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Sample records for spence tansel zyer

  1. Thomas Spence on Women’s Rights: A Vindication

    OpenAIRE

    Duthille, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Spence défendait les droits politiques et économiques des femmes. Il était l’un des très rares pamphlétaires de son époque à demander le vote des femmes. Certains historiens ont cependant décelé chez lui une vision patriarcale, voire rétrograde. Contre ces interprétations anachroniques, cet article s’emploie à dégager l’évolution de la position de Thomas Spence, de plus en plus favorable à l’égalité entre les sexes, tout en soulignant que Spence n’envisageait pas de confier aux femmes ...

  2. Spence Revisited: Signaling and the Allocation of Individuals to Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Perri

    2011-01-01

    Spence (1974a) considered a variant of his signaling model in which there are two types of jobs, and in which signaling can increase wealth by improving the allocation of individuals to jobs. Using results in signaling games since Spence’s work---the Riley outcome (Riley, 1979), the intuitive criterion (Cho and Kreps, 1987), and undefeated equilibrium (Mailath et al., 1993)---it is possible to be more precise than Spence was in determining when signaling would occur and what the effect of sig...

  3. Spanish Validation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Mendez, Xavier; Spence, Susan H.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a sample of 1,708 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years. The SCAS was demonstrated to have satisfactory internal consistency with the Spanish sample, and factor analysis confirmed the six-factor…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale: Parent Report in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitlina, Katia; Zumbo, Bruno; Mirenda, Pat; Ford, Laurie; Bennett, Teresa; Georgiades, Stelios; Waddell, Charlotte; Smith, Isabel M; Volden, Joanne; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Elsabbagh, Mayada

    2017-12-01

    Although anxiety is frequently reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), existing anxiety scales are often psychometrically inappropriate for this population. This study examined the internal structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Report (SCAS-P; Spence 1999) in 238 school-aged children with ASD. While confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original six-correlated-factor structure, structural support as well as acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity was found for Generalized Anxiety, Separation Anxiety, Panic, and Agoraphobia subscales. Use of the SCAS-P in its original form for assessment in children with ASD was not supported. However, four subscales showed viability, and may benefit re-analyses of existing SCAS-P data and future scale adaptations for research and clinical purposes.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi,Atefeh; Mustaffa,Mohamed Sharif; Haghdoost,AliAkbar; Khan,Aqeel; Latif,Adibah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) into the Malay language.Method: The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation...

  6. Specificity and sensitivity of Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Kristian Bech; Thastum, Mikael

    of such questionnaires at identifying anxiety diagnoses compared to structured diagnostic interviews. Aim: The present study examines the specificity and sensitivity of two widely used child and parent report questionnaires of child anxiety symptoms and interference (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale [SCAS C/P] and Child...... intervention studies for youth anxiety disorders at The Anxiety Disorder Clinic for Children and Adolescents in Aarhus, Denmark. In these studies all participants had been assessed by the ADIS C/P interview and completed the SCAS and CALIS questionnaires. At pretreatment all participants had an anxiety......Background: The use of structured diagnostic interviews for assessing youth anxiety in community based clinical practice in Denmark is sparse due to the time and resources required. Rather, questionnaires are often used to assess anxiety in youth, but little is known about the accuracy...

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS into the Malay language.Method: The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR.Results: The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described.Conclusion: The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence children's anxiety scale in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khan, Aqeel; Latif, Adibah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) into the Malay language. The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described. The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  9. Inappropriate analysis does not reveal the ecological causes of evolution of stickleback armour: a critique of Spence et al. 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, Andrew D C; Aucott, Beth

    2014-09-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Spence et al. (2013) sought to identify the ecological causes of morphological evolution in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, by examining phenotypic and environmental variation between populations on the island of North Uist, Scotland. However, by using simple qualitative assessments of phenotype and inappropriate measures of environmental variation, Spence et al. have come to a conclusion that is diametrically opposite to that which we have arrived at in studying the same populations. Our criticisms of their paper are threefold: (1) using a binomial qualitative measure of the variation in stickleback armour ("low" versus "minimal" (i.e., "normal" low-plated freshwater sticklebacks versus spineless and/or plateless fish)) does not represent the full range of phenotypes that can be described by quantitative measures of the individual elements of armour. (2) Their use of unspecified test kits, with a probable accuracy of 4 ppm, may not be accurate in the range of water chemistry on North Uist (1 to 30 ppm calcium). (3) Their qualitative assessment of the abundance of brown trout Salmo trutta as the major predator of sticklebacks does not accurately describe the variation in brown trout abundance that is revealed by catch-per-unit-effort statistics. Repeating Spence et al.'s analysis using our own measurements, we find, in direct contradiction to them, that variation in stickleback bony armour is strongly correlated with variation in trout abundance, and unrelated to variation in the concentration of calcium in the lochs in which they live. Field studies in ecology and evolution seldom address the same question in the same system at the same time, and it is salutary that in this rare instance two such studies arrived at diametrically opposite answers.

  10. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, T.; Cornish, K.; Rinehart, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed. PMID:25922765

  11. Determinar aportes de la Escala de Ansiedad de Spence en una población infantil : Su relación con los trastornos temporomandibulares

    OpenAIRE

    Nucciarone, Milena; Rimoldi, Marta Lidia; Ruiz, Miriam Ester; Levalle, María José; Lambruschini, Vanessa Alejandra; Beti, María Mónica; Hernández, Sandra Fabiana; Jáuregui, Rossana Miriam; Molinari, María Emelina; Capece, María del Carmen; Llanos, Antonella; Maurer, Florencia

    2017-01-01

    La ansiedad es uno de los problemas psicológicos más importante y frecuente en la infancia. Hablamos de ansiedad cuando esta interfiere en el desarrollo normal de la vida de los niños, como así también cuando sus manifestaciones son muy intensas. Sus síntomas se pueden clasificar en: Trastorno de ansiedad por separación, Pánico, Fobia social, Trastorno obsesivo compulsivo, Ansiedad Generalizada, Miedos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los resultados de la escala de ansiedad de Spence...

  12. C1 Lateral Mass Displacement and Transverse Atlantal Ligament Failure in Jefferson's Fracture: A Biomechanical Study of the "Rule of Spence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rafeek O; Inceoglu, Serkan; Akpolat, Yusuf T; Cheng, Wayne K; Jabo, Brice; Danisa, Olumide

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson's fracture, first described in 1927, represents a bursting fracture of the C1 ring with lateral displacement of the lateral masses. It has been determined that if the total lateral mass displacement (LMD) exceeds 6.9 mm, there is high likelihood of transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) rupture, and if LMD is less than 5.7 mm TAL injury is unlikely. Several recent radiographic studies have questioned the accuracy and validity of the "rule of Spence" and it lacks biomechanical support. To determine the amount of LMD necessary for TAL failure using modern biomechanical techniques. Using a universal material testing machine, cadaveric TALs were stretched laterally until failure. A high-resolution, high-speed camera was utilized to measure the displacement of the lateral masses upon TAL failure. Eleven cadaveric specimens were tested (n = 11). The average LMD upon TAL failure was 3.2 mm (±1.2 mm). The average force required to cause failure of the TAL was 242 N (±82 N). From our data analysis, if LMD exceeds 3.8 mm, there is high probability of TAL failure. Our findings suggest that although the rule of Spence is a conceptually valid measure of TAL integrity, TAL failure occurs at a significantly lower value than previously reported (P failure and should be used as an adjunctive tool to magnetic resonance imaging rather an absolute rule. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  13. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  14. The measurement properties of the spence children's anxiety scale-parent version in a large international pooled sample of young people with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Lerh, Jian Wei; Hollocks, Matthew J; Uljarevic, Mirko; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen; Ozsivadjian, Ann; South, Mikle; Van Hecke, Amy; Hardan, Antonio; Libove, Robin; Leekam, Susan; Simonoff, Emily

    2017-10-01

    Anxiety-related difficulties are common in ASD, but measuring anxiety reliably and validly is challenging. Despite an increasing number of studies, there is no clear agreement on which existing anxiety measure is more psychometrically sound and what is the factor structure of anxiety in ASD. The present study examined the internal consistency, convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the factor structure of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version (SCAS-P), in a large international pooled sample of 870 caregivers of youth with ASD from 12 studies in the United Kingdom, United States, and Singapore who completed the SCAS-P. Most were community recruited, while the majority had at least one measure of ASD symptomatology and either cognitive or adaptive functioning measures completed. Existing SCAS-P total scale and subscales had excellent internal consistency and good convergent, divergent and discriminant validity similar to or better than SCAS-P properties reported in typically developing children, except for the poorer internal consistency of the physical injury subscale. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the existing SCAS-P six-correlated factor structure was a poor fit for this pooled database. Principal component analysis using half of the pooled sample identified a 30-item five correlated factor structure, but a CFA of this PCA-derived structure in the second half of this pooled sample revealed a poor fit, although the PCA-derived SCAS-P scale and subscales had stronger validity and better internal consistency than the original SCAS-P. The study's limitations, the use of the SCAS-P to screen for DSM-derived anxiety problems in ASD and future research directions are discussed. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1629-1652. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.

  16. History, Criticism and Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinds, Mat; Carter, Adrian; Malpas, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Rory Spence and Richard Leplastrier shared a conversation and friendship that lasted 20years until Spence's death in 2004. The discussions focused largely upon issues of place, distilled through the practice of Leplastrier....

  17. Investigation of Multi-Functional Ferroelectric Nanorod/Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites and Shape Memory Alloy Treatment for Vibration Control of Fire Control System to Improve Firing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    Hadi Fekrmandi, Amin Baghalian, Shervin Tashakori, Kathleen Oyola, Abdullah Alsenawi, Ibrahim Nur Tansel. A non-contact method for part-based process ...example. Carbon nanotubes are considered to be the ultimate low-density high-modulus fibers [1]. Our previous results also indicated that MWCNT...Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Investigation of Multi-Functional Ferroelectric Nanorod/ Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites and Shape

  18. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GW, Spence JE, Amato S, Rousseau JA, Moghaddam B, Skinner C, Skinner SA, Bernes S, Armstrong N, Shinawi M, Stankiewicz P, ... Sharp AJ, Mefford HC, Li K, Baker C, Skinner C, Stevenson RE, Schroer RJ, Novara F, De ...

  20. Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C

    2008-08-01

    In his 1948 address to the Division of Theoretical-Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Kenneth W. Spence discussed six distinctions between cognitive and stimulus-response (S-R) theories of learning. In this article, I first review these six distinctions and then focus on two of them in the context of my own research. This research concerns the specification of stimulus-stimulus associations in associative learning and the characterization of the neural systems underlying those associations. In the course of describing Spence's views and my research, I hope to communicate some of the richness of Spence's S-R psychology and its currency within modern scientific analyses of behavior.

  1. Hullem läbi? Või alles ees? Uut kukkumist peetakse järjest tõenäolisemaks / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Majandusteadlase Michale Spence'i hinnangul on USA majanduslanguse tõenäosus 50%. Danske Banki hinnangul on ülemaailmse majanduslanguse tõenäosus 25%. USA föderaalreservi endise juhi Alan Greenspani hinnangul on euro murdumas

  2. Test Anxiety and Assessment in a First Year University Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence is cited from one situation that suggests that test anxiety has a positive influence on performance in course assessment, which may be viewed as a less stressful test situation. This result is discussed in terms of Spence's "drive theory." (Author/LBH)

  3. Effectiveness of a Leadership Development Program That Incorporates Social and Emotional Intelligence for Aspiring School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Núñez, María Trinidad; Patti, Janet; Holzer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Focus on social and emotional intelligence competencies to improve effective leadership has become commonplace in the corporate arena and is now considered by many a prerequisite to successful job performance and outcomes (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009; Grant, Curtayne, & Burton, 2009; Spence & Grant, 2007; Kampa-Kokesch…

  4. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Goh, Tze Jui; Pathy, Pavarthy; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chua, Alina; Lam, Chee Meng

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of a 16-week Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) program and a Social Recreational (SR) program on anxiety in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Seventy children (9-16 years old) were randomly assigned to either of the programs (n CBT = 36; n SR = 34). Measures on child's anxiety using the Spence Child Anxiety…

  5. Developments in marketing ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social

  6. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anxiety Symptoms in Colombian and Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Andrea Crane; Campbell, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This cross-cultural study compared both the symptoms of anxiety and their severity in a community sample of children from Colombia and Australia. Method: The sample comprised 516 children (253 Australian children and 263 Colombian children), aged 8 to 12-years-old. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) was used to measure both…

  7. South African Medical Journal - Vol 106, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest Editorial: Collaboration is key to strengthening surgical research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Richard Trafford Spence, Eugenio Panieri, Sarah Louise Rayne, Ewen Munro Harrison, Aneel Amir Bhangu, James ...

  8. Beyond Hate: Countering Violent Extremism from the White Power Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the “third floor,” individual morality is the foundation and peoples’ morality allows them to circumvent inhibitions and adopt 137 Moghaddam...293 Ibid. 65 media depictions to the contrary. Spence further admits he does not condone interracial ...The Challenge and the Opportunity,” 35–38. 81 government adopted a soft power approach and the

  9. Psychological Masculinity and Femininity in Children and Its Relationship to Trait Stereotypes and Toy Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975),…

  10. A Factor Analysis of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namok; Jenkins, Stephen J.

    This study investigated the dimensions of sex role orientation measured by the revised Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; S. Bem, 1974) and the revised Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; J. Spence, R. Helmreich, and J. Strapp, 1975). Participants were 651 undergraduates in introductory psychology courses. The sample was approximately 50% male and…

  11. Outplacement and corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social

  12. Is Limited Prehospital Resuscitation with Plasma More Beneficial than Using a Synthetic Colloid? An Experimental Study in Rabbits with Parenchymal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    blood samples col- lected without using an anticoagulant. Hextend and 5% human albumin in buffered isotonic salt solution were purchased from Baxter...injury: is intracranial hypertension the cause of increased mortality? J Neurotrauma. 2013;30(7):512Y518. 36. Anglin CO, Spence JS, Warner MA, Paliotta

  13. Individual Difference Effects in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    DAVID DOS - a modified version of DOS 3.3.) 4.1.2.1.2 REMOTE DATABASE This option allows the experinenter to communicate with a remote database...Gardner, R.W., Holzman , P.S., Klein, G.S., Lintnn, H.B., and Spence, D.P., "Cognitive Control: A Study of Individual Consistencies in Cognitive

  14. Comments on Baumrind's "Are Androgynous Individuals More Effective Persons and Parents?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that Baumrind (1982), in her discussion of studies employing Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Personal Attitudes Questionnaire, confuses theories proposed by Bem (1974) and by Spence and Helmreich (1978, 1979), which are based on different assumptions and have different implications. Outlines differences between the two and points out…

  15. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chrome plating, pigments and leather tanning industries is an important and complex issue (EPA. 1994; Spence & Shi 2005). Among the various forms of ..... Giergiczny Z and Krol A 2008 Immobilization of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Mn) in the mineral additions containing concrete composites. J. Hazard. Mater.

  16. PSYCHOMETRIC EVIDENCES OF THE WORKAHOLISM BA TTERY IN A PORTUGUESE SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Santos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Workaholism, defined as an addiction or dependence on work, is a subject that has become prominent in the literature, although its investigation is still at an early stage. The present study aims to adapt the Spence and Robbins’ Workaholism Battery - WorkBat (1992 to the Portuguese reality. The sample of the present study consists of 407 participants (313 women, 92 men, 2 don’t answered, aged between 18 and 68 years (M = 39; SD =10.449. The results from confirmatory analysis corroborate the original three factors structure: work involvement; work drive; work enjoyment. At the level of internal consistency, global and by dimension, the obtained values are acceptable; allowing reiterating what was observed in the original scale study. Although none of the models tested guarantees ideal adjustment values, either for the reasonableness of the values or for a better theoretical adequacy, the model considered more suitable meets the threefold solution initially proposed by Spence and Robbins (1992.

  17. Screening Jane. When History, Biography and Fiction create a Cinematic Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Grandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the interesting technique of adaptation of the film Becoming Jane, a biopic on the life of Jane Austen, released in 2007. Loosely based on Jon Spence's biography Becoming Jane Austen, the film faces the problem of the scarcity of information on Jane Austen's life through a technique that, if not original nor always satisfying, is nevertheless worth being studied. By recurring to the character descriptions and the anecdotes narrated in the novels, the film (and Spence's book too "fills in the blanks" in Austen's life by adding touches of romance with questionable historical accuracy and fictionalizes the writer's biography in order to adapt it to the stereotype of modern romantic film heroines.

  18. CSR, SMEs and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murillo, David; Vallentin, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to the opening of new lines of research on CSR and SMEs (Thompson & Smith, 1991; Spence, 1999; Moore & Smith, 2006; Spence, 2007). It seeks to explore the business case for CSR in this corporate segment. The paper, which is based on four case studies of medium-sized firms...... this type of action d) Any study of this kind of practice requires a dual approach: a) normative when using tools developed by CSR; and b) descriptive and instrumental using the notion of social capital....... in the automotive sector, took the distinctive approach of trying to understand the nature of CSR-like activities developed not by best-in-class CSR-driven companies but by purely competitiveness-driven firms. The case studies provide explicit evidence that the CSR activities of SMEs and the notion of social...

  19. The role of working memory in auditory selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research now demonstrates that working memory plays an important role in controlling the extent to which irrelevant visual distractors are processed during visual selective attention tasks (e.g., Lavie, Hirst, De Fockert, & Viding, 2004). Recently, it has been shown that the successful selection of tactile information also depends on the availability of working memory (Dalton, Lavie, & Spence, 2009). Here, we investigate whether working memory plays a role in auditory select...

  20. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Infantile spasms. Intractable epilepsy (10 mo). Vagus nerve stimulator. 4 Delay of motor skills. Mild to moderate spastic quadriparesis. Abnormal...amyloid plaques in Down syndrome. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125, 489–492. Hagerman, R. J. (2002). The physical and behavioral phenotype. In: “Fragile X...336. Selkoe, D. J. (2001). Alzheimer’s disease: Genes, proteins, and therapy . Physiol. Rev. 81, 741–766. Smalley, S. L., Asarnow, R. F., Spence, M. A

  1. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Prakriti; Sharan, Rajiv; Binay, Yashi; Verma, Vijay; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children v...

  2. Estilos de personalidad, afrontamiento y satisfacción en profesionales sanitarios en relación con la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ramos, Carmen Luzdivina

    2016-01-01

    El personal sanitario se enfrenta frecuentemente a situaciones estresante en su entorno laboral. El estrés está determinado por: 1) las situaciones potencialmente estresantes de los entornos sanitarios (Spence Laschinger & Finegan, 2008) tanto de atención especializada (hospitales) como de atención primaria (centros de salud) donde nos encontramos con el sufrimiento y la muerte, la falta de recursos materiales, las largas jornadas con horarios irregulares, la falta de promoción profesional, e...

  3. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  4. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  5. Instructional Design: Impact of Subject Matter and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    solution. Impulsive individuals select the first solution and are, as a result, many times incorrect. 3. Sharpening versus Leveling ( Holzman , 1952; Klein...conceptual schemes. 9. Constricted versus Flexible Control (Gardner, Holzman , Kelin, Linton & Spence, 1959) Individual differences in individuals...3), 25-29. Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of education objectives: Handbook I: p" Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay. 38 Bracht, G.H. (1970

  6. Technical Communication--Taking the User into Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Educational Psychologist, 1973, 10, 1. Gardner, R. W., P. S. Holzman , G. S. Klein, U. B. Linton, and D. Spence. Cognitive Control: A Study of Individual...Mowry: Effects of Presenting Semantic Information in Different Modalities. Academic Press, 1977, 293-325. Stone, David E. Comprehension of Information in...Picture-Text Amalgams in Procedural Texts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, 1977. Stone, David E. The Semantic Content of Text

  7. United States Air Force Summary, Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    clalIIoted Icemel., weed __ r ClI’MIotfNr trotIt. FCII’~ wfftt tJ-SoncfovwClf/tdlftount ofn ~-.tshoul4woWlied. , DoN Gte on a .kNgh • ...,..;,hf, bon ...Whitehurst, G. William (VA) Beard, Robin L. (TN) Republ icons McDonald, Lorry (GA) Stump, Bob (AZ) Ichord, Richard H. (MO) Nichols, Bill (AL) • Spence

  8. Entre o Demasiado Literal e o Excessivamente Literário: Potencialidades e Limites do Tacto Háptico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques, Diogo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Matthew FULKERSON, The First Sense. A Philosophical Study of the Human Touch.Cambridge, M.A. & London: The MIT Press, 2014, 236 pp. ISBN 978-0-262-01996-5 Review of Alberto GALLACE & Charles SPENCE, In Touch with the FUTURE: the sense of touch from cognitive neuroscience to virtual reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 480 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-964446-9

  9. Further evidence in favor of prior entry from endogenous attention to a location in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Ralph S; d'Entremont, Ghislain; Klein, Raymond M

    2017-05-01

    Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0285(03)00035-5 , 2003) found no effect of their instruction to attend. They concluded that nonattentional effects could masquerade as prior entry, which could account for findings such as those in Shore et al.'s endogenous condition. We investigated this empirical and theoretical discord by replicating the temporal-order judgment task used by Shore, Spence, and Klein, while manipulating and measuring endogenous orienting by way of an orthogonal color probe task. We showed evidence of prior entry as a consequence of endogenous orienting, supporting the conclusions of Shore, Spence, and Klein.

  10. Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Managed Diabetes Program in a Primary Care Setting Within an Integrated Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Amanda W; Spence, Michele M; Sie, John L; Chin, Helen A; Ngo, Chi D; Salmingo, Jennifer F; Vidaurreta, Andrew T; Rashid, Nazia

    2018-02-01

    Pharmacists have important roles in managing the therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes and improving patient care. Pharmacists titrate medications; reinforce patient education; and address care gaps, such as medication adherence, vaccinations, and overdue health screenings. Through these efforts and more, pharmacists help to improve patient care and achieve Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures. Thus, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes through pharmacist contributions to diabetes management, which can then provide an opportunity to expand the role of clinical pharmacists in other medical centers and practice settings within an integrated health care system. To evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-managed program within a primary care setting by determining the percentage of patients who reached the HEDIS goal of hemoglobin A1c (A1c) Benedict and Spence performed data analysis and interpretation. The manuscript was written by Benedict, with assistance from Spence and Rashid. All authors reviewed and contributed to manuscript revisions. Spence is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Parts of this study were presented at the AMCP Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting; San Francisco, California; April 19-22, 2016.

  11. Stable isotopic composition of soil calcite (O, C) and gypsum (S) overlying Cu deposits in the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for mineral exploration, salt sources, and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Cameron, Eion M.; Reich, Martin; Palacios, Carlos; Faure, Kevin; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We collected soils overlying two porphyry copper deposits and a pampa, Atacama Desert, Chile. ► δ 18 O for calcite over fracture zones at the Spence deposit suggests involvement of earthquake-induced groundwater. ► S isotopes in gypsum at Spence also indicates involvement of groundwater, consistent with elevated Cu, Se, I. ► At Gaby Sur and Tamarugal, S isotopes cannot distinguish sulfur of porphyry from redeposited sulfate from interior salars. ► The three sites studied have had different histories of salt accumulation and display variable influence of groundwater. - Abstract: Soils overlying two porphyry Cu deposits (Spence, Gaby Sur) and the Pampa del Tamarugal, Atacama Desert, Northern Chile were collected in order to investigate the extent to which saline groundwaters influence “soil” chemistry in regions with thick Miocene and younger sediment cover. Soil carbonate (calcite) was analyzed for C and O isotopes and pedogenic gypsum for S isotopes. Soil calcite is present in all soils at the Spence deposit, but increases volumetrically above two fracture zones that cut the Miocene gravels, including gravels that overlie the deposit. The C isotope composition of carbonate from the soils overlying fracture zones is indistinguishable from pedogenic carbonate elsewhere at the Spence deposit; all δ 13 C VPDB values fall within a narrow range (1.40–4.23‰), consistent with the carbonate having formed in equilibrium with atmospheric CO 2 . However, δ 18 O VPDB for carbonate over both fracture zones is statistically different from carbonate elsewhere (average δ 18 O VPDB = 0.82‰ vs. −2.23‰, respectively), suggesting involvement of groundwater in their formation. The composition of soils at the Tamarugal anomaly has been most strongly affected by earthquake-related surface flooding and evaporation of groundwater; δ 13 C VPDB values (−4.28‰ to −2.04‰) are interpreted to be a mixture of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) from

  12. Deciphering shallow paleomagnetic inclinations: 1. Implications from correlation of Albian volcanic rocks along the Insular/Intermontane Superterrane boundary in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, M. L.; Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Mustard, P. S.; Baker, J.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic and paleomagnetic data lead to two contradictory hypotheses regarding the paleoposition of the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes that presently constitute the western Canadian Cordillera. Paleomagnetic data from the Insular and Intermontane superterranes suggest a southerly origin coinciding with the latitude of Mexico and the northwest United States, respectively, during the mid-Cretaceous. Geologic evidence points to a northerly origin for these same tectonic entities during this period; both models cannot be correct. Geologic and paleomagnetic data from the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area in south central British Columbia (51.5°N, 122.5°W) are critical to resolving these contradictory hypotheses. Late Cretaceous rocks correlated to the Insular Superterrane with large paleomagnetic displacements unconformably overlie mid-Cretaceous rocks correlative to the Spences Bridge Group of the Intermontane Superterrane. We provide paleomagnetic evidence of this correlation based on similar magnetic properties, opaque mineral assemblages, demagnetization behavior, fold test results, mean inclinations, clockwise vertical axes rotations, and statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic poles and displacement estimates. This correlation and the observed geologic relationships in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area indicate that the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes were linked by the mid-Cretaceous. Sites from the two previous Spences Bridge Group studies are combined with their correlatives in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area to give 81 sites that yield a paleomagnetic pole of 60.5°N, 304.5°E, dp = 3.7°, dm = 5.5° which corresponds to 1050 ± 450 km of displacement from the south. This new displacement estimate suggests that the Spences Bridge arc formed at the latitude of southern Oregon during the mid-Cretaceous.

  13. A Nova Economia da Informação e o Programa de Pesquisa Científica Neoclassica: uma abordagem Lakatosiana.

    OpenAIRE

    CUNHA, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desta dissertação é apresentar as contribuições de Akerlof, Spence e Stiglitz, discutindo como os elementos fornecidos por estas contribuições permitem a definição de programa de pesquisa, no sentido proposto por Lakatos (1980). Buscou-se demonstrar que as pesquisas desses autores são incompatíveis com as análises padrão da teoria econômica, identificadas neste trabalho como aquelas pertencentes ao programa de pesquisa Neoclássico. Na primeira parte do trabalho é apresentada a Meto...

  14. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  15. Shaping the self: A Bildungsroman for girls?

    OpenAIRE

    I. Noomé

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that two alternative forms of the “Bildungsroman” developed from circa 1860 to 1960, featuring young female protagonists and aimed at girls as a readership. To explore this proposition, the article initially focuses on three girls’ series to see whether they meet the criteria for classification as a “Bildungsroman”: the South African “Soekie” series written in Afrikaans by Ela Spence, the well-known Canadian “Anne of Green Gables” series by L.M. Montgomery, and the Germa...

  16. Broad Neutralization of Ebolaviruses via a Fusion Loop Epitope Elicited by Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    reach food and water, he was euthanized on 22 dpi. Among the treated animals, the two male ferrets (808M and 888M) showed steady weight gain and no...precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice. Nat Commun 7, 10618. Miller, E.H., Obernosterer, G., Raaben, M., Herbert, A.S...human Ig loci transgenic mice. Science 353, 1557-1560. Spence, J.S., Krause, T.B., Mittler, E., Jangra, R.K., and Chandran, K. (2016). Direct

  17. Statistical-Based Insights in Spence’s Theory of Honest Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Grecu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since Michael Spence revealed the secrets of (dishonest signalling on labour market, an increasing body of literature in various fields struggled to find the best way to solve the game under imperfect information that describes the interaction between the employer and the employee. Despite the value of the signal originally acknowledged by Spence, the university degree, a recent trend of increasing in unemployment rate among graduates of higher education suggests that between higher education and labour market may be a less significant connection than universities claim, potentially resulting in a decreasing power of the signal consisting of an university diploma. The aim of this study is to provide statistical evidence of the connection between higher education and labour market in Romania and to discuss some of the factors that potentially cause young people to choose a particular study program. Based on statistical analysis, we investigate the gap between the number of graduates in Law and the labour market capacity in the field, and draw conclusions regarding the accuracy of the mechanism that leads to equilibrium between supply and demand on the university market.

  18. Analysis of the interplay between depression, anxiety, and psychological resources in adolescence using self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Riso, Daniela; Bobbio, Andrea; Chessa, Daphne; Lis, Adriana; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Following recent literature which stresses the importance of broadening the conceptualization of mental functioning in youth, this paper aims to investigate structural relations between indicators of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and psychological resources in non-referred Italian adolescents, as captured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman 2001 ), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS; Spence 1998 ) and the Children Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs 1992 ). A hierarchical model which considers both the interplays and overlaps between these instruments is tested by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis, in order to explore the possibility to use the three tools within a meaningful screening battery. First, validity and reliability of SDQ, SCAS, and CDI is successfully controlled thanks to three appropriate preliminary studies, an evidence not already acquired in the Italian context for the adolescent population. Then, the focal study devises and tests a model that merges indicators of the SDQ, SCAS, and CDI scales into four correlated factors, that is, Psychological Resources, Externalized behavior problems, Internalized Fear and Internalized Anxious Misery. Overall, findings corroborate the combined use of SDQ, SCAS, and CDI as a screening battery for the assessment of mental functioning in youth adopting a dimensional rather than a categorical approach.

  19. New mosses records (Bryophyta for Goiás and Tocantins states, Brazil Ocorrências novas de musgos (Bryophyta para os Estados de Goiás e Tocantins, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Fernandes Peralta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-five moss taxa are new records for Goiás and Tocantins States. Of these, 44 are new records (40 - Goiás; four - Tocantins and 23 are new sites in each of the states (19 -Goiás; four - Tocantins. Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr. Spence and Philonotis fontana (Hedw. Brid. are new records for Brazil, and are illustrated.Após o estudo da coleção do herbário SP, foram encontradas 65 novas ocorrências de musgos para Goiás e Tocantins. Deste total, 44 táxons são primeiras referências (40 - Goiás e quatro - Tocantins e 23 táxons tiveram a distribuição geográfica ampliada em cada um dos estados (19 - Goiás e quatro - Tocantins. As espécies Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr. Spence e Philonotis fontana (Hedw. Brid. são novas citações para o Brasil e apresentam ilustração.

  20. The role of working memory in auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles

    2009-11-01

    A growing body of research now demonstrates that working memory plays an important role in controlling the extent to which irrelevant visual distractors are processed during visual selective attention tasks (e.g., Lavie, Hirst, De Fockert, & Viding, 2004). Recently, it has been shown that the successful selection of tactile information also depends on the availability of working memory (Dalton, Lavie, & Spence, 2009). Here, we investigate whether working memory plays a role in auditory selective attention. Participants focused their attention on short continuous bursts of white noise (targets) while attempting to ignore pulsed bursts of noise (distractors). Distractor interference in this auditory task, as measured in terms of the difference in performance between congruent and incongruent distractor trials, increased significantly under high (vs. low) load in a concurrent working-memory task. These results provide the first evidence demonstrating a causal role for working memory in reducing interference by irrelevant auditory distractors.

  1. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don

    2012-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  2. A woman's struggle in academic psychology (1936-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Howard H; Kendler, Tracy S

    2003-08-01

    Tracy S. Kendler's strong desire to get a college education had to overcome economic hardships of the Great Depression and a mother's conviction that finding a suitable husband was more important. Solomon Asch at Brooklyn College, by scholarly example, encouraged her to seek a career in psychology. At the University of Iowa she studied with both Kurt Lewin and Kenneth Spence and finally opted to conduct a research program, ultimately on cognitive development, within a neobehavioristic methodological orientation. Being married to academic psychologist Howard H. Kendler, and a mother of 2 sons, created problems in fashioning an independent academic career, but persistence and research productivity, sometimes a result of collaborative efforts with her husband, finally led to a distinguished career.

  3. Instrumental and expressive traits of the spanish community education: students, parents and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Rodríguez Castro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the expressive and instrumental traits of the Spanish Educational Community (students, teachers and parents and to determine whether fathers and mothers or teachers are who have the greatest infl uence in the transmission of stereotypes gender to students in secondary education. The sample were of teacher (n = 744, students (n = 1113 and their mothers and fathers (n = 917. The scales were administered: the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, PAQ (Spence et al., 1974. The results showed that women are being more expressive, whereas men are more Instrumental and Instrumental-Expressive. Furthermore, teachers are more expressive and more instrumental. This is that they are less stereotyped. Therefore, schools should involve parents in co-educational practices.

  4. Strategies for processing diffraction data from randomly oriented particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elser, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The high intensity of free-electron X-ray light sources may enable structure determinations of viruses or even individual proteins without the encumbrance of first forming crystals. This note compares two schemes of non-crystalline diffraction data collection that have been proposed: serial single-shot data from individual particles, and averaged cross-correlation data from particle ensembles. The information content of these schemes is easily compared and we show that the single-shot approach, although experimentally more challenging, is always superior in this respect. In fact, for 3D structure determination a constraint counting argument shows that the cross-correlation scheme suffers from data deficiency. -- Research Highlights: →We compare two data collection schemes for imaging single particles with x-rays. →Cross-correlation data suffers an information deficit relative to single-shot data. →We recognize John Spence for his many contributions to single particle imaging.

  5. Discriminant validity of the illness behavior questionnaire and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III in a heterogeneous sample of psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, G J; Le Déan, L

    2000-06-01

    The discriminant validity of measures of abnormal illness behaviors and psychopathology was examined in three samples differing in illness proneness: a sample of young healthy university students (n = 38), a general community sample (n = 36), and a sample of clinical psychiatric outpatients (n = 36). Adjustment to illness was measured using the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ; Pilowsky & Spence, 1994), while the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) was used to measure clinical syndromes and personality. MANCOVAs were performed across the three groups on the IBQ and the MCMI-III categories, separately. As expected, clinical outpatients obtained significantly higher scores than did nonclinical groups on most of the IBQ scales, suggesting discernible discriminant validity. However, the lack of discrimination between groups on several of the MCMI-III scales raises questions about the test validity of this multidimensional instrument.

  6. ANSIEDAD Y AUTOESTIMA EN ESCOLARES DE EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA DE MÉRIDA, YUCATÁN

    OpenAIRE

    Cinthya Lorena Couoh Lope; Alfonso Góngora Huchim; Andrea Dianela García Rivero; Ian Rafael Macías Aguilar; Nuria Alexis Olmos Barragán

    2015-01-01

    A fin de identificar la relación entre ansiedad y autoestima y las diferencias entre niños y niñasde educación primaria, se utilizó la Escala de Ansiedad de Spence para Niños y la Escala deAutoestima de Reyes y Hernández. Participaron 60 niñas y 49 niños de quinto y sexto año deprimaria de la ciudad de Mérida, Yucatán (México), elegidos mediante un muestreo no probabi-lístico. Se observó que las niñas reportaron mayor ansiedad y mejor autoestima que los varones,y que ambas variables se correl...

  7. Generalization of free-operant avoidance behavior in pigeons1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marty; Rilling, Mark

    1974-01-01

    Three groups of four pigeons, trained to press a treadle on a free-operant avoidance schedule, were given auditory discrimination training. Alternating 2-min components of avoidance and no shock were paired with either a tone or white noise. The pigeons were subsequently given two types of generalization tests, with and without avoidable shocks scheduled. Two of the groups, trained interdimensionally, produced excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients along the tone frequency dimension. A predicted post-discrimination gradient was computed from the algebraic summation of these gradients of excitation and inhibition. The predicted gradient was compared with the actual post-discrimination gradient obtained from the third group of pigeons that had been given intradimensional discrimination training on the tone frequency dimension. The predicted postdiscrimination gradient agreed in shape with the empirical postdiscrimination gradient. The results in general support Spence's (1937) gradient interaction theory. PMID:16811735

  8. The Association Between Anxiety Symptoms and Sleep in School-Aged Children: A Combined Insight From the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Fay E; Conduit, Russell; Foster-Owens, Mistral D; Rinehart, Nicole J; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Cornish, Kim M

    2018-01-01

    The current study assessed the association between anxiety symptoms and sleep in 90 school-aged children, aged 6-12 years (M age = 108 months, 52.2% male). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and 14 nights of actigraphy were used to assess sleep. Anxiety was assessed using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). A significant association was found between parent-reported anxiety symptoms and current sleep problems (i.e., CSHQ total scores ≥ 41). An examination of SCAS subscales identified a specific association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and increased parental sleep concerns, including sleep onset delay, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness. Regarding actigraphy, whilst anxiety was not associated with average sleep variables, a relationship was identified between anxiety and the night-to-night variability of actigraphy-derived sleep schedules.

  9. La fotografia como mecanismo de resistencia y su implicación en las relaciones entre el sujeto, la imagen y el espectador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia de la Ossa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to try to assess the potential of photography as a means of resistance for women and feminists. This concept is important because it implies, first and foremost, a subject who is capable of being an agent and whose intentionality can be used to meet many women’s needs, whether as a personal expression, therapy, or in educational campaigns or against violence, to name but a few. Part of this discussion is based on well-known feminist theories on representation and self-representation (e. g. Kuhn, 1985; Pollock, 1990; Mulvey, 1991; Solomon-Godean, 1991; Neumaier, 1995 integrated into some feminist interpretations of Foucault’s models of power/resistance (Bryson, 1988; Sawicki, 1991, McNay, 1992; Bell, 1993. The discussion or relationship between subjectivity, agency and photography is built upon this base, to suggest how and when forms of resistance have occurred or may occur. In order to back up the argument, some uses of self-representation are mentioned throughout the essay as well as the role played by the body in these instances and searches for resistance (as in the work by the body in these instances and searches for resistance (as in the work by Saville and Luchford, 1995/96 and other forms in which women used photography (such as Spence, 1986, 1995; Spence and Solomon, 1995; Greeen, 1995 and Simpson, 1995. Some of the difficulties, risks, implications and responsibilities inherent in the processes of representation are also dealt with and reference is made to the dilemmas involved in the processes of interpretation. The images of Saville and Luchford are discussed in more detail and the issues covered throughout this article are reflected and united in them.

  10. Effectiveness of Client-centered Play Therapy on Fear and Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Sadat Mosavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preschool period is playing main role in development and adjustment of children. Fear and anxiety are of externalizing disorders, providing untreated it leads to negative effects on individual and social relationship specially in adulthood therefore, this research investigates the influence of client-centered play therapy on fear and anxiety among preschool children (5-6 aged.Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre and post- tests. 14 male and female preschool children (5-6 aged who were obtaining scores higher than cut-off in Spence anxiety scale (SAS and fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R parents’ form questionnaires were selected, and then they were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received techniques of client-centered play therapy for six treatment sessions (45minutes for each session. The fear and anxiety were measured at the beginning and at end of therapeutic session, utilizing the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R parents’ form. Statistical analysis conducted by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA.Results: There is significantly difference in Mean (SD scores of pretest 130.4 (3.3 and posttest 127.1 (4.6 fear (P<0.001, F= 24.6 and in scores of pretest 58.6 (2.6 and post-test 48.28 (3.6 anxiety (P<0.001, F=19.5 between preschool children in pre and post-test.Conclusion: Findings indicated that client-centered play therapy has effective in reducing behavioral problem such as fear and anxiety disorders in preschool children. Therefore, it can be useful and applicable as the psychological therapeutic interventions for decreasing behavioral distress in children.

  11. Comparison of CT versus MRI measurements of transverse atlantal ligament integrity in craniovertebral junction injuries. Part 2: A new CT-based alternative for assessing transverse ligament integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Orribo, Luis; Kalb, Samuel; Snyder, Laura A; Hsu, Forrest; Malhotra, Devika; Lefevre, Richard D; Elhadi, Ali M; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Theodore, Nicholas; Crawford, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The rule of Spence is inaccurate for assessing integrity of the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL). Because CT is quick and easy to perform at most trauma centers, the authors propose a novel sequence of obtaining 2 CT scans to improve the diagnosis of TAL impairment. The sensitivity of a new CT-based method for diagnosing a TAL injury in a cadaveric model was assessed. METHODS Ten human cadaveric occipitocervical specimens were mounted horizontally in a supine posture with wooden inserts attached to the back of the skull to maintain a neutral or flexed (10°) posture. Specimens were scanned in neutral and flexed postures in a total of 4 conditions (3 conditions in each specimen): 1) intact (n = 10); either 2A) after a simulated Jefferson fracture with an intact TAL (n = 5) or 2B) after a TAL disruption with no Jefferson fracture (n = 5); and 3) after TAL disruption and a simulated Jefferson fracture (n = 10). The atlantodental interval (ADI) and cross-sectional canal area were measured. RESULTS From the neutral to the flexed posture, ADI increased an average of 2.5% in intact spines, 6.25% after a Jefferson fracture without TAL disruption, 34% after a TAL disruption without fracture, and 25% after TAL disruption with fracture. The increase in ADI was significant with both TAL disruption and TAL disruption and fracture (p 0.6). Changes in spinal canal area were not significant (p > 0.70). CONCLUSIONS This novel method was more sensitive than the rule of Spence for evaluating the integrity of the TAL on CT and does not increase the risk of further neurological damage.

  12. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  13. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  14. The evolution of epilepsy theory and practice at the National Hospital for the Relief and Cure of Epilepsy, Queen Square between 1860 and 1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon

    2014-02-01

    In the years between 1860 and 1910, a revolution in epilepsy theory and practice occurred. The National Hospital for the Relief and Cure of the Paralysed and the Epileptic at Queen Square in London was at the center of this revolution. A series of remarkable physicians and surgeons were appointed to the staff. The four greatest were John Hughlings Jackson, Sir David Ferrier, Sir Victor Horsley, and Sir William Gowers. Their lasting contribution to epilepsy is discussed. Other physicians who made notable contributions to epilepsy were Jabez Spence Ramskill, Charles Eduard Brown-Séquard, Charles Bland Radcliffe, Sir John Russell Reynolds, Sir Edward Henry Sieveking, Walter Stacy Colman, and William Aldren Turner. At the hospital in this period, amongst the lasting contributions to epilepsy were the following: the development of a new conceptual basis of epilepsy, the development of a theory of the physiological structure of the nervous system in relation to epilepsy, the demonstration and investigation of cortical localization of epileptic activity, the establishment of the principle of focal epilepsy and the description of focal seizure types, the discovery of the first effective drug treatment for epilepsy (bromide therapy, indeed one of the first effective drug treatments in the whole of neurology), and the performance of the first surgical operation for epilepsy. This paper is based on the 2013 Gowers Memorial Lecture, delivered in May 2013. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting.

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    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind's parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children's anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pauthoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; p<0.05) as well as authoritative parenting style and mother's EQ (r=0.286; p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between child anxiety and behavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (β=0.340; p<0.01). This study provides preliminary evidence that the child's behavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother's emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style.

  16. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in school-aged children with active epilepsy: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Chin, Richard F; Das, Krishna B; Gillberg, Christopher; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2015-11-01

    Children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy were screened using the parent-report (n=69) and self-report (n=48) versions of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the self-report version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (n=48) in a population-based sample. A total of 32.2% of children (self-report) and 15.2% of children (parent-report) scored ≥1 SD above the mean on the SCAS total score. The subscales where most difficulty were reported on parent-report were Physical Injury and Separation Anxiety. There was less variation on self-report. On the CDI, 20.9% of young people scored ≥1 SD above the mean. Children reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety on the SCAS total score and three of the subscales (pchildren with generalized seizures on self- but not parent-report. Higher CDI scores were significantly associated with generalized seizures (p>.05). Symptoms of anxiety were more common based on self-report compared with parent-report. Children with generalized seizures reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE EFFECT OF STORYTELLING IN A PLAY THERAPY ON ANXIETY LEVEL IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN DURING HOSPITALIZATION IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL OF BUTON

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    Mimi Yati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is one of the psychical stresses experienced by children during hospitalization. A storytelling in a play therapy is considered effective in reducing anxiety. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety level in pre-school children during hospitalization in the general hospital of Buton. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 30 pre-school children selected in this study using accidental sampling, with 15 assigned in each group. The Pre School - Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS was used to measure anxiety in pre-school children. Wilcoxon matched paired test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of anxiety level in the intervention group in pretest was 42 and in posttest was 31.53. Wilcoxon matched paired test showed p-value 0.003 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of storytelling on the level of anxiety in pre-school children. Conclusions: There is a significant influence of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety levels in pre school children during hospitalization. It is suggested that this intervention could be applied as a nursing intervention to reduce anxiety in children.

  18. Shaping the self: A Bildungsroman for girls?

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    I. Noomé

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that two alternative forms of the “Bildungsroman” developed from circa 1860 to 1960, featuring young female protagonists and aimed at girls as a readership. To explore this proposition, the article initially focuses on three girls’ series to see whether they meet the criteria for classification as a “Bildungsroman”: the South African “Soekie” series written in Afrikaans by Ela Spence, the well-known Canadian “Anne of Green Gables” series by L.M. Montgomery, and the German “Pucki” series by Magda Trott. In these series girls have to learn through experience as they move toward happiness and maturity. Secondly, the article explores the presentation of the female quest, as well as some development options “in parallel” in such novels as Louisa May Alcott’s now classic “Little women” and “Good wives”. The article concludes that some novels for girls move towards an exploration of personal development from childhood to maturity, but that the criteria for the “Bildungsroman” should be adjusted to include forms other than the single novels and novels focused on one protagonist that are more typical of the “male” “Bildungsroman”. It also suggests that the criteria for maturity, self-actualisation and social integration need qualification in the “female” version of this genre.

  19. Men and women are from Earth: examining the latent structure of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Bobbi J; Reis, Harry T

    2013-02-01

    Taxometric methods enable determination of whether the latent structure of a construct is dimensional or taxonic (nonarbitrary categories). Although sex as a biological category is taxonic, psychological gender differences have not been examined in this way. The taxometric methods of mean above minus below a cut, maximum eigenvalue, and latent mode were used to investigate whether gender is taxonic or dimensional. Behavioral measures of stereotyped hobbies and physiological characteristics (physical strength, anthropometric measurements) were examined for validation purposes, and were taxonic by sex. Psychological indicators included sexuality and mating (sexual attitudes and behaviors, mate selectivity, sociosexual orientation), interpersonal orientation (empathy, relational-interdependent self-construal), gender-related dispositions (masculinity, femininity, care orientation, unmitigated communion, fear of success, science inclination, Big Five personality), and intimacy (intimacy prototypes and stages, social provisions, intimacy with best friend). Constructs were with few exceptions dimensional, speaking to Spence's (1993) gender identity theory. Average differences between men and women are not under dispute, but the dimensionality of gender indicates that these differences are inappropriate for diagnosing gender-typical psychological variables on the basis of sex. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Correlations with anxiety, fear, and depression scales in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mannens, Janne; Peters, Lisanne; Meesters, Cor

    2017-10-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a newly developed rating scale for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms of children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. In the present study, 187 children aged 8-12 years completed the new measure as well as the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results indicated that part one of the YAM-5, which measures symptoms of the major anxiety disorders, was most substantially linked with the trait anxiety scale of the STAIC, whereas part two, which measures phobic symptoms, was most clearly associated with the FSSC-R-SF. The correlation between the YAM-5 and the SCAS was also robust, and particularly strong correlations were found between subscales of both questionnaires that assessed similar symptoms. Further, the selective mutism subscale of the YAM-5 was most clearly linked to the SMQ. Finally, the YAM-5 was also significantly correlated with depression symptoms as indexed by the CDI. These findings provide further support for the concurrent validity of the YAM-5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpersonal phenomenology as a function of sexual orientation, sex, sentiment, and trait categories in long-term dyadic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullo, S A; Alperson, B L

    1984-11-01

    Homosexual and heterosexual relationships were studied with the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ) as modified by the Interpersonal Perception Method (IPM). Members of 80 dyads were assessed for perceived similarity, validation of partners' self-concept, expectations of being validated, feelings of being understood, expectations of receiving credit for insight, knowledge of being validated or invalidated, knowledge of being understood or misunderstood, and knowledge of being credited with insight. The F+ scale of the EPAQ accounted for greater congruence among IPM perspectives than any of the other EPAQ scales (M+, M-, F-). Positive EPAQ scales (F+ and M+) showed more consistency among interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives than negative scales. Homosexual partners perceived themselves more similar to each other on the F+ scales than did heterosexual partners. Persons with female partners (lesbians and heterosexual males) had higher expectations and greater accuracy in these expectations than those with male partners. Differences within the interpersonal phenomenology of heterosexual couples found in an earlier study (Alperson & Friedman, 1983) were fully replicated. Treating the M and F scales of the EPAQ as instrumental and expressive traits rather than masculine and feminine sex roles (Spence & Helmreich, 1980) clarifies the interpretation of these results.

  2. Theoretical estimation for correlations of diffraction patterns from objects differently oriented in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, B; Martin, A V; Wang, F; Chapman, H N; Weckert, E

    2011-06-01

    Coherent diffraction imaging of single biomolecules is expected to open unique opportunities for studies of non-crystalline samples. There are, however, still many technical and physical issues that need to be resolved in a more quantitative manner, especially if one aims for structural information at high resolution. Signal recorded from an object after a single shot is low. As primarily proposed in Spence and Doak (2004) and Huldt et al. (2003), averaging over the diffraction patterns from many different shots is necessary, in order to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for image reconstruction. The images of the randomly oriented molecules have to be sorted out in order to identify those corresponding to the similar spatial orientations of the objects. This procedure is called the classification of diffraction images. Here we approach the classification in the framework of pattern-to-pattern correlations, and analyse theoretically the correlations between diffraction images of differently oriented objects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral symptoms and sleep problems in children with anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Hearing Mouth Shapes: Sound Symbolism and the Reverse McGurk Effect

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    Charles Spence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012 demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011, these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929 once-popular “embodied” explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences.

  5. Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Organoids as an Infection Model for Rotaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Utama, Budi; Atmar, Robert L.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Estes, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Directed differentiation of stem cell lines into intestine-like tissue called induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs) is now possible (J. R. Spence, C. N. Mayhew, S. A. Rankin, M. F. Kuhar, J. E. Vallance, K. Tolle, E. E. Hoskins, V. V. Kalinichenko, S. I. Wells, A. M. Zorn, N. F. Shroyer, and J. M. Wells, Nature 470:105-109, 2011). We tested iHIOs as a new model to cultivate and study fecal viruses. Protocols for infection of iHIOs with a laboratory strain of rotavirus, simian SA11, were developed. Proof-of-principle analyses showed that iHIOs support replication of a gastrointestinal virus, rotavirus, on the basis of detection of nonstructural viral proteins (nonstructural protein 4 [NSP4] and NSP2) by immunofluorescence, increased levels of viral RNA by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and production of infectious progeny virus. iHIOs were also shown to support replication of 12/13 clinical rotavirus isolates directly from stool samples. An unexpected finding was the detection of rotavirus infection not only in the epithelial cells but also in the mesenchymal cell population of the iHIOs. This work demonstrates that iHIOs offer a promising new model to study rotaviruses and other gastrointestinal viruses. PMID:22761392

  6. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effectiveness of Attribution Retraining on Anxiety of Students with Learning Disabilities

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    Marzieh Yahyaei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of attribution retraining group program on anxiety of students with learning disabilities. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study pre-test and post-test design with control group was used. Two learning disorders centers were selected on purpose and conveniently in Tehran City in 2012-13 academic years. Thirty six students (9 girls and 27 boys who were educating in 2nd to 6th grade in elementary school with learning disabilities selected in convenience. One center was considered as experimental group and the other one as control group randomly (each group consisted of 18 individuals. Experimental group was divided into three subgroups (each consisted of 6 individuals, and were participated in 11 intervention sessions (each lasts for 45 minutes twice a week and received attribution retraining program, but control group received no training. Spence Children Anxiety Scale (SCAS was completed before and after the intervention by all subjects. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and analysis of covariance. Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that attribution retraining intervention did not influence the anxiety. There is no significant difference between the anxiety of experimental and control group (P=0.34. Conclusion: It was concluded that attribution retraining group program can not probably reduce anxiety symptoms of students with learning disabilities.

  8. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  9. As bitter as a trombone: synesthetic correspondences in nonsynesthetes between tastes/flavors and musical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In parallel to studies of various cases of synesthesia, many cross-modal correspondences have also been documented in nonsynesthetes. Among these correspondences, implicit associations between taste and pitch have been reported recently (Crisinel & Spence, 2009, 2010). Here, we replicate and extend these findings through explicit matching of sounds of varying pitch to a range of tastes/flavors. In addition, participants in the experiment reported here also chose the type of musical instrument most appropriate for each taste/flavor. The association of sweet and sour tastes to high-pitched notes was confirmed. By contrast, umami and bitter tastes were preferentially matched to low-pitched notes. Flavors did not display such strong pitch associations. The choice of musical instrument seems to have been driven primarily by a matching of the hedonic value and familiarity of the two types of stimuli. Our results raise important questions about our representation of tastes and flavors and could also lead to applications in the marketing of food products.

  10. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Prakriti; Sharan, Rajiv; Binay, Yashi; Verma, Vijay; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version). The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female) with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11%) students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents 'Democratic' and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  11. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version. Results: The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11% students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents ′Democratic′ and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. Conclusions: The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  12. Architecture, religion, and tuberculosis in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Annmarie; Poutanen, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the architecture of the Mount Sinai Sanatorium in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts (Qc) to disentangle the role of religion in the treatment of tuberculosis. In particular, we analyze the design of Mount Sinai, the jewel in the crown of Jewish philanthropy in Montreal, in relation to that of the nearby Laurentian Sanatorium. While Mount Sinai offered free treatment to the poor in a stunning, Art Deco building of 1930, the Protestant hospital had by then served paying patients for more than two decades in a purposefully home-like, Tudor-revival setting. Using architectural historian Bernard Herman's concept of embedded landscapes, we show how the two hospitals differed in terms of their relationship to site, access, and, most importantly, to city, knowledge, and community. Architects Scopes & Feustmann, who designed the Laurentian hospital, operated an office at Saranac Lake, New York, America's premier destination for consumptives. The qualifications of Mount Sinai architects Spence & Goodman, however, derived from their experience with Jewish institutions in Montreal. Following Herman's approach to architecture through movement and context, how did notions of medical therapy and Judaism intersect in the plans of Mount Sinai?

  13. Holonomies of gauge fields in twistor space 4: Functional MHV rules and one-loop amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yasuhiro, E-mail: abe@cereja.co.jp [Cereja Technology Co., Ltd., 1-13-14 Mukai-Bldg. 3F, Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0014 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalization of the Cachazo-Svrcek-Witten (CSW) rules to one-loop amplitudes of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in a recently developed holonomy formalism in twistor space. We first reconsider off-shell continuation of the Lorentz-invariant Nair measure for the incorporation of loop integrals. We then formulate an S-matrix functional for general amplitudes such that it implements the CSW rules at quantum level. For one-loop MHV amplitudes, the S-matrix functional correctly reproduces the analytic expressions obtained in the Brandhuber-Spence-Travaglini (BST) method. Motivated by this result, we propose a novel regularization scheme by use of an iterated-integral representation of polylogarithms and obtain a set of new analytic expressions for one-loop NMHV and N{sup 2}MHV amplitudes in a conjectural form. We also briefly sketch how the extension to one-loop non-MHV amplitudes in general can be carried out.

  14. Can signalling theory and the semaphoric nature of information systems explain clinicians' ambivalence to informatics?

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    Meyer, Derek; Cox, Benita

    2010-01-01

    Investment in information systems has traditionally been justified in terms of productivity or value-added gain. From this point of view the slow rate of adoption of IT in the healthcare sector appears paradoxical because the rapid increase in medical costs has created an urgent need for productivity improvements. Spence's market signal theory may explain why some information system investment decisions are made and may, in part, explains the reluctance of clinicians to embrace informatics. Case studies are presented where we argue that information system investment was made primarily to send a market signal. We call information systems that are used primarily to send a market signal, semaphoric information systems. Characteristics of semaphoric information systems are presented. It is postulated that the therapeutic relationship between doctor and patient is central to current models of healthcare, and that the semaphoric 'message' of the current generation of IT systems may be detrimental to this relationship. This suggests that clinicians will continue to be reluctant to embrace information systems until information systems are developed that can send signals that enhance the doctor-patient relationship.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF CONGENITAL SYMMASTIA WITH Z PLASTY : A CASE REPORT

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    Biswajit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Symmastia is defined as medial confluence of the breast. The term 'symmastia' is modified from Greek (sym meaning 'together', and mastos meaning 'breast' and was first presented by Spence et al. in 1983. Two forms of symmastia exist: congenital and acquir ed form. Congenital symmastia is a rare condition in which web - like soft tissue traverses the sternum to connect the breasts medially. There is few publication of this condition. Treatment options for this condition are also few. MATERIAL AND METHOD : Thoug h Periareolar approach, and vertical reduction mammoplasty has been described as a method to reduce the size of the breast as well as correct symmastia . We used z plasty in our case because the patient was not willing for reduction of the size of the breas t. RESULT : The patient had well defined midline groove, symmetric breast on each side. CONCLUSION : Z plasty can be an innovative method for creation of midline groove in congenital symmastia in patients of low socioeconomic status as an alternative to redu ction mammoplasty and liposuction

  16. Impact of explosive eruption scenarios at Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Baxter, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    scenario are highlighted. The results show the high sensitivity of hazard combinations in time and space distribution and address how to mitigate building vulnerability to subsequent eruptive phenomena [Baxter, P., Spence, R., Zuccaro, G., 2008-this issue. Risk mitigation and emergency measures at Vesuvius]. The first part of the work describes the numerical modelling and the methodology adopted to evaluate the resistance of buildings under the combined action of volcanic phenomena. Those considered here for this multi-hazard approach are limited to the following: earthquakes, pyroclastic flows and ash falls. Because of the lack of a systematic and extensive database of building damages observed after eruptions of such intensity of the past, approaches to this work must take a hybrid form of stochastic and deterministic analyses, taking into account written histories of volcanic eruptions and expertise from field geologists to build up a semi-deterministic model of the possible combinations of the above hazards that are situated both in time and space. Once a range of possible scenarios has been determined, a full stochastic method can be applied to find a sub-set of permutations and combinations of possible effects. This preliminary study of identification of the possible combination of the phenomena, subdividing them into those which are discrete and those which are continuous in time and space, enables consideration the vulnerability functions of the combinations to be feasible. In previous works [Spence, R., Brichieri-Colombi, N., Holdsworth, F., Baxter, P., Zuccaro, G., 2004a. Vesuvius: building vulnerability and human casualty estimation for a pyroclastic flow (25 pages). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 133, 321-343. ISSN 0377-0273; Spence, R., Zuccaro, G., Petrazzuoli, S., Baxter, P.J., 2004b. The resistance of buildings to pyroclastic flows: theoretical and experimental studies in relation to Vesuvius, ASCE Nat. Hazards Rev. 5, 48-50. ISSN 1527-6988; Spence, R., Kelman

  17. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes have claimed approximately 8 million lives over the last 2,000 years (Dunbar, Lockridge and others, 1992) and fatality rates are likely to continue to rise with increased population and urbanizations of global settlements especially in developing countries. More than 75% of earthquake-related human casualties are caused by the collapse of buildings or structures (Coburn and Spence, 2002). It is disheartening to note that large fractions of the world's population still reside in informal, poorly-constructed & non-engineered dwellings which have high susceptibility to collapse during earthquakes. Moreover, with increasing urbanization half of world's population now lives in urban areas (United Nations, 2001), and half of these urban centers are located in earthquake-prone regions (Bilham, 2004). The poor performance of most building stocks during earthquakes remains a primary societal concern. However, despite this dark history and bleaker future trends, there are no comprehensive global building inventories of sufficient quality and coverage to adequately address and characterize future earthquake losses. Such an inventory is vital both for earthquake loss mitigation and for earthquake disaster response purposes. While the latter purpose is the motivation of this work, we hope that the global building inventory database described herein will find widespread use for other mitigation efforts as well. For a real-time earthquake impact alert system, such as U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), (Wald, Earle and others, 2006), we seek to rapidly evaluate potential casualties associated with earthquake ground shaking for any region of the world. The casualty estimation is based primarily on (1) rapid estimation of the ground shaking hazard, (2) aggregating the population exposure within different building types, and (3) estimating the casualties from the collapse of vulnerable buildings. Thus, the

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  19. Networks of trainees: examining the effects of attending an interdisciplinary research training camp on the careers of new obesity scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godley J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Godley,1 Nicole M Glenn,2 Arya M Sharma,3 John C Spence4 1Department of Sociology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, 4Sedentary Living Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Students training in obesity research, prevention, and management face the challenge of developing expertise in their chosen academic field while at the same time recognizing that obesity is a complex issue that requires a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach. In appreciation of this challenge, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON has run an interdisciplinary summer training camp for graduate students, new career researchers, and clinicians for the past 8 years. This paper evaluates the effects of attending this training camp on trainees' early careers. We use social network analysis to examine the professional connections developed among trainee Canadian obesity researchers who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006–2010. We examine four relationships (knowing, contacting, and meeting each other, and working together among previous trainees. We assess the presence and diversity of these relationships among trainees across different years and disciplines and find that interdisciplinary contact and working relationships established at the training camp have been maintained over time. In addition, we evaluate the qualitative data on trainees' career trajectories and their assessments of the impact that the camp had on their careers. Many trainees report that camp attendance had a positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships. Both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in the health

  20. More than ten million years of hyper-aridity recorded in the Atacama Gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Bao, Huiming; Reich, Martin; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2018-04-01

    The Atacama Desert's hyper-aridity is closely linked to the development of world-class copper and nitrate/iodine ores and to regional tectonics and global paleoclimate changes in the Cenozoic era. The timing when the hyper-aridity commenced remains controversial, with proposed ages ranging from Late Oligocene to Pleistocene. In this study, we provide an independent constraint on the initiation of Atacama hyper-aridity utilizing a 100-m deep profile within the Atacama Gravels and underneath porphyry copper deposit in Spence, northern Chile. The overall high concentration of sulfate (up to 10 wt%) and a multimodal distribution of water soluble salt (sulfates, chlorides and nitrates) indicate multiple generations of sedimentation and salt accumulation events under semi-arid to hyper-arid climate conditions. The multiple sulfate isotope compositions (Δ17O, δ18O, δ34S) of the upper section (-15.0 to -34.5 m) are close to those of modern hyperarid surface sulfates, while the lower section (-34.5 to -65 m) displays a depth dependent isotope trend that is best interpreted as marking a period of climate change from semi-arid to hyper-arid. When these data are combined with new chronological 40Ar/39Ar dates obtained from a volcanic ash layer at depth of -28.0 m, our results show that hyper-arid condition in the Atacama Desert was prevailing at least prior to 9.47 Ma and may go back as old as the middle Miocene.

  1. The SENSE Study: Treatment Mechanisms of a Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness-Based Group Sleep Improvement Intervention for At-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Matthew; Schwartz, Orli; Waloszek, Joanna M; Raniti, Monika; Simmons, Julian G; Murray, Greg; Blake, Laura; Dahl, Ronald E; Bootzin, Richard; McMakin, Dana L; Dudgeon, Paul; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve sleep and anxiety on school nights in a sample of at-risk adolescents. We also examined whether benefits to sleep and anxiety would be mediated by improvements in sleep hygiene awareness and presleep hyperarousal. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms. Participants were randomized into a sleep improvement intervention (n = 63) or active control "study skills" intervention (n = 60). Preintervention and postintervention, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), Sleep Beliefs Scale (SBS), and Presleep Hyperarousal Scale (PSAS) and wore an actiwatch and completed a sleep diary for five school nights. The sleep intervention condition was associated with significantly greater improvements in actigraphy-measured sleep onset latency (SOLobj), sleep diary measured sleep efficiency (SEsubj), PSQI, SCAS, SBS, and PSAS, with medium to large effect sizes. Improvements in the PSQI and SCAS were specifically mediated by the measured improvements in the PSAS that resulted from the intervention. Improvements in SOLobj and SEsubj were not specifically related to improvements in any of the putative treatment mechanisms. This study provides evidence that presleep arousal but not sleep hygiene awareness is important for adolescents' perceived sleep quality and could be a target for new treatments of adolescent sleep problems. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Trauma, mental health, and intergenerational associations in Kosovar Families 11 years after the war

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    Matthis Schick

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a considerable amount of literature addressing consequences of trauma in veterans and holocaust survivors, war and postwar civilian populations, particularly children, are still understudied. Evidence regarding intergenerational effects of trauma in families is inconsistent. Objective: To shed light on intergenerational aspects of trauma-related mental health problems among families 11 years after the Kosovo war. Method: In a cross-sectional study, a paired sample of 51 randomly selected triplets (school-aged child, mother, father, N=153 of Kosovar families was investigated with regard to trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (UCLA Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and depressive symptoms (Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche [DIKJ; depression inventory for children and adolescents], Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results: Considerable trauma exposure and high prevalence rates of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found in both parents and children. While strong correlations were found between children's depressive symptoms and paternal posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, maternal symptoms did not correlate with their children's. In multiple regression analyses, only posttraumatic stress symptoms of fathers were significantly related with children's depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Eleven years after the Kosovo war, the presence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in civilian adults and their children is still substantial. As symptoms of parents and children are associated, mental health problems of close ones should be actively screened and accounted for in comprehensive treatment plans, using a systemic approach. Future research should include longitudinal studies conducting multivariate analyses with larger sample sizes in order to investigate

  3. The role of a tool in measuring negative consequences of workaholism

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    Jan Chodkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analyzes of negative consequences of workaholism are ambiguous, and various studies have been conducted with different measurement tools. Thus, the objective of the current research was to find the answer to the question about relationships between workaholism measured with varied tools and mental health, stress experienced in life and at work, negative affect, and work–family conflicts. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 178 subjects (71 men, 107 women, aged 23–66, with a minimum work experience of 4 years. To measure workaholism 4 different research tools, based on different conceptualization of this construct, were used: Workaholism Battery (Work-Bat by Spence and Robbins, Work Addiction Risk Test (WART by Robinson, Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT by Mudrack and Naughton, and The Scale of Being Absorbed by Work (SZAP by Golińska. To measure possible consequences of workaholism the following tools were employed: General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 by Goldberg, Scale of Work–Family/Family–Work Conflict (WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS by Cohen et al., Brief Scale of Vocational Stress (BSVS by Stanton et al. and Mood Scale by Wojciszke and Baryła. Results: The strongest relationships between workaholism and its negative consequences for the functioning of the unit can be observed using 2 diagnostic methods, respectively: WART and SZAP adapted by Golińska. Other diagnostic tools (Work-Bat and SWBT have insignificant relationships with possible negative consequences of workaholism. Conclusions: The applied method of measuring workaholism seems to be of great importance in predicting possible consequences-different conceptualizations of phenomena leading to different results, which is important for researchers and practitioners involved in the issue of workaholism. There is a need for further work on the conceptualization and operationalization of the

  4. Correlates of parental stress and psychopathology in pediatric epilepsy

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    Rania Shatla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.

  5. Child anxiety and parenting in England and Italy: the moderating role of maternal warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudino, Alessandra; Murray, Lynne; Turner, Corinne; Tsampala, Eirini; Lis, Adriana; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Cooper, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Parenting factors have been implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of child anxiety. Most research has been correlational with little experimental or longitudinal work. Cross-cultural comparison could be illuminating. A comparison of Italian and British children and their mothers was conducted. A sample of 8- to 10-year old children, 60 Italian and 49 English, completed the Spence Child Anxiety Scale. Mothers also completed two questionnaires of parenting: the Skills of Daily Living Checklist (assessing maternal autonomy granting) and the Parent-Child Interaction Questionnaire (assessing maternal intrusiveness). Parenting was assessed in two video-recorded blindly rated mother-child interaction tasks, the 'belt-buckling tasks and the 'etch-a-sketch', providing objective indices of overcontrol, warmth, lack of autonomy granting, and overprotection. There were no differences between the children in overall anxiety and specific forms of anxiety. Parenting, however, was markedly different for the two countries. Compared to English mothers, on the two questionnaires, Italian mothers were significantly less autonomy granting and more intrusive; and in terms of the observed indices, a significantly greater proportion of the Italian mothers displayed a high level of both overprotection and overcontrol, and a low level of autonomy granting. Notably, Italian mothers evidenced significantly more warmth than English mothers; and maternal warmth was found to moderate the impact of self-reported maternal intrusiveness on the level of both overall child anxiety and the level of child separation anxiety; and it also moderated the relationship between both observed maternal intrusiveness and overall child anxiety and observed maternal overprotectiveness and child separation anxiety. Although, compared to the British mothers, the Italian mothers were more likely to evidence high levels of parenting behaviours previously found to be anxiogenic, the high levels of warmth

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Scholten

    Full Text Available Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138 was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape. Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  7. Using symptom and interference questionnaires to identify recovery among children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2017-07-01

    Questionnaires are widely used in routine clinical practice to assess treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. This study was conducted to determine whether 2 widely used child and parent report questionnaires of child anxiety symptoms and interference (Spence Child Anxiety Scale [SCAS-C/P] and Child Anxiety Impact Scale [CAIS-C/P]) accurately identify recovery from common child anxiety disorder diagnoses as measured by a 'gold-standard' diagnostic interview. Three hundred thirty-seven children (7-12 years, 51% female) and their parents completed the ADIS-IV-C/P diagnostic interview and questionnaire measures (SCAS-C/P and CAIS-C/P) before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) treatment or wait-list. Time 2 parent reported interference (CAIS-P) was found to be a good predictor of absence of any diagnoses (area under the curve [AUC] = .81). In terms of specific diagnoses, Time 2 SCAS-C/P separation anxiety subscale (SCAS-C/P-SA) identified recovery from separation anxiety disorder well (SCAS-C-SA, AUC = .80; SCAS-P-SA, AUC = .82) as did the CAIS-P (AUC = .79). The CAIS-P also successfully identified recovery from social phobia (AUC = .78) and generalized anxiety disorder (AUC = .76). These AUC values were supported by moderate to good sensitivity (.70-.78) and specificity (.70-.73) at the best identified cut-off scores. None of the measures successfully identified recovery from specific phobia. The results suggest that questionnaire measures, particularly the CAIS-P, can be used to identify whether children have recovered from common anxiety disorders, with the exception of specific phobias. Cut-off scores have been identified that can guide the use of routine outcome measures in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. "Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention": Correction to Knoeferle et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Reports an error in "Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention" by Klemens M. Knoeferle, Pia Knoeferle, Carlos Velasco and Charles Spence ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied , 2016[Jun], Vol 22[2], 196-210). In the article, under Experiment 2, Design and Stimuli, the set number of target products and visual distractors reported in the second paragraph should be 20 and 13, respectively: "On each trial, the 16 products shown in the display were randomly selected from a set of 20 products belonging to different categories. Out of the set of 20 products, seven were potential targets, whereas the other 13 were used as visual distractors only throughout the experiment (since they were not linked to specific usage or consumption sounds)." Consequently, Appendix A in the supplemental materials has been updated. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-28876-002.) Building on models of crossmodal attention, the present research proposes that brand search is inherently multisensory, in that the consumers' visual search for a specific brand can be facilitated by semantically related stimuli that are presented in another sensory modality. A series of 5 experiments demonstrates that the presentation of spatially nonpredictive auditory stimuli associated with products (e.g., usage sounds or product-related jingles) can crossmodally facilitate consumers' visual search for, and selection of, products. Eye-tracking data (Experiment 2) revealed that the crossmodal effect of auditory cues on visual search manifested itself not only in RTs, but also in the earliest stages of visual attentional processing, thus suggesting that the semantic information embedded within sounds can modulate the perceptual saliency of the target products' visual representations. Crossmodal facilitation was even observed for newly learnt associations between unfamiliar brands and sonic logos, implicating multisensory short

  9. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  10. Computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression in adolescents: feasibility results and 4-month outcomes of a UK randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Tindall, Lucy; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Allgar, Victoria; Abeles, Paul; Trépel, Dominic; Ali, Shehzad

    2017-01-27

    Computer-administered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CCBT) may be a promising treatment for adolescents with depression, particularly due to its increased availability and accessibility. The feasibility of delivering a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing a CCBT program (Stressbusters) with an attention control (self-help websites) for adolescent depression was evaluated. Single centre RCT feasibility study. The trial was run within community and clinical settings in York, UK. Adolescents (aged 12-18) with low mood/depression were assessed for eligibility, 91 of whom met the inclusion criteria and were consented and randomised to Stressbusters (n=45) or websites (n=46) using remote computerised single allocation. Those with comorbid physical illness were included but those with psychosis, active suicidality or postnatal depression were not. An eight-session CCBT program (Stressbusters) designed for use with adolescents with low mood/depression was compared with an attention control (accessing low mood self-help websites). Participants completed mood and quality of life measures and a service Use Questionnaire throughout completion of the trial and 4 months post intervention. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (primary outcome measure), Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (youth) (EQ-5D-Y) and Health Utility Index Mark 2 (HUI-2). Changes in self-reported measures and completion rates were assessed by treatment group. From baseline to 4 months post intervention, BDI scores and MFQ scores decreased for the Stressbusters group but increased in the website group. Quality of life, as measured by the EQ-5D-Y, increased for both groups while costs at 4 months were similar to baseline. Good feasibility outcomes were found, suggesting the trial process to be feasible and acceptable for adolescents with depression. With modifications, a fully powered RCT is

  11. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    about climate change than others [2] and no expertise is needed to discuss such experiences or related values. These are accessible concepts in all disciplines and across socioeconomic levels. Research to further identify and describe values challenged by climate change is needed and can be communicated across disciplines and to the public. The resultant dialog will facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration, public and political debate, and possibly generate behavior change. References 1. Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). Accessed July 6, 2011. http://aosis.info/members-and-observers/ 2. Spence A., Poortinga W., Butler C., Pidgeon N.F. Perceptions of climate change and willingness to save energy related to flood experience. Nature Climate Change. March 2011. Accessed July 6, 2011. http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate1059.html

  12. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares

  13. Is anxiety more common in school students with newly diagnosed specific learning disabilities? A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Thakkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: School students with specific learning disabilities (SpLDs experience chronic academic underachievement and resultant stress. The present study aimed to determine if school students with newly diagnosed SpLD were more likely to have anxiety than their regular peers. Materials and Methods: The study cases (aged 8-15 years were recruited from our institute′s learning disability clinic. The matched controls were recruited from four schools in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Anxiety was measured using the Spence Children′s Anxiety Scale (SCAS-child self-report version questionnaire. Median SCAS scores and the proportion of students with an SCAS score in the "clinical anxiety" range were compared between the groups. Results: SCAS scores were significantly higher in 8-11-year-old learning-disabled male and female students (P < 0.0001 for both groups and 12-15-year-old female students (P = 0.004, as compared with matched controls. A significantly higher number of learning-disabled students were found to have "clinical anxiety" [24.64% vs 4.35%, crude odds ratio (OR = 7.19, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.91-17.78, P = 0.0001], as compared with the controls regardless of gender, age group, presence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, or associated medical conditions. A significantly higher proportion of 8-11-year-old learning-disabled students, especially males, were found to have "clinical anxiety" as compared with 12-15-year-old learning-disabled students (crude OR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.94-9.92, P = 0.0004. Gender, presence of comorbid ADHD or associated medical conditions, and type of school attended or curriculum did not impact the prevalence of "clinical anxiety" in learning-disabled students. Interpretation and Conclusions: Students with newly diagnosed SpLD have greater odds of being "clinically anxious" relative to their regular peers. We recommend screening for anxiety in children with Sp

  14. [The role of a tool in measuring negative consequences of workaholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Jan; Hauk, Mateusz

    Analyzes of negative consequences of workaholism are ambiguous, and various studies have been conducted with different measurement tools. Thus, the objective of the current research was to find the answer to the question about relationships between workaholism measured with varied tools and mental health, stress experienced in life and at work, negative affect, and work-family conflicts. The study was conducted in a group of 178 subjects (71 men, 107 women, aged 23-66), with a minimum work experience of 4 years. To measure workaholism 4 different research tools, based on different conceptualization of this construct, were used: Workaholism Battery (Work-Bat) by Spence and Robbins, Work Addiction Risk Test (WART) by Robinson, Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton, and The Scale of Being Absorbed by Work (SZAP) by Golińska. To measure possible consequences of workaholism the following tools were employed: General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) by Goldberg, Scale of Work-Family/Family-Work Conflict (WFC/FWC) by Netemeyer et al., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen et al., Brief Scale of Vocational Stress (BSVS) by Stanton et al. and Mood Scale by Wojciszke and Baryła. The strongest relationships between workaholism and its negative consequences for the functioning of the unit can be observed using 2 diagnostic methods, respectively: WART and SZAP adapted by Golińska. Other diagnostic tools (Work-Bat and SWBT) have insignificant relationships with possible negative consequences of workaholism. The applied method of measuring workaholism seems to be of great importance in predicting possible consequences-different conceptualizations of phenomena leading to different results, which is important for researchers and practitioners involved in the issue of workaholism. There is a need for further work on the conceptualization and operationalization of the workaholism phenomenon. Med Pr 2016;67(4):467-476. This work is available

  15. Speed on the dance floor: Auditory and visual cues for musical tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Justin; Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-02-01

    Musical tempo is most strongly associated with the rate of the beat or "tactus," which may be defined as the most prominent rhythmic periodicity present in the music, typically in a range of 1.67-2 Hz. However, other factors such as rhythmic density, mean rhythmic inter-onset interval, metrical (accentual) structure, and rhythmic complexity can affect perceived tempo (Drake, Gros, & Penel, 1999; London, 2011 Drake, Gros, & Penel, 1999; London, 2011). Visual information can also give rise to a perceived beat/tempo (Iversen, et al., 2015), and auditory and visual temporal cues can interact and mutually influence each other (Soto-Faraco & Kingstone, 2004; Spence, 2015). A five-part experiment was performed to assess the integration of auditory and visual information in judgments of musical tempo. Participants rated the speed of six classic R&B songs on a seven point scale while observing an animated figure dancing to them. Participants were presented with original and time-stretched (±5%) versions of each song in audio-only, audio+video (A+V), and video-only conditions. In some videos the animations were of spontaneous movements to the different time-stretched versions of each song, and in other videos the animations were of "vigorous" versus "relaxed" interpretations of the same auditory stimulus. Two main results were observed. First, in all conditions with audio, even though participants were able to correctly rank the original vs. time-stretched versions of each song, a song-specific tempo-anchoring effect was observed, such that sped-up versions of slower songs were judged to be faster than slowed-down versions of faster songs, even when their objective beat rates were the same. Second, when viewing a vigorous dancing figure in the A+V condition, participants gave faster tempo ratings than from the audio alone or when viewing the same audio with a relaxed dancing figure. The implications of this illusory tempo percept for cross-modal sensory integration and

  16. Cranioplastias e correção de rinoliquorréias com metilmetacrilato: considerações a propósito de 35 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available São passados em revista os principais tipos de tratamento empregados para a correção das falhas ósseas cranianas, sendo discutidas algumas de suas vantagens e desvantagens. Os resultados obtidos com o uso do metil-metacrilato em cranioplastias são, na opinião de muitos autores, bastante satisfatórios, raramente sendo registradas complicações. É apresentada a experiência com o metilmetacrilato em 35 pacientes portadores de defeitos ósseos cranianos: 32 cranioplastias, duas correções de rinoliquorréias e um caso em que, simultâneamente, foram feitas cranio-plastia e tamponamento de fístula. O seguimento dos doentes foi de 4 anos em apenas um caso; em outros dez variou de um a três anos e nos demais casos foi inferior a um ano. Em 4 casos houve supuração local, tornando-se necessário remover a prótese para que o processo supurativo fôsse controlado. Houve um caso de óbito dois meses após a cranioplastia, em conseqüência de abscesso cerebral. Em 26 cranioplastias os resultados estéticos foram satisfatórios, havendo apenas em um caso deslocamento da prótese. Nos três casos de rinoliquorréias houve desaparecimento da perda de líquido cefalorraqueano após as intervenções cirúrgicas com a resina acrílica. Em 29 cranioplastias o metilmetacrilato foi aplicado diretamente sôbre as falhas ósseas, sem proteção alguma dos tecidos subjacentes; em nenhum caso surgiram indícios de que êste processo fôsse lesivo para o tecido nervoso. Nas três cranioplastias restantes empregou-se a técnica de Spence, na qual a resina é modelada dentro de um saco de polietileno, só entrando em contato com os tecidos depois da polimerização. Nas rinoliquorréias, antes do tamporamento das falhas ósseas com o metilmetacrilato, foram cuidadosamente reparadas as lesões da dura-máter.

  17. Is anxiety more common in school students with newly diagnosed specific learning disabilities? A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, AN; Karande, S; Bala, N; Sant, H; Gogtay, NJ; Sholapurwala, R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: School students with specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) experience chronic academic underachievement and resultant stress. The present study aimed to determine if school students with newly diagnosed SpLD were more likely to have anxiety than their regular peers. Materials and Methods: The study cases (aged 8-15 years) were recruited from our institute's learning disability clinic. The matched controls were recruited from four schools in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Anxiety was measured using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)-child self-report version questionnaire. Median SCAS scores and the proportion of students with an SCAS score in the “clinical anxiety” range were compared between the groups. Results: SCAS scores were significantly higher in 8-11-year-old learning-disabled male and female students (P students (P = 0.004), as compared with matched controls. A significantly higher number of learning-disabled students were found to have “clinical anxiety” [24.64% vs 4.35%, crude odds ratio (OR) = 7.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.91-17.78, P = 0.0001], as compared with the controls regardless of gender, age group, presence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or associated medical conditions. A significantly higher proportion of 8-11-year-old learning-disabled students, especially males, were found to have “clinical anxiety” as compared with 12-15-year-old learning-disabled students (crude OR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.94-9.92, P = 0.0004). Gender, presence of comorbid ADHD or associated medical conditions, and type of school attended or curriculum did not impact the prevalence of “clinical anxiety” in learning-disabled students. Interpretation and Conclusions: Students with newly diagnosed SpLD have greater odds of being “clinically anxious” relative to their regular peers. We recommend screening for anxiety in children with SpLD immediately after diagnosis so that their optimum

  18. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is different in children compared to in adults: a study of UK and Dutch clinical cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Simon M; Nuevo, Roberto; van de Putte, Elise M; Nijhof, Sanne L; Crawley, Esther

    2015-10-28

    To investigate differences between young children, adolescents and adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Comparison of clinical cohorts from 8 paediatric and 27 adult CFS/ME services in the UK and a paediatric randomised controlled trial from the Netherlands. Outcome measures include: fatigue (the UK-Chalder Fatigue Scale); Disability (the UK-SF-36 physical function subscale; the Netherlands-CHQ-CF87); school attendance, pain, anxiety and depression (the UK-Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale; the Netherlands-Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory); symptoms; time-to-assessment; and body mass index. We used multinomial regression to compare younger (aged children with adults, and logistic regression to compare UK and Dutch adolescents. Younger children had a more equal gender balance compared to adolescents and adults. Adults had more disability and fatigue, and had been ill for longer. Younger children were less likely to have cognitive symptoms (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.25)) and more likely to present with a sore throat (OR 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90). Adolescents were more likely to have headaches (81.1%, OR 1.56 (1.36% to 1.80%)) and less likely to have tender lymph nodes, palpitations, dizziness, general malaise and pain, compared to adults. Adolescents were more likely to have comorbid depression (OR 1.51 (1.33 to 1.72)) and less likely to have anxiety (OR 0.46 (0.41 to 0.53)) compared to adults. Paediatricians need to recognise that children with CFS/ME present differently from adults. Whether these differences reflect an underlying aetiopathology requires further investigation. FITNET trial registration numbers are ISRCTN59878666 and NCT00893438. This paper includes secondary (post-results) analysis of data from this trial, but are unrelated to trial outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  19. Association of Per3 length polymorphism with bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia

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    Karthikeyan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramanujam Karthikeyan,1 Ganapathy Marimuthu,1 Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian,2 Gautham Arunachal,2 Ahmed S BaHammam,3 David Warren Spence,4 Daniel P Cardinali,5 Gregory M Brown,6 Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal7 1Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India; 2MS Chellamuthu Trust and Research Foundation, KK Nagar, Madurai, India; 3University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, National Plan for Science and Technology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Independent researcher, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Department of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 6Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 7Center for Healthful Behavior Change (CHBC, Division of Health and Behavior, Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Medical Center, Clinical and Translational Research Institute, New York, New York, USA Background: Sleep–wake disturbances have frequently been reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and are considered to be caused by an underlying circadian rhythm disorder. The study presented here was designed to investigate the existence of Per3 polymorphism in bipolar disorder type I (BD-I and schizophrenic patients in South India.Methods: Blood samples were collected from 311 BD-I patients, 293 schizophrenia patients, and 346 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Per3 genotyping was performed on DNA by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers.Results: An increased prevalence of five repeat homozygotes was seen in BD-I patients as compared with healthy controls (odds ratio =1.72 [95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.76, P=0.02]. In BD-I patients, the frequency of the five repeat allele was higher (allele frequency =0.41, and that of the four repeat allele lower (allele frequency =0.36 (χ2=4.634; P<0.03 than in

  20. Smartphone Apps for Measuring Human Health and Climate Change Co-Benefits: A Comparison and Quality Rating of Available Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel K; Marsh, Samantha; Halvarsson, Jakob; Holdsworth, Michelle; Waterlander, Wilma; Poelman, Maartje P; Salmond, Jennifer Ann; Christian, Hayley; Koh, Lenny Sc; Cade, Janet E; Spence, John C; Woodward, Alistair; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-19

    associated health and environmental impact are of mixed quality. Most apps do not include all desirable features or provide sufficient health information. Further research is needed to determine the potential of smartphone apps to evoke behavior change resulting in climate change and health co-benefits. ©Rachel K Sullivan, Samantha Marsh, Jakob Halvarsson, Michelle Holdsworth, Wilma Waterlander, Maartje P Poelman, Jennifer Ann Salmond, Hayley Christian, Lenny SC Koh, Janet E Cade, John C Spence, Alistair Woodward, Ralph Maddison. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 19.12.2016.

  1. Literatura surda: produções culturais de surdos em Língua de Sinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Henrique Nunes Mourão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de investigar a manifestação das produções culturais dos surdos em histórias que são contadas em Libras, o foco da pesquisa é a análise da forma como os surdos vêm apresentando e construindo a Literatura Surda, com foco na Língua de Sinais. A partir disso, os objetivos são desdobrados na análise das temáticas e do uso da Língua de Sinais, ou seja: verificar quais histórias os surdos têm contado, como são caracterizadas essas histórias e quais são os temas apresentados e analisar o uso da Língua de Sinais e os recursos expressivos utilizados. A base teórica foi buscada nos Estudos Culturais e Estudos Surdos, em autores como Hall (1997, Karnopp (2006, 2010, Quadros (2004-}, Klein e Lunardi (2006, Sutton-Spence (2008, Lopes e Thoma (2004, Perlin (2004, Silveira (2006, Strobel  (2008. O material empírico que subsidia a investigação foi obtido através das atividades desenvolvidas por alunos do Curso de Licenciatura em Letras-Libras, ensino a distância, da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Optei pela coleta de materiais produzidos (filmados, disponíveis em DVDs na disciplina de Literatura Surda e, além disso, realizei entrevistas que subsidiam a análise dos textos produzidos em Libras, verificando o depoimento dos alunos sobre as histórias selecionadas, o uso da Língua de Sinais e dos recursos expressivos utilizados. As produções analisadas se dividiram em traduções e adaptações de histórias conhecidas, incluindo personagens surdos, procurando marcar uma produção da cultura surda.

  2. DE LA ECONOMÍA DE LA INFORMACIÓN A LA ECONOMÍA DEL CONOCIMIENTO: ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DISTINTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vilaseca

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La concesión de los premios Nobel 2001 a tres economistas, George Akerlof, Michael Spence y Joseph Stiglitz, que han desarrollado sus investigaciones en el campo de la economía de la información, no es de gran utilidad para distinguir entre esta rama de la ciencia económica y la economía del conocimiento. Por economía de la información entendemos “el estudio de las relaciones entre los agentes económicos en situaciones dónde existen asimetrías de información y la modelización de procesos en los cuáles hay que tomar decisiones cuando la información disponible es incompleta”. Básicamente, el desarrollo de esta rama de la economía se ha focalizado en cuatro temáticas. Primera, el análisis económico de las subastas. Segunda, el problema de la selección adversa y los mecanismos que han desarrollado los mercados para solucionarlo. Tercera, el problema del riesgo moral –moral hazard- y sus implicaciones para el diseño de contratos en el marco de la Teoría de la Agencia. Y, finalmente, una cuarta aproximación que estudia el valor de la información en un contexto de toma de decisiones con incertidumbre. Este artículo, analiza desde un punto de vista conceptual, las diferencias entre la economía de la información y la economía del conocimiento. De hecho, ya podemos avanzar que el estudio de los problemas económicos derivados de la asimetría informativa no son lo mismo que “el análisis de la incorporación del saber a la actividad económica”.

  3. Treatment of child anxiety disorders via guided parent-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter J; Karalus, Jessica; Voysey, Merryn; Willetts, Lucy; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    Promising evidence has emerged of clinical gains using guided self-help cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for child anxiety and by involving parents in treatment; however, the efficacy of guided parent-delivered CBT has not been systematically evaluated in UK primary and secondary settings. To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity guided parent-delivered CBT treatments for children with anxiety disorders. A total of 194 children presenting with a current anxiety disorder, whose primary carer did not meet criteria for a current anxiety disorder, were randomly allocated to full guided parent-delivered CBT (four face-to-face and four telephone sessions) or brief guided parent-delivered CBT (two face-to-face and two telephone sessions), or a wait-list control group (trial registration: ISRCTN92977593). Presence and severity of child primary anxiety disorder (Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, child/parent versions), improvement in child presentation of anxiety (Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale), and change in child anxiety symptoms (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, child/parent version and Child Anxiety Impact scale, parent version) were assessed at post-treatment and for those in the two active treatment groups, 6 months post-treatment. Full guided parent-delivered CBT produced superior diagnostic outcomes compared with wait-list at post-treatment, whereas brief guided parent-delivered CBT did not: at post-treatment, 25 (50%) of those in the full guided CBT group had recovered from their primary diagnosis, compared with 16 (25%) of those on the wait-list (relative risk (RR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-2.99); and in the brief guided CBT group, 18 participants (39%) had recovered from their primary diagnosis post-treatment (RR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.89-2.74). Level of therapist training and experience was unrelated to child outcome. Full guided parent-delivered CBT is an effective and inexpensive first-line treatment for child anxiety.

  4. Role of estrogen receptors in the regulation of reactive gliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although estradiol may directly act on neurons to promote neuroprotection in vitro, the participation of other cell types is also necessary to maintain global tissue homeostasis in vivo (Arevalo et al., 2010; Johann and Beyer, 2013; Acaz-Fonseca et al., 2014. Thus, estradiol acts on glial and endothelial cells to maintain the function of the neurovascular unit, regulates gliosis and the inflammatory response of astrocytes and microglia to control neuroinflammation and acts on neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes to maintain the function and propagating properties of neuronal circuits (Garcia-Ovejero et al., 2005; Tapia-Gonzalez et al., 2008; Barrerto et al., 2009; Cerciat et al., 2010; López Rodríguez et al., 2011; Barreto et al., 2014. Glial cells express estrogen receptors (ERs, including ERalpha, ERbeta and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER (Garcia-Ovjero et al., 2005; Dhandapani and Brann, 2007 and brain injury induces both the synthesis of estradiol in both reactive astrocytes and the expression of ERs in these cells (Garcia-Ovejero et al., 2002. This suggests that astrocytes may play an important role in the neuroprotective actions of estradiol. Indeed, recent studies, using conditional KO mice for ERalpha and ERbeta, have shown that in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis the protective action of estradiol is mediated by ERalpha expressed in astrocytes, but not by ERalpha expressed in neurons or ERbeta expressed in astrocytes or neurons (Spence et al., 2013. ERs in glial cells activate several neuroprotective mechanisms in response to estradiol, including the release of factors that have trophic effects on neurons and other cell types and the control of neuroinflammation, edema and extracellular glutamate levels. Classical ERs associated with the plasma membrane of astrocytes are involved in the estradiol-induced release of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta, through the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling

  5. A Tailored Web-Based Intervention to Improve Parenting Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Problems: Postintervention Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtani, Shireen; Rapee, Ronald M; Nicolas, Claire; Lawrence, Katherine A; Mackinnon, Andrew; Jorm, Anthony F

    2018-01-01

    -report Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (anxiety symptoms). Results Parents in the intervention condition completed a mean of 73.7% of their intended personalized PiP program. A total of 318 parents (88.6%, 318/359) and 308 adolescents (92.8%, 308/332) completed the postintervention assessment. Attrition was handled using mixed model of repeated measures analysis of variance. As hypothesized, we found a significant condition-by-time interaction on the PRADAS, with a medium effect size, Cohen d=0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.79. No significant differences between conditions were found at postintervention on any of the secondary outcome measures, with adolescent depressive (parent-report only) and anxiety (both parent- and adolescent-report) symptoms decreasing significantly from baseline to postintervention in both conditions. Conclusions The fully automated PiP intervention showed promising short-term effects on parenting behaviors that are associated with adolescents’ risk for depression and anxiety. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether these effects translate into reduced adolescent depression and anxiety problems. The intervention may be useful as a low-cost universal public health program to increase parenting practices believed to benefit adolescents’ mental health. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000328572; https://www.anzctr.org.au/ Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx? id=368274 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qgsZ3Aqj) PMID:29351895

  6. The Problem with Probability: Why rare hazards feel even rarer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    as recent findings that may shed light on ways that the negative effects of uncertainty can be mitigated. Among other potential solutions, implications are discussed for education about probabilities (through simulation games as well as direct approaches), for attribute framing and goal framing, and for the potential mitigating power of actionability or instrumentality. Selected References: Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Millstein, S. G., Ellen, J. M., Adler, N. E., Tschann, J. M., & Biehl, M. (2001). The role of behavioral experience in judging risks. Health Psychology, 20(2), 120-126. Hau, R., Pleskac, T. J., Kiefer, J., & Hertwig, R. (2008). The Description/Experience Gap in Risky Choice: The Role of Sample Size and Experienced Probabilities. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21: 493-518. Hertwig, R., Barron, G., Weber, E. U., & Erev, I. (2006). The role of information sampling in risky choice. In K. Fiedler, & P. Juslin(Eds.), Information sampling and adaptive cognition. (pp. 75-91). New York: Cambridge University Press. Spence, A., Poortinga, W., Butler, C., & Pidgeon, N.F. (2011). Perceptions of climate change and willingness to save energy related to flood experience. Nature Climate Change, 1, 46-49. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1992). Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5(4), 297-323.

  7. A Unifying Model of Substorms: Evolving Magnetic Field Line Shape in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofko, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the growth phase of substorms, there is dayside reconnection which leads to a buildup of lobe flux in the tail. The result is that the closed magnetotail field lines become stretched and a strong minimum in B occurs in the center of the neutral sheet (NS) at about 12 Re . The stretched closed field lines have two important features that occur in the regions neighboring the NS to the north and south. First, there is an outward magnetic field gradient away from the NS. Secondly, there are four inflection points on each field line, two north of the NS and two south of the NS, such that the curvature between the inner and outer inflection points is opposite to that of a dipolar field. Consequently, in these two regions surrounding the NS, which we call the north and south current disruption zones (DZN and DZS), the gradient and curvature drifts of the ions are both eastward, opposite to the strong westward flow of the essentially unmagnetized ions in the NS, which are “free-streaming” in the dawn-to-dusk electric field. The width in the Y-direction of the field line distortion region is likely less than 10 Re east and west from the NS central axis, and the distortion becomes stronger as the growth stage proceeds. This size is compatible with the ~70 degree width proposed for the substorm current wedge (SCW). If the finite width magnetotail convection (FWMC) model proposed in 1993 by Spence and Kivelson is applied to the DZs, it becomes obvious that a positive charge accumulation occurs on the east (dawn) side of each DZ and a negative charge accumulation on the west (dusk) side. These are the charge accumulations that drive the SCW field-aligned currents that cause the auroral westward substorm electrojet in the ionosphere. Even more importantly, this 3-layer geometry consisting of the DZN, NS, and DZS regions is characterized by strong shears in the ion flows at the two NS/DZ interfaces. As a result, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability grows steadily in

  8. Studies of Westward Electrojets and Field-Aligned Currents in the Magnetotail During Substorms: Implications for Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Harlan E.

    1996-01-01

    This section outlines those tasks undertaken in the final year that contribute integrally to the overarching project goals. Fast, during the final year, it is important to note that the project benefited greatly with the addition of a Boston University graduate student, Ms. Karen Hirsch. Jointly, we made substantial progress on the development of and improvements to magnetotail magnetic field and plasma models. The ultimate aim of this specific task was to assess critically the utility of such models for mapping low-altitude phenomena into the magnetotail (and vice-versa). The bulk of this effort centered around the finite-width- magnetotail convection model developed by and described by Spence and Kivelson (J. Geophys. Res., 98, 15,487, 1993). This analytic, theoretical model specifies the bulk plasma characteristics of the magnetotail plasma sheet (number density, temperature, pressure) across the full width of the tail from the inner edge of the plasma sheet to lunar distances. Model outputs are specified by boundary conditions of the source particle populations as well as the magnetic and electric field configuration. During the reporting period, we modified this code such that it can be interfaced with the auroral particle precipitation model developed by Dr. Terry Onsager. Together, our models provide a simple analytic specification of the equatorial distribution of fields and plasma along with their low-altitude consequences. Specifically, we have built a simple, yet powerful tool which allows us to indirectly 'map' auroral precipitation signatures (VDIS, inverted-V's, etc.) measured by polar orbiting spacecraft in the ionosphere, to the magnetospheric equatorial plane. The combined models allow us to associate latitudinal gradients measured in the ion energy fluxes at low-altitudes with the large-scale pressure gradients in the equatorial plane. Given this global, quasi-static association, we can then make fairly strong statements regarding the location of

  9. A Tailored Web-Based Intervention to Improve Parenting Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Problems: Postintervention Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Mahtani, Shireen; Rapee, Ronald M; Nicolas, Claire; Lawrence, Katherine A; Mackinnon, Andrew; Jorm, Anthony F

    2018-01-19

    Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. A two-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted with 359 parent-adolescent dyads, recruited primarily through schools across Australia. Parents and adolescents were assessed at baseline and 3 months later (postintervention). Parents in the intervention condition received PiP, a tailored Web-based parenting intervention designed following Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) principles to target parenting factors associated with adolescents' risk for depression and anxiety problems. PiP comprises a tailored feedback report highlighting each parent's strengths and areas for improvement, followed by a set of interactive modules (up to nine) that is specifically recommended for the parent based on individually identified areas for improvement. Parents in the active-control condition received a standardized package of five Web-based factsheets about adolescent development and well-being. Parents in both conditions received a 5-min weekly call to encourage progress through their allocated program to completion. Both programs were delivered weekly via the trial website. The primary outcome measure at postintervention was parent-reported changes in parenting risk and protective factors, which were measured using the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS). Secondary outcome measures were the adolescent-report PRADAS, the parent- and child-report Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (depressive symptoms), and parent- and child-report Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

  10. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-08-01

    and Eishii Y 2010 Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis Phys. Med. Biol. 55 4615 Eklund K and Ahnesjö A 2010 Modeling silicon diode dose response factors for small photon fields Phys. Med. Biol. 55 7411 Kolb A, Lorenz E, Judenhofer M S, Renker D, Lankes K and Pichler B J 2010 Evaluation of Geiger-mode APDs for PET block detector designs Phys. Med. Biol. 55 1815 Lobo J and Popescu I A 2010 Two new DOSXYZnrc sources for 4D Monte Carlo simulations of continuously variable beam configurations, with applications to RapidArc, VMAT, TomoTherapy and CyberKnife Phys. Med. Biol. 55 4431 Paulides M M, Bakker J F, Linthorst M, van der Zee J, Rijnen Z, Neufeld E, Pattynama P M T, Jansen P P, Levendag P C and van Rhoon G C 2010 The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement Phys. Med. Biol. 55 2465 Rockne R, Rockhill J K, Mrugala M, Spence A M, Kalet I, Hendrickson K, Lai A, Cloughesy T, Alvord E C Jr and Swanson K R 2010 Predicting the efficacy of radiotherapy in individual glioblastoma patients in vivo: a mathematical modeling approach Phys. Med. Biol. 55 3271 Wertz H et al 2010 Fast kilovoltage/megavoltage (kVMV) breathhold cone-beam CT for image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancer Phys. Med. Biol. 55 4203 Zhang B, MacFadden D, Damyanovich A Z, Rieker M, Stainsby J, Bernstein M, Jaffray D A, Mikulis D and Ménard C 2010 Development of a geometrically accurate imaging protocol at 3 Tesla MRI for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning Phys. Med. Biol. 55 6601

  11. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Williams, H M Quiney, A G Peele and K A Nugent Imaging of complex density in silver nanocubes by coherent x-ray diffraction R Harder, M Liang, Y Sun, Y Xia and I K Robinson Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction N Vaxelaire, H Proudhon, S Labat, C Kirchlechner, J Keckes, V Jacques, S Ravy, S Forest and O Thomas Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens Martin Dierolf, Pierre Thibault, Andreas Menzel, Cameron M Kewish, Konstantins Jefimovs, Ilme Schlichting, Konstanze von König, Oliver Bunk and Franz Pfeiffer Dose requirements for resolving a given feature in an object by coherent x-ray diffraction imaging Andreas Schropp and Christian G Schroer FLASH: new opportunities for (time-resolved) coherent imaging of nanostructures R Treusch and J Feldhaus Structure of a single particle from scattering by many particles randomly oriented about an axis: toward structure solution without crystallization? D K Saldin, V L Shneerson, M R Howells, S Marchesini, H N Chapman, M Bogan, D Shapiro, R A Kirian, U Weierstall, K E Schmidt and J C H Spence Analysis of strain and stacking faults in single nanowires using Bragg coherent diffraction imaging V Favre-Nicolin, F Mastropietro, J Eymery, D Camacho, Y M Niquet, B M Borg, M E Messing, L-E Wernersson, R E Algra, E P A M Bakkers, T H Metzger, R Harder and I K Robinson Coherent science at the SwissFEL x-ray laser B D Patterson, R Abela, H-H Braun, U Flechsig, R Ganter, Y Kim, E Kirk, A Oppelt, M Pedrozzi, S Reiche, L Rivkin, Th Schmidt, B Schmitt, V N Strocov, S Tsujino and A F Wrulich Energy recovery linac (ERL) coherent hard x-ray sources Donald H Bilderback, Joel D Brock, Darren S Dale, Kenneth D Finkelstein, Mark A Pfeifer and Sol M Gruner Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers E L Saldin, E A Schneidmiller and M V Yurkov Microscopic return point memory in Co

  12. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    . van der Sandt (eds. ‘Focus: Linguistic, Cognitive, and Computational Perspectives’, 213–231. Cambridge University Press.Partee, B. H. 1991. ‘Topic, focus and quantification’. In S. Moore and A.Z. Wyner (eds., Proceedings of SALT 1, Cornell University Working Papers in Linguistics.Prince, E. 1981. ‘Towards a taxonomy of given-new information’. In P. Cole (ed. ‘Radical Pragmatics’, 223–256. Academic Press.Roberts, C. 1996. ‘Information structure in discourse: towards an integrated formal theory of pragmatics’. In J. Hak Yoon & A. Kathol (eds. ‘Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 49’, 91–136. Ohio State University Press.Rochemont, M. S. 1986. Focus in Generative Grammar. John Benjamins.Rooth, M. 1985. Association with Focus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Reproduced by the GLSA, Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Rooth, M. 1992. ‘A theory of focus interpretation’. Natural Language Semantics 1.1: 75–116.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02342617Rooth, M. 1996. ‘On the interface principles for intonational focus’. In T. Galloway & J. Spence (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT VI’, 202–226. Ithaca, NY: CLC.Rooth, M. 2010. ‘Second occurrence focus and relativized stress F’. In C. Féry & M. Zimmermann (eds. ‘Information Structure: Theoretical, Typological, and Experimental Perspectives’, 15–36. Oxford University Press.Schmerling, S. F. 1976. Aspects of English Sentence Stress. University of Texas Press.Schwarzschild, R. 1999. ‘GIVENness, AvoidF and other constraints on the placement of accent’. Natural Language Semantics 7.2: 141–177.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008370902407Serlkirk, E. O. 1984. Phonology and Syntax: The Relation between Sound and Structure. MIT Press.Serlkirk, E. O. 1996. ‘Sentence prosody: Intonation, stress, and phrasing’. In J. Goldsmith (ed. ‘The Handbook of Phonological Theory’, 550–569. Blackwell.Serlkirk, E. O. 2007.