffee grounds-based activated carbon (SCG-bAC) used to sequester Malachite Green (MG) form aqueous solution via adsorption process. The fabricating factors of impregnation ratio with ortho-phosphoric acid, activation temperature and activation time were simultaneously optimized by central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) targeting on maximum removal of MG. At the optimum condition, 96.3% of MG was successfully removed by SCG-bAC at the impregnation ratio with ortho-phosphoric acid of 0.50, activation temperature of 554°C and activation time of 31.4 min. Statistical model that could predict the MG removal percentage was also derived and had been statistically confirmed to be significant. Subsequently, the MG adsorption equilibrium data was found well-fitted to Langmuir isotherm model, indicating the predominance of monolayer adsorption of MG on SCG-bAC surface. To conclude, the findings from the this study unveil the potential of spent coffee grounds as an alternative precursor in fabricating low-cost AC for the treatment of wastewater loaded with MG pollutant.

  5. Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Rim, Jong-Su; Na, Youngjun; Lee, Sang Rak

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum . Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of 39°C with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = 56.8±0.4 kg) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in 4×4 Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (pdigestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (pdigestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

  6. Development of functional composts using spent coffee grounds, poultry manure and biochar through microbial bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S Aalfin; Yoo, Jangyeon; Kim, Eok-Jo; Chang, Jae-Soo; Park, Young-In; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2017-11-02

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), poultry manure, and agricultural waste-derived biochar were used to manufacture functional composts through microbial bioaugmentation. The highest yield of tomato stalk-based biochar (40.7%) was obtained at 450°C with a surface area of 2.35 m 2 g -1 . Four pilot-scale composting reactors were established to perform composting for 45 days. The ratios of NH 4 + -N/NO 3 - -N, which served as an indicator of compost maturity, indicate rapid, and successful composting via microbial bioaugmentation and biochar amendment. Moreover, germination indices for radish also increased by 14-34% through augmentation and biochar amendment. Microbial diversity was also enhanced in the augmented and biochar-amended composts by 7.1-8.9%, where two species of Sphingobacteriaceae were dominant (29-43%). The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were enhanced by 14.1% and 8.6% in the fruits of pepper plants grown in the presence of the TR-2 (augmentation applied only) and TR-3 (both augmentation and biochar amendment applied) composts, respectively. Total phenolic content was also enhanced by 68% in the fruits of the crops grown in TR-3. Moreover, the other compost, TR-L (augmentation applied only), boosted DPPH scavenging activity by 111% in leeks compared with commercial organic fertilizer, while TR-3 increased the phenolic content by 44.8%. Composting facilitated by microbial augmentation and biochar amendment shortened the composting time and enhanced the quality of the functional compost. These results indicate that functional compost has great potential to compete with commercially available organic fertilizers and that the novel composting technology could significantly contribute to the eco-friendly recycling of organic wastes such as spent coffee grounds, poultry manure, and agricultural wastes.

  7. THE POSSIBILITY OF DISPOSING OF SPENT COFFEE GROUND WITH ENERGY RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Ciesielczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current policy of waste management requires, above all, a gradual reduction of waste amount and, to a larger extent, forces us to seek new methods of waste disposal. Recycling the energy contained in biomass waste is a more and more universally applied method of thermal converting. Biomass combustion allows saving fossil fuels which fits into sustainable development. This paper checks the possibility of using spent coffee ground (SCG in energy recycling using a combustion process. This particular biomass type up to now has not been widely examined, which inclines to consider its usage as a potential additive to alternative fuels. In the study, we examined the quality of fuel, which was in a form of briquette, made of beech shavings with 10 and 25% of post-exploitation waste obtained during the process of coffee infusion. This waste, if fresh, is distinguished by its high hydration. However, after drying it may constitute a valuable additive to alternative fuels. It increases the calorific value of fuel and reduces briquettes’ hardness what contributes to reducing resistance of conveying screw in stoves.

  8. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  9. Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds for bio-hydrotreated diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phimsen, Songphon; Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Tomohiko; Kiatkittipong, Kunlanan; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The spent coffee oil with high FFAs was hydrotreated to liquid biofuel. • Pd/C gave higher olefins while NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 gave higher isoparaffins liquid products. • The diesel fuel fraction can have a cetane number as high as 80. • The physiochemical properties of diesel fraction comply with commercial standard. - Abstract: Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds is utilized as a renewable source for bio-hydrotreated fuel production. In the present work, oil yield up to 13% can be obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane as a solvent. As the extracted oil contained high content of free fatty acids (6.14%), therefore one step alkali-catalyzed for ester based biodiesel production is impractical. Hydrotreating of extracted oil was performed over two catalysts i.e. NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 and Pd/C with different operating parameters i.e. reaction time, operating temperature, and H_2/oil. It was found that the reaction time of 2 h and the reaction temperature of 400 °C are favorable operating conditions. The liquid products mostly consisted of n-pentadecane and n-heptadecane, which contain one carbon atom shorter than the corresponding fatty acid (C_n_−_1) i.e. palmitic and stearic acid, respectively. Unfavorable cracking of diesel product is pronounced at high temperature and prolonged reaction time. In addition, although increased H_2/oil promoted overall reaction and hydrodeoxygenation activity (C_n_−_1/C_n decreased) for both catalysts, hydrocracking is enhanced over Pd/C, leading to significant increase in gasoline yield. Moreover, Pd/C gave higher olefin content in liquid product (22.3 wt%) than NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 (4.8 wt%). However, NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 shows higher isomerization activity. The amount of isoparaffins catalyzed by NiMo/γ-Al_2O_3 and Pd/C were 10.8 and 1.7 wt%, respectively. Physiochemical analysis of the diesel fraction exhibit satisfactory properties. The density and kinematic viscosity were consistent with the specification of

  10. In-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for sustainable biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae W

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses in-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) for the production of biodiesel. For in-situ transesterification process, the methanol, organic solvent and acid catalyst were mixed with wet SCG in one pot and the mixture was heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. Maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 16.75wt.% based on the weight of dry SCG at 95°C. Comprehensive experiments were conducted with varying temperatures and various amounts of moisture, methanol, co-solvent and acid catalyst. Moderate polar and alcohol-miscible organic solvent is suitable for the high FAME yield. Unsaturated FAMEs are subject to oxidative cleavage by nitric acid and shorter chain (C6 and C10) FAMEs were mainly produced while sulfuric acid yielded long chain unsaturated FAMEs (C16 and C18). Utilization of wet SCGs as a biodiesel feedstock gives economic and environmental benefits by recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wet in situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds with supercritical methanol for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeesung; Kim, Bora; Park, Jeongseok; Yang, Jeongwoo; Lee, Jae W

    2018-07-01

    This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58.4 ml/g and reaction time 20 min. Direct use of wet SCG waste as feedstock for supercritical biodiesel production eliminates the conventional dying process and the need of catalyst and also reduces environmental problems caused by landfill accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solvo-thermal in situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Son, Jeesung; Lee, Jae W

    2018-02-01

    This work addresses non-catalytic biodiesel production from spent coffee ground (SCG) by integrating solvo-thermal effect of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) with in situ transesterification over 160 °C. The SCG water content has a positive effect on the DCE hydrolysis up to 60 wt% due to the bimolecular substitution mechanism. The hydrolysis gives an acidic environment favorable for cellulose decomposition, SCG particle size reduction and lipid conversion. The optimal fatty acid ethyl ester yield was 11.8 wt% based on the mass of dried SCG with 3.36 ml ethanol and 3.16 ml DCE at 196.8 °C through the response surface methodology. Using the solvo-thermal effect, direct utilization of wet SCG as a biodiesel feedstock provides not only economic feasibility without using drying process and additional acid catalyst but also environmental advantage of recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of different rates of spent coffee grounds (SCG) on composting process, gaseous emissions and quality of end-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia; Fonseca, João; Aires, Alfredo; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) in composting for organic farming is a viable way of valorising these agro-industrial residues. In the present study, four treatments with different amounts of spent coffee grounds (SCG) were established, namely, C 0 (Control), C 10 , C 20 and C 40 , containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% of SCG (DM), respectively; and their effects on the composting process and the end-product quality characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were completed with Acacia dealbata L. shoots and wheat straw. At different time intervals during composting, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions were measured and selected physicochemical characteristics of the composts were evaluated. During the composting process, all treatments showed a substantial decrease in total phenolics and total tannins, and an important increase in gallic acid. Emissions of greenhouse gases were very low and no significant difference between the treatments was registered. The results indicated that SCG may be successfully composted in all proportions. However C 40 , was the treatment which combined better conditions of composting, lower GHG emissions and better quality of end product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ulva biomass as a co-substrate for stable anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds in continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Ulva biomass was evaluated as a co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds at varying organic loads (0.7-1.6g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/Ld) and substrate compositions. Co-digestion with Ulva (25%, COD basis) proved beneficial for SCG biomethanation in both terms of process performance and stability. The beneficial effect is much more pronounced at higher organic and hydraulic loads, with the highest COD removal and methane yield being 51.8% and 0.19L/g COD fed, respectively. The reactor microbial community structure changed dynamically during the experiment, and a dominance shift from hydrogenotrophic to aceticlastic methanogens occurred with increase in organic loading rate. Network analysis provides a comprehensive view of the microbial interactions involved in the system and confirms a direct positive correlation between Ulva input and methane productivity. A group of populations, including Methanobacterium- and Methanoculleus-related methanogens, was identified as a possible indicator for monitoring the biomethanation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon dioxide assisted sustainability enhancement of pyrolysis of waste biomass: A case study with spent coffee ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Cho, Seong-Heon; Song, Hocheol; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-01-01

    This work mainly presents the influence of CO2 as a reaction medium in the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis) of waste biomass. Our experimental work mechanistically validated two key roles of CO2 in pyrolysis of biomass. For example, CO2 expedited the thermal cracking of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of spent coffee ground (SCG) and reacted with VOCs. This enhanced thermal cracking behavior and reaction triggered by CO2 directly led to the enhanced generation of CO (∼ 3000%) in the presence of CO2. As a result, this identified influence of CO2 also directly led to the substantial decrease (∼ 40-60%) of the condensable hydrocarbons (tar). Finally, the morphologic change of biochar was distinctive in the presence of CO2. Therefore, a series of the adsorption experiments with dye were conducted to preliminary explore the physico-chemical properties of biochar induced by CO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage co-composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cow dung (CD) (at 0%, 20%, and 35%) and/or spent coffee grounds (SCGs) (at 0%, 30%, and 45%) as amendments in the two-stage co-composting of green waste (GW); the percentages refer to grams of amendment per 100g of GW based on dry weights. The combined addition of CD and SCGs improved the conditions during co-composting and the quality of the compost product in terms of composting temperature; particle-size distribution; mechanical properties; nitrogen changes; low-molecular weight compounds; humic substances; the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; enzyme activities; the contents of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium; and the toxicity to germinating seeds. The combined addition of 20% CD and 45% SCGs to GW resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product and did so in only 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, 29 gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve their antiox......Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, 29 gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve...... the technique and the coating material greatly influenced the encapsulation of antioxidant PC. The best results were achieved when PC were encapsulated by freeze-drying using maltodextrin as wall material. Under these conditions, the amount of PC and FLA retained in the encapsulated sample corresponded to 62...

  18. High Antioxidant Action and Prebiotic Activity of Hydrolyzed Spent Coffee Grounds (HSCG) in a Simulated Digestion-Fermentation Model: Toward the Development of a Novel Food Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzella, Lucia; Pérez-Burillo, Sergio; Pastoriza, Silvia; Martín, María Ángeles; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2017-08-09

    Spent coffee grounds are a byproduct with a large production all over the world. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a simulated digestion-fermentation treatment on hydrolyzed spent coffee grounds (HSCG) and to investigate the antioxidant properties of the digestion and fermentation products in the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. The potentially bioaccessible (soluble) fractions exhibited high chemoprotective activity in HepG2 cells against oxidative stress. Structural analysis of both the indigestible (insoluble) and soluble material revealed partial hydrolysis and release of the lignin components in the potentially bioaccessible fraction following simulated digestion-fermentation. A high prebiotic activity as determined from the increase in Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) following microbial fermentation of HSCG was also observed. These results pave the way toward the use of HSCG as a food supplement.

  19. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Chun Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2. The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  20. Fabrication of magnetic biochar as a treatment medium for As(V) via pyrolysis of FeCl3-pretreated spent coffee ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Yoon, Kwangsuk; Kwon, Eilhann E.; Biswas, Jayanta Kumar; Song, Hocheol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the preparation of magnetic biochar from N 2 - and CO 2 -assisted pyrolysis of spent coffee ground (SCG) for use as an adsorption medium for As(V), and the effects of FeCl 3 pretreatment of SCG on the material properties and adsorption capability of the produced biochar. Pyrolysis of FeCl 3 -pretreated SCG in CO 2 atmosphere produced highly porous biochar with its surface area ∼70 times greater than that produced in N 2 condition. However, despite the small surface area, biochar produced in N 2 showed greater As(V) adsorption capability. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer analyses identified Fe 3 C and Fe 3 O 4 as dominant mineral phases in N 2 and CO 2 conditions, with the former being much more adsorptive toward As(V). The overall results suggest functional biochar can be facilely fabricated by necessary pretreatment to expand the applicability of biochar for specific purposes. - Highlights: • Fabrication of biochar via pyrolysis of FeCl 3 pretreated spent coffee ground. • Mineral phases of Fe 3 O 4 in CO 2 environment and Fe 3 C in N 2 environment. • As(V) adsorption governed by Fe mineral phase rather than porosity.

  1. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  3. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  4. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication of magnetic biochar as a treatment medium for As(V) via pyrolysis of FeCl3-pretreated spent coffee ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Yoon, Kwangsuk; Kwon, Eilhann E; Biswas, Jayanta Kumar; Song, Hocheol

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the preparation of magnetic biochar from N 2 - and CO 2 -assisted pyrolysis of spent coffee ground (SCG) for use as an adsorption medium for As(V), and the effects of FeCl 3 pretreatment of SCG on the material properties and adsorption capability of the produced biochar. Pyrolysis of FeCl 3 -pretreated SCG in CO 2 atmosphere produced highly porous biochar with its surface area ∼70 times greater than that produced in N 2 condition. However, despite the small surface area, biochar produced in N 2 showed greater As(V) adsorption capability. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer analyses identified Fe 3 C and Fe 3 O 4 as dominant mineral phases in N 2 and CO 2 conditions, with the former being much more adsorptive toward As(V). The overall results suggest functional biochar can be facilely fabricated by necessary pretreatment to expand the applicability of biochar for specific purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Ramirez, Monica J; Orrego, Carlos E; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2017-12-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve their antioxidant activity was also assessed. The contents of PC and flavonoids (FLA), as well as the antioxidant activity of the encapsulated samples were determined in order to verify the efficiency of each studied condition. Additional analyses for characterization of the samples were also performed. Both the technique and the coating material greatly influenced the encapsulation of antioxidant PC. The best results were achieved when PC were encapsulated by freeze-drying using maltodextrin as wall material. Under these conditions, the amount of PC and FLA retained in the encapsulated sample corresponded to 62% and 73%, respectively, and 73-86% of the antioxidant activity present in the original extract was preserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coffee and spent coffee extracts protect against cell mutagens and inhibit growth of food-borne pathogen microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, C. (Concepción); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Arbillaga, L. (Leire); Vitas, A.I. (Ana Isabel); Bravo, J. (Jimena); Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mut...

  9. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun; Seo, Seongwon

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  10. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  11. Furan in roasted, ground and brewed coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczyńska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Majewska, Ewa; Tarnowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular hot beverage in the world. The annual coffee production in 2010, 2014 and 2016 was 8.1, 9.0 and 9.3 million tons respectively. There are more than 100 coffee species, but only two of them: Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) have gained commercial importance. During roasting of green coffee beans not only desirable compounds are formed, that exert positive influence on the taste and flavour of coffee, but also small quantities of undesirable ones. Furan (C4H4O) is one of the latter. Furan is a volatile compound (boiling temp. of 31.4 oC) formed during thermal processing of food. The toxicity of furan has been well documented and it is classified as “possible human carcinogen” (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for furan formation during food processing. It can be formed from carbohydrates, amino acids by their thermal degradation or thermal re-arrangement and by oxidation of ascorbic acid and polyunsaturated acids and carotenoids. High concentrations of furan have been reported in coffee, baked and roasted food and in food subjected to preserving in cans and jars. Furan levels in brewed coffee are typically near or below 120 μg/L, but it can approach thousands μg/kg in roasted whole beans or ground coffee. The highest concentration of furan in roasted coffee reaches the level of 7000 μg/kg. Taking into account that coffee is the most popular hot drink, it becomes the main contributor to furan exposure from dietary sources for adults. In this article the published scientific papers concerned with the presence of furan in roasted non-brewed and brewed coffee have been reviewed. The formation mechanisms and occurrence of furan in coffee and the harmful influence of furan on the consumer health have been discussed.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.

  13. Two-step sequential pretreatment for the enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of coffee spent waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Swarna; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, eight different pretreatments of varying nature (physical, chemical and physico-chemical) followed by a sequential, combinatorial pretreatment strategy was applied to spent coffee waste to attain maximum sugar yield. Pretreated samples were analysed for total reducing sugar, individual sugars and generation of inhibitory compounds such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) which can hinder microbial growth and enzyme activity. Native spent coffee waste was high in hemicellulose content. Galactose was found to be the predominant sugar in spent coffee waste. Results showed that sequential pretreatment yielded 350.12mg of reducing sugar/g of substrate, which was 1.7-fold higher than in native spent coffee waste (203.4mg/g of substrate). Furthermore, extensive delignification was achieved using sequential pretreatment strategy. XRD, FTIR, and DSC profiles of the pretreated substrates were studied to analyse the various changes incurred in sequentially pretreated spent coffee waste as opposed to native spent coffee waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the possibility for obtaining oil from the spend coffee grounds as potential raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličković Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater, whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 g/cm3, and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.

  15. Spent coffee enhanced biomethane potential via an integrated hydrothermal carbonization-anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codignole Luz, Fábio; Volpe, Maurizio; Fiori, Luca; Manni, Alessandro; Cordiner, Stefano; Mulone, Vincenzo; Rocco, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    This study reports the implications of using spent coffee hydrochar as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Three different spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180, 220 and 250 °C, 1 h residence time, were investigated for their biomethane potential in AD process inoculated with cow manure. Spent coffee hydrochars were characterized in terms of ultimate, proximate and higher heating value (HHV), and their theoretical bio-methane yield evaluated using Boyle-Buswell equation and compared to the experimental values. The results were then analyzed using the modified Gompertz equation to determine the main AD evolution parameters. Different hydrochar properties were related to AD process performances. AD of spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180 °C showed the highest biomethane production rate (46 mL CH 4 /gVS . d), a biomethane potential of 491 mL/gVS (AD lasting 25 days), and a biomethane gas daily composition of about 70%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elemental content in ground and soluble/instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Iskander, F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of thirty-four elements in twelve coffee brands has been measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples investigated included four brands of commercially available ground coffee and eight brands of soluble/instant coffee. The elements measured were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, U, V, Yb and Zn. Twenty four elements were found to be below the detection limit in one or more samples. These elements were Ce, Cr, Fe, V, As, Eu, Ba, Dy, Gd, Hf, La, Lu, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Yb, Tm, and U. (author)

  17. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eco-sustainable systems based on poly(lactic acid), diatomite and coffee grounds extract for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Mori, Stefano; Cherubini, Valeria; Nanni, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    In the food packaging sector many efforts have been (and are) devoted to the development of new materials in order to reply to an urgent market demand for green and eco-sustainable products. Particularly a lot of attention is currently devoted both to the use of compostable and biobased polymers as innovative and promising alternative to the currently used petrochemical derived polymers, and to the re-use of waste materials coming from agriculture and food industry. In this work, multifunctional eco-sustainable systems, based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as biopolymeric matrix, diatomaceous earth as reinforcing filler and spent coffee grounds extract as oxygen scavenger, were produced for the first time, in order to provide a simultaneous improvement of mechanical and gas barrier properties. The influence of the diatomite and the spent coffee grounds extract on the microstructural, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of the produced films was deeply investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniaxial tensile tests, O 2 permeabilimetry measurements. An improvement of both mechanical and oxygen barrier properties was recorded for systems characterised by the co-presence of diatomite and coffee grounds extract, suggesting a possible synergic effect of the two additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Kim, Kwang S; Meyyappan, M

    2015-01-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m"2 g"−"1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm"3 g"−"1 and exhibits a stable CH_4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g"−"1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon. (paper)

  20. Coffee grounds as filler for pectin: Green composites with competitive performances dependent on the UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Vincenzo Alessandro; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2017-08-15

    Novel composite bioplastics were successfully prepared by filling pectin matrix with treated coffee grounds. The amount of coffee dispersed into the pectin was changed within a wide filler range. The morphology of the pectin/coffee hybrid films was studied by microscopic techniques in order to investigate their mesoscopic structure as well as the sizes distribution of the particles dispersed into the matrix. The micrographs showed that the coffee grounds are uniformly dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The morphological characteristics of the biocomposite films were correlated to their properties, such as wettability, water uptake, thermal behavior and mechanical performances. Dynamic mechanical test were conducted as a function of the humidity conditions. As a general result, a worsening of the mechanical performances was induced by the addition of the coffee grounds into the pectin. An additional UV curing treatment was conducted on the pectin/coffee films with the aim to improve their tensile and viscoelastic features. The cured films showed promising and tunable properties that are dependent on both the filler content and the UV irradiation. In particular, the presence of single coffee particles into the pectin matrix renders the UV curing treatment effective in the enhancement of the elasticity as well as the traction resistance, whereas the cured composite films containing coffee clusters showed only more elastic characteristics. With this study, we fabricated pectin/coffee bioplastics with controlled behavior appealing for specific application within the food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Classification of Ground Roasted Decaffeinated Coffee Using UV-VIS Spectroscopy and SIMCA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia, M.; Asnaning, A. R.; Suhandy, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an investigation on the classification between decaffeinated and non- decaffeinated coffee samples using UV-VIS spectroscopy and SIMCA method was investigated. Total 200 samples of ground roasted coffee were used (100 samples for decaffeinated coffee and 100 samples for non-decaffeinated coffee). After extraction and dilution, the spectra of coffee samples solution were acquired using a UV-VIS spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-VIS, Thermo Scientific, USA) in the range of 190-1100 nm. The multivariate analyses of the spectra were performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The SIMCA model showed that the classification between decaffeinated and non-decaffeinated coffee samples was detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    other large food service organizations. The policy of adjusting the amount of R&G coffee used in brewing recipes according to consumer preferences , as...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee- like

  3. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

  4. Effect of brewing technique and particle size of the ground coffee on sensory profiling of brewed Dampit robusta coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrianto, K.; Febryana, Y. R.; Wulandari, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of different brewing techniques with the use of appropriate particle size standard of Apresiocoffee cafe (Category 1) compared to the difference brewing techniques with the use of the same particle size (coarse) (Category 2) of the sensory attributes Dampit robusta coffee. Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method was applied in this study, and the data was analysed by ANOVA General Linier Model (GLM) on Minitab-16. The influence of brewing techniques (tubruk, French-press, drips, syphon) and type of particle size ground coffee (fine, medium, coarse) were sensorially observed. The result showed that only two attributes, including bitter taste, and astringent/rough-mouth-feel were affected by brewing techniques (p-value <0.05) as observed for brewed coarse coffee powder.

  5. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhan S. Scully

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h reaction time, and 1246 and 250 µL of cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Industrially important sugars (glucose, galactose and mannose were identified as the principal hydrolysis products under the studied conditions. Total flavonoids (p = 0.0002, total polyphenols (p = 0.03 and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (p = 0.004 increased significantly after processing. A 14-fold increase in caffeine levels was also observed. This study provides insight into SEGs as a promising source of industrially important sugars and polyphenols.

  6. Spent coffee-based activated carbon: specific surface features and their importance for H2S separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kante, Karifala; Nieto-Delgado, Cesar; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-30

    Activated carbons were prepared from spent ground coffee. Zinc chloride was used as an activation agent. The obtained materials were used as a media for separation of hydrogen sulfide from air at ambient conditions. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR, and thermal analysis. Surface features of the carbons depend on the amount of an activation agent used. Even though the residual inorganic matter takes part in the H(2)S retention via salt formation, the porous surface of carbons governs the separation process. The chemical activation method chosen resulted in formation of large volume of pores with sizes between 10 and 30Å, optimal for water and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. Even though the activation process can be optimized/changed, the presence of nitrogen in the precursor (caffeine) is a significant asset of that specific organic waste. Nitrogen functional groups play a catalytic role in hydrogen sulfide oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  8. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  9. Potential of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for analyzing the quality of unroasted and ground coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Varão; Hubinger, Silviane Zanni; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Ferreira, Ednaldo José; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and a very popular beverage around the world. Its economic value as well as beverage quality are strongly dependent of the quality of beans. The presence of defective beans in coffee blends has caused a negative impact on the beverage Global Quality (GQ) assessed by cupping tests. The main defective beans observed in the productive chain has been those Blacks, Greens and Sours (BGS). Chemical composition of BGS has a damaging impact on beverage GQ. That is why analytical tools are needed for monitoring and controlling the GQ in coffee agro-industry. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully applied for assessment of coffee quality. Another potential technique for direct, clean and fast measurement of coffee GQ is Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Elements and diatomic molecules commonly present in organic compounds (structure) can be assessed by using LIBS. In this article is reported an evaluation of LIBS for the main interferents of GQ (BGS defects). Results confirm the great potential of LIBS for discriminating good beans from those with BGS defects by using emission lines of C, CN, C2 and N. Most importantly, some emission lines presented strong linear correlation (r > 0.9) with NIRS absorption bands assigned to proteins, lipids, sugar and carboxylic acids, suggesting LIBS potential to estimate these compounds in unroasted and ground coffee samples.

  10. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouaou, N., E-mail: azouaou20@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences and Technology Houari - Boumediene, USTHB, BP no 32 El Alia bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Sadaoui, Z. [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences and Technology Houari - Boumediene, USTHB, BP no 32 El Alia bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Djaafri, A. [Central laboratory, SEAAL, 97 Parc ben omar, Kouba, Algiers (Algeria); Mokaddem, H. [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences and Technology Houari - Boumediene, USTHB, BP no 32 El Alia bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-12-15

    Adsorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials with no further treatment such as coffee grounds from cafeterias may act as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium. Batch kinetic and equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial pH, particle size, initial concentration of cadmium and temperature. Three adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to analyse the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm which provided the best correlation for Cd{sup 2+} adsorption onto coffee grounds, shows that the adsorption was favourable and the adsorption capacity found was equal to 15.65 mg g{sup -1}. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the adsorption was exothermic. The equilibrium was achieved less than 120 min. The adsorption kinetic data was fitted with first and second order kinetic models. Finally it was concluded that the cadmium adsorption kinetic onto coffee grounds was well fitted by second order kinetic model rather than first order model. The results suggest that coffee grounds have high possibility to be used as effective and economical adsorbent for Cd{sup 2+} removal.

  11. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azouaou, N.; Sadaoui, Z.; Djaafri, A.; Mokaddem, H.

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials with no further treatment such as coffee grounds from cafeterias may act as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium. Batch kinetic and equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial pH, particle size, initial concentration of cadmium and temperature. Three adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to analyse the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm which provided the best correlation for Cd 2+ adsorption onto coffee grounds, shows that the adsorption was favourable and the adsorption capacity found was equal to 15.65 mg g -1 . Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the adsorption was exothermic. The equilibrium was achieved less than 120 min. The adsorption kinetic data was fitted with first and second order kinetic models. Finally it was concluded that the cadmium adsorption kinetic onto coffee grounds was well fitted by second order kinetic model rather than first order model. The results suggest that coffee grounds have high possibility to be used as effective and economical adsorbent for Cd 2+ removal.

  12. Utilization of Activated Carbon Prepared from Aceh Coffee Grounds as Bio-sorbent for Treatment of Fertilizer Industrial Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.; Mulana, F.; Aman, F.

    2018-05-01

    The people of Aceh are well known as coffee drinkers. Therefore, a lot of coffee shops have been established in Aceh in the past decade. The growing of coffee shops resulting to large amounts of coffee waste produced in Aceh Province that will become solid waste if not wisely utilized. The high carbon content in coffee underlined as background of this research to be utilized those used coffee grounds as bio-sorbent. The preparation of activated carbon from coffee grounds by using carbonization method that was initially activated with HCl was expected to increase the absorption capacity. The prepared activated carbon with high reactivity was applied to adsorb nitrite, nitrate and ammonia in wastewater outlet of PT. PIM wastewater pond. Morphological structure of coffee waste was analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of iodine was equal to 856.578 mg/g. From the characterization results, it was concluded that the activated carbon from coffee waste complied to the permitted quality standards in accordance with the quality requirements of activated carbon SNI No. 06-3730-1995. Observed from the adsorption efficiency, the bio-sorbent showed a tendency of adsorbing more ammonia than nitrite and nitrate of PT. PIM wastewater with ammonia absorption efficiency of 56%.

  13. Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2002-10-01

    Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy.

  14. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols and the activity of Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs enzyme on 32 samples of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom (top and bottom and subjected to heat treatments (blanching, boiling and freezing. The protein content was ranged between the values of 16.9 and 25.1g/ 100g and the Vitamin C content within the range of values presented 64.32-564.95 mg/100g. The polyphenol content results varied significantly in the analyzed samples varying between 1.887 – 7.667 mg GAE / 100 g vegetable product. The determination of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatically blackening of the fungus presented values in the range 0.274- 0.610mg / 100g.

  15. Removal of lead and fluoride from contaminated water using exhausted coffee grounds based bio-sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Babu, A; Reddy, D Srinivasa; Kumar, G Suresh; Ravindhranath, K; Krishna Mohan, G V

    2018-07-15

    Water pollution by industrial and anthropogenic actives has become a serious threat to the environment. World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that lead and fluoride amid the environmental pollutants are most poisonous water contaminants with devastating impact on the human race. The present work proposes a study on economical bio-adsorbent based technique using exhausted coffee grounds in the removal of lead and fluoride contaminants from water. The exhausted coffee grounds gathered from industrial wastes have been acid-activated and examined for their adsorption capacity. The surface morphology and elemental characterization of pre-and-post adsorption operations by FESEM, EDX and FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the potential of the exhausted coffee ground as successful bio-sorbent. However, thermodynamic analysis confirmed the adsorption to be spontaneous physisorption with Langmuir mode of homogenous monolayer deposition. The kinetics of adsorption is well defined by pseudo second order model for both lead and fluoride. A significant quantity of lead and fluoride is removed from the synthetic contaminated water by the proposed bio-sorbent with the respective sorption capabilities of 61.6 mg/g and 9.05 mg/g. However, the developed bio-sorbent is also recyclable and is capable of removing the lead and fluoride from the domestic and industrial waste-water sources with an overall removal efficiency of about 90%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  17. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  18. Integration of decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to produce green aromatics from coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li; Saffron, Christopher M; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongyu; Munro, Robert W; Kriegel, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to integrate decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to convert coffee grounds into the green aromatic precursors of terephthalic acid, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). An economic analysis of this bioproduct system was conducted to examine BTEX yields, biomass costs and their sensitivities. Model predictions were verified experimentally using pyrolysis GC/MS to quantify BTEX yields for raw and torrefied biomass. The production cost was minimized when the torrefier temperature and residence time were 239°C and 34min, respectively. This optimization study found conditions that justify torrefaction as a pretreatment for making BTEX, provided that starting feedstock costs are below $58 per tonne. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effect of coffee filtrate, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and caffeine on Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis survival in ground chicken breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletta, Anne B; Were, Lilian M

    2012-02-01

    The antimicrobial effect of roasted coffee filtrate (CF) and dicarbonyls on Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in raw ground chicken breast meat (GCB) was investigated. Coffee was brewed and filtered before addition to GCB. Coffee filtrate with and without added caffeine, methylglyoxal, and/or glyoxal was added to GCB and then inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis. Ground chicken samples were stomached with peptone water at days 1, 3, 5, and 7, plated on XLD agar with a TSA overlay, and Salmonella survivors were enumerated. CF alone gave less than a 1 Log reduction in all runs compared to control GCB with no treatment. Methylglyoxal (2.28 mg/g GCB) had the greatest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in GCB with average Log reductions of 2.27 to 3.23, respectively, over the 7 d duration of the experiment compared to control GCB with no treatment. A 1 Log reduction was observed in GCB with CF, 0.93 mg glyoxal, and 1 mg caffeine/g chicken compared to the control and GCB with only CF. Heat-produced coffee compounds could potentially reduce Salmonella in retail ground chicken and chicken products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. El Nino and ground/underground water decreasing effects on coffee cultivation in DakNong Province, Vietnam by using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Anh Quan; Quy Bui, Ngoc; Luu, The Anh; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    El Nino is one of most common climatic events which are widely spread over the world. In case of Vietnam, the El Nino or ENSO event has various effects on agricultural cultivation over whole country; in the Central Highlands area, the coffee cultivation also has been affected heavily. The coffee is one of most important products of this area. Our study area, the Dak Nong province located in the Central Highlands, the mountainous and highlands in central of Vietnam. The coffee production contributes roughly 40% of total GDP of the province. This province climate is influenced by tropical monsoon and high altitude terrain. The area has two seasons in which dry season from November to end of March and the wet season cover the rest. There is 80-90% of precipitation concentrated in wet season. In El Nino years, the dry season is longer and drier than normal which affects the agricultural cultivation especially coffee. The effects of El Nino phenomenon on coffee cultivation need to clarify in order to help farmers and decision makers making their solutions. The ground/underground water has been decreased by over watering of coffee growers as well as deforestation making water shortage in dry season. The over watering of coffee cultivation wasted more than 80% water resources especially underground water use. In years of 1997-1998, coffee productivity decreased 30%; in years of 2003, the coffee productivity was downed by 25%; both examples show the relation between the combination of ENSO and decreasing of Ground/underground water and the coffee production in Dak Nong province. This is a necessary research to evaluate the effects of the combination. This paper using GIS tools to estimate the effects of El Nino phenomenon combined with ground/underground water and the coffee cultivation in Dak Nong province

  2. Morphological study of fluorescent carbon Nanoparticles (F-CNPs) from ground coffee waste soot oxidation by diluted acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, S.; Tjandra, S.; Joshua, J.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    Coffee ground waste utilization for fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (F-CNPs) through soot oxidation with diluted HNO3 has been conducted. Soot was obtained through three different treatments to coffee ground waste; which was burned in furnaceat 550°C and 650°C and directly burned in a heat-proofcontainer. Then they were analyzed morphologically with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument. Soot from direct burning indicated the optimum result where it has denser pores compared to other two soots. Soot obtained from direct burning was refluxed in diluted HNO3 for 12 hours to perform the oxidation. Yellowish brown supernatant was later observed which lead to green fluorescent under the UV light. F-CNPs characterization was done in Transmission Electron Microscopy, which showed that 7.4-23.4 nm of particle size were distributed.

  3. Effect of oil extracted from coffee grounds in the radiolytic stabilization of PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2013-01-01

    Commercial Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing oil extracted from coffee grounds (OCG) at concentrations of 0.50; 1.00 and 1.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M v ) was measured for PVC systems without and with oil. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of OCG at 0.5 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 67% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the OCG were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Decrease of 7% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 31.5% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PVC films exposed to gamma irradiation. However, no significant changes were recorded in mechanical properties of PVC with OCG. (author)

  4. Effect of oil extracted from coffee grounds in the radiolytic stabilization of PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Commercial Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing oil extracted from coffee grounds (OCG) at concentrations of 0.50; 1.00 and 1.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M{sub v}) was measured for PVC systems without and with oil. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of OCG at 0.5 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 67% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the OCG were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Decrease of 7% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 31.5% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PVC films exposed to gamma irradiation. However, no significant changes were recorded in mechanical properties of PVC with OCG. (author)

  5. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  6. Effect of fresh and composted spent coffee grounds on lettuce growth, photosynthetic pigments and mineral composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, J.A.; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Casal, Susana; Baptista, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, tem sido observado um crescimento constante da indústria de café, e consequentemente, dos vários resíduos que são originados durante o seu processamento. Um desses resíduos é a borra de café resultante da extração de café bebida. Várias são as referências acerca da sua utilização como fertilizante orgânico em culturas domésticas, especialmente em jardins. No entanto, evidências científicas acerca da sua eficácia ou até mesmo segurança permanecem desconhecidas. Neste trab...

  7. Bifunctional composite from spent "Cyprus coffee" for tetracycline removal and phenol degradation: Solar-Fenton process and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Abureesh, Mosab Ali; Gazi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Removals of tetracycline and photocatalytic degradation of phenol by Fe3O4/coffee residue (MCC) were investigated. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Boehm titration were employed to characterize MCC. Artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the tetracycline (TC) concentration in the column effluent. Maximum tetracycline adsorption capacity of 285.6mg/g was observed in a batch system. High removal efficiency (87%) was obtained at 3.3mL/min flow rate, 8.0cm bed height and 50mg/L influent TC concentration in a column system. Complete degradation of phenol by solar-Fenton was attained at 60min irradiation time. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal increased to 63.3% in the presence of 1.0g/L MCC, 1.2g/L H2O2 and solar irradiation. MCC showed remarkable potential to remove antibiotics from wastewater even in the presence of heavy metal (Ni(2+)) via magnetic separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  9. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  10. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Ridderstolpe, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  11. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached. (author)

  12. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached

  13. Detection of enterotoxins produced by B. cereus through PCR analysis of ground and roasted coffee samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyllene de Matos Ornelas da Cunha Corrêa de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the most appreciated drinks in the world. Coffee ground is obtained from the fruit of a small plant that belongs to the genus Coffea. Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora robusta are the two most commercially important species. They are more commonly known as arabica and robusta, respectively. Two-thirds of Coffea arabica plants are grown in South and Central America, and Eastern Africa - the place of origin for this coffee species. Contamination by microorganisms has been a major matter affecting coffee quality in Brazil, mainly due to the harvesting method adopted. Brazilian harvests are based on fruits collected from the ground mixed with those that fall on collection cloths. As the Bacillus cereus bacterium frequently uses the soil as its environmental reservoir, it is easily capable of becoming a contaminant. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination and potential of B. cereus enterotoxin genes encoding the HBL and NHE complexes, which were observed in strains of ground and roasted coffee samples sold in Rio de Janeiro. The PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results revealed high potential of enterotoxin production in the samples. The method described by Speck (1984 was used for the isolation of contaminants. The investigation of the potential production of enterotoxins through isolates of the microorganism was performed using the B. cereus enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test-kit (BCET-RPLA, Oxoid, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The potential of enterotoxin production was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for hblA, hblD and hblC genes (encoding hemolysin HBL and for nheA, nheB and nheC genes (encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin - NHE. Of all the 17 strains, 100% were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin gene; 52.9% (9/17 were positive for the 3 genes encoding the HBL complex; 35.3% (6/17 were positive for the three NHE encoding genes; and 29.4% (5/17 were positive for

  14. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yılmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.

  15. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coffee product Coffee Slender (Med-Eq Ltd., Tonsberg, Norway), lose an average of 2.5 to 3. ... might increase the risk of experiencing serious or life-threatening side effects such as high blood pressure, ...

  16. Carbons prepared from coffee grounds by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation: Characterization and adsorption of methylene blue and Nylosan Red N-2RBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffas, A. [LCME, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes, d' Environnement, Departement de Chimie Industrielle, Universite Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Bernardet, V.; David, B.; Reinert, L. [LCME, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Lehocine, M. Bencheikh [Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes, d' Environnement, Departement de Chimie Industrielle, Universite Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Dubois, M.; Batisse, N. [LMI, CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Duclaux, L., E-mail: laurent.duclaux@univ-savoie.fr [LCME, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    Activated carbons were prepared by the pyrolysis of coffee grounds impregnated by phosphoric acid at 450 deg. C for different impregnation ratios: 30, 60, 120 and 180 wt.%. Materials were characterized for their surface chemistry by elemental analysis, 'Boehm titrations', point of zero charge measurements, Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); as well as for their porous and morphological structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The impregnation ratio was found to govern the porous structure of the prepared activated carbons. Low impregnation ratios (<120 wt.%) led to essentially microporous and acidic activated carbons whereas high impregnation ratios (>120 wt.%) yielded to essentially mesoporous carbons with specific surface areas as high as 925 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, pore volume as large as 0.7 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, and neutral surface. The activated carbons prepared from coffee grounds were compared to a commercial activated carbon (S{sub BET} {approx} 1400 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) for their adsorption isotherms of methylene blue and 'Nylosan Red N-2RBL', a cationic and anionic (azo) dye respectively. The mesoporous structure of the material produced at 180 wt.% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} ratio was found to be appropriate for an efficient sorption of the latter azo dye.

  17. Impact Force Applied on the Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Canister that Accidentally Drops and Collides onto the Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical methodology was theoretically studied to obtain the impact force caused by the collision between rigid bodies. This theoretical methodology was applied to compute the impact force applied on the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister that accidentally drops and collides onto the ground. From this study, the impact force required to ensure a structurally safe canister design was theoretically formulated. The main content of the theoretical study concerns the rigid body kinematics and equation of motion during collision between two rigid bodies. On the basis of this study, a general impact theory to compute the impact force caused by the collision between two bodies was developed. This general impact theory was applied to theoretically formulate the approximate mathematical solution of the impact force that affects the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister that accidentally falls to the ground. Simultaneously, a numerical analysis was performed using the computer code to compute the numerical solution of the impact force, and the numerical result was compared with the approximate mathematical solution

  18. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of coffee/water ratio on the final quality of espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Andueza, S. (Susana); Vila, M.A. (María A.); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C. (Concepción)

    2007-01-01

    Espresso coffee is a polyphasic beverage in which the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics obviously depend on both the selection of ground roasted coffee and the technical conditions of the percolation process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the coffee/water ratio on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of espresso coffee. Furthermore, the influence of botanical varieties (Arabica and Robusta) and the type of roast (conventional and torrefacto) on the selec...

  20. A Decolorization Technique with Spent “Greek Coffee” Grounds as Zero-Cost Adsorbents for Industrial Textile Wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the decolorization of industrial textile wastewaters was studied in batch mode using spent “Greek coffee” grounds (COF) as low-cost adsorbents. In this attempt, there is a cost-saving potential given that there was no further modification of COF (just washed with distilled water to remove dirt and color, then dried in an oven). Furthermore, tests were realized both in synthetic and real textile wastewaters for comparative reasons. The optimum pH of adsorption was acidic (pH = 2) for synthetic effluents, while experiments in free pH (non-adjusted) were carried out for real effluents. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) models. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) for total dye (reactive) removal at 25 °C was 241 mg/g (pH = 2) and 179 mg/g (pH = 10). Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated (ΔH0, ΔG0, ΔS0). Kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first, -second and -third order model. The optimum pH for desorption was determined, in line with desorption and reuse analysis. Experiments dealing the increase of mass of adsorbent showed a strong increase in total dye removal.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2013-10-15

    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Spectroscopic methods applied to component determination and species identification for coffee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-zhou; Xu, Li-li; Qin, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopic analysis was applied to the determination of the nutrient quality of ground, instant and chicory coffees. By using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), nine mineral elements were determined in solid coffee samples. Caffeine was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and organic matter was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Oxidation-reduction titration was utilized for measuring the oxalate. The differences between ground coffee and instant coffee was identified on the basis of the contents of caffeine, oxalate and mineral elements. Experimental evidence showed that, caffeine in instant coffee was 2-3 times higher than in ground coffee. Oxalate in instant coffee was significantly higher in ground coffee. Mineral elements of Mg, P and Zn in ground coffee is lower than in instant coffee, while Cu is several times higher. The mineral content in chicory coffee is overall lower than the instant coffee. In addition, we determined the content of Ti for different types of coffees, and simultaneously detected the elements of Cu, Ti and Zn in chicory coffee. As a fast detection technique, FTIR spectroscopy has the potential of detecting the differences between ground coffee and instant coffee, and is able to verify the presence of caffeine and oxalate.

  3. Possible employment of food industry residues in animal feeding: first report on the chemical and bromatological composition of coffee grounds and suggestions for their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarra, C

    1976-01-01

    The relatively low levels of tannins and caffeine (average 0.36% and 0.191 mg/g, respecitvely) in coffee grounds suggest their possible use as feed. The proximate analysis of 8 samples (average and range given) was: moisture 61.07, 53.91 to 65.25; crude fat 17.78, 14.64 to 23.51; ash 1.66, 1.43 to 1.89; crude fiber 16.62, 14.98 to 17.45; and non-N ext. 51.31, 44.67 to 56.71%. The ash contained an average of 0.14% of both Ca and P. The amino acid component is tabulated; only traces of methionine were found. The major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic, average 43.89 and 30.99%, respectively, and values for other fatty acids C/sub 12:0/-C/sub 22:0/ are tabulated.

  4. Characterization of Alkaline Treatment and Fiber Content on the Physical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Ground Coffee Waste/Oxobiodegradable HDPE Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yee Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of alkali treatment on ground coffee waste/oxobiodegradable HDPE (GCW/oxo-HDPE composites was evaluated using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% volume fraction of GCW. The composites were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, mechanical (tensile and impact test properties, and water absorption. FTIR spectrum indicated the eradication of lipids, hemicellulose, lignin, and impurities after the treatments lead to an improvement of the filler/matrix interface adhesion. This is confirmed by SEM results. Degree of crystallinity index was increased by 5% after the treatment. Thermal stability for both untreated and treated GCW composites was alike. Optimum tensile result was achieved when using 10% volume fraction with enhancement of 25% for tensile strength and 24% for tensile modulus compared to untreated composite. Specific tensile strength and modulus had improved as the composite has lower density. The highest impact properties were achieved when using 15% volume fraction that lead to an improvement of 6%. Treated GCW composites show better water resistance with 57% improvement compared to the untreated ones. This lightweight and ecofriendly biocomposite has the potential in packaging, internal automotive parts, lightweight furniture, and other composite engineering applications.

  5. Investigation of co-combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and coffee grounds mixtures using thermogravimetric analysis coupled to artificial neural networks modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiacong; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Huang, Limao; Sun, Shuiyu; Sun, Jian; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Huang, Shaosong; Ning, Xunan

    2017-02-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was applied to thermal data obtained by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from room temperature to 1000°C at three different heating rates in air to predict the TG curves of sewage sludge (SS) and coffee grounds (CG) mixtures. A good agreement between experimental and predicted data verified the accuracy of the ANN approach. The results of co-combustion showed that there were interactions between SS and CG, and the impacts were mostly positive. With the addition of CG, the mass loss rate and the reactivity of SS were increased while charring was reduced. Measured activation energies (E a ) determined by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) methods deviated by <5%. The average value of E a (166.8kJ/mol by KAS and 168.8kJ/mol by OFW, respectively) was the lowest when the fraction of CG in the mixture was 40%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chitosan/waste coffee-grounds composite: An efficient and eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of pharmaceutical contaminants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Emanuele F; Nunes, Matheus L; Fajardo, André R

    2018-06-01

    Waste coffee-grounds (WCG), a poorly explored source of biocompounds, were combined with chitosan (Cs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in order to obtain composites. Overall, WCG showed a good interaction with the polymeric matrix and good dispersibility up to 10 wt-%. At 5 wt-% WCG, the composite exhibited a noticeable enhancement (from 10 to 44%) of the adsorption of pharmaceuticals (metamizol (MET), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), acetaminophen (ACE), and caffeine (CAF)) as compared to the pristine sample. The highest removal efficiency was registered at pH 6 and the removal followed the order ASA > CAF > ACE > MET. For all pharmaceuticals, the adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second order model, while the adsorption mechanism was explained by the Freundlich isotherm. Reuse experiments indicated that the WCG-containing composite has an attractive cost-effectiveness since it presented a remarkable reusability in at least five consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  8. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  9. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  10. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for Kona coffee authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Jun, Soojin; Bittenbender, H C; Gautz, Loren; Li, Qing X

    2009-06-01

    Kona coffee, the variety of "Kona typica" grown in the north and south districts of Kona-Island, carries a unique stamp of the region of Big Island of Hawaii, U.S.A. The excellent quality of Kona coffee makes it among the best coffee products in the world. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and multivariate analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ground and brewed Kona coffee and blends made with Kona coffee. The calibration set of Kona coffee consisted of 10 different blends of Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 14 different farms in Hawaii and a non-Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 3 different sampling sites in Hawaii. Derivative transformations (1st and 2nd), mathematical enhancements such as mean centering and variance scaling, multivariate regressions by partial least square (PLS), and principal components regression (PCR) were implemented to develop and enhance the calibration model. The calibration model was successfully validated using 9 synthetic blend sets of 100% Kona coffee mixture and its adulterant, 100% non-Kona coffee mixture. There were distinct peak variations of ground and brewed coffee blends in the spectral "fingerprint" region between 800 and 1900 cm(-1). The PLS-2nd derivative calibration model based on brewed Kona coffee with mean centering data processing showed the highest degree of accuracy with the lowest standard error of calibration value of 0.81 and the highest R(2) value of 0.999. The model was further validated by quantitative analysis of commercial Kona coffee blends. Results demonstrate that FTIR can be a rapid alternative to authenticate Kona coffee, which only needs very quick and simple sample preparations.

  12. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  13. Lipases Immobilization for Effective Synthesis of Biodiesel Starting from Coffee Waste Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gardossi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  14. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  15. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del II). Slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle: Vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [EmpTec (Sweden); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden); Ridderstolpe, Peter [WRS Uppsala AB (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  16. Cinética da secagem de clones de café (Coffea canephora Pierre em terreiro de chão batido Kinetics of coffee berry clones drying (Coffea canephora Pierre in ground pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a cinética da secagem de quatro clones de café da espécie Coffea canephora submetidos à secagem em terreiro de chão batido, bem como ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais selecionando aquele que melhor representa o fenômeno em estudo. Foram utilizados frutos de café dos clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro180, colhidos com os teores de água iniciais de 1,20; 1,32; 1,51 e 1,46 (decimal base seca (b.s., respectivamente. A secagem prosseguiu em terreiro de chão batido até que o produto atingisse o teor de água de 0,137; 0,133; 0,142 e 0,140 (decimal b.s. respectivamente para os clones Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados dez modelos matemáticos citados na literatura específica e utilizados para representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. Baseando-se em parâmetros estatísticos, conclui-se que os modelos Verma, Dois Termos e Aproximação da Difusão foram adequados para representação da secagem dos quatro clones de café analisados, e além destes, para o clone Cpafro 167, os modelos Thompson, Page, Newton, Logarítmico, Henderson e Pabis e Exponencial de Dois Termos também se mostraram satisfatórios na descrição do fenômeno; já o tempo necessário para a secagem em terreiro de chão batido dos clones de café Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180 foi de 189,5 h.The objective of this work was to study the drying kinetics of four coffee berry clones Coffea canephora species dried in ground pavement and to fit different mathematical models to different experimental data selecting the one that best represents the phenomenon. Have been used coffee berry of clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 and Cpafro 180, harvested at moisture content of 1.20; 1.32; 1.51 e 1.46 (decimal d.b., respectively. The drying continued in ground pavement until achieved the moisture

  17. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  18. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  19. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  20. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  1. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of corn adulteration in Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica) by tocopherol profiling and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, especially after the beans have been roasted and ground. Countries such as Brazil, the second largest coffee producer, have set limits on the allowable amount of coffee contamination and adulteration. Therefore, there is significant...

  3. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  4. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  5. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  7. Can impurities from soil-contaminated coffees reach the cup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Joacir De Franca, E.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    Depending on the harvest conditions, coffee beans can be contaminated by soil when dropped to the ground. It is well known that agricultural soils act as sinks for agrochemicals applied to the crops. While coffee is brewed, substances present in the roasted and ground coffee beans are extracted by hot water, emphasizing the need to assess the possible transfer of impurities from the soil to the beverage. Soil-contaminated samples of roasted coffee beans were split into 2 groups according to the treatments: (a) washed and ground and (b) only ground. Brewing was performed in a household espresso machine for both coffees. The resulting beverage was freeze-dried and the elemental composition determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of the terrigenous elements Fe, La, Sc, Sm and Th in the freeze-dried non-washed coffee beverages were, at least, 2 times higher than in the washed samples. These elements are tracers of the soil, indicating that the impurities from the soil reached the beverage. (author)

  8. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  9. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  10. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  11. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coffee consumption and human health--beneficial or detrimental?--Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranheim, Trine; Halvorsen, Bente

    2005-03-01

    Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Discrimination of several Indonesian specialty coffees using Fluorescence Spectroscopy combined with SIMCA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandy, D.; Yulia, M.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is one of the important producers of several specialty coffees, which have a particularly high economic value, including Civet coffee (‘kopi luwak’ in Indonesian language) and Peaberry coffee (‘kopi lanang’ in Indonesian language). The production of Civet and Peaberry coffee is very limited. In order to provide authentication of Civet and Peaberry coffee and protect consumers from adulteration, a robust and easy method for evaluating ground Civet and Peaberry coffee and detection of its adulteration is needed. In this study, we investigate the use of fluorescence spectroscopy combined with SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogies) method to discriminate three Indonesian specialty coffee: ground Peaberry, Civet and Pagar Alam coffee. Total 90 samples were used (30 samples for Civet, Peaberry and Pagar Alam coffee, respectively). All coffee samples were ground using a home-coffee-grinder. Since particle size in coffee powder has a significant influence on the spectra obtained, we sieved all coffee samples through a nest of U. S. standard sieves (mesh number of 40) on a Meinzer II sieve shaker for 10 minutes to obtain a particle size of 420 µm. The experiments were performed at room temperature (around 27-29°C). All samples were extracted with distilled water and then filtered. For each samples, 3 mL of extracted sample then was pipetted into 10 mm cuvettes for spectral data acquisition. The EEM (excitation-emission matrix) spectral data of coffee samples were acquired using JASCO FP-8300 Fluorescence Spectrometer. The principal component analysis (PCA) result shows that it is possible to discriminate types of coffee based on information from EEM (excitation-emission matrix) spectral data. Using SIMCA method, the discrimination model of Indonesian specialty coffee was successfully developed and resulted in high performance of discrimination with 100% of sensitivity and specificity for Peaberry, Civet and Pagar Alam coffee. This research

  14. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  15. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  16. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  17. Indonesian palm civet coffee discrimination using UV-visible spectroscopy and several chemometrics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulia, M; Suhandy, D

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian palm civet coffee or kopi luwak (Indonesian words for coffee and palm civet) is well known as the world’s priciest and rarest coffee. To protect the authenticity of luwak coffee and protect consumer from luwak coffee adulteration, it is very important to develop a simple and inexpensive method to discriminate between civet and non-civet coffee. The discrimination between civet and non-civet coffee in ground roasted (powder) samples is very challenging since it is very difficult to distinguish between the two by using conventional method. In this research, the use of UV-Visible spectra combined with two chemometric methods, SIMCA and PLS-DA, was evaluated to discriminate civet and non-civet ground coffee samples. The spectral data of civet and non-civet coffee were acquired using UV-Vis spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-Vis, Thermo Scientific, USA). The result shows that using both supervised discrimination methods: SIMCA and PLS-DA, all samples were correctly classified into their corresponding classes with 100% rate for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively. (paper)

  18. Coffee contains cholinomimetic compound distinct from caffeine. I: Purification and chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, S Y

    1991-07-01

    Both regular and decaffeinated coffees were found to have cholinomimetic actions when tested in urethane-anesthetized rats. These actions were distinct from those of caffeine and reversible by atropine. The bioactive fraction was purified from alcoholic extracts of instant decaffeinated coffee by liquid column chromatography and preparative TLC. The purified compound showed similar pharmacological actions as the starting material. Chromatographic behavior was further characterized by analytical TLC and HPLC. Chromatographic analyses of extracts of green coffee beans and roasted ground coffees showed that the cardioactive compound was only present in roasted coffees. Similar analyses of other commonly consumed beverages, including teas and cocoa, showed that this compound was not present in beverages besides coffee.

  19. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  20. An Environmentally Benign Approach for As (V Absorption from Wastewater Using Untreated Coffee Grounds—Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnu Nam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of water is a worldwide issue due to its severe effects on the human body. Coffee grounds are a porous material with network structures, making it absorb other substances such as some gases or elements. In this research, renewable coffee wastes were used as an adsorbent to extract arsenic (As from wastewater. In order to evaluate the usefulness of untreated coffee grounds, a series of preliminary tests for attachment of arsenic to coffee grounds were provided. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area and adsorption–desorption isotherms of an untreated coffee ground obtained from N2 gas adsorption were provided, and pore sizes was obtained using Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH method. The adsorption capacities of the coffee waste were verified through a series of experimental processes changing the conditions such as concentration of arsenic, initial amount of coffee grounds, and pH. The maximum absorption concentration of 6.44 mg/L on 1 g of coffee grounds at 1.00 mM of arsenic solution was observed. It was demonstrated that the modification by the cation species or pretreatment processes, such as calcination, will be necessary to enhance the absorption capacity for the extraction of arsenic.

  1. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  2. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  3. Evaluation of the International coffee market conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FISAKOVA O.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes analysis of coffee market and its conditions for coffee companies. Also, coffee export amounts and prices are compared and analyzed. Statistics were collected over few last years to present accurate research

  4. On a possibility to ground a reliable and safe disposing of a spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors RBMK in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    In order to isolate a spent nuclear fuel (SNF), it is proposed to dispose it, after 30 years keeping on the day surface, in boreholes of up to 4 km depth and 350-1020 mm diameter drilled in low permeable platform basement crystalline rocks, that allows one to localize SNF radionuclides till their full decay. It is shown that the method requires relatively low investments and enables the volume of a burial being increased during wastes income. Along with consideration and assessment of hydrodynamic, geological and hydrogeological parameters of a rock massive and rocks preferable for the new method, engineering solutions for the borehole design and hermetizing structure and assessments of the technogeneous influence on the environment are given. The questions are also considered of a possible shortening of the terms of keeping SNF in a surface storage before their burying, that enables one to decrease expenses for surface storage constructions and to promote the cleaning of the sphere of human habitation from the most active and dangerous wastes

  5. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Ramalakshmi, K; Nagaraju, V D

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was made to minimise the loss of volatile from roasted coffee beans by coating with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Whey protein concentrate. Coffee volatiles were analysed by Gas chromatography and 14 major compounds were identified and compared in this study. Results showed an increase in the relative area of major volatile compounds in coated roasted coffee beans when compared with unroasted coffee beans for consecutive two months. Moreover, effect of coating on textural properties and non-volatiles were also analysed. The results have indicated that edible coatings preserve the sensory properties of roasted coffee beans for a longer shelf life and cellulose derivatives, as an edible coating, exhibited the best protecting effect on roasted coffee beans.

  6. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  7. Radioactivity in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.; Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Rongoni, A.; Saetta, D.

    2013-01-01

    This research was dedicated to the study of the background levels of 210 Po and natural gamma emitters as 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi in coffee powder and in coffee beverage; also the artificial 137 Cs was determined. In the coffee powder the mean 210 Po activity resulted 7.25 ± 2.25 x 10 -2 Bq kg -1 . 40 K showed a mean activity of 907.4 ± 115.6 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, indicators of 226 Ra, given as mean value of the two radionuclides, resulted 10.61 ± 4.02 Bq kg -1 . 228 Ac, 228 Ra indicator, showed a mean activity concentration of 13.73 ± 3.20 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 212 Pb, 224 Ra indicator, was 8.28 ± 2.88 Bq kg -1 . 208 Tl, 224 Ra indicator, presented a mean activity concentration of 11.03 ± 4.34 Bq kg -1 . In all samples, the artificial 137 Cs resulted below the detection limit (2.0 Bq kg -1 ). The arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210 Po extraction in coffee beverage resulted 20.5 ± 6.9. The percentage of transfer of gamma emitters, 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 208 Tl resulted of 80.0, 33.5, 24.7, 30.0, 35.1 and 53.5 % for 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 208 Tl respectively. (author)

  8. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  9. Geographic determination of the growing origins of Jamaican and international coffee using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, J.M.R.; Hoo Fung, L.A.; Grant, Ch.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether elemental analysis could distinguish the growing origins of Jamaican versus international coffee and identify intra-island growing regions. Twenty-four samples of roasted and ground coffee and soluble coffee were collected and analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Sixteen elements were selected for statistical evaluation. Soluble clustered discretely from roasted and ground samples. The distinction among roasted and ground samples was not as discrete. Geographic growing regions could be determined by statistical analysis; separating the growing sub-regions in Jamaica would require additional analyses. (author)

  10. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  11. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily. PMID:27086837

  12. The influence of brewing water characteristic on sensory perception of pour-over local coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrianto, K.; Ardianti, A. D.; Pradipta, K.; Sunarharum, W. B.

    2018-01-01

    The coffee quality can be characterized by its multisensory perceptions. The content and mineral composition and other substances of brewing water can affect the result of brewed-coffee. The water may influence in extraction capabilities and flavor clarity. The ground Dampit coffee and two commercial instant coffee with pour-over method were used in this study. Various types of commercial drinking water were used to brew the coffee. The result suggests that the different brewing water affects the intensity of sweet and chocolate aroma, as well as oily mouth-feel. Surprisingly, taste and flavour attributes were not affected by the pH of brewing water within the range of 5.5 to 9.1.

  13. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-04-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  14. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  15. Evaluation of physiological changes in coffee seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out at three locations with different vegetation in Nigeria between 1996 and 1998 to determine the physiological changes in coffee intercropped with maize, cassava and plantain. There were four intercropping treatments comprising coffee/maize, coffee/cassava, coffee/plantain and ...

  16. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  17. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  18. Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet

    2012-08-30

    Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  20. Application of FTIR Spectroscopy for Assessment of Green Coffee Beans According to Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, S. M.; Hammoudeh, A. Y.; Alomary, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Samples of green coffee beans originating from five different countries were ground and analyzed using FTIR spectra in the region of 600-4000 cm-1. Successful discrimination of each coffee type based on their origin was achieved applying a PCA algorithm on the obtained IR spectra for all samples. PCA loading plots show that the IR bands at 2850, 2920, and 1745 cm-1 corresponding to the symmetric, and antisymmetric vibrations of CH2 and the stretching vibration of C=O bond in ester, respectively, are the most significant peaks in distinguishing the origin of the above coffee samples.

  1. [Coffee can protect against disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, Kasper; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Tjønneland, Anne Marie

    2012-09-24

    A moderate daily intake of 3-4 cups of coffee has convincing protective effects against development of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The literature also indicates that moderate coffee intake reduces the risk of stroke, the overall risk of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, suicide and depression. However, pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety disorder and persons with a low calcium intake should restrain from moderate or high intake of coffee due to uncertainty regarding potential negative effects on pregnancy, anxiety and risk of osteoporosis, respectively.

  2. Coffee Shop Youth Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shalchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a review on the third zone coffee shop youth life style and looks forward to note the features of this group’s life style. Some of the other objective of this article are notifying the importance of different elements in life, consumption norms and the types of leisure. The results of this research shows that in this social atmosphere, post modern lifestyle features are seen as fashion, hybrid taste, interaction among local and global affairs, the importance of hobbies, consumption and the necessity of leisure. The study on this group of Iranian youth foretells how difficult. Complicated and fragile cultural policy is. Therefore, cultural affecting on the youth generation is not possible only through addrssing the values in surface.

  3. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Birsen Yılmaz; Nilüfer Acar-Tek; Saniye Sözlü

    2017-01-01

    Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this con...

  4. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  5. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  6. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO 3 and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 ± 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 ± 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  7. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  9. Differentiation of market coffee and its infusions in view of their mineral composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grembecka, Malgorzata; Malinowska, Ewa; Szefer, Piotr.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Co, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) were determined in market coffee samples after dry mineralisation of both dry samples and infusions evaporated to dryness. The total metal contents were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) using deuterium-background correction. Phosphorus was determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. Reliability of the procedure was checked by the analysis of the certified reference materials Tea (NCS DC 73351), Cabbage (IAEA-359) and Spinach leaves (NIST-1570). It was concluded, based on RDA calculated for essential metals, that coffee infusions are not an important source of bioelements in human diet. In the case of toxic elements Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) was estimated and there is no health hazard associated with exposure to Cd and Pb via coffee consumption. Significant correlation coefficients (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) were found between concentrations of some metals in coffee. Factor analysis and canonical analysis were applied to the data processing in order to characterise the market coffee samples. The 12 metals determined were considered as chemical descriptors of each sample. Based on the mineral composition, it was possible to differentiate chemometrically particular types of coffee distinguishing arabica from robusta, ground from instant coffee, and their infusions

  10. Evidence from The Rwandan Coffee Sector.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the coffee value chain and to promote the production of speciality coffee. A research team ... exporters and the installation of several parchment mills by companies ..... use a Simple linear regression model was used to explain the total quantity.

  11. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  12. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  13. Good news for coffee addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    Whether it's a basic Mr. Coffee or a gadget that sports a snazzy device for grinding beans on demand, the office coffee machine offers a place for serendipitous encounters that can improve the social aspect of work and generate new ideas. What's more, a steaming cup of joe may be as good for your health as it is for the bottom line, says Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the CEO of Partners Community HealthCare. Fears of coffee's carcinogenic effects now appear to be unfounded, and, in fact, the brew might even protect against some types of cancer. What's more, coffee may guard against Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia and somehow soften the blow of a heart attack. Of course, its role as a pick-me-up is well known. So there's no need to take your coffee with a dollop of guilt, especially if you ease up on the sugar, cream, double chocolate, and whipped-cream topping.

  14. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (pworld coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward systems epidemiology of coffee and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box. 1176, Addis .... cultivation region of Ethiopian coffee by elemental analysis. ... health regulatory limits of the metals in coffee to provide guideline information on the .... Procedures tested for digestion of roasted coffee samples. No.

  17. How Competitive is the Dutch Coffee market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); F. Verboven

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWorld coffee bean prices have shown large fluctuations during the past years. Consumer prices for roasted coffee, in contrast, have varied considerably less. This article investigates whether the weak relationship between coffee bean and consumer prices can be explained by a lack of

  18. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  19. Determination of chlorogenic acids and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee prepared under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Sup; Kim, Han-Taek; Jeong, Il-Hyung; Hong, Se-Ra; Oh, Moon-Seog; Park, Kwang-Hee; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2017-10-01

    Coffee, a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds, is one of the most valuable commodity in the world, whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are the most common compounds. CGAs are mainly composed of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs), and feruloylquinic acids (FQAs). The major CGAs in coffee are neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Many studies have shown that it is possible to separate the isomers of FQAs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, some authors have shown that it is not possible to separate 4-feruloylquinic acid (4-FQA) and 5-feruloylquinic acid (5-FQA) by HPLC. Therefore, the present study was designated to investigate the chromatographic problems in the determination of CGAs (seven isomers) and caffeine using HPLC-DAD. The values of determination coefficient (R 2 ) calculated from external-standard calibration curves were >0.998. The recovery rates conducted at 3 spiking levels ranged from 99.4% to 106.5% for the CGAs and from 98.8% to 107.1% for the caffeine. The precision values (expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs)) were coffee bean, coffee-ground size, and numbers of boiling-water pours, on the concentration of CGAs and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee, using nine green coffee bean samples of different origins. It was reported that medium-roasted, fine-ground coffees brewed using three pours of boiling water were the healthiest coffee with fluent CGAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CoffeeScript application development

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ian

    2013-01-01

    CoffeeScript Application Development is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. Follow the smooth and easy tutorial approach, covering examples that build in complexity. By the final chapter you'll be wondering why you didn't try CoffeeScript sooner.If you are a JavaScript developer who wants to save time and add power to your code, then this is the book that will help you do it. With minimal fuss you will learn a whole new language which will reduce your application development time from weeks to days.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  3. Sorption of lead from aqueous solutions by spent tea leaf | Yoshita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) from solution. The Pb removal by the spent tea leaf adsorbent depended on pretreatment of spent tea leaf, adsorption contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pretreatment conditions were confirmed to be that tea leaf was ground ...

  4. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  5. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  6. Say goodbye to coffee stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Discussing ideas over a mug of coffee or tea is the lifeblood of science, but have you ever thought about the stains that can be inadvertently left behind? H Burak Eral, Dirk van den Ende and Frieder Mugele explain how these stains, which can be a major annoyance in some biology techniques, can be

  7. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  8. Double Coffee opens in China

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes

  9. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  10. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  11. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term and area (long-term samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013–0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010–0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (<0.0047 ppm–0.016 ppm. Mean estimated 8 h time-weighted average (8 h TWA exposures for the barista ranged from 0.007–0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance. These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  13. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Lotter, Jason T; Comerford, Chris; Keeton, Kara; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term) and area (long-term) samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013⿿0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010⿿0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (barista ranged from 0.007⿿0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs) for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance). These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  14. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - removal of groundwater and water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle - bortledande av grundvatten samt vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) below and above ground associated with construction, operation, and decommissioning of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn. SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository, and the report hence describes a non-chosen alternative. The report provides a comprehensive description of how the water operations would be executed, their hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the resulting consequences. The description is a background material for comparisons between the two sites in terms of water operations. The underground part of a repository in Laxemar would, among other things, consist of an access ramp and a repository area at a depth of approximately 500 metres. The construction, operation, and decommissioning phases would in total comprise a time period of 60-70 years. Inflowing groundwater would be diverted during construction and operation. The modelling tool MIKE SHE has been used to assess the effects of the groundwater diversion, for instance in terms of groundwater levels and stream discharges. According to MIKE SHE calculations for a hypothetical case with a fully open repository, the total groundwater inflow would be in the order of 55-90 litres per second depending on the permeability of the grouted zone around ramp, shafts and tunnels. In reality, the whole repository would not be open simultaneously, and the inflow would therefore be less. The groundwater diversion would cause groundwater- level drawdown in the rock, which in turn would lead to drawdown of the groundwater table in relatively large areas above and around the repository. According to model calculations, there would be an insignificant drawdown of the water level in Lake Frisksjoen, the largest lake in the area. The discharge in the most important stream of the area (Laxemaraan) would be reduced by less than ten percent

  15. The performances of coffee processors and coffee market in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuševa Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of coffee processors and coffee market in Serbia based on the market concentration analysis, profitability analysis, and profitability determinants analysis. The research was based on the sample of 40 observations of coffee processing companies divided into two groups: large and small coffee processors. The results indicate that two large coffee processors have dominant market share. Even though the Serbian coffee market is an oligopolistic, profitability analysis indicates that small coffee processors have a significant better profitability ratio than large coffee processors. Furthermore, results show that profitability ratio is positively related to the inventory turnover and negatively related to the market share.

  16. The acute effect of coffee on endothelial function and glucose metabolism following a glucose load in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Evan A J; Croft, Kevin D; Shinde, Sujata; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Ward, Natalie C

    2017-09-20

    A diet rich in plant polyphenols has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in part, via improvements in endothelial function. Coffee is a rich source of phenolic compounds including the phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid (CGA). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of coffee as a whole beverage on endothelial function, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration. Twelve healthy men and women were recruited to a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with three treatments tested: (i) 18 g of ground caffeinated coffee containing 300 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, (ii) 18 g of decaffeinated coffee containing 287 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, and (iii) 200 mL of hot water (control). Treatment beverages were consumed twice, two hours apart, with the second beverage consumed simultaneously with a 75 g glucose load. Blood pressure was recorded and the finger prick glucose test was performed at time = 0 and then every 30 minutes up to 2 hours. Endothelial function, assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, was measured at 1 hour and a blood sample taken at 2 hours to measure plasma nitrate/nitrite and 5-CGA concentrations. The FMD response was significantly higher in the caffeinated coffee group compared to both decaffeinated coffee and water groups (P coffee and water. Blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the consumption of caffeinated coffee resulted in a significant improvement in endothelial function, but there was no evidence for benefit regarding glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Although the mechanism has yet to be elucidated the results suggest that coffee as a whole beverage may improve endothelial function, or that caffeine is the component of coffee responsible for improving FMD.

  17. Evaluation of soluble oxalates content in infusions of different kinds of tea and coffee available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Tea and coffee are the potentially rich source of oxalic acid, which can act as a antinutrient. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the content of soluble oxalates in teas and coffees available on the Polish market. The green, red and black teas, and black natural ground and instant coffees were used for preparing the infusions. The manganometric method was used for the determination of the oxalates in the infusions. The mean oxalates content in the infusions from 3 g of black teas was 115.68 mg/100 cm3 and was higher as compared to red teas (101.91 mg/100 cm3) and green teas (87.64 mg/100 cm3). Disregarding the variety of analyzed teas, the largest oxalates content was in infusions of pure one-component tea--"Sir Roger" (164.82-174.22 mg/100 cm3), while the lowest oxalates content was noted in the tea containing the components from other plants ("Bio-Active" with grapefruit juice--reaching as low level as 39.00 mg/100 cm3). Instant coffees contained larger amount of oxalates than natural ground coffees. Irrespective of the kind of the tested coffees, the lowest oxalates content was found in the infusions from the following coffees: Tchibo Exclusive--19.62 mg/100 cm3, Gala ulubiona--37.32 mg/100 cm3, and Maxwell House--38.40 mg/100 cm3, while the highest oxalates content in instant coffee--Nescafe Espiro 51.80 mg/100 cm3. The results revealed a significant relation between phytochemical composition of analyzed teas and coffees and the level of soluble oxalates in infusions prepared from the tested products.

  18. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  19. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  20. Coffee Production in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Profitability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers processed at CPU gained about TZS 1350/kg as coffee improvement gain. Coffee production ... explored, keeping in mind the theories put forth in the theoretical ... Information used in the gross margin analysis encompass total coffee ...

  1. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  3. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  4. What every dentist should know about coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging.

  5. Coffee: The magical bean for liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Ryan D; Brahmbhatt, Mihir; Tahan, Asli C; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Coffee has long been recognized as having hepatoprotective properties, however, the extent of any beneficial effect is still being elucidated. Coffee appears to reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, reduce advancement of fibrotic disease in a variety of chronic liver diseases, and perhaps reduce ability of hepatitis C virus to replicate. This review aims to catalog the evidence for coffee as universally beneficial across a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, as well as spotlight opportunit...

  6. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  7. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    OpenAIRE

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA; ROXANA SARBU; ELENA CONDREA

    2014-01-01

    The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s). The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many...

  8. The Little Book on CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaw, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This little book shows JavaScript developers how to build superb web applications with CoffeeScript, the remarkable little language that's gaining considerable interest. Through example code, this guide demonstrates how CoffeeScript abstracts JavaScript, providing syntactical sugar and preventing many common errors. You'll learn CoffeeScript's syntax and idioms step by step, from basic variables and functions to complex comprehensions and classes. Written by Alex MacCaw, author of JavaScript Web Applications (O'Reilly), with contributions from CoffeeScript creator Jeremy Ashkenas, this book

  9. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  10. Spent sulfite liquor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H H

    1958-01-01

    A review of methods of utilizing spent sulfite liquor, including evaporation and burning, fermentation to produce yeast or alcohol, production of vanillin and lignosulfonates, and use as a roadbinder.

  11. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  12. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  13. The Climate Change and Rwandan Coffee Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Hakorimana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the

  14. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  15. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  17. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  18. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  19. Saving coffee | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... These orange patches, caused by a microscopic fungus that eats away at the ... 70% of coffee trees in Central America and Mexico were affected. ... broca, in Spanish) exclusively eats the fruit of coffee trees, and its life cycle is ...

  20. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-04

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  1. Physical characteristics of the paper filter and low cafestol content filter coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; Dos Santos Scholz, Maria Brígida; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2018-06-01

    The results found in the literature concerning the effect of consuming filter coffee brews on increasing the blood cholesterol levels due to the presence of diterpenes, are divergent. Thus the present research evaluated the diterpene (cafestol and kahweol) concentrations in filter coffee brews prepared with paper filters of different sizes, colors and origins (Brazil, Japan, The United States of America, Germany, France and the Netherlands), with and without micro perforations. This is the first study that reports the physical characteristics of paper filter and its importance to obtain filter coffee brew with low cafestol content. Thus, a sample of Catuai cultivar coffee with high cafestol content was roasted to a medium-light degree and used to prepare the brews in a 1:10 ratio (coffee powder to water). The diterpenes were extracted by direct saponification and quantified and identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The paper filters were physically characterized by measuring their grammage, and the fat permeation rate calculated in order to better understand the differences between the filters which allow one to obtain higher or lower diterpene contents. The cafestol and kahweol concentrations in the brews varied from 1.62 to 2.98 mg/L and from 0.73 to 1.96 mg/L, respectively. The highest cafestol and kahweol concentrations were obtained using paper filters with micro perforations, considering similar sized paper filters. The paper filters showed high fat permeability and grammages between 50.46 and 67.48 g/m 2 . The diterpene retention capacities of the filters produced in the different countries were similar. The results showed that the porosity of the paper filter and the particle size of the ground roasted coffee were determinant factors in obtaining filter coffee brews with lower cafestol contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish......Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  3. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.

  4. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  5. Coordinating quality practices in Direct Trade coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Emil; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers...... and cooperatives. But Direct Trade also involves exporters. We ask, how do exporters and roasters work together in these new coffee relations, and what do they work on? We observe and participate in a situation where Colombian coffee exporters visit Danish roasters. They tour the roasting facilities and taste...... a number of coffees. Often, the term power is used to analyse such value chain interactions, but we argue that the term coordination better opens up these interactions for exploration and analysis. What emerges is a coordination of quality. Through touring and tasting, issues emerge and differences...

  6. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  7. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  8. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  9. Effect of Superheated Steam Roasting on Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Content of Robusta Coffee Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi Ee Shan; Wahidu Zzaman; Tajul A. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea can...

  10. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  11. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature. This generates multiple harmful ecological effects. The downward trend of coffee prices and the rise in the cost of manure has urged coffee farmers to better exploit the by-products of coffee transformation.

  12. Time-Resolved Gravimetric Method To Assess Degassing of Roasted Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Suzuki, Tomonori; Balsiger, Franz; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2018-05-30

    During the roasting of coffee, thermally driven chemical reactions lead to the formation of gases, of which a large fraction is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Part of these gases is released during roasting while part is retained inside the porous structure of the roasted beans and is steadily released during storage or more abruptly during grinding and extraction. The release of CO 2 during the various phases from roasting to consumption is linked to many important properties and characteristics of coffee. It is an indicator for freshness, plays an important role in shelf life and in packaging, impacts the extraction process, is involved in crema formation, and may affect the sensory profile in the cup. Indeed, and in view of the multiple roles it plays, CO 2 is a much underappreciated and little examined molecule in coffee. Here, we introduce an accurate, quantitative, and time-resolved method to measure the release kinetics of gases from whole beans and ground coffee using a gravimetric approach. Samples were placed in a container with a fitted capillary to allow gases to escape. The time-resolved release of gases was measured via the weight loss of the container filled with coffee. Long-term stability was achieved using a customized design of a semimicro balance, including periodic and automatic zero value measurements and calibration procedures. The novel gravimetric methodology was applied to a range of coffee samples: (i) whole Arabica beans and (ii) ground Arabica and Robusta, roasted to different roast degrees and at different speeds (roast air temperatures). Modeling the degassing rates allowed structural and mechanistic interpretation of the degassing process.

  13. Influence of 2-Weeks Ingestion of High Chlorogenic Acid Coffee on Mood State, Performance, and Postexercise Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Goodman, Courtney L; Capps, Christopher R; Shue, Zack L; Arnot, Robert

    2018-01-01

    This study measured the influence of 2-weeks ingestion of high chlorogenic acid (CQA) coffee on postexercise inflammation and oxidative stress, with secondary outcomes including performance and mood state. Cyclists (N = 15) were randomized to CQA coffee or placebo (300 ml/day) for 2 weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the opposite condition with a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected pre- and postsupplementation, and immediately postexercise. CQA coffee was prepared using the Turkish method with 30 g lightly roasted, highly ground Hambela coffee beans in 300 ml boiling water, and provided 1,066 mg CQA and 474 mg caffeine versus 187 mg CQA and 33 mg caffeine for placebo. Plasma caffeine was higher with CQA coffee versus placebo after 2-weeks (3.3-fold) and postexercise (21.0-fold) (interaction effect, p coffee versus placebo (p = .01). No differences between CQA coffee and placebo were found for postexercise increases in plasma IL-6 (p = .74) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODEs) (p = .99). Total mood disturbance (TMD) scores were lower with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .04). 50-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials, with heart rate and ventilation higher with CQA coffee, especially after 30 min. In summary, despite more favorable TMD scores with CQA coffee, these data do not support the chronic use of coffee highly concentrated with chlorogenic acids and caffeine in mitigating postexercise inflammation or oxidative stress or improving 50-km cycling performance.

  14. Spices Coffee : Innovation Strategy To Increase Quality On Powder Coffee Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).

  15. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  16. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  17. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  18. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    these economic returns, and spent more cash on health care and food from commercial sources. Their health outcomes were similar to those of the food producers, but with poorer dietary outcomes and greater food stress. The small-scale women farmers who are producing food cannot rely on the economic infrastructure to give them support for meaningful levels of production. However, despite having higher incomes than their food producing counterparts, the evidence showed that women who are producing coffee in Uganda as an export commodity cannot rely on the income from their crops to guarantee their health and nutritional wellbeing, and that the income advantage gained in coffee-producing households has not translated into consistently better health or food security outcomes. Both groups have limited levels of autonomy and control to address these problems.

  19. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  20. Determination of the alkylpyrazine composition of coffee using stable isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SIDA-GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Stephanie; Becker, Irina; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Richling, Elke

    2013-07-03

    A stable isotope dilution analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (SIDA-GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 12 alkylpyrazines found in commercially available coffee samples. These compounds contribute to coffee flavor. The accuracy of this method was tested by analyzing model mixtures of alkylpyrazines. Comparisons of alkylpyrazine-concentrations suggested that water as extraction solvent was superior to dichloromethane. The distribution patterns of alkylpyrazines in different roasted coffees were quite similar. The most abundant alkylpyrazine in each coffee sample was 2-methylpyrazine, followed by 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, respectively. Among the alkylpyrazines tested, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine revealed the lowest concentrations in roasted coffee. By the use of isotope dilution analysis, the total concentrations of alkylpyrazines in commercially available ground coffee ranged between 82.1 and 211.6 mg/kg, respectively. Decaffeinated coffee samples were found to contain lower amounts of alkylpyrazines than regular coffee samples by a factor of 0.3-0.7, which might be a result of the decaffeination procedure.

  1. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reprocessing of spent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for removing helium and other impurities from a mixture containing deuterium and tritium, a deuterium/tritium mixture when purified in accordance with such a process and, more particularly, to a process for the reprocessing of spent plasma removed from a thermofusion reactor. (U.K.)

  3. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  4. What is more addictive : cannabis or coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Hili, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The answer is coffee. Coffee is drunk by around 80% of Americans. The large numbers call for extensive studies on the effect of this drug on the brain. Caffeine is a stimulant. It has a similar molecular structure to adenosine, a chemical linked to us feeling tired. Caffeine binds to adenosine and stops it from working. Coffee does not wake you up but makes your body forget it is tired. Taking that espresso in the morning makes your body increase the number of receptors to caffeine in the bra...

  5. A rare cause of coffee-ground vomiting: Retrograde jejunogastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde jejunogastric intussusception is a well-recognised, rare, but potentially fatal long-term complication of gastrojejunostomy or Billroth II reconstruction. Only about 200 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Diagnosis of this condition is difficult in most cases. To avoid mortality, earlydiagnosis and prompt ...

  6. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  7. Well-Construction, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Data for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells for the J4 Hydrogeologic Study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haugh, Connor J

    1996-01-01

    ...) in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality...

  8. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  9. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Alzheimer's disease (CBS 2012), dementia (Health news 2012) and ... the effects of coffee on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance as ..... mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. ... transporter family: Structure, function and tissue-.

  10. High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein

  11. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  12. Kape barako (coffea liberica) grounds as adsorbent for the removal of lead in lead-enriched Marikina river water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valera, Florenda S.; Garcia, Jhonard John L.

    2015-01-01

    Kape Barako (Coffee liberica) grounds (residue left after brewing ground coffee) were used as adsorbent for the removal of lead in Marikina River water samples. The sundried coffee grounds showed 9.30% moisture after drying in the oven. The coffee grounds were determined using Shimadzu AA-6501S Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer. The lead concentration was determined to be 4.7 mg/kg in coffee grounds and below detection limit in the Marikina River water samples. The adsorption studies were done at room temperature, and the optimized parameters were a contact time of 3 hours, an adsorbent dose of 3.0 g/L and 4.0 mg/L Pb-enriched water samples. The maximum uptake capacity was found to be 14.2 mg of lead/g adsorbent. The adsorption studies were done at room temperature, and the optimized parameters were a contact time of 3 hours, an adsorbent dose of 3.0 g/L and 4.0 mg/L Pb-enriched water samples. Analyses of the coffee grounds before and after lead adsorption using Shimadzu IR-Affinity-I Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer showed marked difference in the spectra, indicating interaction between Pb and the functional groups of the coffee grounds. (author)

  13. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  14. Climate change impacts on coffee rust disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.

  15. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, T

    1992-11-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use.

  17. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  18. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  19. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  20. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  1. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  2. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  3. Espresso coffee residues as a nitrogen amendment for small-scale vegetable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Soraia; Marques dos Santos Cordovil, Cláudia S C

    2015-12-01

    Espresso coffee grounds constitute a residue which is produced daily in considerable amounts, and is often pointed out as being potentially interesting for plant nutrition. Two experiments (incubations and field experiments) were carried out to evaluate the potential nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supply for carrot (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nutrition. Immobilisation of nitrogen and phosphorus was detected in all the incubations and, in the field experiments, germination and yield growth were decreased by the presence of espresso coffee grounds, in general for all the species studied. The study showed an inhibition of N and P mineralisation and a reduction of plant germination and growth. Further research is required to determine whether this is related to the immobilising capacity of the residue or possibly due to the presence of caffeine. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  5. Coffee harvest management by manipulation of coffee flowering with plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...

  6. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  7. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans and instant coffee of various origins by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  8. Coffee Production in Kavre and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Kumar Karki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea spp is an important and emerging cash crop having potential to provide farmers employment and income generation opportunities. This crop is well adapted to the climatic conditions of mid-hills of Nepal. Thus, majority of the farmers are attracted towards cultivation of coffee because of demands in national and international market. Coffee is now becoming integral part of farming system in rural areas. However, information on performance of coffee and farmers response has not been well documented. Therefore, we undertook the present work to analyze demography, ethnicity, household occupation, literacy status, average land holding, coffee cultivation area, livelihood and sources of income of coffee growers, production and productivity, pricing, cropping pattern of the coffee and problesm faced by them in mid hill district of Kavrepalanchowk (hereafter ‘Kavre’ and Lalitpur Districts. All the samples were taken randomly and selected from coffee producing cooperative of Kavre and Lalitpur. Our analysis showed that the male farmer dominant over female on adopting coffee cultivation in both districts with higher value in Kavre. Brahmin and Chetri ethnic communities were in majority over others in adopting the coffee cultivation. Literate farmers were more dominant over illiterates on adopting the coffee cultivation, The mean land holding was less, ranging from 0.15 to 2.30 ha for coffee cultivation, the history of coffee cultivation in Kavre showed that highest number of farmers were engaged in coffee farming from last 16 years. The mean yield of fresh cherry was 1027.20 kg/ha in Kavre, while it was 1849.36 kg/ha in Lalitpur. The study revealed that majority of the coffee plantations were between 6-10 years old. The major problems facing by coffee farmers were diseases spread, lack of irrigation facility and drying of plants. Despite of that the coffee farming was one of the rapidly emerging occupations among the farmers in both

  9. Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.

  10. Root biomass, turnover and net primary productivity of a coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica: effects of soil depth, shade trees, distance to row and coffee age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrenet, Elsa; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; Charbonnier, Fabien; Pastor Pérez-Molina, Junior; Khac, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Iván; Stokes, Alexia; Roumet, Catherine; Rapidel, Bruno; de Melo Virginio Filho, Elias; Vargas, Victor J; Robelo, Diego; Barquero, Alejandra; Jourdan, Christophe

    2016-08-21

    In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr -1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha -1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha -1 yr -1 Fine root biomass (0-30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha -1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha -1 yr -1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr -1 and lifespan was 0·8 years. Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  11. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  12. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  13. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  14. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  15. The Impact of Market Reform Programmes on Coffee Prices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (ICA) and liberalization of coffee marketing in Tanzania on coffee prices. The motivation for this ... indirect effects of market reforms on the level of prices, their variance ..... This strategy could be achieved through dedicated support to farmers to ...

  16. Assessment of metals in roasted indigenous coffee varieties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of metals in roasted indigenous coffee varieties of Ethiopia. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... values and drinking two cups of coffee is safe for an adult person and free from the risks of Cd and Pb toxicity.

  17. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  18. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food ... the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration ... involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level.

  19. Additive interaction of carbon dots extracted from soluble coffee and biogenic silver nanoparticles against bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Patricia F.; Durán, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson

    2017-01-01

    It is known the presence of carbon dots (CDs) in carbohydrate based foods. CDs extracted from coffee grounds and instant coffee was also published. CDs from soluble coffee revealed an average size of 4.4 nm. CDs were well-dispersed in water, fluorescent and we have characterized by XPS, XRD analysis, fluorescence and by FTIR spectra. The MIC value by serial micro-dilution assays for CDs on S. aureus ATCC 25923 was 250 μg/mL and E. coli ATCC 25922 >1000 ug/mL. For silver nanoparticles biogenically synthesized was 6.7 μg/mL. Following the checkerboard assay with combining ½ MIC values of the MICs of 125 μg/mL of carbon dots and 3.4 μg/mL of silver nanoparticles, following the fractionated inhibitory concentration (FIC) index methodology, on S. aureus gave a fractionated inhibitory concentration (FIC) value of 1.0, meaning additive interaction. In general, the unfunctionalized CDs showed to be inefficient as antibacterial compounds, however the CDs extracted from Coffee powder and together silver nanoparticles appeared interesting as antibacterial association. (paper)

  20. The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Funda; Selvi, Nigar; Kıpçak, Seyhun; Özdemir, Özgül; Piskin, Mehmet; Moroydor Derun, Emek

    2015-01-01

    The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish CoffeesCoffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years.Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been n...

  1. Investigation on the extractability of melanoidins in portioned espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, C.; Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Coffee melanoidins have attracted interest as a result of its potential health benefits. This investigation aims to elucidate the extraction behavior of melanoidins and their populations during the preparation of portioned espresso coffee and its relationship with the antioxidant activity of the coffee brew. Filter-paper pods, FAP capsule, and clone capsule containing light roasted coffee have been investigated. An accumulative fractionation approach has applied to model ...

  2. The coffee-time challenge

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The challenge to identify the LEP events displayed on coffee tables in Restaurant 1 (Bulletin 02-03/2010) sparked interest among readers who do not have the opportunity to see them . Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7, Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12 Table 13, Table 14, Table 15, Table 16       We have therefore decided to open the challenge to these readers by displaying the events on the web. We are also extending the deadline accordingly to 2 March. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, Voyage to the Heart of Matter, for the correct identification of all 16 events.  Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There wi...

  3. A coffee-time challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Can you tell a Z from a WW? The Bulletin is offering a prize for deciphering LEP events on show in Restaurant No. 1.   If you’ve been to the coffee areas in Restaurant 1 you’ve probably noticed the ‘LEP event’ table tops, installed for the symposium and exhibition ‘From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics’. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, ‘Voyage to the Heart of Matter’, for the correct identification of all 16 events. Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There will be a draw on 19 January to pick the winner from entries that correctl...

  4. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  5. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  6. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  7. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  8. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their

  9. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  10. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales

  11. The structural changes in the Mexican coffee sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padron, Benigno Rodriguez; Burger, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the structural changes which have been present since the economic clauses of the International Coffee Agreements have no longer been in effect. It studies the elements that modified the coffee policy over time. It also investigates the main characteristics of the entire coffee

  12. Diversification and Labor Market Effects of the Mexican Coffee Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how coffee-producing households responded to the low coffee prices prevailing around 2003. We provide theory on differential responses in regions dedicated to coffee growing, compared to more diversified or better accessible regions. We show how labor market effects can explain

  13. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  14. Color stability of restorative materials in response to Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe on the color stability of four different composite resins after a period of aging time 1, 7 and 30 days. Twenty specimens from each type of tested composite resin material were prepared. Five specimens from each tested material (Z350 XT, Artist, GC and Z250) was evaluated after storage in Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee, Nescafe and distil water (control) at 37°C in a dark container for 1, 7 and 30 days. Color measurement was done using colorimeter based on the CIE L* a* b* color scale. Color differences ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* among specimens immersed in distil water and staining coffee beverages were evaluated overtime. Mean values were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test with p Nescafe except Δa*. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab after 30 days was in group A Arabic coffee (ΔE > 1.5 perceivable) and not perceivable in group B Turkish coffee and group C Nescafe. For Δb* all materials discolored toward yellowness after 30 days except Arabic coffee group which shifted from yellowness toward blueness (Δb*> 1.5 perceivable). The effect of staining beverages on the resin composite materials increases with time of aging toward yellowness and not perceivable in all groups except with Arabic coffee which had highest effect after 30 days and the discoloration shifted from yellowness to blueness perceivable.

  15. Analisis Customer Segment, Channels, Dan Customer Relationship Dalam Pembentukan Value Proposition Di Starbucks Coffee (Studi Kasus Pada Starbucks Coffee Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmanisa, Aisy; Wilopo,; Sanawiri, Brillyanes

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand and explain; How to Starbucks Coffee create value proposition for their customer? How to Starbucks Coffee segmented the customer, to create the value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build and choose the channels to grab the customer and create value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build a customer relationship and create value proposition from the process? .This reaserch uses primery data descriptive analysis method with fenomelogy kualitative o...

  16. Spatial distribution of the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella) in an organic coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field in formation

    OpenAIRE

    Scalon, João Domingos; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Freitas, Gabriela Alves; DEX/UFLA; Avelar, Maria Betania Lopes; DEX/UFLA; Zacarias, Mauricio Sérgio; EPAMIG/EcoCentro

    2011-01-01

    Coffee production has been one of the economy pillars of many tropical countries. Unfortunately, this crop is susceptible to infestation by the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842)) which causes severe damage to coffee plantations with losses that may reach 80% of the total production. In recent years, researchers have been trying to develop practices for minimizing the use of pesticides in the coffee-leaf-miner control. It is well known that the un...

  17. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  18. Spent fuel: prediction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M.; Cantley, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained

  19. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  20. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  1. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  2. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  3. The velocity dependent dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.

    1990-02-01

    A model describing the dissolution of fission products and transuranic isotopes from spent nuclear fuel into flowing ground water has been developed. This model is divided into two parts. The first part of the model calculates the temperature within a consolidated spent fuel waste form at a given time and ground water velocity. This model was used to investigate whether water flowing at rates representative of a geological repository located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will cool a wasteform consisting of consolidated spent nuclear fuel pins. Time and velocity dependent temperature profiles were generated. These profiles were input into the second model, which calculates the dissolution rate of waste isotopes from a spent fuel pin. Two dissolution limiting processes were modeled; the processes are dissolution limited by the solubility limit of an isotopes in the ground water, and dissolution limited by the diffusion of waste isotopes from the interior of a spent fuel pin to the surface where dissolution can occur

  4. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  5. Fast simultaneous analysis of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Farah, Adriana

    2008-10-15

    A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee was developed and validated. The method involved extraction with hot water, clarification with basic lead acetate and membrane filtration, followed by chromatographic separation using a Spherisorb(®) S5 ODS2, 5μm chromatographic column and gradient elution with 0.3% aqueous formic acid/methanol at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in the negative mode to generate sucrose ions and in the positive mode to generate caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid ions. Ionization suppression of all analytes was found due to matrix effect. Calibrations curves prepared in green and roasted coffee extracts were linear with r(2)>0.999. Roasted coffee was spiked and recoveries ranged from 93.0% to 105.1% for caffeine, from 85.2% to 116.2% for trigonelline, from 89.6% to 113.5% for nicotinic acid and from 94.1% to 109.7% for sucrose. Good repeatibilities (RSDcoffee samples (regular or decaffeinated green, ground roasted and instant) gave results in agreement with the literature. The method showed to be suitable for different types of coffee available in the market thus appearing as a fast and reliable alternative method to be used for routine coffee analysis. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenko, Anna; de Vries, Roxan; van Rompay, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product’s package on consumers’ flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N = 123) compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans) and the direct textual claim (“extra strong”) on consumers’ responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers’ product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the “strong is heavy” metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design. PMID:29459840

  7. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product’s package on consumers’ flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N = 123 compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans and the direct textual claim (“extra strong” on consumers’ responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers’ product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the “strong is heavy” metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design.

  8. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers' Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenko, Anna; de Vries, Roxan; van Rompay, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product's package on consumers' flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment ( N = 123) compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans) and the direct textual claim ("extra strong") on consumers' responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers' product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the "strong is heavy" metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design.

  9. Briu: A Coffee Roasting Startup

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the German coffee market and its appropriateness as a new market to enter for the startup Company Briu. The company has been continuously growing since its initial start. The Chilean Coffee startup has since then looked for new markets opportunities in Europe. Their favored market is Germany. The research conducted in this paper is supposed to reveal the market its suitability for the company its expansion. The following key areas are assessed in order ...

  10. A Real Options Analysis of Coffee Planting in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Quoc; Tauer, Loren W.

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam grew from an insignificant to the world’s second largest coffee producer during the 1990s. To understand this growth, this paper examines Vietnamese coffee growers’ investment decisions using real options theory. The study finds that producers, with variable costs of 19 cents/lb and total cost of 29.3 cents/lb, would enter coffee production at a coffee price of 47 cents/lb and exit at a coffee price of 14 cents/lb. Most Vietnamese growers appear to be sufficiently efficient to continu...

  11. [Coffee can be beneficial for patients with liver diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Krag, Aleksander

    2014-10-20

    Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Consequently, it is important to consider the impact of coffee on health and disease. A daily intake of at least three cups of coffee is likely to have beneficial health effects, especially in patients at risk of liver diseases. Coffee has been associated with decreased liver inflammation, prevention of cirrhosis, reduced steatosis and lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is not yet possible to make clear recommendations, but coffee can likely be included as part of a healthy diet for patients with liver diseases.

  12. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  13. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Real-Time PCR as a tool for monitoring the authenticity of commercial coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thiago; Farah, Adriana; Oliveira, Tatiane C; Lima, Ivanilda S; Vitório, Felipe; Oliveira, Edna M M

    2016-05-15

    Coffee is one of the main food products commercialized in the world. Its considerable market value among food products makes it susceptible to adulteration, especially with cereals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a method based on Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of cereals in commercial ground roast and soluble coffees. After comparison with standard curves obtained by serial dilution of DNA extracted from barley, corn and rice, the method was sensitive and specific to quantify down to 0.6 pg, 14 pg and 16 pg of barley, corn and rice DNA, respectively. To verify the applicability of the method, 30 commercial samples obtained in different countries were evaluated and those classified as gourmets or superior did not present the tested cereals DNA. However, barley was detected in various traditional (cheaper) samples from South America. In addition, corn and rice were also detected in different samples. Real-Time PCR showed to be suitable for detection of food adulterants in commercial ground roast and soluble coffees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  16. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  17. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  18. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  19. Setting the Stage for California Coffee Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional coffee farming has occurred worldwide at equatorial latitudes below 25° under very specific growing conditions with acidic soils, warm temperatures and high humidity. Environmental conditions have been found to have large impacts on the quality and taste of the berry, which in turn affec...

  20. The Coffee-Milk Mixture Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…

  1. Self Reported Symptoms Associated with Coffee Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    caffeine ingestion often leads to inhibition of logical, connected thought, and ... consumption produced a pattern of physiological and psychological reactions ... professionals in Nigeria after several years of research at .... experienced by daily users of coffee and occasional users. .... Brain Research and Review 17: 139 –.

  2. Design Guidelines for Coffee Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidermeier, Tim; Burghardt, Manuel; Wolff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walk-up-and-use-systems such as vending and self-service machines request special attention concerning an easy to use and self-explanatory user interface. In this paper we present a set of design guidelines for coffee vending machines based on the results of an expert-based usability evaluation of thirteen different models.

  3. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  4. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bscv2006@yahoo.com. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE VARIETIES OF. ETHIOPIA. Abera Gure1,2, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi1* and Taddese Wondimu Godeto1, ...

  6. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  7. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, D.J.; Benck, R.M.; Merle, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  8. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  9. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  10. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  11. Spent fuel management overview: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, P.H.; Fukuda, K.; Mourogov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the main spent fuel management strategies and options, highlights the challenges for spent fuel storage and gives an overview of the regional balances of spent fuel storage capacity and spent fuel arising. The relevant IAEA activities in the area of spent fuel management are summarised. (author)

  12. Furan Levels and Sensory Profiles of Commercial Coffee Products Under Various Handling Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  14. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  15. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  16. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  17. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD's work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools

  18. Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries : A multinational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno U.; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study.

  19. Spent fuel element storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Hideo; Yamashita, Rikuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To always keep water level of a spent fuel cask pit equal with water level of spent fuel storage pool by means of syphon principle. Constitution: The pool water of a spent fuel storage pool is airtightly communicated through a pipe with the pool water of a spent fuel cask, and a gate is provided between the pool and the cask. Since cask is conveyed into the cask pit as the gate close while conveying, the pool water level is raised an amount corresponding to the volume of the cask, and water flow through scattering pipe and the communication pipe to the storage pool. When the fuel is conveyed out of the cask, the water level is lowered in the amount corresponding to the volume in the cask pit, and the water in the pool flow through the communication pipe to the cask pit. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  1. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Pattantyus, P.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian spent fuel storage is presented. This includes wet and dry interim storage. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is nor planned, as dry technologies have found wide acceptance. The Canadian nuclear program is sustained by commercial Ontario Hydro CANDU type reactors, since 1971, representing 13600 MW(e) of installed capacity, able to produce 9200 spent fuel bundles (1800 tU) every year, and Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick CANDU reactors each producing 685 MW(e) and about 100 tU of spent fuel annually. The implementation of various interim (wt and dry) storage technologies resulted in simple, dense and low cost systems. Economical factors determined that the open cycle option be adopted for the CANDU type reactors rather that recycling the spent fuel. Research and development activities for immobilization and final disposal of nuclear waste are being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  2. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  3. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  4. Characterization of Organic and Conventional Coffee Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro

    2000-01-01

    Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analytical methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants

  5. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs

  6. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  7. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  8. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  9. Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fercan; A. S. Kipcak; O. Dere Ozdemir; M. B. Piskin; E. Moroydor Derun

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this...

  10. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  11. THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Danilo; Epperson, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The U.S. organic coffee market has experienced extraordinary growth in the past five years because of an increase in c...

  12. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    OpenAIRE

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have ...

  13. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  14. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Larson, J. C.; Snetslaar, L. G.; Lane, D. S.; Tharp, K. M.; Stefanick, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample ( N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0-<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02-1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93-1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05-1.36) and high non drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01-2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  16. Natural radiation source fabricated from commercially available instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ando, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Yuuichi

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available instant coffee, Nescafe Excella, contained the radionuclide 40 K. From the instant coffee, sixteen coffee-block radiation sources were successfully fabricated with sufficiently low production dependences. The coffee-block radiation sources were examined their suitability for a radiation protection course. Although a part of radiation counts(cpm) obtained with 1 minute measurement were largely deviated, those determined by 5 minute measurements and five times of 1 minute measurement were less deviated, enabling better comprehension of the three cardinal principles of radiation protection. (author)

  17. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Coffee and health: a review of recent human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jane V; Frei, Balz

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.

  19. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  20. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  1. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-12-08

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  2. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  3. Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Peter F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Method Ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 ± 1.7 y; 178.1 ± 10.4 cm; 71.8 ± 12.1 kg underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 354 ml (1.5 cups of freshly brewed JF or commercially available caffeinated coffee (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a session-average was calculated for RER, HR and BP. Results Initial analysis revealed no significant differences. However, seven of the ten subjects were considered responders to JF (had a higher AUC for VO2during JF than P. Statistical analysis showed the difference between JF and P (12% to be significantly different in these responders. In addition, the average systolic BP was higher (p Conclusion It appears that consuming a nutritionally-enriched coffee beverage may increase resting energy expenditure in individuals that are sensitive to the caffeine and herbal coffee supplement. In addition, this supplement also appears to affect cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting systolic arterial blood pressure.

  4. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Evizal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora, namely sun coffee (without shade trees, coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina indica are evaluated during 2007—2008. Smallholder coffee plantation in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, which managed under local standard were employed using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The result showed that litter fall dynamic from shade trees and from coffee trees was influenced by rainfall. Shade trees decreased weed biomass while increased litter fall production. In dry season, shade trees decreased litter fall from coffee shaded by M. champaca. G. sepium and E. indica shaded coffee showed higher yield than sun coffee and M. champaca shaded coffee. Except for M. champaca shaded coffee, yield had positive correlation (r = 0.99 with litter fall production and had negative correlation (r = —0.82 with weed biomass production. Biomass production (litter fall + weed of sun coffee and shaded coffee was not significantly different. Litter fall of shade trees had significance on nutrient cycle mainly to balance the lost of nitrogen in coffee bean harvesting.Key Words: Coffea canephora, Michelia champaca, Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina indica, litter production, nutrient cycle, coffee yield.

  5. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  6. THE RISE AND DECLINE OF RENT-SEEKING ACTIVITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COFFEE SECTOR: LESSONS FROM THE IMPOSITION AND REMOVAL OF COFFEE EXPORT QUOTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, the world's largest coffee exporter, encouraged efforts in the 1960s to form the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), which restricted total coffee exports via country export quotas. The quotas led to significant domestic quota rents in producing countries. This paper analyzes the effects of rent seeking in Brazil. The Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), which was responsible for coffee policy, was the focus of rent seeking. The paper models the policy instruments used by the IB...

  7. The suitability of the simplified method of the analysis of coffee infusions on the content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn and the study of the effect of preparation conditions on the leachability of elements into the coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2013-12-01

    A fast and straightforward method of the analysis of coffee infusions was developed for measurements of total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Its validity was proved by the analysis of spiked samples; recoveries of added metals were found to be within 98-104% while the precision was better than 4%. The method devised was used for the analysis of re-distilled water infusions of six popular ground coffees available in the Polish market. Using the mud coffee preparation it was established that percentages of metals leached in these conditions varied a lot among analysed coffees, especially for Ca (14-42%), Mg (6-25%) and Zn (1-24%). For remaining metals, the highest extractabilities were assessed for Mn (30-52%) while the lowest for Fe (4-16%) and Cu (2-12%). In addition, it was found that the water type and the coffee brewing preparation method influence the concentration of studied metals in coffee infusions the most. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  9. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP

  10. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP.

  11. Taxation and Mexican Coffee. The Porfiriato's Strategies for Promoting Coffee Production and Sale (1870-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel M. Rodríguez Centeno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes how Mexican liberal policies for economic development combined with international markets in the late-Nineteenth century.  It focuses on the case of coffee because it clearly  shows  that  the  grower's main incentive  were  the high prices of this product in international markets. The analysis centers on the specific cases of Michoacan, Jalisco, Colima, Oaxaca, Chiapas  and Veracruz,  emphasizing  the central  role of federal and state government  support for expanding coffee production, through fiscal incentives and the development of transportation means.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  13. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  14. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  15. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  16. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  17. Final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant (TVO-I and TVO-II reactors). According to present estimates, a total of 1840 tU of spent fuel will be accumulated during the 40-year lifetime of the power plant. An interim storage facility for spent fuel (TVO-KPA Store) has operated at Olkiluoto since 1987. The spent fuel will be held in storage for several decades before it is shipped to the repository site. Both train and road transportation are possible. The spent fuel will be encapsulated in composite copper and steel canisters (ACP Canister) in a facility that will be build above the ground on the site where the repository is located. The repository will be constructed at the depth of several hundreds of meters in the bedrock. In 1987 five areas were selected for preliminary site investigations. The safety analysis (TVO-92) that was carried out shows that the proposed safety criteria would be met at each of the candidate sites. In future expected conditions there would never be significant releases of radioactive substances to the biosphere. The site investigations will be continued in the period 1993 to 2000. In parallel, a R and D programme will be devoted to the safety and technology of final disposal. The site for final disposal will be selected in the year 2000 with the aim of having the capability to start the disposal operations in 2020

  18. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B S; Park, Y S; Oh, S C; Kim, S H; Cho, M W; Hong, D H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  19. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  20. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  1. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  2. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and Department of Energy (DOE) estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented for the next 20 years, through the year 2007. The eventual needs for additional spent fuel storage capacity are estimated. These estimates are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1987 and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to DOE through the 1988 RW-859 data survey and by DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 12 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  3. A proposal to correct external effects in the coffee market: a tax on regular coffee and tea to subsidise the fair trade coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Galarraga, Ibon; Markandya, Anil

    2006-01-01

    This paper justifies the need to introduce a tax on regular coffee drinkers in the UK to subsidise the fair trade/organic coffee production. This policy will allow to take full account of the negative external effect of regular coffee production while internalising the positive effect of fair trade initiatives. Designing such a policy is possible and the benefits of it can be calculated. This paper shows how. Propuesta para corregir las externalidades en el mercado de café: un impuesto sobre ...

  4. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.A.; Gravalos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    There are presently nine Light Water Reactors in operation, representing around a 34% of the overall electricity production. In the early years, a small amount of spent fuel was sent to be reprocessed, although this policy was cancelled in favor of the open cycle option. A state owned company, ENRESA, was created in 1984, which was given the mandate to manage all kinds of radioactive wastes generated in the country. Under the present scenario, a rough overall amount of 7000 tU of spent fuel will be produced during the lifetime of the plants, which will go into final disposal. (author)

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  6. Transport device of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a transport device of spent fuel particularly used in a fast breeder, which can enhance accessibility to travelling mechanism portions and exchangeability thereof to facilitate maintenance in the event of failure. Structure: On a travelling floor, which has a function to shield radioactive rays, extending in a direction of transporting spent fuel and being formed with a break passing through in a direction wall thickness, a travelling body is moved along the break. The travelling body has a support rod member mounted thereon, and the support rod member is moved within the break, the support rod member having a fuel support pocket suspended therefrom. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  8. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  9. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  10. El Nino phenomenon, effects on the tree of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro; Baldion Rincon, Jose Vicente; Guzman Martinez, Orlando

    1998-01-01

    El Nino phenomenon is manifested in the coffee by a deficiency of water in the plant, that which affects its normal development in its fruits; the author describes other alterations that affect the plants of coffee due to El Nino phenomenon

  11. Metabolomics as a research tool for coffee and cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa quality is of evergrowing importance and bemg able to determine the key quality aspects of different batches of coffee or cocoa and their products Is central to match1ng industrial processes with mcreas1ng consumer demand for specific quality attnbutes. But what do we actually mean

  12. Activity of some isoenzymatic systems in stored coffee grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Saath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.

  13. Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of Concentrated Solutions of Soluble Coffee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolík, Václav; Žitný, R.; Tovčigrečko, Valentin; Delgado, M.; Allaf, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 93-98 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:MSM 212200008 Keywords : coffee extract * soluble coffee * viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2002

  14. Practices of Third Wave Coffee : A Burundian Producer's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, Lauren; Swilling, Mark; Vermeulen, Walter J.V.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between coffee quality and sustainability is typically analysed using symbolic quality attributes, not material quality. This article provides a bottom-up perspective of Burundi's current competitive advantage in the global coffee market: material quality. The research agenda was

  15. Boosting climate resilience for Colombian coffee growers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-29

    Sep 29, 2016 ... This will help farmers stabilize their livelihoods and be more competitive in the face of climate change, while securing the supply and quality of their coffee. Cenicafé researchers will also receive assistance from staff at the Tim Hortons Coffee Partnership, a farmer-support program established in 2005 to ...

  16. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on

  17. Let’s have a cup of coffee!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2013-01-01

    Coffee breaks are the main target in this investigation as the paper draws upon a qualitative focus group among Danish public family law caseworkers employed in a newly merged workplacesite. Coffee breaks were identified as the utmost important factor for the social and personal survival well-bei...

  18. A Poetry Coffee House: Creating a Cool Community of Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the sharing of writing through a coffee house--style poetry reading. Although this article focuses on a workshop and share activity used in a preservice teacher language arts and literacy course, it contains tips and ideas for implementing poetry coffee houses with elementary and secondary school students and preservice and…

  19. A better brew: Toward a sustainable coffee industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... At the consumer end of the supply chain, coffee devotees pay a ... as roasters — that dominate the global coffee market have benefited from current ... (ICAs) have put in place supply management techniques, such as quotas, ...

  20. Quality and value chain analyses of Ethiopian coffee | Beshah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the quality and value chain of Ethiopian coffee in a way to identify opportunities that maximize the benefits from the sector. First the Ethiopian coffee sector is overviewed and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively starting from the crop up to the cup based on data collected from ...

  1. A review of coffee wilt disease, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee is vital to the economy of East and Central Africa, providing a major source of foreign exchange earnings and as a cash crop, supporting the livelihood of millions of people who are involved in cultivation, processing, marketing, and export. Coffee is attacked by various disease-causing organisms such as fungi, ...

  2. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...

  3. Quantification and antibacterial activity of flavonoids in coffee samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Flavonoids are the phenolic substances widely found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and coffee. Methodology: In the current study quantity of flavonoids and antibacterial activities were determined in different coffee samples namely Nescafe classic, Nescafe gold, Nescafe martina, ...

  4. Uganda Coffee Supply Response and Export Demand: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.

  5. Recent advances in coffee berry disease (CBD) control in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...

  6. Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and

  7. Preliminary plan for decommissioning - repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Tiberg, Liselotte

    2010-06-01

    The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is part of the KBS-3 system, which also consists of a central facility for interim storage and encapsulation of the spent nuclear fuel and a transport system. The nuclear fuel repository will be a nuclear facility. Regulation SSMFS 2008:1 (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations on safety of nuclear facilities) requires that the licensee must have a current decommissioning plan throughout the facility lifecycle. Before the facility is constructed, a preliminary decommissioning plan should be reported to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. This document is a preliminary decommissioning plan, and submitted as an attachment to SKB's application for a license under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct, own and operate the facility. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel consists of an above ground part and a below ground part and will be built near Forsmark and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR. The parts above and below ground are connected by a ramp and several shafts, e.g. for ventilation. The below ground part consists of a central area, and several landfill sites. The latter form the repository area. The sealed below ground part constitutes the final repository. The decommissioning is taking place after the main operation has ended, that is, when all spent nuclear fuel has been deposited and the deposition tunnels have been backfilled and plugged. The decommissioning involves sealing of the remaining parts of the below ground part and demolition of above ground part. When decommissioning begins, there will be no contamination in the facility. The demolition is therefore performed as for a conventional plant. Demolition waste is sorted and recycled whenever possible or placed in landfill. Hazardous waste is managed in accordance with current regulations. A ground investigation is performed and is the basis for after-treatment of the site. The timetable for the

  8. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C.

  9. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have different effects on human health. It is therefore important to know their chemical structures and changes. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides, proteins and chlorogenic acids are included in the formation of these melanoidins. However, the precise structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in the formation are not yet clarified. This article systematize available information and provides an overview of research obtained so far on the structure of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms of their formation and potential health effects.

  10. Physiological measurements of coffee young plants coexisting with sourgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important crop planted in Brazil and commonly infested by sourgrass plants. Crescent densities of sourgrass growing with coffee young plants were maintained up to weed full flowering when physiological measurements were performed in the crop to evaluate photosynthetic coffee plant responses to increasing of weed competition. Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with seven replicates. The concentration of CO2 within the leaf, the leaf transpiration, the stomatal conductance, the CO2 assimilation rate, and the ratio Fv/Fm of coffee plants were not affected by increasing of sourgrass density. On the other hand, relative content of total chlorophyll was reduced by 13.9% in the density of 8 sourgrass plants. Gas exchange and fluorescence of chlorophyll of young coffee plants were not dependent on increasing of the intensity of competition while an opposite response occurred for chlorophyll content.

  11. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell

    2014-05-28

    The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.

  12. Isotopes as Tracers of the Hawaiian Coffee-Producing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Green coffee bean isotopes have been used to trace the effects of different climatic and geological characteristics associated with the Hawaii islands. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ((MC)-ICP-SFMS and ICP-QMS) were applied to determine the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), sulfur (δ34S), and oxygen (δ18O), the isotope abundance of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), and the concentrations of 30 different elements in 47 green coffees. The coffees were produced in five Hawaii regions: Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Results indicate that coffee plant seed isotopes reflect interactions between the coffee plant and the local environment. Accordingly, the obtained analytical fingerprinting could be used to discriminate between the different Hawaii regions studied. PMID:21838232

  13. Sound of a cup with and without instant coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    An empty coffee cup, like an ancient Chinese two-tone bell, emits two distinctly different tones, depending upon where it is tapped. When it is filled with hot water, and some instant coffee is added, however, a whole new set of sounds is heard when the cup is tapped. The pitch rises an octave or more as the foam clears due to the dramatic change in the speed of sound in the bubble-filled liquid. A similar, but smaller, effect was noted in beer by Bragg [The World of Sound (1968)] and in hot chocolate by Crawford [Am. J. Phys. (1982)]. We describe the modes of vibration in a coffee cup and the sound emitted by a coffee cup as filled with instant coffee as the bubble density changes.

  14. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  15. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P colorectal cancer (Ptrend cancers. Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  17. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  18. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattantyus, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian Spent Fuel Management is described. This includes wet and dry interim storage, transportation issues and future plans regarding final disposal based on deep underground emplacement in stable granite rock. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is not planned, as dry storage technologies have found wide acceptance. (author)

  19. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  1. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  2. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  3. Boron levels in soils cropped to coffee and their relationships to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countries. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee ...

  4. The dynamic of the “Coffee Quality Paraná” contest in the production of specialty coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorian Voigt-Gair

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Paraná, the concentration of efforts of various organizations have collaborated to improve the image of coffee. This work aims to study the coffee samples, through the sensory attributes scored in the “Test Cup” Contest of “Coffee Quality Paraná” from 2004 to 2009 and to prove the qualification of rural extension technicians and producers in order to obtain a differentiated with high quality product, linked to the methodology of marketing strategy. The study was conducted with 570 samples from 55 municipalities and analyzed in state steps of this contest. It was concluded that the methodology used in the Contest “Coffee Quality Paraná” encourages constant improvement and disseminates technical and scientific innovations in various links in the productive chain, having as the final result the increasing of the amount of coffee produced in Paraná with excellent quality drink.

  5. Coffee as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A literature study

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Prashamsa

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is the most widely drunk beverage around the world, especially within Scandinavia.However, there have been conflicting evidence on the consumption of coffee as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The importance to explore the full effects of coffee related health problems, including brewing methods, is mainly due to the high consumption rate of coffee around the world. In the context of public health, knowing how a popular beverage such as coffee effects the cardiovascular risks...

  6. Environmental-economic benefits and trade-offs on sustainably certified coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Jeremy; Soto, Gabriela; Casanoves, Fernando; de Melo Virginio, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Coffee with diverse shade trees is recognized as conserving greater biodiversity than more intensive production methods. Sustainable certification has been proposed as an incentive to conserve shade grown coffee. With 40% of global coffee production certified as sustainable, evidence is needed to demonstrate whether certification supports the environmental benefits of shade coffee. Environmen-tal and economic data were taken from 278 coffee farms in Nicaragua divided between non-certified and...

  7. DNA pyrosequencing evidence for large diversity differences between natural and managed coffee mycorrhizal fungal communities

    OpenAIRE

    De Beenhouwer , Matthias; Muleta , Diriba; Peeters , Bram; Van Geel , Maarten; Lievens , Bart; Honnay , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Arabica coffee is a major agricultural commodity worldwide, representing 60 % of the world’s coffee production. Arabica coffee is cultivated in more than 36 countries and is a key cash crop for many developing countries. Despite the coffee’s huge economic importance, there is very limited knowledge on the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with coffee roots. Therefore, we assessed the mycorrhizal diversity and community composition in Arabica coffee (Coffea ar...

  8. Habitual coffee consumption enhances attention and vigilance in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.

  9. Coffee and Depression: A Short Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic.

  10. Coffee and tea: perks for health and longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-11-01

    Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.

  11. Habitual Coffee Consumption Enhances Attention and Vigilance in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar M. Nikić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants’ response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78% consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%. Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P=0.024. Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.

  12. The inclusion of coffee in commercial layer diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on the performance and internal and external egg quality of commercial layers. One hundred and twenty 25-week-old Hy-line Brown layers, with 1575 ± 91 average body weight, were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (control, 1.2% caffeinated coffee, or 1.2% decaffeinated coffee of five replicates of eight birds each. The inclusion of 1.2% caffeinated coffee was calculated to supply 6mg caffeine per kg body weight, which is considered a moderate dose. The applied treatments did not influence (p>0.05 feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, Haugh units, yolk color or albumen and yolk percentages. The eggs of hens fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee presented lower (p<0.05 eggshell thickness and egg specific density. The eggs of layers fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee tended (p=0.0637 to present lower eggshell percentage. It was concluded that feeding caffeinated coffee to commercial layers does not affect their performance or internal egg quality; however, eggshell quality is impaired.

  13. Soil phosphorus dynamics and availability and irrigated coffee yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Henrique Pereira Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research data have demonstrated that the P demand of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is similar to that of short-cycle crops. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of annual P fertilization on the soil P status by the quantification of labile, moderately labile, low-labile, and total P fractions, associating them to coffee yield. The experiment was installed in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol cultivated with irrigated coffee annually fertilized with triple superphosphate at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Phosphorus fractions were determined in two soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. The P leaf contents and coffee yield in 2008 were also evaluated. The irrigated coffee responded to phosphate fertilization in the production phase with gains of up to 138 % in coffee yield by the application of 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Coffee leaf P contents increased with P applications and stabilized around 1.98 g kg-1, at rates of 270 kg ha-1 P2O5 and higher. Soil P application caused, in general, an increase in bioavailable P fractions, which constitute the main soil P reservoir.

  14. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  15. Bird communities in sun and shade coffee farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.

  16. Espresso coffees, caffeine and chlorogenic acid intake: potential health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Thomas W M; Stalmach, Angelique; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    HPLC analysis of 20 commercial espresso coffees revealed 6-fold differences in caffeine levels, a 17-fold range of caffeoylquinic acid contents, and 4-fold differences in the caffeoylquinic acid : caffeine ratio. These variations reflect differences in batch-to-batch bean composition, possible blending of arabica with robusta beans, as well as roasting and grinding procedures, but the predominant factor is likely to be the amount of beans used in the coffee-making/barista processes. The most caffeine in a single espresso was 322 mg and a further three contained >200 mg, exceeding the 200 mg day(-1) upper limit recommended during pregnancy by the UK Food Standards Agency. This snap-shot of high-street expresso coffees suggests the published assumption that a cup of strong coffee contains 50 mg caffeine may be misleading. Consumers at risk of toxicity, including pregnant women, children and those with liver disease, may unknowingly ingest excessive caffeine from a single cup of espresso coffee. As many coffee houses prepare larger volume coffees, such as Latte and Cappuccino, by dilution of a single or double shot of expresso, further study on these products is warranted. New data are needed to provide informative labelling, with attention to bean variety, preparation, and barista methods.

  17. Coffee consumption modulates inflammatory processes in an individual fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaku, Besnik; Tahir, Ammar; Klepeisz, Philip; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Marlene; Schmetterer, Klaus; Gerner, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable. We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines, and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), LTC4, LTE4, and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant downregulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed. Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Salomone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.

  19. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  20. Collective processing device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a sealing vessel, a transporting device for transporting spent fuels to the sealing vessel, a laser beam cutting device for cutting the transported spent fuels, a dissolving device for dissolving the cut spent fuels, and a recovering device for recovering radioactive materials from the spent fuels during processing. Reprocessing treatments comprising each processing of dismantling, shearing and dissolving are conducted in the sealing vessel can ensure a sealing barrier for the radioactive materials (fissionable products and heavy nuclides). Then, since spent fuels can be processed in a state of assemblies, and the spent fuels are easily placed in the sealing vessel, operation efficiency is improved, as well as operation cost is saved. Further, since the spent fuels can be cut by a remote laser beam operation, there can be prevented operator's exposure due to radioactive materials released from the spent fuels during cutting operation. (T.M.)

  1. Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabudak, Efsun; Türközü, Duygu; Köksal, Eda

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels.

  3. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  4. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  5. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  6. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs

  7. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. High coffee population density to improve fertility of an oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan,Marcos Antonio; Chaves,Júlio César Dias; Siqueira,Rubens; Androcioli Filho,Armando; Colozzi Filho,Arnaldo; Balota,Elcio Liborio

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) population densities on the chemical and microbiological properties of an Oxisol. The work was carried out on soil samples of 0-20 cm depth originated from an experimental site which had been used for coffee tree spacing studies during 15 years, in Paraná State, Brazil. Eight coffee tree populations were evaluated: 7143, 3571, 2381, 1786, 1429, 1190, 1020, and 893 trees/ha. Increasing plant population increase...

  9. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  10. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  11. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  12. Spent nuclear fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio; Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Sekikawa, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    Containing tubes for containing spent nuclear fuels are arranged vertically in a chamber. Heat releasing fins are disposed horizontal to the outer circumference of the containing tubes for rectifying cooling air and promoting cooling of the containing tubes. Louvers and evaporation sides of heat pipes are disposed at a predetermined distance in the chamber. Cooling air flows from an air introduction port to the inside of the chamber and takes heat from the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating spent nuclear fuels, rising its temperature and flows off to an air exhaustion exit. The direction for the rectification plate of the louver is downward from a horizontal position while facing to the air exhaustion port. Since the evaporation sides of the heat pipes are disposed in the inside of the chamber and the condensation side of the heat pipes is disposed to the outside of the chamber, the thermal energy can be recovered from the containing tubes incorporated with spent nuclear fuels and utilized. (I.N.)

  13. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  14. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  15. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  16. Spent fuel storage process equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sol; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1990-02-01

    Nuclear energy which is a major energy source of national energy supply entails spent fuels. Spent fuels which are high level radioactive meterials, are tricky to manage and need high technology. The objectives of this study are to establish and develop key elements of spent fuel management technologies: handling equipment and maintenance, process automation technology, colling system, and cleanup system. (author)

  17. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  18. IPR 107 – Dwarf arabic coffee cultivar with resistance to coffee leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘IPR 107’ was derived from a cross between ‘IAPAR 59’ and ‘Mundo Novo IAC 376-4’. ‘IPR 107’ is a dwarf medium sizeplant with medium precocity in ripening and with complete resistance to rust races in this time. This cultivar presents superior qualityand high yield in many coffee regions.

  19. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  20. Levels of Antioxidant Activity and Fluoride Content in Coffee Infusions of Arabica, Robusta and Green Coffee Beans in According to their Brewing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, J; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K; Szymkowiak, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2017-10-01

    Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland) were analyzed. Five different techniques of preparing drink were used: simple infusion, french press, espresso maker, overflow espresso and Turkish coffee. Antioxidant potential of coffee beverages was investigated spectrophotometrically by DPPH method. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Statistical analysis was performed using Stat Soft Statistica 12.5. Antioxidant activity of infusions was high (71.97-83.21% inhibition of DPPH) depending on coffee species and beverage preparing method. It has been shown that the method of brewing arabica coffee and green coffee significantly affects the antioxidant potential of infusions. The fluoride concentration in the coffee infusions changed depending, both, on the species and conditions of brewing, too (0.013-0.502 mg/L). Methods of brewing didn't make a difference to the antioxidant potential of robusta coffee, which had also the lowest level of fluoride among studied species. Except overflow espresso, the fluoride content was the highest in beverages from green coffee. The highest fluoride content was found in Turkish coffee from green coffee beans.

  1. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  2. Overview of spent fuel management and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Ernst, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel worldwide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. Some projections of spent fuel inventories to the year 2006 are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  4. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J

    2017-01-01

    . Setting: 10 European countries. Participants: 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Measurements: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum...... biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). Results: During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically......, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Limitations: Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Conclusion: Coffee...

  5. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  6. [Coffee, its legend, history, and influence on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, H; Blahos, J; Janatová, J

    2009-01-01

    In the introductory part of this article the history/legend of coffee as well as its spread to different parts of the world including Europe is discussed. Data sofar available in literature do not give any convincing evidence regarding clear relationship between coffee and the etiopathogenesis of several diseases including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, osteoporosis, neurologic disorders and colorectal cancer. Favorable (protective) effects of coffee consumption against hepatocellular cancer have been repeatedly described. The autors discuss on todate findings about relationship between blood cholesterol and uric acid in literature and remind their own experience with different population groups in Harar, Ethiopia, where consumption of coffee is habitual in daily life of the inhabitants.

  7. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  8. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2Department of Environmental Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... cherries, transport them hydraulically through the pulping ..... Table 2. Interaction effects of effluent discharges by coffee refineries on physical characteristics between.

  9. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    start and improve combustion, three types of fuel namely; cocoa husk, palm bunches and palm nut cake was ... Cameroon is one of the main coffee producing countries. Its annual .... American santosrican chemical society symposium series,.

  10. Coffee and the Consumer Values of the Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caeverton de Oliveira Camelo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Goal: To analyze the perceived value of the coffee consumers. Method: By means of a data collection as responses of 417 brazilian coffee consumers, at a first moment was profiled the sample, subsequently, the Exploratory Factorial Analysis was carried out. Originality/Relevance: In the contemporary competitive scenario, the consumer emerges as a primordial link for the development of agribusiness, so in recent years, consumer behavior has been increasingly investigated. The value perceived by the consumer plays an essential role in the behavior of individuals in relation to their purchasing decisions. Results: The results showed that four dimensions of values that influence in brazilian coffee consumption, the functional value quality, the functional value price, social value and emotional value can be identified. Theoretical/methodological contributions: These values can be applied influence in the decision making of the consumer in relation to the consumption of coffee.

  11. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  12. Transportation of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1993-01-01

    The French 'Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires' - COGEMA - is involved in the whole nuclear fuel cycle about 20 years. Among the different parts of the cycle, the Transport of Radioactive Materials, acting as a link between the differents plants has a great importance. As nuclear material transportation is the only fuel cycle step to be performed on public grounds, the industrial task has to be performed with the utmost stringent safety criteria. COGEMA and associates is now operating a fully mature commercial activity, with some 300 spent fuel shipments per year from its reprocessing customer's reactors to the LA HAGUE plant, either by rail, road or sea. The paper will review the organization of COGEMA transportation business, the level of technology with an update of the casks used for spent fuel, and the operational experience, with a particular view of the maintenance policy. (author)

  13. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  14. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  15. Model Bisnis Pada Monopole Coffee Lab Menggunakan Business Model Canvas

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandyo, Eduardo Christian

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Business Model Canvas (BMC) saat ini dan membuat BMC yang lebih baik pada Monopole Coffee Lab yang bergerak di bisnis coffee shop. Analisis yang dilakukan pada 9 elemen BMC yang terdiri dari Customer Segment, Value Proposition, Channels, Customer Relationship, Revenue Streams, Key Resources, Key Activities, Key Partnership, dan Cost Structure. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan menggun...

  16. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  17. Selection of arabica coffee progenies tolerant to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Lara Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high temperatures, practically all coffee farms in the state of Rondonia are of the C. canephora species. Thus, importing arabica coffee from other states becomes necessary for composition of blends, as well as for the specialty or gourmet coffee market. The purpose of this study was to select arabica coffee genotypes that exhibit satisfactory agronomic performance under high temperature conditions. The experiment was conducted in OuroPreto do Oeste, RO, Brazil, with mean annual temperature of 25.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2300mm year-1. The experiment was composed of 114 arabica coffee genotypes, with 103 progenies and eleven control cultivars, provided by EPAMIG. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications, spacing of 3.0x1.0 meters and five plants per plot. All the crop seasons showed significant difference for the green coffee yield trait. In joint analysis, significant differences were detected among progenies and control cultivars. In the average of the four harvests, green coffee yield was 32.38 bags ha-1. The cultivars 'CatuaíVermelho IAC 15', 'Obatã IAC 1669-20' and 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SLCAK' stood out, achieving yields greater than 40 bags ha-1. The gain obtained from selection was 14.33 bags ha-1, which is equivalent to an increase of 44.04% in production of green coffee. The progeny H514-7-10-6-2-3-9 stood out with an average yield of 51.20 bags ha-1. In regard to maturation cycle, 56% of the progenies were classified as early maturity and 44% as medium maturity. Late maturity genotypes were not observed

  18. Sensory Evaluation of the Selected Coffee Products Using Fuzzy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Lazim; M. Suriani

    2009-01-01

    Knowing consumers' preferences and perceptions of the sensory evaluation of drink products are very significant to manufacturers and retailers alike. With no appropriate sensory analysis, there is a high risk of market disappointment. This paper aims to rank the selected coffee products and also to determine the best of quality attribute through sensory evaluation using fuzzy decision making model. Three products of coffee drinks were used for sensory evaluation. Data wer...

  19. Sensory evaluation of commercial coffee brands in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    JaimesRelated, Edis Mauricio Sanmiguel; Torres, Igor Barahona; Pérez-Villarreal, Héctor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Colombian coffee farmers have traditionally focused their efforts on activities including seeding, planting and drying. Strategic issues to successfully compete in the industry, such as branding, marketing and consumer research, have been neglected. In this research, we apply a type of sensory analysis, based on several statistical techniques used to investigate the key features of ten different brands of Colombian coffee. A panel composed of 32 judges investigated nine different attributes r...

  20. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  1. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A provenance study of coffee by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.J.; Wells, D.P.; Maschner, H.; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID; Benson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Photon activation analysis (PAA) is a multi-elemental radioanalytical technique in trace elements analysis with high accuracy and precision. Researchers at the Idaho accelerator center performed PAA analysis on coffee samples from several locations around the world as an initial step in assessing the relationship between trace elements in illicit drugs and the soils in which they were grown. The preliminary results show coffees from different locations have different concentrations of trace elements. In the three cases where we have soil samples, the matrices of elements in the coffee samples are closely related to the matrices of the elements of the local soil samples. The majority of trace elemental content is similar to that of the local soil sample in which the coffee is planted. It may be that coffee assimilates numerous elements from the soil where it is grown in similar ratios as is found in the soil. Thus, it is conceivable that the elemental content could serve as 'fingerprint' to trace the origins of the coffee. To verify our analytical results we applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods as well. Our PAA results are consistent with XRF experimental data. The future of tracing the origin of illicit drugs with the PAA technique is promising. (author)

  3. Microclimate and development of 'Conilon' coffee intercropped with rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of intercropping 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora with rubber trees on coffee tree microclimate, nutrition, growth, and yield. Rubber trees were planted in two double rows 33 m apart, with 4x2.3 m spacing between plants. Treatments consisted of the distances from the coffee plants to the rubber trees: 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m. Measurements of atmospheric variables (temperature, irradiance, and relative humidity, leaf nutrient concentration, internode length of plagiotropic and orthotropic branches, individual leaf area, chlorophyll content, and yield were performed. Intercropping promotes changes in the microclimatic conditions of coffee plants close to rubber trees, with reduction of temperature and irradiance level and increase in air relative humidity. The proximity of the coffee tree to the rubber trees promotes the elongation of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches and increases the individual leaf area; however, it does not affect leaf concentrations of N, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, and B in 'Conilon' coffee and does not have a negative impact on yield.

  4. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  5. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  6. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation

  7. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  8. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  9. Spent fuel storage requirements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and utility estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented through the year 2005. The ultimate needs for additional storage capacity are estimated. These estimtes are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December, 1986, and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA) through the 1987 RW-859 data survey. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Data on coffee composition and mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of coffee related carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S.P. Moreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction” (Moreira et al., 2017 [1]. Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS chromatograms and respective GC–MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.

  11. Value-added and Supporting - Inhibiting Factors for the Wet Processing of Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyati, Yuli

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the annual crops which are widely favored by coffee enjoyers. SidomulyoVillage is one of the fourth largest coffee producing villages in District of Silo with a land area of 180 ha in 2009. Coffee experiences a process of harvest and post harvest; one of the activities of post-harvest is coffee processing. Coffee processing is divided into two; wet processing and dry processing. The majority of farmers in SidomulyoVillage do dry processing; about 75% of farmers do dry process...

  12. CSR in the Coffee Industry: Sustainability Issues at Nestlé-Nespresso and Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamann, Lisa; Luschnat, Kaya; Niemuth, Stephanie; Smolarz, Paulina; Golombek, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    The coffee sector’s active engagement with sustainability issues appears to be a relatively new phenomenon. Even newer is the necessity to deal with recycling and waste. Next to the waste produced by the “coffee to go” mobile drinking culture and coffee bars, the popularity of coffee capsules – i.e. single-use containers made of metal or plastics – is creating mountains of waste unknown to the traditional method of brewing coffee. The pioneer in this premium coffee sector has been Nespresso, ...

  13. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Tanaka, Ryou-ichi

    1986-01-01

    SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)

  14. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste

  15. Developmental contradictions in Ethiopian coffee trade system: The case of Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX)

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Elias Nahusenay

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is Africa’s biggest coffee exporter nation with deep history. Coffee discovered in Ethiopia and it continues to be pivotal for the country in many fronts till to date. The coffee linkage with Ethiopia is deep-rooted many historians believe back in 9th century coffee discovered by Kaldi, a goat herder. He discovered it after noticing coffee’s energizing effect on his goats. The word coffee itself also derived from place called ‘Kaffa’ where the trees blossomed. Coffee gradually became...

  16. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  17. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, E M; Elmessiry, A M [National center of nuclear safety and radiation control atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.M.; Elmessiry, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs