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Sample records for speedy sulfur-storing spirillum

  1. Developing Auditory Measures of General Speediness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Zajac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the broad ability general speediness (Gs could be measured via the auditory modality. Existing and purpose-developed auditory tasks that maintained the cognitive requirements of established visually presented Gs markers were completed by 96 university undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the auditory tasks combined with established visual measures to define latent Gs and reaction time factors. These findings provide preliminary evidence that suggests that if auditory tasks are developed that maintain the same cognitive requirements as existing visual measures, then they are likely to index similar cognitive processes.

  2. SPEEDY: An Eclipse-based IDE for invariant inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Cok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SPEEDY is an Eclipse-based IDE for exploring techniques that assist users in generating correct specifications, particularly including invariant inference algorithms and tools. It integrates with several back-end tools that propose invariants and will incorporate published algorithms for inferring object and loop invariants. Though the architecture is language-neutral, current SPEEDY targets C programs. Building and using SPEEDY has confirmed earlier experience demonstrating the importance of showing and editing specifications in the IDEs that developers customarily use, automating as much of the production and checking of specifications as possible, and showing counterexample information directly in the source code editing environment. As in previous work, automation of specification checking is provided by back-end SMT solvers. However, reducing the effort demanded of software developers using formal methods also requires a GUI design that guides users in writing, reviewing, and correcting specifications and automates specification inference.

  3. CRISTISPIRA IN NORTH AMERICAN SHELLFISH. A NOTE ON A SPIRILLUM FOUND IN OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1921-01-01

    body. The crista serves as a rudder and propeller for the swimming organism. It is interesting to compare here the elastic and regularly waved flagella of certain bacteria and spirochetes; it is possible that the crista of Cristispira is a highly modified form of flagella. The nature of the substance which stains dark blue with Giemsa's stain is not known, but it does not give a chromatin reaction. By Heidenhain's iron-hematoxylin method it takes a dark grayish tint, similar to the cell wall or crista, which are also dark gray. This substance was regarded by Gross and Zuelzer as volutin, which is of nutritive origin. It is probable that there are also embedded within it minute chromidial elements. Multiplication is by transverse fission. Cristispira balbianii is parasitic and does not survive more than a few days in ordinary sea water emulsion, even at its optimum temperature. In its natural habitat, or the crystalline style, it is usually pure, but is sometimes found in association with a tiny spiral organism (Spirillum ostreæ). The cristispiras in the styles seem to diminish rapidly when oysters are collected from their beds and transferred elsewhere; oysters kept in tanks or cars for several days do not contain the cristispiras, and in opened oysters the styles disappear promptly at room temperature. All efforts to cultivate this organism have failed. PMID:19868559

  4. CRISTISPIRA IN NORTH AMERICAN SHELLFISH. A NOTE ON A SPIRILLUM FOUND IN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1921-08-31

    body. The crista serves as a rudder and propeller for the swimming organism. It is interesting to compare here the elastic and regularly waved flagella of certain bacteria and spirochetes; it is possible that the crista of Cristispira is a highly modified form of flagella. The nature of the substance which stains dark blue with Giemsa's stain is not known, but it does not give a chromatin reaction. By Heidenhain's iron-hematoxylin method it takes a dark grayish tint, similar to the cell wall or crista, which are also dark gray. This substance was regarded by Gross and Zuelzer as volutin, which is of nutritive origin. It is probable that there are also embedded within it minute chromidial elements. Multiplication is by transverse fission. Cristispira balbianii is parasitic and does not survive more than a few days in ordinary sea water emulsion, even at its optimum temperature. In its natural habitat, or the crystalline style, it is usually pure, but is sometimes found in association with a tiny spiral organism (Spirillum ostreae). The cristispiras in the styles seem to diminish rapidly when oysters are collected from their beds and transferred elsewhere; oysters kept in tanks or cars for several days do not contain the cristispiras, and in opened oysters the styles disappear promptly at room temperature. All efforts to cultivate this organism have failed.

  5. SPEEDY RECOVERY OF DAMAGED DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHS USING MULTI STRUCTURE MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jemi Florinabel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A speedy recovery of damaged digitized photographs based on orientation driven multi structure morphology is proposed. The recovery order plays an important factor for human visualization and hence it is guided by the orientation of edges at the surrounding known regions of the missing domain. The image is edge detected by thresholding the image gradient along the eight possible orientations. These eight edge images are represented as eight edge planes. The edge-plane-sliced information is used twice manifold for reconstructing the regions within the missing part, as well as for guiding the integration that follows. The damaged regions are morphologically eroded using the structuring elements of corresponding orientations dictated by the edge-planes. The resultant filled image is obtained using local isotopic driven integration. The novelty of our approach is to explicitly specify the direction of filling herby ensuring ease in convergence in different orientations and then streamlining the process to guarantee complete and natural look. By implementing region-filling through morphological erosion, several pixels instead of one can be restored at every inpainting step, making the method faster than many traditional texture synthesis inpainting algorithms and successfully recovers images with better Peak Signal to Noise ratios even for massive damages.

  6. Japan introduces a SPEEDI response to emergencies. [System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Shigeru (Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    The system for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI), has been under development since 1980 by the Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA), JAERI, and the Japan Meteorological Research Institute. SPEEDI provides realistic dose assessments and estimates of radiation concentrations they may result from an atmospheric release of radioactive materials, using advanced computer-based data communications and processing systems to calculate atmospheric dispersion for radiation consequence assessments. These assessments include applicable meteorological data and source term information. (Author).

  7. SPEEDY babies: A putative new behavioral syndrome of unbalanced motor-speech development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Haapanen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marja-Leena Haapanen1, Tuomo Aro1, Elina Isotalo21Deparment of Otorhinolaryngology, Phoniatric Division, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Neurology, Peijas Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Even though difficulties in motor development in children with speech and language disorders are widely known, hardly any attention is paid to the association between atypically rapidly occurring unassisted walking and delayed speech development. The four children described here presented with a developmental behavioral triad: 1 atypically speedy motor development, 2 impaired expressive speech, and 3 tongue carriage dysfunction resulting in related misarticulations. Those characteristics might be phenotypically or genetically clustered. These children didn’t have impaired cognition, neurological or mental disease, defective sense organs, craniofacial dysmorphology or susceptibility to upper respiratory infections, particularly recurrent otitis media. Attention should be paid on discordant and unbalanced achievement of developmental milestones. Present children are termed SPEEDY babies, where SPEEDY refers to rapid independent walking, SPEE and DY to dyspractic or dysfunctional speech development and lingual dysfunction resulting in linguoalveolar misarticulations. SPEEDY babies require health care that recognizes and respects their motor skills and supports their needs for motor activities and on the other hand include treatment for impaired speech. The parents may need advice and support with these children.Keywords: speedy walking, speech disorder, misarticulations

  8. Analisis Pengaruh Experiential Marketing terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Pengguna Telkom Speedy Pada PT.Telkom Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawitasari, Endah

    2013-01-01

    The current competition in business world has become increasingly tight including the competition in the business of internet service provider. PT.Telkom as one of the internet service providers, in this case Telkom Speedy is required to be able to maintain and increase the number of its customers and for this purpose, an appropriate marketing strategy is needed. One of the strategies that can be used to provide a unique experience to the customers is the experiential marketing. This study an...

  9. Restoring the Promise of the Right to Speedy Trial to Service Members in Pretrial Arrest and Confinement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaver, Daniel P

    1994-01-01

    ...). This new version of R.C.M. 707 envisaged the simplification of some 40 years of confusion over what the right to a speedy trial means to persons who are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ...

  10. Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications: Speedy Nonlinear Analysis of Postbuckled Panels in Shear (SNAPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dave; Sobel, Larry

    1997-01-01

    A simple and rapid analysis method, consisting of a number of modular, 'strength-of-materials-type' models, is presented for predicting the nonlinear response and stiffener separation of postbuckled, flat, composite, shear panels. The analysis determines the maximum principal tensile stress in the skin surface layer under to toe. Failure is said to occur when this stress reaches the mean transverse tensile strength of the layer. The analysis methodology consists of a number of closed-form equations that can easily be used in a 'hand analysis. For expediency, they have been programmed into a preliminary design code called SNAPPS (Speedy Nonlinear Analysis of Postbuckled Panels in Shear), which rapidly predicts postbuckling response of the panel for each value of the applied shear load. SNAPPS response and failure predictions were found to agree well with test results for three panels with widely different geometries, laminates and stiffnesses. Design guidelines are given for increasing the load-carrying capacity of stiffened, composite shear panels.

  11. Adaptive Data Gathering in Mobile Sensor Networks Using Speedy Mobile Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxuan Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data gathering is a key operator for applications in wireless sensor networks; yet it is also a challenging problem in mobile sensor networks when considering that all nodes are mobile and the communications among them are opportunistic. This paper proposes an efficient data gathering scheme called ADG that adopts speedy mobile elements as the mobile data collector and takes advantage of the movement patterns of the network. ADG first extracts the network meta-data at initial epochs, and calculates a set of proxy nodes based on the meta-data. Data gathering is then mapped into the Proxy node Time Slot Allocation (PTSA problem that schedules the time slots and orders, according to which the data collector could gather the maximal amount of data within a limited period. Finally, the collector follows the schedule and picks up the sensed data from the proxy nodes through one hop of message transmissions. ADG learns the period when nodes are relatively stationary, so that the collector is able to pick up the data from them during the limited data gathering period. Moreover, proxy nodes and data gathering points could also be timely updated so that the collector could adapt to the change of node movements. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperforms other data gathering schemes on the cost of message transmissions and the data gathering rate, especially under the constraint of limited data gathering period.

  12. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-03-09

    ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and regional circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical regions focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (‘SPEEDY’). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the impact of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian region, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air–sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these regions. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO impacts are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude regions. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these regions during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger impact over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian region because of its significant

  13. Speedy standing wave design, optimization, and scaling rules of simulated moving bed systems with linear isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, George S; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2017-04-14

    Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) systems with linear adsorption isotherms have been used for many different separations, including large-scale sugar separations. While SMBs are much more efficient than batch operations, they are not widely used for large-scale production because there are two key barriers. The methods for design, optimization, and scale-up are complex for non-ideal systems. The Speedy Standing Wave Design (SSWD) is developed here to reduce these barriers. The productivity (P R ) and the solvent efficiency (F/D) are explicitly related to seven material properties and 13 design parameters. For diffusion-controlled systems, the maximum P R or F/D is controlled by two key dimensionless material properties, the selectivity (α) and the effective diffusivity ratio (η), and two key dimensionless design parameters, the ratios of step time/diffusion time and pressure-limited convection time/diffusion time. The optimum column configuration for maximum P R or F/D is controlled by the weighted diffusivity ratio (η/α 2 ). In general, high α and low η/α 2 favor high P R and F/D. The productivity is proportional to the ratio of the feed concentration to the diffusion time. Small particles and high diffusivities favor high productivity, but do not affect solvent efficiency. Simple scaling rules are derived from the two key dimensionless design parameters. The separation of acetic acid from glucose in biomass hydrolysate is used as an example to show how the productivity and the solvent efficiency are affected by the key dimensionless material and design parameters. Ten design parameters are optimized for maximum P R or minimum cost in one minute on a laptop computer. If the material properties are the same for different particle sizes and the dimensionless groups are kept constant, then lab-scale testing consumes less materials and can be done four times faster using particles with half the particle size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analisis Kualitas Jaringan Akses Tembaga Terhadap Layanan Speedy Studi Kasus Di PT.Telkom,Tbk Divisi Access Site Operation Purwokerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of fast evolving telecomunication technologies starting from communications cable to wireless communications. One of the communication cable for data is a technology Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL. ADSL technology is an access technology that enable data communications, voice and video simultaneously at cooper access network media. Speedy service is one example of the use of ADSL technology. Telkom Speedy offers internet access speeds ranging from 384 Kbps for downstream speed and 3 Mbps for upstream speed. Speed of access internet is affected by the quality of the network. Parameters that effect the quality of network are : attenuation, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR, Packet Loss, Bit Error Ratio (BER, jitter and time to life (TTL. In this study analysis of network quality affected by these parameters were measured advance to the quality of the network by using the EMBASSY software, while the perform measurements speedtest by using internal web aplications PT.Telkom,Tbk. After measurement is complete then performed the analysis for determine network quality. Based on observations can be known on the upload and download speed the capacity of 384 Kbps, 1024 Kbps and 3 Mbps. Of these three on capacity can be known to the average percentage of the upload speed is found to be 83,33 %, while the percentage of download speeds is found to be 76,67 %

  15. Speedy Asylum Procedures in the EU: Striking a Fair Balance Between the Need to Process Asylum Cases Efficiently and the Asylum Applicant’s EU Right to an Effective Remedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    EU member states often use speedy (accelerated) asylum procedures to examine asylum claims that are deemed manifestly unfounded. Speedy asylum procedures should generally be considered to be in the interest of the asylum applicant and the state. Accelerated procedures have however been criticised

  16. ANALISIS PENGARUH KUALITAS LAYANAN, HARGA, KEPERCAYAAN, CITRA PERUSAHAAN, DAN KEPUASAN PELANGGAN TERHADAP LOYALITAS PELANGGAN : (Studi Pada Pelanggan Telkom Speedy Di Palangka Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Rakhmad Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was made to determine and analyze the factors that affect customer loyalty, such as customer satisfaction, trust, corporate image shaped by service quality and price. Object of this study are household customers who subscribe SPEEDY more than 3 months in Palangka Raya. Techniques used in the sampling in this study was purposive sampling. With a sample of 110 people who qualify maximum likehood estimation of SEM. Data collection using questionnaires and the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM software with IBM SPSS Amos 20. Results and implications of this study is that theoretically this study supports previous research which states that service quality has positive and significant impact on corporate image, corporate image has positive and significant impact on customer satisfaction, customer satisfaction has positive and significant effect on confidence, and negatively affect prices significant impact on customer loyalty, customer satisfaction and a significant positive effect on customer loyalty. Keywords: Customer  Loyalty,  Customer  Satisfaction,  Trust,  Corporate  Image,  Service Quality, and Price

  17. Cardiac EASE (Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation) – the impact of a single-point-of-entry multidisciplinary outpatient cardiology consultation program on wait times in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungard, Tammy J; Smigorowsky, Marcie J; Lalonde, Lucille D; Hogan, Terry; Doliszny, Katharine M; Gebreyesus, Ghirmay; Garg, Sipi; Archer, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal access to health care is valued in Canada but increasing wait times for services (eg, cardiology consultation) raise safety questions. Observations suggest that deficiencies in the process of care contribute to wait times. Consequently, an outpatient clinic was designed for Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation (Cardiac EASE) in a university group practice, providing cardiac consultative services for northern Alberta. Cardiac EASE has two components: a single-point-of-entry intake service (prospective testing using physician-approved algorithms and previsit triage) and a multidisciplinary clinic (staffed by cardiologists, nurse practitioners and doctoral-trained pharmacists). OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized that Cardiac EASE would reduce the time to initial consultation and a definitive diagnosis, and also increase the referral capacity. METHODS: The primary and secondary outcomes were time from referral to initial consultation, and time to achieve a definitive diagnosis and management plan, respectively. A conventionally managed historical control group (three-month pre-EASE period in 2003) was compared with the EASE group (2004 to 2006). The conventional referral mechanism continued concurrently with EASE. RESULTS: A comparison between pre-EASE (n=311) and EASE (n=3096) revealed no difference in the mean (± SD) age (60±16 years), sex (55% and 52% men, respectively) or reason for referral, including chest pain (31% and 40%, respectively) and arrhythmia (27% and 29%, respectively). Cardiac EASE reduced the time to initial cardiac consultation (from 71±45 days to 33±19 days) and time to a definitive diagnosis (from 120±86 days to 51±58 days) (P<0.0001). The annual number of new referrals increased from 1512 in 2002 to 2574 in 2006 due to growth in the Cardiac EASE clinic. The number of patients seen through the conventional referral mechanism and their wait times remained constant during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac EASE reduced

  18. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000. Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is also warranted, possibly focussing on children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

  19. Speedy routing recovery protocol for large failure tolerance in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joa-Hyoung; Jung, In-Bum

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to play an increasingly important role in data collection in hazardous areas. However, the physical fragility of a sensor node makes reliable routing in hazardous areas a challenging problem. Because several sensor nodes in a hazardous area could be damaged simultaneously, the network should be able to recover routing after node failures over large areas. Many routing protocols take single-node failure recovery into account, but it is difficult for these protocols to recover the routing after large-scale failures. In this paper, we propose a routing protocol, referred to as ARF (Adaptive routing protocol for fast Recovery from large-scale Failure), to recover a network quickly after failures over large areas. ARF detects failures by counting the packet losses from parent nodes, and upon failure detection, it decreases the routing interval to notify the neighbor nodes of the failure. Our experimental results indicate that ARF could provide recovery from large-area failures quickly with less packets and energy consumption than previous protocols.

  20. 'Speedy action over goal orientation': cognitive impulsivity in male forensic patients with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten

    2012-11-01

    Previous neuropsychiatric studies suggest a relationship between reading disability and cognitive impulsivity. This relationship is not entirely explained by the high comorbidity between reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as children with a co-occurrence of these disorders tend to be more impulsive than those with ADHD only. Other research has demonstrated that poor verbal skill (irrespective of the presence of dyslexia) deficits in executive functions and impulsivity are important risk factors for criminal behaviour. The present study bridges these two research traditions by examining whether patients undergoing forensic psychiatric investigation who also have dyslexia, have a cognitive style characterized by impulsivity. Male forensic patients (mean age 27 years, range 16-35) with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) dyslexia were evaluated on the computerized EuroCog test battery. The findings suggest that patients with dyslexia tend to use a cognitive impulsive style and suggest a more direct link between dyslexia and cognitive impulsivity that is not mediated by the presence of ADHD. In order to identify treatment needs and tailor treatment accordingly, forensic patients should be assessed with respect to poor verbal skill, dyslexia and impulsivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. "To afford the wounded speedy assistance": Dominique Jean Larrey and Napoleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Lainas, Panagiotis; Zoras, Odyseas; Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2006-08-01

    Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842) has been described as the father of modern military surgery and is considered even today as the model military surgeon. He developed a plan of rapid evacuation of wounded soldiers from the battlefield during combat, using flexible medical units which he named ambulances volantes ("flying ambulances"). He won the admiration of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who was amazed by the results of Larrey's sanitary system. Larrey spent almost 18 years with Napoleon, accompanying him in 25 campaigns, 60 battles, and more than 400 engagements. Napoleon's enormous military success was due not only to his strategy and skill but also to the medical services provided by Larrey. The surgeon became a master of wound management and limb amputation. In his vivid battlefield journals, Larrey documented the course of tetanus, the pathophysiology of cold injury, the effective control of hemorrhage, the drainage of empyema and hemothorax, the aspiration of pericardial effusion or hemopericardium, and the packing of sucking chest wounds. Larrey established a categorical rule for the triage of war casualties, treating the wounded according to the observed gravity of their injuries and the urgency for medical care, regardless of their rank or nationality.

  2. "Speedy Action over Goal Orientation": Cognitive Impulsivity in Male Forensic Patients with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daderman, Anna M.; Meurling, Ann Wirsen; Levander, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Previous neuropsychiatric studies suggest a relationship between reading disability and cognitive impulsivity. This relationship is not entirely explained by the high comorbidity between reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as children with a co-occurrence of these disorders tend to be more impulsive than those…

  3. A high productivity and speedy synthesis process for copper nanowires via an ethylenediamine-mediated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Thanh-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2017-03-01

    Generally, there are two well-known synthetic approaches for copper nanowires (Cu NWs): ethylenediamine (EDA)-mediated synthesis and alkylamine-mediated synthesis. The alkylamine-mediated synthesis produces very high ratio nanowires but requires a special environment and long reaction times, while the EDA-mediated synthesis can be carried out under normal conditions and requires from 30 min to 1 h. However, the Cu NWs produced by this method have an average aspect ratio lower than 500 and are produced in low yield. In this paper, we present a modified EDA-mediated synthesis to improve the yield and reduce the synthesis time. In previous reported EDA-mediated synthesis, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was used as a pH adjusting element and the reaction was performed at high temperature. By replacing NaOH with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and cooling down the temperature of reaction to room temperature, the synthesis time was reduced to 15 min as well as the productivity of high aspect ratio Cu NWs was increased notably to 80%. Furthermore, the transparent electrodes which were fabricated based on the as-synthesized Cu NWs, exhibited high performance, such as 23.5 Ω/sq of sheet resistance and 81% of transmittance at λ = 550 nm.

  4. When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Rogers, K.G.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant

  5. When the seasons don't fit : Speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Rogers, Ken G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant

  6. Fast, faster, poorest decisions?: A practical theological exploration of the role of a speedy mobinomic world in decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a digital world, it seems as if the boundaries between rich and poor are becoming increasingly blurred. A mobinomic world is created through the use of cellular telephones, which plays an important role on multiple levels of socioeconomic understanding. Various advantages are created through the interplay between the power of mobility and the convergence of various forms of media. Considering the immediate accessibility of an overflow of data in various forms as well as time pressure, decision-making is increasingly becoming associated with living in the fast lane of the digital world. Unfortunately, the cost of faster decision-making is that it could potentially result in individuals making poor decisions on various levels. A practical-theological exploration, as embedded in a transversal rational engagement, entails a preliminary investigation and description of this digital reality, especially as portrayed in the dynamics of decision-making associated with the social media platform Twitter.

  7. Fast, faster, poorest decisions?: A practical theological exploration of the role of a speedy mobinomic world in decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert van den Berg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a digital world, it seems as if the boundaries between rich and poor are becoming increasingly blurred. A mobinomic world is created through the use of cellular telephones, which plays an important role on multiple levels of socioeconomic understanding. Various advantages are created through the interplay between the power of mobility and the convergence of various forms of media. Considering the immediate accessibility of an overflow of data in various forms as well as time pressure, decision-making is increasingly becoming associated with living in the fast lane of the digital world. Unfortunately, the cost of faster decision-making is that it could potentially result in individuals making poor decisions on various levels. A practical-theological exploration, as embedded in a transversal rational engagement, entails a preliminary investigation and description of this digital reality, especially as portrayed in the dynamics of decision-making associated with the social media platform Twitter.

  8. Speedy Techniques to Evaluate Seismic Site Effects in Particular Geomorphologic Conditions: Faults, Cavities, Landslides and Topographic Irregularities

    OpenAIRE

    Panzera, F.; Lombardo, G; D’Amico, S.; Galea, P

    2013-01-01

    The ground motion that can be recorded at the free surface of a terrain is the final result of a series of phenomena that can be grouped into three fundamental typologies: the source mechanism, the seismic wave propagation till the bedrock interface below the investigated site and the site effects (Fig. 1). The first two features define the kind of seismic input whereas the third represents all modifications that can occur as a consequence of the interaction between seismic waves and local ch...

  9. Impact of neighbourhood food environment on food consumption in children aged 9-10 years in the UK SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Paula; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Jones, Andrew; Harvey, Ian; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2010-07-01

    Poor diet in childhood increases risk of obesity but the relationship between access to food and children's food choice is underexplored. We determined relationships between distance to and density of food outlets on children's food choice. Children (n 1721) aged 9-10 years who participated in a cross-sectional study from a sample of state and private schools across urban and rural areas. Food consumption was reported using a short validated FFQ. A Geographic Information System was used to determine proximity to local food outlets. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine associations between food consumption and distance to and density of local food outlets. Norfolk, England. Boys (n 754) and girls (n 967) aged 9-10 years. The impact of distance to or density of food outlets on food choice was small after adjustment. Living further away from a supermarket increased portions of fruit (0.11 portions/week per 1 km increase in distance to nearest supermarket, P impact appears to be small and the relationship is complex. However, the effects of individual foods combined could be important, particularly as even small differences in intake can impact on body weight over time.

  10. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    11 juil. 2013 ... Ecthyma gangrenosum. Ecthyma staphylococcique ou streptococcique. Fièvre après morsure de rat (infections à Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillum minus). Fièvre vésiculeuse (rickettsiose varicelliforme). Leishmaniose cutanée. Lèpre. Morsure d'araignée. Morve. Mucormycose. Nécrose à la coumadine.

  11. Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    December 2003 16 denitrification by Bacillus, Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Spirillum. This bioprocess involves the conversion of...90623 Phone: 1 714 670 3062 Fax: 1 714 670 5195 Arati.kolhatkar@bp.com Joel Burken Associate Professor, Civil Engineering 224 Butler -Carleton

  12. Influence of Dilution Rate on Enzymes of Intermediary Metabolism in Two Freshwater Bacteria Grown in Continuous Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, A.; Grootjans, A.; Hogenhuis, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two freshwater bacteria, a Pseudomonas sp. and a Spirillum sp., were grown in continuous culture under steady-state conditions in L-lactate-, succinate-, ammonium- or phosphate-limited media. In Pseudomonas sp., NAD-independent and NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenases, aconitase, isocitrate

  13. 76 FR 82131 - Special Procedural Rules With Respect to Representation Cases Governing Periods When the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ....181; see 76 FR 77699). The December 14 revisions covered the consideration of certain pleadings in... and the parties in the speedy resolution of representation cases by avoiding extended and unnecessary...

  14. 37 CFR 41.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 1.181 to 1.183 of this title also apply to practice before the Board, as do other sections of part... Part 41 shall be construed to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive resolution of every proceeding...

  15. Pretreatment Prediction of Individual Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Response to Anti-Cytokine Therapy Using Serum Cytokine/Chemokine/Soluble Receptor Biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uno, Kazuko; Yoshizaki, Kazuyuki; Iwahashi, Mitsuhiro; Yamana, Jiro; Yamana, Seizo; Tanigawa, Miki; Yagi, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    ...’ speedy recovery and to the clinical use of anti-cytokine therapy. Identifying predictive biomarkers that can assist in matching RA patients with more suitable anti-cytokine treatment was our aim in this report...

  16. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  17. Application of fuzzy sliding-mode control in robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongling; Wang, Yan

    2006-11-01

    The system of Pb-211 robot waist is a nonlinear hydraulic servo control system. It is very difficult to achieve speedy response without overshoot by the PID control algorithm for the system control. To improve the performance of the system, a new controller is designed with a fuzzy sliding-mode control algorithm, which makes use of the merits both the fuzzy control and the sliding-mode control algorithm. The simulation results show that the new controller is effective, which can achieve high speediness and steady accuracy without overshoot. The fuzzy sliding-mode control has obvious advantage compared the traditional PID algorithm, and it has strong robust too.

  18. New Hampshire Allows Law Students to Demonstrate Court Skills in Lieu of Bar Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    When New Hampshire's 13 newest lawyers were sworn in to the state bar in May, the ceremony took place a day before they actually graduated from law school. This speedy swearing-in as officers of the court was part of an unorthodox program at the state's only law school, Franklin Pierce Law Center. And while their classmates and thousands of other…

  19. THE THEATRE ARTIST'S DILEMMA IN THE TASK OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    THE THEATRE ARTIST'S DILEMMA IN THE TASK OF REBRANDING NIGERIA: DEFINING THE ... The Task. The task before us is that of re-branding the nation to ensure speedy development in the face of the ..... erring target audience and achieve the desired goal of change by a new approach to the presentation of the.

  20. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Europe: Research Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Mehrsprachigkeit in Schule und Unterricht. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Stephan, Ed.; Viebrock, Britta, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning has received a strong tailwind in European educational and language policies. It is on the verge of becoming a mainstream phenomenon. However, an overly speedy implementation of "CLIL for all" might bear a number of risks for all groups of stakeholders. The purpose of this book is to link the…

  1. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Background: Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives: To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by ...

  2. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  3. 76 FR 77699 - Special Procedural Rules Governing Periods When the National Labor Relations Board Lacks a Quorum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... parties in the speedy resolution of disputes, where that resolution is possible, as well as in the... appeal referred to Chief Administrative Law Judge. 102.181 Administrative and procedural requests... the Board pursuant to Sec. 102.46. Sec. 102.181 Administrative and procedural requests referred to...

  4. Effects Of On–Line Banking On External Audit And Banks\\' External ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the effect of on-line banking on external audit and external examination of Banks in Nigeria. Although the paper has shown that on-line banking presents such benefits as speedy account balances retrieval, quick funds transfer, rapid transformation of the quality of service delivery in the banking sector ...

  5. The Effects of Input-Based Practice on Pragmatic Development of Requests in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of input-based practice on developing accurate and speedy requests in second-language Chinese. Thirty learners from intermediate-level Chinese classes were assigned to an intensive training group (IT), a regular training group (RT), and a control group. The IT and the RT groups practiced using four Chinese…

  6. Designing TCP/IP Checksum Function for Acceleration in FPGA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etim

    bus speed limits. Consequently, for a higher throughput and speedy delivery of information between hosts on the internet, there is the need to identify those performance-critical TCP/IP functions ... instruction fetching and decoding, bus speed constraints, latency due to buffer/memory ... functions in FPGA that can be updated.

  7. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  8. ePramana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ePRAMANA is a web-based software application that facilitates online processing of PRAMANA Journal's editorial operations. ePRAMANA will be of value to authors, referees, and editorial board members who have easy and speedy access to the Internet. Authors with web access can submit manuscripts by web-upload, ...

  9. Pretreatment Prediction of Individual Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Response to Anti-Cytokine Therapy Using Serum Cytokine/Chemokine/Soluble Receptor Biomarkers: e0132055

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazuko Uno; Kazuyuki Yoshizaki; Mitsuhiro Iwahashi; Jiro Yamana; Seizo Yamana; Miki Tanigawa; Katsumi Yagi

    2015-01-01

      The inability to match rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with the anti-cytokine agent most efficacious for them is a major hindrance to patients' speedy recovery and to the clinical use of anti-cytokine therapy...

  10. E-Governance Frameworks - Agenda Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityesh BHATT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic governance may be defined as the delivery of the government services and information to the public using electronic means. Use of IT in the government facilitates an efficient, speedy and transparent process for disseminating information to the public and other agencies, and for performing the government administration activities.

  11. E-Skill Information Acquisition Software: A Key to Poverty Alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This project is about developing an e-skill transfer using software. The software developed here has simplified skill acquisition. It has also made such effort more cost effective. and less expensive for people to learn new skills such as paint production. E-Skill Information Acquisition Software (ESA) can enhance speedy ...

  12. Generation of printed circuit board layout and artwork | Debretsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Printed circuit board (PCB) design plays an important role on equipment performance and reliability. Constraint imposed on PCB size under severe environmental condition is focused. Guidelines for layout planning, its speedy execution, component· placements, and future growth/modifications have been addressed.

  13. 111 ELECTION PETITION CASES AND THE RIGHT TO FAIR TRIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Although this case turned to be decided on whether the right to a fair trial could be waived by a party to litigation, their Lordships of the Supreme Court took the time to discuss the essence of the right to a speedy trial. Thus in considering whether the delay caused was detrimental to the course of justice or not, Eso JSC said:.

  14. Fulltime biometric mouse design for continuous authentication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We formulate a full-time biometric mouse (FBM) design that would ensure thumb positioning and its ergonomics while ensuring comfort and maximum contact with the scanner to enable continuous authentication of the user in a speedy, easy and non-strenuous way. The mouse employs a simple algorithm that ensures ...

  15. William H. Taft High School Project HOLA 1984-1985. O.E.A. Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1984-85, Project HOLA was in its second year of funding at William H. Taft High School in the Bronx, New York. HOLA serves Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Project goals include speedy acquisition of English skills, orientation to life in America, maintenance and improvement of Spanish skills and cultural…

  16. TropJrnal Vol 29 No 1 for PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    (33.9%), retained placenta (25.0%), hypertensive disorders (14.5%) and genital sepsis (13.7%). Educated women were more likely to book for ... antiretroviral therapy (ART) care support in the state. 10 for HIV/AIDS intervention programs . .... should be given the desired speedy attention. It has been shown that midwives in ...

  17. 76 FR 70544 - OFAC Implementation of Certain Sanctions Imposed on Seven Persons by the Secretary of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ..., Petrochemical Commercial Company International, Royal Oyster Group, ] Speedy Ship, and Tanker Pacific Management... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to implement certain of the sanctions imposed... prohibit any United States financial institution from making loans or providing credits to a person...

  18. AFRREV, 9(1), S/NO 36, JANUARY, 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMILIA

    men agreed that their religion/denomination encouraged the use of Family Planning. The study therefore encouraged .... involvement in reproductive initiatives, including family planning, is a major obstacle to a speedy fertility decline in ..... The difference in the result may be a function of the level of education, and place of ...

  19. Critical Systems Thinking on Decentralization: the Corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the need for agile decision-making processes and speedy action is acknowledged in principle, not enough is being done in practice. This article calls for the devolution of power by large organizations to their subsidiaries or subordinate units – mainly Strategic Business Units (SBUs). It proposes more decentralized ...

  20. On-farm evaluation of sweetpotato varieties in Zanzibar | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-farm evaluation of new crop varieties is crucial for speedy adoption of the materials by farmers. In Zanzibar, many experiments on sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas) have been conducted, but mostly on-station, hence, farmers\\' participation was limited. To improve farmers' adoption of new technologies including acceptance ...

  1. Insights in cognitive patterns : Essays on heuristics and identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, Marloes

    2016-01-01

    People are inclined to find patterns in everything they sense, even if there is no pattern to discover. Humans use action-oriented mental patterns as rules of thumb, so called heuristics, in speedy decision-making. At the same time, we see this desire for pattern finding in social orderliness, in

  2. A MAP fixed-point, packing-unpacking routine for the IBM 7094 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Helfman

    1966-01-01

    Two MAP (Macro Assembly Program) computer routines for packing and unpacking fixed point data are described. Use of these routines with Fortran IV Programs provides speedy access to quantities of data which far exceed the normal storage capacity of IBM 7000-series computers. Many problems that could not be attempted because of the slow access-speed of tape...

  3. Assessing 20th century climate-vegetation feedbacks of land-use change and natural vegetation dynamics in a fully coupled vegetation-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strengers, B.J.; Müller, C.; Schaeffer, M.; Haarsma, R.J.; Severijns, C.; Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Houdt, Van den R.; Oostenrijk, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the coupling of the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), Lund–Potsdam–Jena Model for managed land (LPJmL), with the general circulation model (GCM), Simplified Parameterizations primitivE Equation DYnamics model (SPEEDY), to study the feedbacks between land-use change and

  4. Following the NAFTA Star: SADC land reform and investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2007-12-13

    Dec 13, 2007 ... Following the NAFTA Star: SADC land reform and investment ... the SADC Treaty, is the highest legal and institutional body seized with responsibility for adjudicating regional disputes directly or .... with provisions facilitating speedy land reform which would give to blacks an equitable share of the land, the.

  5. First steps into understanding teachers' visual perception of classroom events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bogert, Niek; Van Brugggen, Jan; Kostons, Danny; Jochems, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Student-teachers struggle to become competent at classroom management. To do so, Berliner (2001) and Feldon (2007) argue for the significance of speedy and accurate recognition of relevant cues for teacher action in the classroom. However, studies investigating how teachers obtain this information

  6. Ability Structure in 10-11 Year-Old Children and the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Johan Olav

    1976-01-01

    Using a simple structure factor analysis of test data of 144 fourth grade children in Norway, second order factors interpreted to represent Broad Visualization, Speediness, Fluid, and Crystallized intelligence intercorrelated substantially, the correlation between Fluid and Crystallized intelligence being the highest. (Author/BW)

  7. Broad Ability Factors in 12- to 13-Year-Old Children, the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence, and the Differentiation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Johan Olav

    1978-01-01

    A simple-structure factor analysis of test data from 149 sixth-grade children in Norway was conducted. Broad factors were interpreted to represent Visualization, Speediness, and Fluency, as well as Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. The results are discussed in relation to the Cattell-Horn theory of intelligence. (Author/JAC)

  8. The "Little Rascals" Cases: A Judge's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Ruth D.

    1994-01-01

    The Little Rascals Day Care Center case is examined from a judge's perspective, with particular attention to docketing concerns for child sex abuse cases, the use of interdisciplinary teams, the "court school" approach, and issues related to ensuring the defendants are receiving their constitutional right to a speedy trial. (JPS)

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE 66

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    INTRODUCTION. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is becoming an increasing problem to the general surgeon (1, 2, 3). It is caused by infection with the ... to surgical technique, and 6) as speedy an operation as it is safe. Wound care for HIV-AIDS ... sterile gloves, forceps and hand washing after removal of ...

  10. Use of Makler counting chamber in semen analysis

    OpenAIRE

    友吉, 唯夫; 石田, 章; 金, 哲將

    1988-01-01

    Sperm concentration was measured using Makler counting chamber and compared with the concentration value measured by a classic method. Both values correlated well. The chamber contributes to a speedy, correct and simple semen analysis mainly because of no need of dilution of the semen. Viral infection to the examiner from the semen can also be avoided.

  11. Rural Development within the Context of Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PER Electronic Law Review - Potchefstoomse Elektroniese Regsblad

    1994-08-29

    Aug 29, 1994 ... Framework, the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme and the Rural. Development Agency, which ...... the poor, speedy service delivery, and visible local government intervention. 60. At the outset of the .... 71 The objective regarding sexism relates to MDG 3 (the promotion of gender equality and.

  12. Editor's Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has to be conceded that in this computer age when it is customary to publish online and to search for articles and publications via Google and other search engines, the older title of 'Research Review' presented difficulties for speedy online searching, since the keywords in the title are to be found in many journal titles.

  13. Database architecture evolution: Mammals flourished long before dinosaurs became extinct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe holy grail for database architecture research is to find a solution that is Scalable & Speedy, to run on anything from small ARM processors up to globally distributed compute clusters, Stable & Secure, to service a broad user community, Small & Simple, to be comprehensible to a small

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-26

    importance. [GAZETA WYBORCZA] But when I was in Gdansk yesterday, the empty corridors in the cavernous quarters of the region made a depressing...possible: "The parties to the accords jointly support a speedy drafting by the new Sejm of a corpus of legal regulations in the form of decrees

  15. Prevalence of use of indigenous social networks among women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women and girl children regard indigenous social networks as important in their lives as they facilitate speedy awareness and announcements of urgent issues and sharing and transfer of information, knowledge and skills. In other words, they may also assist people to be conversant with what is happening around them.

  16. AWKA JOURNAL 2012 PRINT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKENNA

    This stability may be indefinite, definite or at the prudent discretion of the competent authority who provides for the office. The person so designated should have delineated .... with secretariat connections or friends to Consultors being placed in exalted of ... display lack of seriousness or commitment to a fruitful and speedy.

  17. Japanese Inspired Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonabocker, Louise

    2004-01-01

    The author of this commentary was looking forward to visiting Japan, a new culture. With excitement she anticipated experiencing hot springs, monumental shrines, breathtaking gardens, delicious sashimi and soba, and the speedy bullet trains--all so different from life in Boston. She was not disappointed but was surprised, pleasantly, by constant…

  18. No Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum-Beach, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened up unimagined environments for students and teachers. The speedy evolution of technology over the past 30 years has often outpaced man's ability to use it to transform teaching and learning in real and meaningful ways. Much of that time people just tried to keep up, with new technologies often simply bolted onto…

  19. Constant Flux of Spatial Niche Partitioning through High-Resolution Sampling of Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuang; Gilder, Stuart A; Orsi, William D; Zhao, Xiangyu; Petersen, Nikolai

    2017-10-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) swim along magnetic field lines in water. They are found in aquatic habitats throughout the world, yet knowledge of their spatial and temporal distribution remains limited. To help remedy this, we took MTB-bearing sediment from a natural pond, mixed the thoroughly homogenized sediment into two replicate aquaria, and then counted three dominant MTB morphotypes (coccus, spirillum, and rod-shaped MTB cells) at a high spatiotemporal sampling resolution: 36 discrete points in replicate aquaria were sampled every ∼30 days over 198 days. Population centers of the MTB coccus and MTB spirillum morphotypes moved in continual flux, yet they consistently inhabited separate locations, displaying significant anticorrelation. Rod-shaped MTB were initially concentrated toward the northern end of the aquaria, but at the end of the experiment, they were most densely populated toward the south. The finding that the total number of MTB cells increased over time during the experiment argues that population reorganization arose from relative changes in cell division and death and not from migration. The maximum net growth rates were 10, 3, and 1 doublings day -1 and average net growth rates were 0.24, 0.11, and 0.02 doublings day -1 for MTB cocci, MTB spirilla, and rod-shaped MTB, respectively; minimum growth rates for all three morphotypes were -0.03 doublings day -1 Our results suggest that MTB cocci and MTB spirilla occupy distinctly different niches: their horizontal positioning in sediment is anticorrelated and under constant flux. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the horizontal distribution of magnetotactic bacteria in sediment or how the distribution changes over time. We therefore measured three dominant magnetotactic bacterium morphotypes at 36 places in two replicate aquaria each month for 7 months. We found that the spatial positioning of population centers changed over time and that the two most abundant morphotypes (MTB cocci and MTB spirilla

  20. Science and Technology Review December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-11-17

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Advanced Materials for Our Past, Present, and Future - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A Defensive 'Coat' for Materials under Attack - Amorphous metal coatings provide the strength and corrosion resistance needed to protect military vessels and spent nuclear fuel containers; (3) Too Close for Comfort - Laboratory scientists are analyzing the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to disrupt or divert asteroids on a collision course with Earth; (4) Hyperion: A Titan of High-Performance Computing Systems - Livermore is collaborating with 10 computing industry leaders to create a test bed for Linux cluster hardware and software technologies; (5) Isolating Pathogens for Speedy Identification - An automated miniature device separates viruses, bacteria, genetic material, and proteins from nasal swabs and blood and urine samples for speedy identification.

  1. Porodnické situace v přednemocniční neodkladné péči a úkoly zdravotnického záchranáře

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČATSKÁ, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The paper treats the subject of obstetric situations in pre-hospital emergency care and the tasks tackled by paramedics. Vital in such situations are the early recognition of symptoms; correct diagnostics; and a speedy transfer of the patient to a hospital. The paper concentrates primarily on delivery during the pre-hospital emergency care; on premature leak of the amniotic fluid; and on bleeding encountered in pregnant women in the second half of gestation and the related complications. The ...

  2. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study p...

  3. Bell's palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashika Kushraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bell's palsy is considered as a disease of exclusion. It is a form of lower motor neuron paralysis affecting the facial muscles. Rapid onset of paralysis causes panic to the patients. For speedy recovery, correct diagnosis and early treatment are crucial. Here a case of Bell's palsy is reported and the literature on Bell's palsy is reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 581-588

  4. Traumatic fracture-dislocation of the hip following rugby tackle: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Santosh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Posterior fracture-dislocation of hip is uncommonly encountered in rugby injuries. We report such a case in an adult while playing rugby. The treating orthopaedician can be caught unaware and injuries in such sports can be potentially misdiagnosed as hip sprains. Immediate reduction of the dislocation was performed in theatres. The fracture was fixed with two lag screws and a neutralization plate. This led to early rehabilitation and speedy recovery with return to sporting activities by 12 months.

  5. Strategies for Enhancing Military Physical Readiness in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    common trend among Warfighters is extreme conditioning programs (ECPs; e.g. CrossFit , Insanity, Gym JonesTM, and others) which are characterized by high...physical therapist, CrossFit certified trainers, and power lifting coaches who focus on muscular strength, muscular and cardiovascular endurance, speed...i.e., CrossFit ) are becoming increasingly popular among Soldiers and have not been supported by evidence-based research 2. Shrinking budgets can

  6. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and the Law in India: A commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Belur, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has only recently been publicly acknowledged as a problem in India. A welcome development has been the enactment of a special law—Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO) 2012—criminalising a range of acts including child rape, harassment, and exploitation for pornography. The law mandates setting up of Special Courts to facilitate speedy trials in CSA cases. The paper highlights the intended benefits and the unintended consequences that might arise from...

  8. THE OTHER PATENT AGENCY: CONGRESSIONAL REGULATION OF THE ITC

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    The United States International Trade Commission has recently experienced a dramatic increase in patent infringement investigations under § 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. In fact, the number of patent enforcement actions submitted to the ITC has nearly doubled in the last five years. Patent holders are selecting this forum because of its speedy proceedings and its ability to award broad exclusion orders. This rise in ITC patent litigation, however, has revealed weaknesses in the structure of ...

  9. Quality Assurance Standards for Symptomatic Breast Disease Services

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2007-01-01

    Quality Assurance Standards for Symptomatic Breast Disease Services People in Ireland have a right to expect that medical care be of good quality. They expect that standards of care are consistently high. They expect that access to care is easy, speedy, effective and efficient. Society expects quality of care to measure up to international norms of good practice. Such assurance can be given by auditing the quality of activity. Click here to download PDF 606kb

  10. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-27

    America’s fertile plains there are orchards everywhere, and America’s supermarkets are filled with food; however, America is still a country in which...more than 4 million yuan. An inventory work team was sent to check the merchandise in the warehouses, for the purpose of posi- tively pushing the...sale of exportable merchandise and the speedy sale of mer- chandise that could not be exported but was still salable on the domestic mar- ket. Up to

  11. Cloud-Based Video Monitoring System Applied in Control of Diseases and Pests in Orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Xue; Qiu, Yun; Hu, Lin; Fan, Jingchao; Guo, Xiuming; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; As the proposition of the ‘Internet plus’ concept and speedy progress of new media technology, traditional business have been increasingly shared in the development fruits of the informatization and the networking. Proceeding from the real plant protection demands, the construction of a cloud-based video monitoring system that surveillances diseases and pests in apple orchards has been discussed, aiming to solve the lack of timeliness and comprehensiveness in the contr...

  12. Analysis of ICT and Management Systems in Driving World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rose Mugeni Ndombi; Anthony N. Wakhungu; Sanja Michael Mutongwa

    2014-01-01

    Management Information System (MIS) provides information for the managerial activities in an organization. It provides speedy, in-expensive and convenient means of communication. The main aim of this research is to perform analysis of ICT and management systems in driving world economy. Objectives of the this research includes :the establishment of impact of ICT on Global Economy; to find out how ICT impacts on the composition and structure of knowledge and employment in the world; to establi...

  13. First steps into understanding teachers' visual perception of classroom events

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bogert, Niek; Van Brugggen, Jan; Kostons, Danny; Jochems, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Student-teachers struggle to become competent at classroom management. To do so, Berliner (2001) and Feldon (2007) argue for the significance of speedy and accurate recognition of relevant cues for teacher action in the classroom. However, studies investigating how teachers obtain this information from the classroom are scarce. This study employed eye-tracking methodology to investigate teachers' visual perception and detection of classroom events. Results show that experienced teachers proce...

  14. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Device Actuated with Pneumatic Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Petre, Ioana; Deaconescu, Andrea; Rogozea, Liliana; Deaconescu, Tudor Ion

    2014-01-01

    Year after year recovery clinics worldwide report significant numbers of lower limb bearing joint disabilities. An effective method for the speedy rehabilitation of patients with such afflictions is Continuous Passive Motion (CPM), drawing upon a range of specific equipment. This paper presents an innovative constructive solution for such orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, designed to ensure a swift reintegration of patients at as low a cost as possible. The absolute novelty consists in...

  15. Tech-Assisted Language Learning Tasks in an EFL Setting: Use of Hand phone Recording Feature

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Shakarami; Hassan Khajehei; Karim Hajhashemi

    2014-01-01

    Technology with its speedy great leaps forward has undeniable impact on every aspect of our life in the new millennium. It has supplied us with different affordances almost daily or more precisely in a matter of hours. Technology and Computer seems to be a break through as for their roles in the Twenty-First century educational system. Examples are numerous, among which CALL, CMC, and Virtual learning spaces come to mind instantly. Amongst the newly developed gadgets of today are the sophisti...

  16. The experiences of qualified critical care nurses regarding students working in critical care units

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Cur. (Nursing Science (Critical Care)) Qualified critical care nurses are under internal and external stresses in the workplace, relating to role conflict, role ambiguity, increased workloads, the need for rapid decision making and the speedy delivery of care. However, having inexperienced students in critical care units put responsibility and additional stress on the qualified critical care nurses within the units. This may result in some of these qualified nurses not being willing to h...

  17. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    recovery is both time and budget sensitive, it is imperative that the community address these values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. A key...agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is key to a community’s resiliency and speedy recovery. As such, technical and...Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ). Another group contains documents relevant to site survey 3 procedures

  18. Motion planning in unstructured road for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Hanxiang

    2011-10-01

    We present a novel motion planning method for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception under the uncertain constraints of unstructured road boundary on the basis of obstacle roadside fusion strategy and beam curvature method . Not only does this method inherit the advantages of reliability, smoothness and speediness from LCM, but also it can produce more reasonable path than traditional LCM does by virtue of the global information acquired by long-range sensors.

  19. Children’s sedentary behaviour: descriptive epidemiology and associations with objectively-measured sedentary time

    OpenAIRE

    Klitsie, Tessa; Corder, Kirsten; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding the patterning and socio-demographic distribution of multiple sedentary behaviours in children. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the leisure-time sedentary behaviour of 9-10 year old British children, and 2) establish associations with objectively-measured sedentary time. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) (N=1513, 44.3% boys). Twelve ...

  20. ISSN 1727-3781

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Louis Harms

    still believe that a criminal trial is a game and that a judicial officer's position is that of an umpire to see that the rules of the game are observed by both sides or, better still, a figurehead. 1. They do not realise that speedy justice is another aspect of the right to a fair trial and that without efficiency it is impossible to provide ...

  1. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  2. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, Jakob; Michael E., Böttcher; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2008-01-01

    . In the Bay of Concepción, sulfur isotope data suggest that pyrite formation proceeds via the reaction of FeS with polysulfides or H2S. At the shelf stations, on the other hand, pyrite was significantly depleted in 34S relative to its potential precursors FeS and S0. Isotope mass balance considerations...... to bottom water values. Whereas the concentrations of sulfite and thiosulfate were mostly in the submicromolar range, elemental sulfur was by far the dominant sulfur intermediate. Although the large nitrate- and sulfur-storing bacteria Thioploca were abundant, the major part of S0 was located...... extracellularly. The distribution of sulfur species and dissolved iron suggests the reaction of sulfide with FeOOH as an important pathway for sulfide oxidation and sulfur intermediate formation. This is in agreement with the sulfur isotope composition of co-existing elemental sulfur and iron monosulfides...

  3. Dutch ‘ZSM Settlements’ in the Face of Procedural Justice:
    The Sooner the Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Jacobs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch  ‘ZSM’ project was launched in March 2011 and implemented nationwide in 2013. Its (official aim is to (conclusively deal with frequently occurring crime (cases in a rapid, astute, selective, simple and society-oriented way, paying due attention to the interests of defendants, victims and society alike. The underlying assumption of the ZSM – and its accompanying focus on the speedy (out-of-court resolution of criminal cases that do not (necessarily merit the attention of the courts –  is that ‘speed’ is beneficial to all involved: to defendants, to victims, to the police (and the Prosecution Service and to society as such. The question that concerns the authors is whether that assumption is correct. Does a speedy (out-of-court resolution indeed do justice to all involved, and particularly defendants and (purported victims? In this contribution, the Dutch ZSM process and its focus on the speedy out-of-court resolution is analyzed from the perspective of both the requirements of Article 6 of the European Convention and the social-scientific notion of procedural justice.

  4. Dual roles of TRF1 in tethering telomeres to the nuclear envelope and protecting them from fusion during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Tu, Zhaowei; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hongbin; Kaldis, Philipp; Chen, Zijiang; Li, Wei

    2018-01-08

    Telomeres integrity is indispensable for chromosomal stability by preventing chromosome erosion and end-to-end fusions. During meiosis, telomeres attach to the inner nuclear envelope and cluster into a highly crowded microenvironment at the bouquet stage, which requires specific mechanisms to protect the telomeres from fusion. Here, we demonstrate that germ cell-specific knockout of a shelterin complex subunit, Trf1, results in arrest of spermatocytes at two different stages. The obliterated telomere-nuclear envelope attachment in Trf1-deficient spermatocytes impairs homologue synapsis and recombination, resulting in a pachytene-like arrest, while the meiotic division arrest might stem from chromosome end-to-end fusion due to the failure of recruiting meiosis specific telomere associated proteins. Further investigations uncovered that TRF1 could directly interact with Speedy A, and Speedy A might work as a scaffold protein to further recruit Cdk2, thus protecting telomeres from fusion at this stage. Together, our results reveal a novel mechanism of TRF1, Speedy A, and Cdk2 in protecting telomere from fusion in a highly crowded microenvironment during meiosis.

  5. Biosynthesis and the conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayemi, J D; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S; Danyuo, Y; Odusanya, O S; Anuku, N; Malatesta, K; Soboyejo, W O

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) with particle sizes between 10 nm and 60 nm. The biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are produced from Magnetospirillum magneticum (M.M.) bacteria that respond to magnetic fields. M.M. bacteria were cultured and used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles. This was done in an enriched magnetic spirillum growth medium (EMSGM) at different pH levels. The nanoparticle concentrations were characterized with UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, while the particle shapes were elucidated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the particles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions and polydispersity of the nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Carbodiimide reduction was also used to functionalize the BMNPs with a molecular recognition unit (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH) that attaches specifically to receptors that are over-expressed on the surfaces of most breast cancer cell types. The resulting nanoparticles were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quantitative image analysis. The implications of the results are then discussed for the potential development of magnetic nanoparticles for the specific targeting and treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The forgotten first career of Doctor Henry Van Dyke Carter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, J R; Hiatt, N

    1995-11-01

    While Henry Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, first published in 1858, is distinguished by superb illustrations, its original illustrator is remembered for an entirely different set of accomplishments, notably significant contributions to tropical medicine. Literature review. Dr. Henry Van Dyke Carter, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology and subsequently Dean of the Grant Medical College in Bombay, India, was a skillful researcher and keen clinician who made significant contributions to tropical medicine, including the discovery of Spirillum minus, the spirochetal organism that causes relapsing fever. For his discoveries he was honored by both the British Medical Association and the English government. Before his departure for India in 1858, however, he and Henry Gray worked at St. George's Hospital Medical School and collaborated on the first edition of the text that is still the "Bible" of anatomy to many medical students. His drawings have appeared in every subsequent edition, up to the present day. During his first career as a medical illustrator, Carter was responsible for the drawings that have helped generations of physicians to master the intricacies of human anatomy.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis provides insights into the evolution and niche adaptation of marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Boyang; Zhang, Sheng-Da; Arnoux, Pascal; Rouy, Zoe; Alberto, François; Philippe, Nadège; Murat, Dorothée; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Ginet, Nicolas; Sabaty, Monique; Mangenot, Sophie; Pradel, Nathalie; Tian, Jiesheng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Lichen; Zhang, Wenyan; Pan, Hongmiao; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Li, Ying; Xiao, Tian; Médigue, Claudine; Barbe, Valérie; Pignol, David; Talla, Emmanuel; Wu, Long-Fei

    2014-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are capable of synthesizing intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, that are membrane-bounded magnetite or greigite crystals arranged in chains. Although MTB are widely spread in various ecosystems, few axenic cultures are available, and only freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. have been genetically analysed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine magnetotactic spirillum, Magnetospira sp. QH-2. The high number of repeats and transposable elements account for the differences in QH-2 genome structure compared with other relatives. Gene cluster synteny and gene correlation analyses indicate that the insertion of the magnetosome island in the QH-2 genome occurred after divergence between freshwater and marine magnetospirilla. The presence of a sodium-quinone reductase, sodium transporters and other functional genes are evidence of the adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to the marine ecosystem. Genes well conserved among freshwater magnetospirilla for nitrogen fixation and assimilatory nitrate respiration are absent from the QH-2 genome. Unlike freshwater Magnetospirillum spp., marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 neither has TonB and TonB-dependent receptors nor does it grow on trace amounts of iron. Taken together, our results show a distinct, adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to marine sediments in comparison with its closely related freshwater counterparts. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterization of dominant giant rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria from a low tide zone of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhaojie; Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Yiran; Pan, Hongmiao; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2017-08-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of Gram-negative bacteria that synthesize magnetic crystals, enabling them to navigate in relation to magnetic field lines. Morphologies of magnetotactic bacteria include spirillum, coccoid, rod, vibrio, and multicellular morphotypes. The coccid shape is generally the most abundant morphotype among magnetotactic bacteria. Here we describe a species of giant rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria (designated QR-1) collected from sediment in the low tide zone of Huiquan Bay (Yellow Sea, China). This morphotype accounted for 90% of the magnetotactic bacteria collected, and the only taxonomic group which was detected in the sampling site. Microscopy analysis revealed that QR-1 cells averaged (6.71±1.03)×(1.54±0.20) μm in size, and contained in each cell 42-146 magnetosomes that are arranged in a bundle formed one to four chains along the long axis of the cell. The QR-1 cells displayed axial magnetotaxis with an average velocity of 70±28 μm/s. Transmission electron microscopy based analysis showed that QR-1 cells had two tufts of flagella at each end. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that QR-1 together with three other rod-shaped uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria are clustered into a deep branch of Alphaproteobacteria.

  9. Brain-computer interface after nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A

    2014-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) has proven to be a useful tool for providing alternative communication and mobility to patients suffering from nervous system injury. BCI has been and will continue to be implemented into rehabilitation practices for more interactive and speedy neurological recovery. The most exciting BCI technology is evolving to provide therapeutic benefits by inducing cortical reorganization via neuronal plasticity. This article presents a state-of-the-art review of BCI technology used after nervous system injuries, specifically: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and disorders of consciousness. Also presented is transcending, innovative research involving new treatment of neurological disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Industry Support Institutions Fostering Innovations Culture among SME’s of Punjab, India: A Strategic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sangha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available . The present paper attempts to investigate the role of six Industry Support Institutions in fostering innovation culture in manufacturing sector of Punjab in India. Some path breaking technological innovations have been introduced by the Institutions. These highly interactive, self-reliant institutes are the virtual In-house R&D to SMEs. Knowledge accumulations in the institutes also offer a platform for exchange of ideas which further facilitate the process of open innovation. The speedy and efficient dissemination of technical know-how by these institutes have brought creativity and innovativeness among SMEs of the region.  Keywords: Industry Support Institutions, Open Innovation, Small and Medium Enterprises.

  11. Epilepsy: A Call for Help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Sadanand

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a considerable individual and social economic burden. In properly selected patients, epilepsy surgery can provide significant relief from disease, including remission. However, the surgical treatment of epilepsy lags in terms of knowledge and technology. The problem arises due to its slow adaptation and dissemination. This article explores this issue of a wide treatment gap and its causes. It develops a framework for a rational decision-making process that is appropriate for extant circumstances and will result in the speedy delivery of surgical care for suitable patients with medically intractable epilepsy.

  12. Epilepsy: A Call for Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanand, Venkatraman

    2018-01-28

    Epilepsy is a considerable individual and social economic burden. In properly selected patients, epilepsy surgery can provide significant relief from disease, including remission. However, the surgical treatment of epilepsy lags in terms of knowledge and technology. The problem arises due to its slow adaptation and dissemination. This article explores this issue of a wide treatment gap and its causes. It develops a framework for a rational decision-making process that is appropriate for extant circumstances and will result in the speedy delivery of surgical care for suitable patients with medically intractable epilepsy.

  13. Study on the Future of Mutual Recognition in Criminal Matters in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn; Adamo, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Practitioners in the criminal justice system are fairly content with the European Arrest Warrant and other schemes based on the principle of mutual recognition of judicial decisions. This is the result of a survey published by Professor of Criminal Law Jørn Vestergaard and research asststant Silvia...... in an extradition case is the judicial decision issued in the requesting country. The conditions for surrender are less burdensome than previously, and the process is speedy. Similar schemes have been introduced regarding fines, confiscation and evidence but have so far only been of minor practical relevance...

  14. [Koletex-M absorbent paper use in acute festering odontogenic periostitis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, S N; Sukhanov, A E; Krylov, I A

    2009-01-01

    150 patients with acute festering odontogenic periostitis were under observation. In 75 of them Koletex-M absorbent paper was used as draining material containing as active components metronidazole, dimexide and sodium alginate. In the control group of patients traditional schemes of treatment were used. Treatment process efficacy was estimated by microbiological and cytological studies. It was found that Koletex-M absorbent paper use reduced postoperative wound microbe semination. In 3 days the cells of regenerative series were found that led to speedy wound healing and reduction of temporary disability terms.

  15. Foster Care Outcomes for Children With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth M

    2016-10-01

    The promotion of speedy, permanent outcomes for foster children is a central child welfare policy goal. However, while children with intellectual disability (ID) are at greater risk for child welfare involvement, little is known about their case outcomes. This cross-sectional national study explores between-group foster care outcomes. Foster children with intellectual disability were more likely to have experienced an adoption disruption or dissolution but less likely to be reunified with a parent, primary caretaker or other family member. Implications for interagency collaboration in support of pre and post-foster care discharge support services are discussed.

  16. The influence of the training loads of different on the nervousness level of the young sportsmen aged 13-16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoroshukha M.F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics, structure and the indexes of the level of the teenagers' personal nervousness are considered. The teenagers are specialized in the following sporting activities: light athletics, skiing, cycling, swimming, boxing and free style fighting. 123 young sportsmen and 30 secondary school pupils, who don't go in for sports, aged 13-16 took part in the experiment. The comparative analysis nervousness level of the two groups was conducted: the first group - the speedy and powerful sporting activities and the second - the sporting activities concerning endurance. The fact of the specific influence of the loads of different directions on displaying the nervousness by young sportsmen was established.

  17. Globalization of clinical research by the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Drug companies' quest for speedy results has led to a boom in trials based in developing countries, where ethical standards may be lax and the impoverished sick abundant. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Inspector General's office, the number of researchers based outside the United States seeking new drug approvals has increased 16-fold over the last decade. In this article, a 1996 Pfizer trial in Nigeria--the subject of a controversial class-action suit--illustrates the dangers.

  18. On the Deployment of Dynamic Taint Analysis for Application Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chan; Keromytis, Angelos

    Although software-attack detection via dynamic taint analysis (DTA) supports high coverage of program execution, it prohibitively degrades the performance of the monitored program. This letter explores the possibility of collaborative dynamic taint analysis among members of an application community (AC): instead of full monitoring for every request at every instance of the AC, each member uses DTA for some fraction of the incoming requests, thereby loosening the burden of heavyweight monitoring. Our experimental results using a test AC based on the Apache web server show that speedy detection of worm outbreaks is feasible with application communities of medium size (i.e., 250-500).

  19. Design and Implementation of 1-bit Comparator in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Newaz BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. For immense demand of speedy high-end gadgets, chips are becoming denser, but Moore's law is falling flat lately. Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS technology is on its brink. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA has become a potential alternative technology to provide faster speed with low power dissipation at nano-scale extent. Here, we proposed an efficient QCA design of 1-bit comparator. The proposed comparator required 59% less area and dissipated 82% less energy. QCADesigner has been used to design and simulate the proposed comparator. Finally, QCAPro tool has been employed for estimating energy dissipation.Keywords: Comparator, Energy dissipation, QCA Designer, QCAPro

  20. Temple anímico fundamental y crítica a la cultura contemporánea en Heidegger

    OpenAIRE

    Held, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the Speedy and steady appearance of the Gesamtausgabe, Heidegger’s “Collected Works”, we can form a concrete picture of Heidegger’s creative development in the decade which followed Being and time and which culminated in the Contributions to philosophy written in 1936-1938 -- In this period Heidegger made his way to his definitive, i.e., ontohistorical, understanding of the present age -- It is his fundamental thesis that we live in an epoch of transition: behind us we have the age ...

  1. “Dhoulath's method” – An investigative probe into mortality rate to aid diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dhoulath Beegum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the urgent need to save life, during cardiac arrest, time is an important factor, and time factors, if not speeded up, may lead to death. Baby cries proved to be an obstacle for cardiac diagnosis. To speed up the diagnoses, ‘Dhoulath's method’ was proposed and result proved that the data quality of cardiac data, ‘aortic regurgitation sound’ from a mixture of ‘crying baby's cry’ was faithfully separated out. This separation, by utilizing the features of blind source component separation, in the case of medical emergency, can lead to a speedy diagnoses, to reduce the mortality rate.

  2. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  3. [Role of gravitation-dependent systems in visual tracing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilova, L N

    2003-03-01

    In 31 astronauts under conditions of free falling, when the visual functions proper were preserved, the precision and speedy parameters of all the forms of visual tracing (saccades, smooth tracing) became worse, and in a number of cases a complete disintegration of the smooth tracing reflex occurred as well as a 2-fold and greater enhancement of the time for fixing the stare at a target. In the beginning of adaptation to altered gravitation conditions, a transition of the smooth visual tracing into the strategy of saccadic approximation, occurs. These disorders were shown to be due to a vestibular deprivation.

  4. Long-term seasonal variability of convection, and aviation hazard risks over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Abdullah; Aslan, Zafer

    2017-04-01

    Deep moist convection (DMC), and related hazardous phenomena, such as turbulence, lightning, wind shear, icing, hail, tornadoes, and downbursts, are particularly important in aviation. They are responsible from a big portion of aircraft accidents related to weather. A climatology of DMC in greater European domain is prepared using ICTP SPEEDY model, including its long-range variability through decades, geographical distribution, and seasonal/diurnal behaviour. Results are compared with thunderstorm observations. DMC-related hazardous weather phenomena affecting aviation are also investigated using proper proxies from model output, in order to assess the risks.

  5. Highly Skilled Migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recognizing that the policies regulating the inflow of migrants have an impact on the economic contribution of migrants to the receiving economies, this paper analyzes the potential impact of the Kafala system which is the general framework regulating the inflow of migrants in the Gulf economies....... It is pointed out that while the system facilitated speedy entry to the job market, the lack of inclusion in the Gulf economies of the migrants, the lack of long-term prospects of residing in the countries and the highly asymmetric power balance between sponsor and migrant, provides few incentives...... for the highly skilled migrants to fully contribute to the Gulf economies....

  6. Salt reduction strategy at population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing a huge burden of noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, ischemic health diseases, and stroke. Moreover, the developing countries have had a relatively speedy rise of the problem, with noncommunicable diseases occurring at much lower age as compared to the developed world. The World Health Organization, therefore, recommends reduction in salt intake at population level to <5 g/day. Not all researchers and public health physicians agree to it, leading to conflicting information for a primary care physician. This evidence based summary documents this polarization of the recommendations regarding salt reduction and acknowledges the ongoing challenge primary care physicians face when following such evidence based guidelines.

  7. Criadores hispanos de caballos de carreras en el Bajo Imperio en las cartas de Símaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Blázquez Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recogen todas las menciones de caballos hispanos en los autores antiguos. Los criadores de caballos en Hispania. Las marcas de yeguadas. Los nombres de los propietarios. La exportación de caballos hispanos en el siglo II. Eran velocísimas. Retratos de caballos hispanos y de aurigas. Los circos.This article presents all the mentions of hispanic horses in the ancient authors. Teh horsebreeders in Hispania. The marks of the Group of breeding mares. The names of the owners. The exportation of hispnic horses in the second Century. They have been high Speedy. Portraits of horses and car.drivers. The circus.

  8. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  9. Fast, moment-based estimation methods for delay network tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Earl Christophre [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michailidis, George [U OF MICHIGAN; Nair, Vijayan N [U OF MICHIGAN

    2008-01-01

    Consider the delay network tomography problem where the goal is to estimate distributions of delays at the link-level using data on end-to-end delays. These measurements are obtained using probes that are injected at nodes located on the periphery of the network and sent to other nodes also located on the periphery. Much of the previous literature deals with discrete delay distributions by discretizing the data into small bins. This paper considers more general models with a focus on computationally efficient estimation. The moment-based schemes presented here are designed to function well for larger networks and for applications like monitoring that require speedy solutions.

  10. Monitoring substrate and products in a bioprocess with FTIR spectroscopy coupled to artificial neural networks enhanced with a genetic-algorithm-based method for wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vanina G; Perín, Juan C; Mantovani, Víctor E; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2006-01-15

    An experiment was developed as a simple alternative to existing analytical methods for the simultaneous quantitation of glucose (substrate) and glucuronic acid (main product) in the bioprocesses Kombucha by using FTIR spectroscopy coupled to multivariate calibration (partial least-squares, PLS-1 and artificial neural networks, ANNs). Wavelength selection through a novel ranked regions genetic algorithm (RRGA) was used to enhance the predictive ability of the chemometric models. Acceptable results were obtained by using the ANNs models considering the complexity of the sample and the speediness and simplicity of the method. The accuracy on the glucuronic acid determination was calculated by analysing spiked real fermentation samples (recoveries ca. 115%).

  11. Analysing DHPC/DMPC bicelles by diffusion NMR and multivariate decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnerås, Johannes; Nilsson, Lars Mathias; Mäler, Lena

    2015-01-01

    in combination with the multivariate processing method speedy component resolution (SCORE) to analyse mixtures of 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) with the relative concentration q=[DMPC]/[DHPC]=0.5 at total lipid concentrations ranging from...... to change to larger assemblies. Taken together, the results suggest that for q=0.5 DMPC/DHPC mixtures there is a relatively broad concentration range above 50mM where bicelles may reliably be assumed to adopt the 'classical' bicelle morphology. The study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of our approach...

  12. Nutrition of Infectious Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gusev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the published data on clinical nutrition, including infectious diseases. The variant of diets on Pevzner into line with the standard diet used in the treatment of infectious patients. A brief description of artificial nutritional therapy in the treatment of patients with various infectious diseases. Particular importance is given to scientific substantiation of nutritional therapy in the treatment, rehabilitation of infectious patients. The correct choice of clinical nutrition contributes to the normalization of the lost functions and the speedy restoration of the human body after infection.

  13. Using Design as Boundary Spanner Object in Climate Change Mitigation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a growing concern for society and the focus of numerous research initiatives across multiple fields of science. These initiatives often need to capitalize on the cross-specialized knowledge contributed by researchers from very different fields. The diversity of worldviews among key stakeholders requires an effective overall design strategy acting as a boundary spanner object. This study presents an account of the issues faced by a multidisciplinary research project and discusses the suitability of a design approach to help address issues such as equality, empowerment, autonomy, creativity, performance, reduction of innovation cycle times and also provide for the necessary balance between control, speediness and flexibility.

  14. Radial lens distortion correction with sub-pixel accuracy for X-ray micro-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert C; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-12-14

    Distortion correction or camera calibration for an imaging system which is highly configurable and requires frequent disassembly for maintenance or replacement of parts needs a speedy method for recalibration. Here we present direct techniques for calculating distortion parameters of a non-linear model based on the correct determination of the center of distortion. These techniques are fast, very easy to implement, and accurate at sub-pixel level. The implementation at the X-ray tomography system of the I12 beamline, Diamond Light Source, which strictly requires sub-pixel accuracy, shows excellent performance in the calibration image and in the reconstructed images.

  15. Biosynthesis and the conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obayemi, J.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State (Nigeria); Dozie-Nwachukwu, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Danyuo, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Electronics and Electricals Engineering, Nigerian Turkish Nile University, Abuja (Nigeria); Odusanya, O.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Anuku, N. [Department of Chemistry, Bronx Community College, New York, NY 10453 (United States); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malatesta, K. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) with particle sizes between 10 nm and 60 nm. The biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are produced from Magnetospirillum magneticum (M.M.) bacteria that respond to magnetic fields. M.M. bacteria were cultured and used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles. This was done in an enriched magnetic spirillum growth medium (EMSGM) at different pH levels. The nanoparticle concentrations were characterized with UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, while the particle shapes were elucidated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the particles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions and polydispersity of the nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Carbodiimide reduction was also used to functionalize the BMNPs with a molecular recognition unit (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH) that attaches specifically to receptors that are over-expressed on the surfaces of most breast cancer cell types. The resulting nanoparticles were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quantitative image analysis. The implications of the results are then discussed for the potential development of magnetic nanoparticles for the specific targeting and treatment of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of MNPs with clinically relevant sizes between 10 and 60 nm. • New insights into the effects of pH and processing time on nanoparticle shapes and sizes. • Successful conjugation of biosynthesized magnetite nanoparticles to LHRH ligands. • Conjugated BMNPs that are monodispersed with potential biomedical relevance. • Magnetic properties of biosynthesized MNPs suggest potential for MRI enhancement.

  16. Salinispirillum marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium in the family 'Saccharospirillaceae'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpei, Azadeh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, motile, non-pigmented, facultatively anaerobic, spirillum-shaped, halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain GCWy1(T), was isolated from water of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 1-10% (w/v) and optimal growth was achieved at 3% (w/v). The optimum pH and temperature for growth were pH 8.5 and 30 °C, while the strain was able to grow at pH 7.5-10 and 4-40 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate within the class Gammaproteobacteria as a separate deep branch, with 92.1% or lower sequence similarity to representatives of the genera Saccharospirillum and Reinekea and less than 91.0% sequence similarity with other remotely related genera. The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(17 : 0), and the major components of its polar lipid profile were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The cells of strain GCWy1(T) contained the isoprenoid quinones Q-9 and Q-8 (81% and 2%, respectively). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 52.3 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in combination with chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain GCWy1(T) represents a novel species in a new genus in the family 'Saccharospirillaceae', order Oceanospirillales, for which the name Salinispirillum marinum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is GCWy1(T) ( = IBRC-M 10765(T) =CECT 8342(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  17. An advanced accident-protective network system for the nuclear energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Atsuo [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    As an opportunity of the TMI accident formed on March, 1979, some improvements on accident-protective countermeasure of nuclear energy by government and so on have been intended. Along this planning, the Atomic Energy Safety Technical Center has practised a business on accident-protection of nuclear energy under trust of government and so on. And then, the Center expanded some business, such as intention to spread the SPEEDI (system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information) network for the Center for First-aid Countermeasure in Emergency (called Off-site Center) and so on. Here were described on present status and future development of the business on accident protection at a center of the SPEEDI network system, which was a system rapidly to predict in-air concentration of radioactive materials, exposed dose, and so on at circumferential environment under informations on their emission sources (emitted nuclides, emission, emission time, and so on), meteorological conditions and topographical data if a lot of radioactive materials were or anxious to be emitted from a nuclear power station and so on. (G.K.)

  18. Alternative way to test the efficacy of swine FMD vaccines: measurement of pigs median infected dose (PID50) and regulation of live virus challenge dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lu, Zeng-Jun; Xie, Bao-Xia; Sun, Pu; Chen, Ying-Li; Fu, Yuan-Fang; Liu, Zai-Xin

    2010-09-08

    Foot-and -mouth disease to pigs is serious recently around the world. "Vaccination prevention" is still an important policy. OIE specifies 10,000 TCID50(0.2 ml) of virulent virus for challenge test in pigs to test the potency of FMD vaccine by intradermal route inoculating the virus in the heel bulbs of one foot or by intramuscular route administering into one site of the neck behind the ear. Convenience and speediness are available in the process of potency test of commercial FMD vaccine. We selected the route of "administering into one site of the muscular part of the neck behind the ear" because of convenience and speediness. However, it was difficult to infect control pigs even up to 100,000TCID50, so we changed the challenged virus from cell-passaged strain to suckling mice-passaged one, measured its PID50 (pigs median infected dose) and defined the virus challenge dose as 1000PID50. Meanwhile, we arranged the number of control pigs from two to three for easy evaluation.

  19. Collaborative Research: Robust Climate Projections and Stochastic Stability of Dynamical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael; McWilliams, James; Neelin, J. David; Zaliapin, Ilya; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Simonnet, Eric

    2011-10-13

    The project was completed along the lines of the original proposal, with additional elements arising as new results were obtained. The originally proposed three thrusts were expanded to include an additional, fourth one. (i) The e ffects of stochastic perturbations on climate models have been examined at the fundamental level by using the theory of deterministic and random dynamical systems, in both nite and in nite dimensions. (ii) The theoretical results have been implemented first on a delay-diff erential equation (DDE) model of the El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. (iii) More detailed, physical aspects of model robustness have been considered, as proposed, within the stripped-down ICTP-AGCM (formerly SPEEDY) climate model. This aspect of the research has been complemented by both observational and intermediate-model aspects of mid-latitude and tropical climate. (iv) An additional thrust of the research relied on new and unexpected results of (i) and involved reduced-modeling strategies and associated prediction aspects have been tested within the team's empirical model reduction (EMR) framework. Finally, more detailed, physical aspects have been considered within the stripped-down SPEEDY climate model. The results of each of these four complementary e fforts are presented in the next four sections, organized by topic and by the team members concentrating on the topic under discussion.

  20. Prussian Blue Nanocubes with an Open Framework Structure Coated with PEDOT as High-Capacity Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dawei; Cortie, Michael; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) can be a very competitive sulfur host for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Sulfur stored in the large interstitial sites of a PBA host can take advantage of reversible and efficient insertion/extraction of both Li+ and electrons, due to the well-trapped mobile dielectron redox centers in the well-defined host. It is demonstrated that Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ] has a large open framework, and as a cathode, it both stores sulfur and acts as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor based on the Lewis acid-base bonding effect. The electrochemical testing shows that the S@Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ]@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite achieves excellent reversibility, good stability, and fast kinetics. Its outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to the internal transport of Li+/e- , maximizing the utilization of sulfur. Moreover, the open metal centers serve as the Lewis acid sites with high affinity to the negatively charged polysulfide anions, reducing the diffusion of polysulfides out of the cathode and minimizing the shuttling effect. The fundamental basis of these exceptional performance characteristics is explored through a detailed analysis of the structural and electrochemical behavior of the material. It is believed that the PBAs will have a useful role in ensuring more effective and stable Li-S batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Evolução Atípica de Angina de Plaut-Vincent em Criança: Relato de Caso/Atypical Evolution of Plaut-Vincent’s Angina in Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Fortes Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A angina de Plaut-Vincent é uma afecção úlcero-necrótica causada pela simbiose de um bacilo fusiforme (Fusobacterium necrophorum e um espirilo (Borrelia vincenti. Ambos são agentes saprófitas habituais da cavidade oral, porém, quando associados, determinam o caráter patogênico da doença. Casuística: Trata-se do caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 4 anos de idade, que deu entrada no pronto socorro com choque séptico descompensado não responsivo a volume com necessidade de drogas vasoativas (DVA, além de má conservação dentária, e amigdalas necrosadas. Em 48h evoluiu com piora hemodinâmica refratária a DVA e introdução de hidrocortisona, com crises convulsivas e hemiplegia à esquerda. Foi solicitada TC crânio a qual evidenciou AVC isquêmico. Discussão: Ocorre geralmente em condições de desnutrição e má higiene oral, tendo sua maior incidência entre os adultos-jovens e adolescentes. Cursa com necrose das amigdalas, halitose intensa e disfagia. Conclusão: Considerando que a Angina de Plaut-Vincent acomete principalmente adultos jovens, torna-se de grande relevância relatar o caso de uma paciente pediátrica, que evoluiu de forma incomum, apresentando lesões isquêmicas cerebrovasculares. Introduction: Plaut–Vincent’s angina is an ulcer-necrotic disease caused by the symbiosis of a fusiform bacillus (Fusobacterium necrophorum and spirillum (Borrelia vincenti. Both are common saprophytic agents of the oral cavity, but when combined determine the pathogenic of the disease. Case report: We describe the case of a female patient, 4 years old, which gave entered the emergency room with decompensated septic shock unresponsive to volume in the need of vasoactive drugs (DVA, moreover poor dental conservation and necrotic tonsils. After 48h evolved with hemodynamic deterioration refractory to VAD and insertion of hydrocortisone, with convulsion and left hemiplegia. A cranial CT was requested and revealed

  2. Magnetite magnetosome and fragmental chain formation of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1: transmission electron microscopy and magnetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Pan, Yongxin; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Qingsong; Tian, Lanxiang; Lin, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Stable single-domain (SD) magnetite formed intracellularly by magnetotactic bacteria is of fundamental interest in sedimentary and environmental magnetism. In this study, we studied the time course of magnetosome growth and magnetosome chain formation (0-96 hr) in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and rock magnetism. The initial non-magnetic cells were microaerobically batch cultured at 26 °C in a modified magnetic spirillum growth medium. TEM observations indicated that between 20 and 24 hr magnetosome crystals began to mineralize simultaneously at multiple sites within the cell body, followed by a phase of rapid growth lasting up to 48 hr cultivation. The synthesized magnetosomes were found to be assembled into 3-5 subchains, which were linearly aligned along the long axis of the cell, supporting the idea that magnetosome vesicles were linearly anchored to the inner membrane of cell. By 96 hr cultivation, 14 cubo-octahedral magnetosome crystals in average with a mean grain size of ~44.5 nm were formed in a cell. Low-temperature (10-300 K) thermal demagnetization, room-temperature hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curves (FORCs) were conducted on whole cell samples. Both coercivity (4.7-18.1 mT) and Verwey transition temperature (100-106 K) increase with increasing cultivation time length, which can be explained by increasing grain size and decreasing non-stoichiometry of magnetite, respectively. Shapes of hysteresis loops and FORCs indicated each subchain behaving as an `ideal' uniaxial SD particle and extremely weak magnetostatic interaction fields between subchains. Low-temperature thermal demagnetization of remanence demonstrated that the Moskowitz test is valid for such linear subchain configurations (e.g. δFC/δZFC > 2.0), implying that the test is applicable to ancient sediments where magnetosome chains might have been broken up into short chains due to disintegration of the organic scaffold

  3. Study of fuzzy adaptive PID controller on thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qingkai; Zhang, Tao; Yan, Yining

    2016-10-01

    There are contradictions among speediness, anti-disturbance performance, and steady-state accuracy caused by traditional PID controller in the existing light source systems of thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes. In this paper, a new kind of fuzzy adaptive PID controller was designed by combining fuzzy PID control technology and expert system to make frequency stabilizing system obtain the optimal performance. The experiments show that the frequency stability of the designed PID controller is similar to the existing PID controller (the magnitude of frequency stability is less than 10-9 in constant temperature and 10-7 in open air). But the preheating time is shortened obviously (from 10 minutes to 5 minutes) and the anti-disturbance capability is improved significantly (the recovery time needed after strong interference is reduced from 1 minute to 10 seconds).

  4. Stochastic population theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, Donald

    1974-01-01

    These notes serve as an introduction to stochastic theories which are useful in population biology; they are based on a course given at the Courant Institute, New York, in the Spring of 1974. In order to make the material. accessible to a wide audience, it is assumed that the reader has only a slight acquaintance with probability theory and differential equations. The more sophisticated topics, such as the qualitative behavior of nonlinear models, are approached through a succession of simpler problems. Emphasis is placed upon intuitive interpretations, rather than upon formal proofs. In most cases, the reader is referred elsewhere for a rigorous development. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to treat simple, useful models in some detail. Thus these notes complement the existing mathematical literature, and there appears to be little duplication of existing works. The authors are indebted to Miss Jeanette Figueroa for her beautiful and speedy typing of this work. The research was supported by the Na...

  5. Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Singh Duhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. Nanotechnology based plant viral disease detection kits are also becoming popular and are useful in speedy and early detection of viral diseases. In this article, the potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology in precision agriculture are discussed. The modern nanotechnology based tools and techniques have the potential to address the various problems of conventional agriculture and can revolutionize this sector.

  6. Identification and characterization of the out-of-plane resonance in a dielectric elastomer to drive an agile robotic cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Li, Bo; Sun, Wenjie; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hualing

    2017-10-01

    A dielectric elastomer (DE) vibrates and resonates mechanically under an alternating voltage and the vibrations undergo a transition from the in-plane to the out-of-plane state. In this study, a phase diagram was established experimentally to illustrate this transition and an electromechanical model was proposed to predict the transition using the boundary conditions. The resonance frequencies were calculated and were shown to be consistent with the experimentally obtained values. A novel vibration-driven robotic cube was then designed and powered by the dielectric elastomer at the 1st order out-of-plane resonance. The agile robotic cube is ultralight and demonstrated a speedy response of 125 mm/s (1.8 body length/s), which is superior to the locomotive dynamics of the existing DE-based robotic devices.

  7. At the fall of Utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Newton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after WW2 numerous large-scale housing estates began to spring up. More often than not they consisted of high-rises. Merely 50 years later a great number of these developments are in the process of demolition or are seriously undergoing restructuring. The Modernistic thoughts, inspired by the CIAM (Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne movement and Le Corbusier seem to have lost the appeal they once held. In this contribution we look into this evolution and more specifically, we focus on the misinterpretation of the importance of the (symbolic meaning of housing by the Modernist movement. A misjudgement, that eventually resulted in the speedy dismantling of these estates.

  8. Wood chip production system making its debut in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-21

    The main component of the wood chip production system is a high-performance drum-type wood chipper which feeds the wood to a blower pipe transferring it to a tiltable chip container. Another essential element consists in the feeding system which continuously feeds the chipper with felled wood and other remains and provides for an uninterrupted, speedy and time-saving charging of the chipping unit. A hydraulic crane serves to feed the chipper. Both the feeding process and the chopping process are controlled by the driver. Wood chipper standard equipment moreover comprises built-in overload safety elements, an automatic stopping device responding as the system gets blocked up, a return circuit clearing the mouth of the feeder in case it is blocked, hydraulically controlled feeding and pressing rollers and an automatic speed controlling device. All components are mounted on a support which is installed on a carrier vehicle.

  9. Speeding Up Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    . Much innovation today takes place in open structures in which networks play an important role. However, little is known about how innovation networks can facilitate parallel innovation processes. This paper discusses how innovation network structures develop and support exploration and exploitation......Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations...... in parallel innovation processes and in this way sustain speedy innovation processes. A case study of an innovation network is carried out by analysing communication structures and the information contents of emails related to a particular innovation process. The analysis shows how certain characteristics...

  10. The reasonable time of the process in the brazilian law and the new Civil Procedure Code: progress and setbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Harzheim Macedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the legal nature assumed by the reasonable duration of the institute process in Brazilian law. It is observed initially that the search for a speedy process is not new and that the idea entered in Brazil before the enactment of the Constitution of 1988. Subsequently the three main constitutional classifications that point the institute as rule, principle and rule-principle are sorted out. Later, the institute is analyzed under the infra perspective, especially from the perspective of the new Civil Procedure Code, with the close analysis of the contributions of the new procedural law to increase the speed of the process. Above all, the unremovable need for fixing clear conceptual beacons that define the reasonable duration of the process enabling the realization of its effectiveness in the daily lives of jurisdictional emerges.

  11. Quantum Cryptography Based on the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao; Farouk, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Recently, secure quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using the Bell state is reported (Nagata and Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys. doi: 10.1007/s10773-017-3352-4, 2017). Our aim is of extending the result to a multipartite system. In this paper, we propose a highly speedy key distribution protocol. We present sequre quantum key distribution based on a special Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. Bob has promised to use a function f which is of one of two kinds; either the value of f( x) is constant for all values of x, or else the value of f( x) is balanced, that is, equal to 1 for exactly half of the possible x, and 0 for the other half. Here, we introduce an additional condition to the function when it is balanced. Our quantum key distribution overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor O(2 N ).

  12. Vibration-Based Structural Health Monitoring: Theoretical Foundations and Experimental Validation on Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Nkem Ede

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quick identification of damages in structures is of great importance to engineers. Among the various techniques available for the evaluation of reinforced concrete structural integrity, non-destructive tests method remain a viable one as its use can lead to speedy decisions that bring savings on repairs or replacement of damaged reinforced concrete structures. This research uses modal parameter-based non- destructive tests to assess damages in reinforced concrete beams under static load. Four-point static loadings were applied to the 3 RC beams to induce three damage scenarios. After each static loading, a dynamic test was performed to access the degree of stiffness degradation. Modal frequencies and mode shapes obtained depicts clearly the stiffness degradations of the beams as the severity of damages on the beams became more pronounced. Results obtained showed that the research procedure adopted is a smart approach for damage assessment in reinforced concrete elements.

  13. Discrimination of different Chrysanthemums with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-xia; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Bao, Hong-juan

    2008-07-01

    Use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to analyze simultaneously the main chemical constituents in different solvent extracts of seven kinds of Chrysanthemum samples of different regions. The findings indicate that different Chrysanthemum samples have dissimilar fingerprint characters in FT-IR spectra. Such spectral technique can provide substance structural information of the complicated test samples. According to these spectral fingerprint features, we cannot only identify the main components of different extracts, but also distinguish the origins of the Chrysanthemum samples from different regions easily, which is a troublesome work by existing analytical methods. FT-IR, with the characters of speediness, good repeatability and easy operation, can be used as an effective analytical means to study the complicated system, in our research, the tradition Chinese medicines.

  14. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  15. Descemet′s tear due to injector cartridge tip deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation using an injector system through 2.8-mm clear corneal incision following phacoemulsification provides excellent speedy postoperative recovery. In our reported case, a Sensar AR40e IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, USA was loaded into Emerald C cartridge, outside the view of the operating microscope, by the first assistant. The surgeon proceeded with the IOL injection through a 2.8-mm clear corneal incision after uneventful phacoemulsification, immediately following which he noted a Descemet′s tear with a rolled out flap of about 2 mm near the incision site. Gross downward beaking of the bevelled anterior end of the cartridge was subsequently noticed upon examination under the microscope. We suggest careful preoperative microscopic inspection of all instruments and devices entering the patient′s eyes to ensure maximum safety to the patient.

  16. Granular neural networks, pattern recognition and bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sankar K; Ganivada, Avatharam

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a uniform framework describing how fuzzy rough granular neural network technologies can be formulated and used in building efficient pattern recognition and mining models. It also discusses the formation of granules in the notion of both fuzzy and rough sets. Judicious integration in forming fuzzy-rough information granules based on lower approximate regions enables the network to determine the exactness in class shape as well as to handle the uncertainties arising from overlapping regions, resulting in efficient and speedy learning with enhanced performance. Layered network and self-organizing analysis maps, which have a strong potential in big data, are considered as basic modules,. The book is structured according to the major phases of a pattern recognition system (e.g., classification, clustering, and feature selection) with a balanced mixture of theory, algorithm, and application. It covers the latest findings as well as directions for future research, particularly highlighting bioinf...

  17. Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, Joginder Singh; Kumar, Ravinder; Kumar, Naresh; Kaur, Pawan; Nehra, Kiran; Duhan, Surekha

    2017-09-01

    Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. Nanotechnology based plant viral disease detection kits are also becoming popular and are useful in speedy and early detection of viral diseases. In this article, the potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology in precision agriculture are discussed. The modern nanotechnology based tools and techniques have the potential to address the various problems of conventional agriculture and can revolutionize this sector.

  18. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  19. Medicine, big business, and public health: wake up and smell the Starbucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen

    2009-04-01

    The provision of ambulatory care by major retailers is small but growing, providing speedy attention to consumers with minimal wait times and no appointments necessary. Users of these clinics are satisfied with the care they receive. Primary care physicians have opposed retail clinics, concerned that conditions will be misdiagnosed, opportunities to address comorbidities and risk behaviors will be missed, necessary follow-up care will be delayed or absent, and the profit motive will lead to cutting corners. Public health is now being challenged to capitalize on the advantageous possibilities these clinics can offer, such as serving uninsured patients, while remaining vigilant regarding potential hazards, such as financial pressures that could negatively affect health care quality, continuity, and accessibility.

  20. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-08-25

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  1. Essential medicines management during emergencies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S K S; Qureshi, J A R H; Jooma, R; Bile, K M; Kazi, G N; Zaibi, W A; Zafar, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the experiences of essential medicine management in providing cure and care to victims of Pakistan's 2005 earthquake in a safe, rational and effective mode. The health interventions assured access to essential medicine, sustained supply, inventory control through a computerized logistic support system and rational use of medicines. World Health Organization Pakistan outlined modalities for acceptance of donated medicines, assisted in speedy procurement of medicines and designed customized kits. Proper storage of medicines at controlled temperature was ensured in warehousing facilities in 12 locations. A steady supply of medicines and their consumption without stock-outs in the 56 first-level care facilities of calamity-hit areas helped to ascertain the average consumption and cost of essential medicines and supplies for the catchment population. Tools for quantification and forecasting of medicines and supplies were developed and shared. Medicines and medical supplies were efficiently used resulting in minimum wastage.

  2. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  3. Evaluation and treatment of shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Deborah L

    2014-05-01

    Shoulder pain is a common symptom in the adult population. The most common cause of shoulder pain is SIS, reflecting a problem with the rotator cuff or subacromial bursa. Determining the cause of a patient’s pain is usually a clinical diagnosis based on careful history taking and physical examination. Limited use of imaging studies will be needed in the setting of trauma, possible glenohumeral arthritis, or when a complete tendon tear is suspected. Therapy is based on pain control and therapeutic exercises in almost all cases. Despite the prevalence of shoulder pain, there is no consensus on the best way to achieve pain control or on the type of exercise most likely to achieve speedy recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential function methods for approximately solving linear programming problems theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bienstock, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Potential Function Methods For Approximately Solving Linear Programming Problems breaks new ground in linear programming theory. The book draws on the research developments in three broad areas: linear and integer programming, numerical analysis, and the computational architectures which enable speedy, high-level algorithm design. During the last ten years, a new body of research within the field of optimization research has emerged, which seeks to develop good approximation algorithms for classes of linear programming problems. This work both has roots in fundamental areas of mathematical programming and is also framed in the context of the modern theory of algorithms. The result of this work, in which Daniel Bienstock has been very much involved, has been a family of algorithms with solid theoretical foundations and with growing experimental success. This book will examine these algorithms, starting with some of the very earliest examples, and through the latest theoretical and computational developments.

  5. Support Science by Publishing in Scientific Society Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D; Johnston, Mark; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-09-26

    Scientific societies provide numerous services to the scientific enterprise, including convening meetings, publishing journals, developing scientific programs, advocating for science, promoting education, providing cohesion and direction for the discipline, and more. For most scientific societies, publishing provides revenues that support these important activities. In recent decades, the proportion of papers on microbiology published in scientific society journals has declined. This is largely due to two competing pressures: authors' drive to publish in "glam journals"-those with high journal impact factors-and the availability of "mega journals," which offer speedy publication of articles regardless of their potential impact. The decline in submissions to scientific society journals and the lack of enthusiasm on the part of many scientists to publish in them should be matters of serious concern to all scientists because they impact the service that scientific societies can provide to their members and to science. Copyright © 2017 Schloss et al.

  6. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

  7. Modal Testing Using Impact Excitation and a Scanning LDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Stanbridge

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available If a laser Doppler vibrometer is used in a continuously-scanning mode to measure the response of a vibrating structure, its output spectrum contains side-bands from which the response mode shape, as defined along the scan line, may be obtained. With impact excitation, the response is the summation of a set of exponentially-decaying sinusoids which, in the frequency domain, has peaks at the natural frequencies and at `sideband' pseudo-natural frequencies, spaced at multiples of the scan frequency. Techniques are described for deriving natural mode shapes from these, using standard modal analysis procedures. Some limitations as to the types of mode which can be analysed are described. The process is simple and speedy, even when compared with a normal point-by-point impact test survey. Information may also be derived, using a circular scan, on the direction of vibration, and angular vibration, at individual points.

  8. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  9. Possible use of pattern recognition for the analysis of Mars rover X-ray fluorescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lo I; Trombka, Jacob I.; Seltzer, Stephen M.; Johnson, Robert G.; Philpotts, John A.

    1989-01-01

    On the Mars rover sample-return mission, the rover vehicle will collect and select samples from different locations on the Martian surface to be brought back to earth for laboratory studies. It is anticipated that an in situ energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer will be on board the rover. On such a mission, sample selection is of higher priority than in situ quantitative chemical anlaysis. With this in mind, a pattern recognition technique is proposed as a simple, direct, and speedy alternative to detailed chemical analysis of the XRF spectra. The validity and efficacy of the pattern recognition technique are demonstrated by the analyses of laboratory XRF spectra obtained from a series of geological samples, in the form both of standardized pressed pellets and as unprepared rocks. It is found that pattern recognition techniques applied to the raw XRF spectra can provide for the same discrimination among samples as a knowledge of their actual chemical composition.

  10. HCMM satellite follow-on investigation no. 25. Soil moisture and heat budget evalution in selected European zones of agricultural and environmental interest (TELLUS project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A simple procedure to evaluate actual evaporation was derived by linearizing the surface energy balance equation, using Taylor's expansion. The original multidimensional hypersurface could be reduced to a linear relationship between evaporation and surface temperature or to a surface relationship involving evaporation, surface temperature and albedo. This procedure permits a rapid sensitivity analysis of the surface energy balance equation as well as a speedy mapping of evaporation from remotely sensed surface temperatures and albedo. Comparison with experimental data yielded promising results. The validity of evapotranspiration and soil moisture models in semiarid conditions was tested. Wheat was the crop chosen for a continuous measurement campaign made in the south of Italy. Radiometric, micrometeorologic, agronomic and soil data were collected for processing and interpretation.

  11. An Image Encryption Scheme Based on DNA Computing and Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Networks have developed very quickly, allowing the speedy transfer of image information through Internet. However, the openness of these networks poses a serious threat to the security of image information. The field of image encryption has drawn attention for this reason. In this paper, the concepts of 1-dimensional DNA cellular automata and T-DNA cellular automata are defined, and the concept of reversible T-DNA cellular automata is introduced. An efficient approach to encryption involving reversible T-DNA cellular automata as an encryption tool and natural DNA sequences as the main keys is here proposed. The results of a simulation experiment, performance analysis, and comparison to other encryption algorithms showed this algorithm to be capable of resisting brute force attacks, statistical attacks, and differential attacks. It also enlarged the key space enormously. It meets the criteria for one-time pad and resolves the problem that one-time pad is difficult to save.

  12. Verletzung der A. subscapularis durch Reposition einer vorderen Schulterluxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Strohm, P C; Rosahl, S K

    2006-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocations are one of the most common problems seen in an emergency department. Doubtless, immediate reduction is necessary for treatment, a procedure that is extremely rarely accompanied by complications. In these cases early diagnosis and treatment may be limb saving. We...... report a case with rupture of the arteria subscapularis following reduction of an anterior shoulder dislocation with formation of an axillary hematoma and consecutive paresis of the plexus brachialis. Interdisciplinary operative revision was necessary to remove the hematoma, stop the hemorrhage...... and for neurolysis of the plexus brachialis. Treatment resulted in a speedy recovery of the patient. Gentle reduction of a dislocated shoulder is a prerequisite for a low complication rate. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography facilitated diagnosis of the hematoma and identification of the bleeding vessel....

  13. The alternative dispute resolution mechanism as a human right / Los mecanismos alternativos de solución de controversias como derecho humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egla Cornelio Landero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are owned by the person for the simple fact of being, that all authorities within the scope of its powers, have the obligation to promote, respect, protect and ensure, in accordance with the principles of universality, interdependence, indivisibility and escalation. Second paragraph of Article 17 of the Constitution of Mexico, provides the fundamental right of access to justice and the public right that everyone has to be given to it for speedy justice courts, within the time and manner prescribed laws under principles of promptness, full and impartial justice. In the fourth paragraph of this constitutional provision since June 2008, has been recognized as a human right to access to justice, alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, which consist of negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration.

  14. Emergency Geohazard Mapping for Wenchuan Earthquake Disaster in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian Guo; Chuan, Tang; Kusky, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    JAXA provided ALOS imagery data represent so far the most complete and speedy coverage of the region devastated by the magnificent Mw 8.0 earthquake that occurred on 12th May 2008 in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China. Using the AVNIR-2 standard false colour composites optimised via localised contrast enhancement, we swiftly carried out emergency geohazard mapping based on image visual interpretation integrated with data from field investigation to fulfil the government's urgent request to provide essential information for hazard management and regional rebuilding planning. The paper summarises this very real application work to answer the extreme challenges of natural disasters that serves as one of the major objectives of ALOS mission.

  15. Pregnant women’s preference for vaginal or caesarean childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Ebner Melchiori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the preference for delivery in 40 pregnant women using a semi-structured interview. Most women (75% reported a preference for vaginal delivery, mainly because they believe it will result in a speedy recovery and be better for them and/or their babies. Of the women interviewed, 15% preferred a caesarean section because they considered it be less painful. These preferences, in general, were influenced by friends. Most women said they had fear of parturition due to: feelings of pain/suffering, concern of something happening to them or their babies and because the situation is unknown or assessed in a negative fashion. The presence of trusted people, like one’s husband, mother or doctor, could minimize this fear. These results reinforce the contributions of health professionals, such as psychologists, in answering the psychosocial needs of pregnant women in situations of delivery and birth.   Keywords: vaginal birth; caesarean section; pregnancy; health psychology.

  16. Forensic Tools for Mobile Phone Subscriber Identity Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Jansen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones and other handheld devices incorporating cellular capabilities, such as Personal Digital Assistants, are ubiquitous.  Besides placing calls, these devices allow users to perform other useful tasks, including text messaging and phonebook entry management.  When cell phones and cellular devices are involved in a crime or other incident, forensic specialists require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination of data present on the device.  For devices conforming to the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM standards, certain data such as dialed numbers, text messages, and phonebook entries are maintained on a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM.  This paper gives a snapshot of the state of the art of forensic software tools for SIMs and an explanation of the types of digital evidence they can recover.

  17. Genome editing: intellectual property and product development in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. Due to the ingenuity of genome editing, the time between new product conception and its actual existence can be relatively short; therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. This point must be regarded in a national framework as patents are instituted nationally. Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market.

  18. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kotze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  19. Where do poly(vinyl alcohol) based membranes stand in relation to Nafion® for direct methanol fuel cell applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Jatindranath; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Jee, Seung Hyun; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Yoon, Young Soo

    2012-10-01

    Though fuel cells have been considered as a viable energy conversion device, their adaptation for practical applications has been facing certain challenging issues regarding the availability of appropriate materials and components. For low temperature fuel cells, membranes that are cost effective and also competitive to Nafion® are the major requirements especially for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC). Proton conductivity and methanol crossover are the two main characteristics that are of great concern for the development of suitable, alternate, and viable membranes for DMFC applications, though other factors including environmental acceptability are also important. In this regard, in recent time's poly (vinyl alcohol) based membranes have been developed as a viable alternative. This presentation therefore assesses the technological advances that have been made and the impediments that are faced in this development. This critical assessment exercise, it is presumed, may contribute toward a speedy development of this critical component for a viable fuel cell based energy economy.

  20. Del impacto mediático al olvido: la pérdida de interés noticioso como indicador de la deshumanización de los medios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ainara Larrondo Ureta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Present opulence news context leads media to redefine their role and functions, in order to give an answer to problems which overturn our society. Furthermore, it is a hopeful moment for Journalism and, particularly, for print press which can get the chance to recover its basic functions. Present age is determined by worldwide speedy transmission of information, but also by the ostracism of events such as conflicts, disasters or other human crisis. These are usually forgotten by journalists when first impact and novelty vanish, although it is not easy to understand the fact that these issues disappear rapidly from news titles to return later because of economic, politic or social disorder, commonly preferred by media to be related. Therefore, this article purposes a reflection on the social role of press, by analysing the interest and news coverage of the tsunami which devastated Asia-Pacific nations last December 2004 and its aftermath.

  1. Colombia: will it be 2001+ before coal exports really start to rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    April`s Americas Coal Conference (taking place in Colombia`s Cartagena) will provide an opportunity to examine the host country`s export prospects at close quarters. Observers say tonnages will only increase if a better transport infrastructure is provided. This article concentrates on the exporting Cerrejon/Cesar deposits, and how Carbocol - plus the region`s private producers - intend to go about increasing exports of the acknowledged high quality coal. An examination of the region`s sales potential last year came to the conclusion that its history was not on the side of speedy development, and that geographical and infrastructure limitations - unless there is a change in the pace of decision-making - make it unlikely that there can be any significant growth over the next five years. Little appears to have changed. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Impact Factor? Shmimpact Factor!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The journal impact factor is a measure of the citability of articles published in that journal—the more citations generated, the more important that article is considered to be, and as a consequence the prestige of the journal is enhanced. The impact factor is not without controversy, and it can be manipulated. It no longer dominates the choices of journals to search for information. Online search engines, such as PubMed, can locate articles of interest in seconds across journals regardless of high or low impact factors. Editors desiring to increase their influence will need to focus on a fast and friendly submission and review process, early online and speedy print publication, and encourage the rapid turnaround of high-quality peer reviews. Authors desiring to have their results known to the world have never had it so good—the internet permits anyone with computer access to find the author's work. PMID:20806031

  3. MARKET PRICE COINTEGRATION OF TOMATO: EFFECTS TO NEPALESE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Bahadur Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Market price cointegration is a critical issue in Nepalese vegetable industry. This study intended to analyze the market price cointegration of tomato and its effect on Nepalese farmers, using secondary monthly time series of wholesale price data (since 2000 to 2010 of the Government of Nepal. The results of error correction model (ECM showed that the series were stationary, and Kathmandu market was well cointegrated with source markets (Chitwan and Morang. Meanwhile, the vector error correction model (VECM revealed that price adjustment process was much faster in source markets especially in negative price shocks in response to Kathmandu market, which affected the farmers for speedy price adjustment that leads to be hurt and discouraged. The study recommend policies to establish alternative vegetable markets that reduce the price dependency of farmers on Kathmandu market, encourage traders in involving vegetable marketing, and enhance effective market information services.

  4. Radiotherapy in massive angiomatous osteolysis (Gorham-Stout's syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bek, V.; Haicl, Z.; Kolar, J.; Bednar, B.

    1981-12-01

    The cases of two young men with the Gorham-Stout's syndrome of massive angiomatous osteolysis are presented. Attempted surgical removal of the pathological angiomatous tissue proved unsuccessful. Telegammatherapy with each patient receiving total focal dose of 40.0 Gy fractionated over a period of 4 weeks resulted in speedy and complete arrest of osteolysis, and in partial recalcification of the bone tissue destroyed. In one patient the favourable condition has been lasting for 9 years, in the other for 8 months from the end of the course of radiotherapy. The authors discuss the cause of a central fracture of the first patient's left acetabulum which was noted 5 years after the radiotherapy. Proceeding from their experience so far, the authors describe radiotherapy in the Gorham-Stout's syndrome as a method of choice, and give a list of the therapeutical principles.

  5. Museum metamorphosis à la mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    2014-01-01

    museum practices correspond to the logic of fashion. Where Foucault once described museums as heterochronias; places representing an ’other-time’, museums now strive to be both of their time and in time with the Zeitgeist. As a consequence, they must keep up with the speedy cycles of technological...... advancements and cultural change, and not only deliver, but also stoke the desire for, novel experiences. The paper explores the current vogue for fashion exhibitions as a case in point, arguing that this trend serves to promote the museum as fashionably current, but can also support novel formats for cultural......Museums are steadily changing. Yet analogising this development with biological or mythological metamorphosis could imply an elevation or naturalisation of events, which is potentially problematic. This paper therefore suggests a supplementary perspective, arguing that certain changes in modern day...

  6. A late diagnosed case of Spontaneous esophageal perforation in an elderly patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Wang, Fei; Chen, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation, also known as Boerhaave’s syndrome, is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, especially in elderly patients with more complications, speedy development and higher mortality. Successful handling of the disease depends on a timely diagnosis and the appropriate choice of treatment. Unfortunately, late diagnosis is common because of the non-specific clinical presentation. We here present a 72-year-old patient of spontaneous esophageal perforation who complained of chest pain, but sharply deteriorated with septic shock. With a vomiting history and gastrointestinal-genic bacterium identified in the chest fluid, the patient was highly suspected for esophageal perforation, though the oral methylene blue test was negative for three times. The diagnosis was finally established by esophagoscopy on the 10th day. The perforation was successfully healed by active conservative management and the patient was discharged home on the 43rd day eating normal diet. PMID:26379988

  7. An Assessment of Three Northeast Asian Economies’ Total Factor Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available East Asian economies have achieved spectacular growth rates in a relatively short timespan outstripping the rest of the developing world. Hence the concern of both scholarly and policymaking circles for their peculiar development strategies. Both their spectacular rise and provisional decline after the Asian financial crisis (AFC were explained from three major perspectives: statism, neoliberalism, and neoconfucianism.The paper purports to quantify and interpret the pre-crisis total factor productivity (TFP of three Northeast Asian economies by using the Solow Model. The interdependencies between their TFP dynamics were investigated via a VAR Model. The findings suggest that labour contribution has decreased over time in favour of capital inputs and/or TFP as speedy industrialisation, and a gradual refinement of international specialisation proceeded. However low or even negative TFP during the 1990s signal the emergence of structural problems that decelerate growth, and increase these economies’ vulnerability to exogenous shocks.

  8. Internal and External Dialogue: A Method for Quality Court Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hagsgård

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of quality court work is to maintain or improve public trust in the court as a vital part of a democratic society. Public confidence in the judicial system is affected by a number of factors, including speedy and judicially correct decisions which are generally understandable and a good treatment of parties and witnesses before and during court proceedings. In order to uphold and enhance public trust, courts need to work systematically to improve the quality of court functioning. But questions remain regarding how to institute quality court management, and how to achieve positive results. Although court managers in Sweden have shown an interest in starting systematic quality work, they have found it difficult to find a method for such work and systematically achieving results.

  9. Construction of APR1000 nuclear power information management system based on international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Deok Yong; Han, Byung Sub [Enesys Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); An, Kyung Ik; Hwang, Jin Sang [PartDB Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In recent years, due to speedy rise of international oil prices, orders of nuclear power plant construction have been in progress by many countries to solve the stable supply of power. Our country has continued to perform nuclear power construction. As only a few developed countries like Japan and European countries have its own nuclear power construction technology, competition among them is keen. Our country has awarded the contract of UAE nuclear power plants based on the accumulated nuclear power plant construction technologies so far. In this regard, KEPCO has recognized the needs of information management system to manage nuclear power information and proceeded the implementation of nuclear power information management system for export-model

  10. The ATLAS Computing Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Bee, C P; Hawkings, R; Jarp, S; Jones, R; Malon, D; Poggioli, L; Poulard, G; Quarrie, D; Wenaus, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Offline Computing Model is described. The main emphasis is on the steady state, when normal running is established. The data flow from the output of the ATLAS trigger system through processing and analysis stages is analysed, in order to estimate the computing resources, in terms of CPU power, disk and tape storage and network bandwidth, which will be necessary to guarantee speedy access to ATLAS data to all members of the Collaboration. Data Challenges and the commissioning runs are used to prototype the Computing Model and test the infrastructure before the start of LHC operation. The initial planning for the early stages of data-taking is also presented. In this phase, a greater degree of access to the unprocessed or partially processed raw data is envisaged.

  11. [Radiotherapy and the flow of data and documentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, P; Slampa, P R; Zychácek, M

    2011-01-01

    Working approaches to radiotherapy are constantly in contact with new techniques that simultaneously require more advanced information flow and integration of all required information. These procedures are multi-dimensional and comprise a broad spectrum of documentation (patient demography, radiotherapy data, information required for diagnosis and treatment specification, illustrative records, etc.). These data are indispensable to the patient treatment process and it is crucial that they be integrated into patient health documentation. They are also necessary to enable long-term and speedy access to the data fields required by staff involved in treatment. In view of the various requirements placed on systems and their range of usage, it is essential that communication standards (DICOM, DICOM RT, PACS, HL7) are employed in such a way as to ensure compatibility and common systems communication.

  12. Disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eleanor A M

    2006-09-01

    In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.

  13. The role of and limitations on the judiciary in the promotion of social peace in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Bertelsmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Judge Eberhard Bertelsmann of the North Gauteng High Court delivered the address published here as he delivered it in Afrikaans in the series of FW de Klerk lectures in Potchefstroom on 20 February 2012. He dealt with the role of and limitations on the judiciary to promote social peace in South Africa, pointing out the achievements of the courts in the establishment of the constitutional dispensation over the past decades. He however also showed that the courts are over-burdened and that court administration leaves much to be desired. Litigants and practitioners do not hesitate to abuse the system and ugly incidents of unethical conduct have marred the professions. Judges however do not take these trends lying down and measures to rectify the situation are well underway. Fair, understandable, predictable and speedy adjudication without fear, favour or prejudice continues to be the contribution of judges to the protection of the South African democracy.

  14. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  15. On the nature of the relationship between tropical Atlantic variability and summer Mediterranean climate. What has changed in recent decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Teresa; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén.; Kucharski, Fred

    2010-05-01

    The Equatorial Atlantic Mode has been linked to the Mediterranean/European summer climate, in a way that positive SST anomalies in the Tropical Atlantic during summer have been related with colder and wetter conditions in the Western and Central Mediterranean in late summer (July and August), pointing to the perturbation of the Hadley cell and the storm track as key factors in the possible mechanisms linking these two areas. Analyzing the second half of the XXth century, we find how the Mediterranean summer response to the Equatorial Mode is non-stationary, being different before an after the late-70s climate shift. Between these two periods, changes in the different tropical ocean basins, as well as in the interactions among them, have been also reported. In this work we explore the nature of this change in the European response to the Equatorial Mode by performing a set of simulations with the Speedy AGCM, prescribing 1950-2000 observed SSTs in the different tropical ocean basis, as well as in the whole tropics. In order to asses the importance of the local SSTs in the European/Mediterranean response, the same simulations have been re-done with the Speedy model coupled to a Slab Ocean Model in the North Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean sea. The results point to the whole tropical ocean as the responsible for the atmospheric response observed in the Mediterranean in summer during the second period of the study, being the ocean-atmosphere interaction a key factor in the accurate modulation of the response.

  16. Complete Edentulous Rehabilitation Using an Immediate Function Protocol and an Implant Design Featuring a Straight Body, Anodically Oxidized Surface, and Narrow Tip with Engaging Threads Extending to the Apex of the Implant: A 5-year Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, Paulo; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Lopes, Armando; Ferro, Ana; Gravito, Inês

    2016-01-01

    To report the 5-year outcome of NobelSpeedy design implants in immediate function fixed prosthetic rehabilitations. This retrospective clinical study included 46 consecutive patients (29 women and 17 men) with an average age of 55 years (range, 32 to 78 years) who were rehabilitated between 2003 and 2004 with full-arch restorations supported by dental implants in immediate function. The primary outcome measures were implant survival calculated based on implant function and using life tables. The secondary outcome measures were marginal bone levels measured at 3 and 5 years, and the incidence of mechanical and biologic complications. Five patients with 21 study implants dropped out (11%). One-hundred eighty-nine implants were inserted in the maxilla (n = 166) and mandible (n = 23). Five patients lost five implants, giving a cumulative survival rate of 97.3% at 5 years of follow-up. The average (SD) marginal bone levels were 1.45 mm (0.83 mm) and 1.72 mm (1.04 mm) at 5 years of follow-up. The incidence of mechanical complications in the provisional and definitive prostheses was registered in 14 and 6 patients, respectively: prosthetic screw loosening (n = 4 provisional prostheses, n = 3 definitive prostheses), abutment screw loosening (n = 5 provisional prostheses), fracture of the acrylic resin prostheses (n = 5 provisional prostheses, n = 1 definitive prosthesis), chipping of a ceramic crown (n = 1 definitive prosthesis), and fracture of a ceramic crown (n = 1 definitive prosthesis). The incidence of biologic complications (peri-implant pathology) was registered in 6 patients and 12 implants (7.1%). Within the limitations of this study, it is possible to conclude that implants of the NobelSpeedy type used in immediate function for support of fixed prosthetic full-arch rehabilitations are a valid option, with a high survival rate.

  17. Klasifikasi Topik Keluhan Pelanggan Berdasarkan Tweet dengan Menggunakan Penggabungan Feature Hasil Ekstraksi pada Metode Support Vector Machine (SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Esyudha Pratama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan twitter sebagai layanan customer serevice perusahaan sudah mulai banyak digunakan, tak terkecuali Speedy. Mekanisme yang ada saat ini untuk proses klasifikasi bentuk dan jenis keluhan serta informasi tentang jumlah keluhan lewat twitter masih dilakukan secara manual. Belum lagi data twitter yang bersifat tidak terstruktur tentunya akan menyulitkan untuk dilakukan analisa dan penggalian informasi dari data tersebut. Berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memproses data teks dari tweet pengguna twitteryang masuk ke akun @TelkomSpeedy untuk diolah menjadi informasi. Informasi tersebut nantinya digunakan untuk klasifikasi bentuk dan jenis keluhan. Merujuk pada beberapa penelitian terkait, salah satu metode klasifikasi yang paling baik untuk digunakan adalah metode Support Vector Machine (SVM. Konsep dari SVM dapat dijelaskan secara sederhana sebagai usaha mencari hyperplane yang dapat memisahkan dataset sesuai dengan kelasnya. Kelas yang digunakan dalam penelitian kali ini berdasarkan topik keluhan pelanggan yaitu billing, pemasangan/instalasi, putus (disconnect, dan lambat. Faktor penting lainnya dalam hal klasifikasi adalah penentuan feature atau atribut kata yang akan digunakan. Metode feature selection yang digunakan pada penlitian ini adalah term frequency (TF, document frequency (DF, information gain, dan chi-square. Pada penelitian ini juga dilakukan metode penggabungan feature yang telah dihasilkan dari beberapa metode feature selection sebelumnya. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa SVM mampu melakukan klasifikasi keluhan dengan baik, hal ini dibuktikan dengan akurasi 82,50% untuk klasifikasi bentuk keluhan dan 86,67% untuk klasifikasi jenis keluhan. Sedangkan untuk kombinasi penggunaan feature dapat meningkatkan akurasi menjadi 83,33% untuk bentuk keluhan dan 89,17% untuk jenis keluhan.   Kata Kunci—customer service, klasifikasi topik keluhan, penggabungan feature, support vector machine

  18. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India

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    Samiksha Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children’s physical activity in Delhi, India. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1 access to the school; (2 surrounding area; (3 school grounds; (4 aesthetics; (5 usage; and (6 overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Results Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together, and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13 and were well maintained (n = 10. One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. Conclusions The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as

  19. An evaluation of outdoor school environments to promote physical activity in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Samiksha; Arora, Monika; Rawal, Tina; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-05

    Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool. The SPEEDY school audit measured six categories, including (1) access to the school; (2) surrounding area; (3) school grounds; (4) aesthetics; (5) usage; and (6) overall environment. Six trained data collectors conducted the audit independently in the summer of 2012 while schools were in session. Of the 16 schools, one had cycle lanes separated from the road while two schools had cycle lanes on the road. Two schools had pavement on both sides of the road for pedestrians. One school had marked pedestrian crossings. No schools had school warning signs, road safety signs, or route signs for cyclists that would help calm vehicular traffic. Fifteen schools had playground equipment and nine had courts, an assault course (a sequence of equipment designed to be used together), and a quadrangle (an enclosed or semi-enclosed courtyard) for outdoor physical activity. The majority of schools were shielded from the surrounding area by hedges, trees, or fences (n = 13) and were well maintained (n = 10). One school had evidence of vandalism. Two schools had graffiti, seven had litter, and 15 had murals or art. The majority of schools did not have infrastructure to support physical activity, such as cycle lanes, marked pedestrian crossings, or traffic calming mechanisms such as school warning signs. However, most had playground equipment

  20. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopfi, Jakob; Böttcher, Michael E.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2008-02-01

    The biogeochemistry of sedimentary sulfur was investigated on the continental shelf off central Chile at water depths between 24 and 88 m under partial influence of an oxygen minimum zone. Dissolved and solid iron and sulfur species, including the sulfur intermediates sulfite, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur, were analyzed at high resolution in the top 20 cm. All stations were characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction, but only the sediments within the Bay of Concepción contained dissolved sulfide. Due to advection and/or in-situ reoxidation of sulfide, dissolved sulfate was close to bottom water values. Whereas the concentrations of sulfite and thiosulfate were mostly in the submicromolar range, elemental sulfur was by far the dominant sulfur intermediate. Although the large nitrate- and sulfur-storing bacteria Thioploca were abundant, the major part of S 0 was located extracellularly. The distribution of sulfur species and dissolved iron suggests the reaction of sulfide with FeOOH as an important pathway for sulfide oxidation and sulfur intermediate formation. This is in agreement with the sulfur isotope composition of co-existing elemental sulfur and iron monosulfides. In the Bay of Concepción, sulfur isotope data suggest that pyrite formation proceeds via the reaction of FeS with polysulfides or H 2S. At the shelf stations, on the other hand, pyrite was significantly depleted in 34S relative to its potential precursors FeS and S 0. Isotope mass balance considerations suggest further that pyritization at depth includes light sulfide, potentially originating from bacterial sulfur disproportionation. The δ 34S-values of pyrite down to -38‰ vs. V-CDT are among the lightest found in organic-rich marine sediments. Seasonal variations in the sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicated a dynamic non-steady-state sulfur cycle in the surface sediments. The 18O content of porewater sulfate increased with depth at all sites compared to the

  1. THE PROBLEM OF REVERSION OF OKINAWA IN THE US-JAPAN POSTWAR RELATIONS

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    Д В Стрельцов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the postwar period the Okinawa problem for many years was a stumbling block in the relations between Japan and the United States, creating the risk of undermining the foundations of the alliance. In fact, Okinawa personified a deep contradiction between the diplomatic and military-strategic interests of the United States in East Asia and the national interests of Japan, for which Okinawa was a primarily domestic political problem. In the mid-1960 's, despite the increasing role of Okinawa in the American global strategy after the start of the Vietnam war, the United States came to the conclusion of the speedy reversion of Okinawa to Japan. The main obstacle for the implementation of this decision was the nuclear weapon stored in Okinawa, which played an important role in the global strategy of Pentagon. The United States managed to find an option of reversion Okinawa to Japan in 1972, under which they retained the right to store nuclear weapons in Okinawa and to transit them through the island in the case of emergency. The transfer administrative right on Okinawa to Japan was a symbolic act, by which the United States demonstrated their willingness for Japan to play a ‘responsible role’ in the alliance as an active actor, not just a junior partner.

  2. Conservative treatment preferences and the plausible mechanism of Neer's stage 1 of shoulder impingement in younger people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of various factors in the vicious cycle (VC) of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is complex and there are conservative treatment preferences for speedy rehabilitation. The mechanism of SIS is not fully understood and the inappropriate treatment priorities cause delay in rehabilitation. SIS is related to the reduction in the subacromial space (SS). Posterior capsular tightness (PCT) and rotator cuff (RC) dysfunction are the two basic mechanisms in this regard. PCT may cause anterosuperior translation of humeral head (HH) and anterior acromion tipping through scapular dyskinesis, thereby reducing the subacromial space. Alteration in the force couple of muscle secondary to scapular dyskinesis eventually causes injury to subacromial structures. The rotator cuff is important in centring the humeral head in the glenoid cavity and superior translation of humeral head occurs if their function is compromised. Posterior capsular tightness may affect the function of rotator cuff action which leads to early fatigue, dysfunction of these muscles and eventually impingement. Adhesive changes take place in various structures around the shoulder secondary to impingement pain and relative immobility, which further aggravates the problem. To reverse the vicious cycle, conservative intervention should therefore be directed to loosen posterior capsular tightness, restore rotator cuff function through appropriate exercise in a pain-free range through appropriate exercise, mobilisation of adhesion through teraservers friction or pain-free mobilisation or grade I and grade II manipulation. Depending on the level of irritability, pain control intervention could be considered alongside.

  3. Analyzing Comprehensive QoS with Security Constraints for Services Composition Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Naixue Xiong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The quality of service (QoS of services composition applications (SCAs are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique—vector universal generating function (VUGF—which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs.

  4. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Protein Biomarker Using a Portable Fluorescence Biosensor based on Quantum Dots and a Lateral Flow Test Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-08-15

    A portable fluorescence biosensor with rapid and ultrasensitive response for trace protein has been built up with quantum dots and lateral flow test strip. The superior signal brightness and high photostability of quantum dots are combined with the promising advantages of lateral flow test strip and resulted in high sensitivity, selectivity and speedy for protein detection. Nitrated ceruloplasmin, a significant biomarker for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and stress response to smoking, was used as model protein to demonstrate the good performances of this proposed Qdot-based lateral flow test strip. Quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin was realized by recording the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots captured on the test line. Under optimal conditions, this portable fluorescence biosensor displays rapid responses for nitrated ceruloplasmin in wide dynamic range with a detection limit of 0.1ng/mL (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor was successfully utilized for spiked human plasma sample detection with the concentration as low as 1ng/mL. The results demonstrate that the quantum dot-based lateral flow test strip is capable for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin and hold a great promise for point-of-care and in field analysis of other protein biomarkers.

  5. The Velocity of Density: Can We Build More Sustainable Cities Fast Enough?

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    Markus Moos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban planners now commonly advocate for increases in density of the built environment to reduce car dependence and enhance the sustainability of cities. The analysis in this paper asks about the speed at which density as a sustainability policy can be implemented. The Greater Toronto Hamilton Area (GTHA is used as a case study to measure how quickly existing areas could be densified to meet minimum transit supportive density thresholds. Almost 70% of existing residents live in neighborhoods with densities below minimum transit supportive densities. The findings show that increases in minimum densities could be attained roughly within the target time horizon of existing growth plans, but that these increases hinge on assumptions of continuing high growth rates. The sustainability of cities relies on a high ‘velocity of density’, a term proposed in the paper to refer to the speed at which density can be implemented. Density is often slowed or halted by local residents, which could prove problematic if sustainability objectives require speedy implementation, for instance to address climate change. Analysis of the velocity of density suggests that planning for sustainability, and climate change, in cities would benefit from considering a broader set of solutions to car dependence in existing low-density areas than changes to the density of the built form alone.

  6. Anxiety Treatment of Opioid Dependent Patients with Buprenorphine: A Randomized, Double-blind, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Jahromi, Mina Sefidfard

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of vary doses of buprenorphine on anxiety symptoms in opioid-dependent inpatients over a 7 days period, using a randomized controlled trial design. Patients were randomized to three groups. Fourteen men who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for both opioid use disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and were seeking for treatment. Patients obtain dosages of 32 mg or 64 mg or 96 mg of buprenorphine as a single dose only and were treated in a psychiatric inpatient unit. Of 14 subjects; 5 (35.7%) obtained 32 mg, 4 (28.6%) obtained 64 mg, and 5 (35.7%) obtained 96 mg of buprenorphine. Administering daily Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and interview. All the patients ended the 7-day treatment time. The results showed a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms within each of the three groups (P = 0.00), but no difference in outcome between the groups (P = 0.605). The outcome suggests a single high dose of buprenorphine can supply a speedy, safe, simple, and suitable means of anxiety treatment. The single high dose of buprenorphine could be a novel mechanism medication that provides a rapid and sustained improvement for generalized anxiety disorder in opioid dependent patients. Placebo-controlled trials of longer duration are needed to evaluate ability, safety, and psychological and physiological influence of extended exposure to this medication.

  7. Data on spatiotemporal urban sprawl of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffa, Chaltu; Mekonen, Teferi; Mulugeta, Messay; Tesfaye, Bechaye

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this paper shows the spatiotemporal expansion of Dire Dawa City (eastern Ethiopia) and the ensuing land use land cover changes in its peri-urban areas between 1985 and 2015. The data were generated from satellite images of Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) and OLI (Operational Land Image) with path/raw value of 166/053 by using Arc GIS 10.1 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Four LULC classes (built up area, vegetation, barren land and farmland) with their respective spatiotemporal dimensions were clearly identified in the analysis. Built up area had shown an overall annual increment of 15.8% (82 ha per year) from 517 ha in 1985 to 2976 ha in 2015. Expansion took place in all directions but it was more pronounced along the main road towards other nearby towns, recently established business/service areas and the Industrial Park. Barren land, farmland and vegetation areas showed speedy decline over the years.

  8. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  9. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  10. Fuzzy Logic based Handoff Latency Reduction Mechanism in Layer 2 of Heterogeneous Mobile IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Farhat; Masud, Mosharrof H.; Latif, Suhaimi A.

    2013-12-01

    Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is one of the pioneer standards that support mobility in IPv6 environment. It has been designed to support different types of technologies for providing seamless communications in next generation network. However, MIPv6 and subsequent standards have some limitations due to its handoff latency. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based mechanism is proposed to reduce the handoff latency of MIPv6 for Layer 2 (L2) by scanning the Access Points (APs) while the Mobile Node (MN) is moving among different APs. Handoff latency occurs when the MN switches from one AP to another in L2. Heterogeneous network is considered in this research in order to reduce the delays in L2. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and velocity of the MN are considered as the input of fuzzy logic technique. This technique helps the MN to measure optimum signal quality from APs for the speedy mobile node based on fuzzy logic input rules and makes a list of interfaces. A suitable interface from the list of available interfaces can be selected like WiFi, WiMAX or GSM. Simulation results show 55% handoff latency reduction and 50% packet loss improvement in L2 compared to standard to MIPv6.

  11. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DARIVA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  12. Bill: PM responds to Jayalalitha's plea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-27

    This paper reports on a response by the Prime Minister (PM), Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee, to an appeal made by the AIADMK general secretary, Ms. J. Jayalalitha, to get the Women's Reservation Bill passed soon. The PM appealed to his friends to cooperate in the passage of the legislation. Some political parties, the PM claimed, holding up its passage for reasons that are totally unrelated to the purpose for which the law for affirmative action is intended. A delay in implementing the bill would put at stake the very credibility of the entire political establishment in the eyes of Indian women. The proposed bill is intended to empower all women because females are victims of discrimination and deprivation. This is the reason that AIADMK raised their voices and demanded speedy passage and implementation of the legislation. It is a practical reality that the better women are treated, the higher indices of welfare rise. Unless women are allowed to have their voice, Indian parties will not have the chance to be democratic.

  13. Design of low complexity sharp MDFT filter banks with perfect reconstruction using hybrid harmony-gravitational search algorithm

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    V. Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of low complexity sharp transition width Modified Discrete Fourier Transform (MDFT filter bank with perfect reconstruction (PR is proposed in this work. The current trends in technology require high data rates and speedy processing along with reduced power consumption, implementation complexity and chip area. Filters with sharp transition width are required for various applications in wireless communication. Frequency response masking (FRM technique is used to reduce the implementation complexity of sharp MDFT filter banks with PR. Further, to reduce the implementation complexity, the continuous coefficients of the filters in the MDFT filter banks are represented in discrete space using canonic signed digit (CSD. The multipliers in the filters are replaced by shifters and adders. The number of non-zero bits is reduced in the conversion process to minimize the number of adders and shifters required for the filter implementation. Hence the performances of the MDFT filter bank with PR may degrade. In this work, the performances of the MDFT filter banks with PR are improved using a hybrid Harmony-Gravitational search algorithm.

  14. Asset Management Recovery after the Disater: State of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapri Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset, infrastructure and business can be destroyed in a split seconds. It only takes a minute for natural disasters such as flood, hurricane and others to happen that will stop the business process and destroying the business as well as their assets. Late response towards the disaster will bring disastrous impact not only to the people but also the social and economic of the impacted people and area. It is therefore important for the organization to ensure speedy recovery of the disaster’s impact such as the assets in an effort to ensure the business survival and facilitating societal and economic recovery. Therefore this paper examines the state of knowledge in relation to the asset management recovery especially after the disaster. Following to that, this paper will discuss the literatures involves in asset management recovery such as disaster management and business continuity plan (BCP. Towards the end, this paper suggests that the effect of lack of planning in asset management recovery will lead to an untold damage towards the community, organization as well as the business, taking months or even years to rectify. In some cases, businesses are shut down for goods due to loss data as well as other emerge problems cause by the disaster.

  15. Rapid and Recent Evolution of LTR Retrotransposons Drives Rice Genome Evolution During the Speciation of AA-Genome Oryza Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Jie; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2017-06-07

    The dynamics of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and their contribution to genome evolution during plant speciation have remained largely unanswered. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparison of all eight Oryza AA-genome species, and identify 3911 intact LTR retrotransposons classified into 790 families. The top 44 most abundant LTR retrotransposon families show patterns of rapid and distinct diversification since the species split over the last ∼4.8 MY (million years). Phylogenetic and read depth analyses of 11 representative retrotransposon families further provide a comprehensive evolutionary landscape of these changes. Compared with Ty1-copia, independent bursts of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon expansions have occurred with the three largest showing signatures of lineage-specific evolution. The estimated insertion times of 2213 complete retrotransposons from the top 23 most abundant families reveal divergent life histories marked by speedy accumulation, decline, and extinction that differed radically between species. We hypothesize that this rapid evolution of LTR retrotransposons not only divergently shaped the architecture of rice genomes but also contributed to the process of speciation and diversification of rice. Copyright © 2017 Zhang and Gao.

  16. [Comparison of esomeprazole- and omeprazole-based triple therapy regimens for duodenal ulcer with Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-hong; Wang, Wan-mei; Wang, Hao; Li, Hong-yan

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the effect of esomeprazole- and omeprazole-based triple therapy regimens in the treatment of duodenal ulcer with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Totally 104 patients with duodenal ulcer and Hp infection were randomly divided into group A (52 cases) treated with esomeprazole (20 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg) and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily and group B (52 cases) treated with omeprazole (20 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg) and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily. The treatment lasted for 7 days, after which abdominal pain relief rate, ulcer healing rate and eradication rate of Hp as well as adverse effects of the medication were evaluated and compared. On the first and second days of medication, the abdominal pain relief rates were 34.6% and 59.6% respectively in group A, significantly higher than those in group B (17.3% and 38.5%, respectively, P0.05). The adverse effects of the medication were rare in both groups without significant differences. Esomeprazole-based triple therapy may effectively eradicate Hp infection and promote duodenal ulcer healing with good tolerance, capable of achieving more speedy pain relief than omeprazole-based therapy.

  17. Marcelismo e ruptura democrática no contexto da transformação social portuguesa dos anos 1960 e 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Loff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Al interpretar los años ‘50 y, sobre todo, los ‘60 como un ciclo de cambio estructural muy rápido en la sociedad portuguesa, años en los que una verdadera revolución industrial se desarrolla a par del éxodo rural, la emigración masiva y la politización creciente en consecuencia de la Guerra Colonial (1961-74, el marcelismo nos aparece como la última oportunidad de la dictadura portuguesa ante un proceso de modernización y masificación de la sociedad que tenía mucho de inevitable.Reading the 1950’s and, mostly, the 1960’s as an historical cycle of structural and speedy change in Portuguese society, a time of real industrial revolution together with rural exodus, massive emigration and growing politicization as consequence of the Colonial War (1961-74, Marcelism emerges as the last chance of the Portuguese dictatorship to control a modernization and massification process which had become clearly inevitable.

  18. ROCLA robots repaired after tough times

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The team of five welders and five mechanics, represented by Pascal Mésenge (right) and Fabrice Multon (left), worked during two week-ends to repair the two ROCLA. At the centre, Oliver Boettcher, technical manager for the robot. The two LHC magnet transport robots ROCLA have recently been repaired after cracks were found in the welds of their load-bearing structure. The Safety Commission suspended the use of one robot and limited the operation conditions of the other. These vehicles are used intensively for the transport of the LHC cryodipoles between the test and the assembly facilities SM18 and SMA18. As a consequence, a speedy solution had to be implemented to minimize the potential disruption to the LHC schedule. Appropriate CERN resources were immediately focused on the problem. As soon as TS/MME had designed a reinforced gantry support, the necessary raw material was ordered. Less than 10 days were required to get the two ROCLA robots operating again. This included 2 full weekends, many extra hours a...

  19. Automatic Segmenting Structures in MRI's Based on Texture Analysis and Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Rattan, Munish; Singh, Pushpinder

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the variational method for geometric contours which helps the level set function remain close to the sign distance function, therefor it remove the need of expensive re-initialization procedure and thus, level set method is applied on magnetic resonance images (MRI) to track the irregularities in them as medical imaging plays a substantial part in the treatment, therapy and diagnosis of various organs, tumors and various abnormalities. It favors the patient with more speedy and decisive disease controlling with lesser side effects. The geometrical shape, the tumor's size and tissue's abnormal growth can be calculated by the segmentation of that particular image. It is still a great challenge for the researchers to tackle with an automatic segmentation in the medical imaging. Based on the texture analysis, different images are processed by optimization of level set segmentation. Traditionally, optimization was manual for every image where each parameter is selected one after another. By applying fuzzy logic, the segmentation of image is correlated based on texture features, to make it automatic and more effective. There is no initialization of parameters and it works like an intelligent system. It segments the different MRI images without tuning the level set parameters and give optimized results for all MRI's.

  20. Energetic policy versus environmental policy: what the missing link?; Politica energetica versus politica ambiental: qual o elo perdido?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Francisco del Moral; Bermann, Celio [Universidadede Sao Paulo (PPGE/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa de Pos- Graduacao em Energia], emails: fhernandez@usp.br, cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The energy and fuel obtaining process must be understand as a political concept and a socially built one. Such a process should be understood taking in account social impacts, environmental issues, land struggles. There are plenty of empirical examples able to identify flows, directions and speedy up enterprises when extracting matter and energy conversion within areas of high social and environmental sensibility. The infra-structure expansion over traditional people areas, high biodiversity mapped regions and environmental sensibility areas are expression of the capital intensive accumulation process and must be legitimated in one way or another. Simultaneously two way processes occur: in one hand the use of land, riverside areas and natural landscapes to generate electrical energy and fuel obtaining an in the other hand the abandon of original usage for the land. Specifically, in the Amazon rain forest area it is evident that the mentioned flows are supported by the natural wealthy. So, the analyses under a scientific approach, elaborating theories, demonstrations and occurrences documentation are necessary. Two preliminary expectations are posted by the article: 1) Discuss the implications due to the creation of energetic reserve areas over traditional people regions; 2) Produce a preliminary picture of demands over natural resources and respective social conflicts based on significant selected cases. (author)

  1. Prebiotic Competition between Information Variants, With Low Error Catastrophe Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Popa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During competition for resources in primitive networks increased fitness of an information variant does not necessarily equate with successful elimination of its competitors. If variability is added fast to a system, speedy replacement of pre-existing and less-efficient forms of order is required as novel information variants arrive. Otherwise, the information capacity of the system fills up with information variants (an effect referred as “error catastrophe”. As the cost for managing the system’s exceeding complexity increases, the correlation between performance capabilities of information variants and their competitive success decreases, and evolution of such systems toward increased efficiency slows down. This impasse impedes the understanding of evolution in prebiotic networks. We used the simulation platform Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA to analyze how information variants compete in a resource-limited space. We analyzed the effect of energy-related features (differences in autocatalytic efficiency, energy cost of order, energy availability, transformation rates and stability of order on this competition. We discuss circumstances and controllers allowing primitive networks acquire novel information with minimal “error catastrophe” risks. We present a primitive mechanism for maximization of energy flux in dynamic networks. This work helps evaluate controllers of evolution in prebiotic networks and other systems where information variants compete.

  2. Consumer Complaints and Company Market Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer complaints affect company market value and common sense suggests that a negative impact is expected. However, do complaints always negatively impact company market value? We hypothesize in this study that complaints may have a non-linear effect on market value. Positive (e.g. avoiding high costs to solve complaints and negative (e.g. speedy and intense diffusion tradeoffs may occur given the level of complaints. To test our non-linear hypothesis, a panel data was collected from cell phone service providers from 2005 to 2013. The results supported our tradeoff rationale. Low levels of complaints allow for companies to increase market value, while high levels of complaints cause increasing harm to market value. The sample, model and period considered in this study, indicates a level of 0.49 complaints per thousand consumers as the threshold for a shift in tradeoffs. The effects on market value become increasingly negative when trying to make reductions to move below this level, due to negative tradeoffs.

  3. Functionalized gold nanoparticles as additive to form polymer/metal composite matrix for improved DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Yang, Liping; Yang, Runmiao; Song, Weihua; Peng, Shuhua; Wang, Yanmei

    2009-11-15

    A new matrix additive, poly (N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-functionalized gold nanoparticle (GNP-PDMA), was prepared by "grafting-to" approach, and then incorporated into quasi-interpenetrating network (quasi-IPN) composed of linear polyacrylamide (LPA, 3.3 MDa) and PDMA to form novel polymer/metal composite sieving matrix (quasi-IPN/GNP-PDMA) for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. Without complete optimization, quasi-IPN/GNP-PDMA yielded a readlength of 801 bases at 98% accuracy in about 64 min by using the ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer at 50 degrees C and 150 V/cm. Compared with previous quasi-IPN/GNPs, quasi-IPN/GNP-PDMA can further improve DNA sequencing performances. This is because the presence of GNP-PDMA can improve the compatibility of GNPs with the whole sequencing system, enhance the entanglement degree of networks, and increase the GNP concentration in system, which consequently lead to higher restriction and stability, higher apparent molecular weight (MW), and smaller pore size of the total sieving networks. Furthermore, the composite matrix was also compared with quasi-IPN containing higher-MW LPA and commercial POP-6. The results indicate that the composite matrix is a promising one for DNA sequencing to achieve full automation due to the separation provided with high resolution, speediness, excellent reproducibility, and easy loading in the presence of GNP-PDMA.

  4. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption.

  5. The technique of controlled delivery as a weapon in dealing with illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, P D

    1983-01-01

    The technique of controlled delivery is used when a consignment of illicit drugs is detected and allowed to go forward under the control and surveillance of law enforcement officers in order to secure evidence against the organizers of such illicit drug traffic. This technique has been proved effective in some countries in identifying and bringing to justice principals, organizers and financiers of the illicit drug traffic. The controlled delivery technique is compatible with the requirements of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, but its application depends on the particular legal and administrative provisions in the countries concerned. The technique merits wider use, and it does not involve any element of entrapment. It has been used most effectively when illicit drugs are discovered in unaccompanied freight consignments or in the post. Controlled deliveries involving a courier present special difficulties and should be treated with caution. In a controlled delivery, security of information is of paramount importance as is the appropriate knowledge and co-operation of the law enforcement authorities. Such co-operation is essential between the country in which the initial detection of drugs has occurred, transit countries and the country of final destination. A number of important detections have been made as a result of speedy international co-operation of this type between law enforcement authorities.

  6. [Determination of metals in waste bag filter of steel works by microwave digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xun-An; Zhou, Yun; Liu, Jing-Yong; Wang, Jiang-Hui; Li, Lei; Ma, Xiao-Guo

    2011-09-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique-flame atomic absorption spectrometry was proposed to determine the total contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in five different kinds of waste bag filters from a steel plant. The digestion effects of the six acid systems on the heavy metals digestion were studied for the first time. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was between 1.02% and 9.35%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method ranged from 87.7% to 105.6%. The results indicated that the proposed method exhibited the advantages of simplicity, speediness, accuracy and repeatability, and it was suitable for determining the metal elements of the waste bag filter. The results also showed that different digestion systems should be used according to different waste bag filters. The waste bag filter samples from different production processes had different metal elements content. The Pb and Zn were the highest in the waste bag filters, while the Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr were relatively lower. These determination results provided the scientific data for further treatment and disposal of the waste bag filter.

  7. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A.; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants’ individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a “statistically significant” finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications. PMID:26553988

  8. Plant disease: a threat to global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Richard N; Scott, Peter R

    2005-01-01

    A vast number of plant pathogens from viroids of a few hundred nucleotides to higher plants cause diseases in our crops. Their effects range from mild symptoms to catastrophes in which large areas planted to food crops are destroyed. Catastrophic plant disease exacerbates the current deficit of food supply in which at least 800 million people are inadequately fed. Plant pathogens are difficult to control because their populations are variable in time, space, and genotype. Most insidiously, they evolve, often overcoming the resistance that may have been the hard-won achievement of the plant breeder. In order to combat the losses they cause, it is necessary to define the problem and seek remedies. At the biological level, the requirements are for the speedy and accurate identification of the causal organism, accurate estimates of the severity of disease and its effect on yield, and identification of its virulence mechanisms. Disease may then be minimized by the reduction of the pathogen's inoculum, inhibition of its virulence mechanisms, and promotion of genetic diversity in the crop. Conventional plant breeding for resistance has an important role to play that can now be facilitated by marker-assisted selection. There is also a role for transgenic modification with genes that confer resistance. At the political level, there is a need to acknowledge that plant diseases threaten our food supplies and to devote adequate resources to their control.

  9. Trauma and identification of victims of suicidal terrorism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, J; Kahana, T

    2000-11-01

    The postmortem examination and identification procedures performed by medical and law enforcement personnel involved in mass disaster management in Israel are reported. The Israel National Police, the Israel Defense Forces, and the L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine's experts examined 171 victims who died in 21 incidents of suicidal terrorism. The trauma sustained by the victims and perpetrators of suicidal bombings included complete body disruption and explosive, flying missile, and blast injuries. The modus operandi of the perpetrators, reconstructed from the distribution and type of injury of the victims, is discussed. Fifty-five victims perished in open space bombings and 91 inside buses. All perpetrators of these bombings died at the time of the incident regardless of their location. Identification of the victims was achieved using fingerprints, dental records, medical intervention signs, anatomic variation, genetic profile, and personal recognition. Prompt identification of the perpetrators allowed speedy apprehension of the accomplices and prevention of similar attacks. Collaboration between the different forensic, military, and law enforcement teams increased the efficiency of disaster management efforts.

  10. Osseointegration of three-dimensional designed titanium implants manufactured by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoki, Algabri; Xu, Jia-Yun; Sun, Haipeng; Chen, Xian-Shuai; Ouyang, Jianglin; Zhuang, Xiu-Mei; Deng, Fei-Long

    2016-10-27

    The selective laser melting (SLM) technique is a recent additive manufacturing (AM) technique. Several studies have reported success in the SLM-based production of biocompatible orthopaedic implants and three-dimensional bone defect constructs. In this study, we evaluated the surface properties and biocompatibility of an SLM titanium implant in vitro and compared them with those of a machined (MA) titanium control surface. In addition, we evaluated the osseointegration capability of the SLM implants in vivo and compared it with those of MA and Nobel-speedy (Nobel-S) implants. SLM microtopographical surface analysis revealed porous and high roughness with varied geometry compared with a smooth surface in MA Ti samples but with similar favourable wettability. Osteoblast proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly enhanced on the SLM surface. Histological analysis of the bone-implant contact ratio revealed no significant difference among SLM, MA, and Nobel-S implants. Micro-CT assessment indicated that there was no significant difference in bone volume fraction around the implant among SLM implants and other types of surface modification implants. The removal torque value measurement of SLM implants was significantly lower that of than Nobel-S implants P < 0.001 and higher than that of MA implants. The study demonstrates the capability of SLM implants to integrate with living bone. The SLM technique holds promise as a new dental implant manufacturing technique.

  11. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry used to assess the dispersion of metals within mining environments; Aplicacion de la tecnica de espectrometria de fluorescencia de rayos-X en el estudio de la dispersion de metales en areas mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margui, E.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, O.; Hidalgo, M.; Pardini, G.; Queralt, I.

    2011-07-01

    One critical factor for success in characterizing metals polluting mining environments so as to be able to eliminate them and subsequently recover these areas depends upon a speedy and correct response in the analysis of samples. Rapid, simultaneous, multi-element analysis can be undertaken using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, a versatile, non-destructive analytical technique commonly employed to identify both major and minor elements in samples related to environmental studies. An additional advantage of this technique is the possibility of conducting the analysis directly on solid samples, which is extremely convenient when dealing with environmental samples that are difficult to dissolve, such as soils, sediments and mining wastes. Moreover, in recent years the development of spectrometers equipped with digital-signal processors combined with enlarged X-ray production, using better designs for excitation-detection, has contributed to an improvement in instrumental sensitivity, thus allowing us to detect important polluting elements such as Cd and Pb at trace levels. In this paper the authors describe, on the basis of their own experience, some interesting applications of XRF spectrometry for the analysis of several types of environmental samples related to the study of the dispersion of metals within mining environments: (A) analysis of mining wastes, soils and sediments; (B) analysis of samples of vegetation used as bio indicators or related to phyto remediation studies; and (C) analysis of water samples related to mining operations. (Author) 26 refs.

  12. Functionalized Carbon Nano-scale Drug Delivery Systems From Biowaste Sago Bark For Cancer Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, Shoriya Aruni; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Wui, Tin Wong; Roy, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique. The nanospheres were functionalized with fluorescent dye coumarin-6 for cell imaging. Fluorescent nanosytems were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X ray, photon correlation spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The average size of carbon nanospheres ranged between 30 and 40 nm with zeta potential of -26.8 ± 1.87 mV. The percentage viability of cancer cells on exposure to nanospheres varied from 91- 89 % for N2a cells and 90-85 % for A-375 cells respectively. Speedy uptake of the fluorescent nanospheres in both N2a and A-375 cells was observed within two hours of exposure. Novel fluorescent carbon nanosystem design following waste-to-wealth approach exhibited promising potential in cancer cell imaging applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. An integrated approach for a higher success rate in mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the importance of balanced management of hard and soft key success factors, combining the economic logic of corporate performance and human capital through an integrated approach to mergers and acquisitions. The study, based on a questionnaire and interviews, suggests that the achievement level ofmergers and acquisitions’ objectives of acquiring companies in Slovenia should be comparable to findings of similar studies; namely, the objectives that drove the deal were met only half the time. The results indicate that five hard success factors – a professional target search and due diligence, a realistic assessment of synergies, theright mix of financial sources, a detailed post-acquisition integration plan already prepared in the pre-deal phase and its speedy implementation – and five soft success factors – a new “combined” organizational culture, a competent management team, innovative employees, efficient and consistent communication and a creative business environment – are becoming increasingly relevant. Even though they differ in their importance for individual companies in the sample, they are all considered essential to increasing the success rate of corporate combinations

  14. Optimization of dynamic soaring maneuvers to enhance endurance of a versatile UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Imran; Maqsood, Adnan; Akhtar, Suhail

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic soaring is a process of acquiring energy available in atmospheric wind shears and is commonly exhibited by soaring birds to perform long distance flights. This paper aims to demonstrate a viable algorithm which can be implemented in near real time environment to formulate optimal trajectories for dynamic soaring maneuvers for a small scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The objective is to harness maximum energy from atmosphere wind shear to improve loiter time for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Three-dimensional point-mass UAV equations of motion and linear wind gradient profile are used to model flight dynamics. Utilizing UAV states, controls, operational constraints, initial and terminal conditions that enforce a periodic flight, dynamic soaring problem is formulated as an optimal control problem. Optimized trajectories of the maneuver are subsequently generated employing pseudo spectral techniques against distant UAV performance parameters. The discussion also encompasses the requirement for generation of optimal trajectories for dynamic soaring in real time environment and the ability of the proposed algorithm for speedy solution generation. Coupled with the fact that dynamic soaring is all about immediately utilizing the available energy from the wind shear encountered, the proposed algorithm promises its viability for practical on board implementations requiring computation of trajectories in near real time.

  15. Magnetic Lateral Flow Strip for the Detection of Cocaine in Urine by Naked Eyes and Smart Phone Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Dong, Mingling; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Xie, Mengxia; Chen, Yiping

    2017-06-05

    Magnetic lateral flow strip (MLFS) based on magnetic bead (MB) and smart phone camera has been developed for quantitative detection of cocaine (CC) in urine samples. CC and CC-bovine serum albumin (CC-BSA) could competitively react with MB-antibody (MB-Ab) of CC on the surface of test line of MLFS. The color of MB-Ab conjugate on the test line relates to the concentration of target in the competition immunoassay format, which can be used as a visual signal. Furthermore, the color density of the MB-Ab conjugate can be transferred into digital signal (gray value) by a smart phone, which can be used as a quantitative signal. The linear detection range for CC is 5-500 ng/mL and the relative standard deviations are under 10%. The visual limit of detection was 5 ng/mL and the whole analysis time was within 10 min. The MLFS has been successfully employed for the detection of CC in urine samples without sample pre-treatment and the result is also agreed to that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With the popularization of smart phone cameras, the MLFS has large potential in the detection of drug residues in virtue of its stability, speediness, and low-cost.

  16. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  17. Capecitabine caused cardiogenic shock through induction of global takotsubo syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y-Hassan, Shams, E-mail: shams.younis-hassan@karolinska.se; Tornvall, Per; Törnerud, Mattias; Henareh, Loghman

    2013-01-15

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its oral pro-drug capecitabine are widely used in oncology for the treatment of various solid tumours, including colorectal cancers. Cardiotoxicity to these drugs is not an uncommon adverse effect and has been reported in 1%–18% of patients. Capecitabine has been reported to trigger mid-apical Takotsubo syndrome (TS). We describe here the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with cardiogenic shock and ECG signs of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The symptoms began 28 h after the commencement of capecitabine adjuvant therapy, following a radical right-sided hemicolectomy for low-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the caecum. Echocardiography showed severe global left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed no signs of late gadolinium enhancement. These clinical, cardiac image study findings and the course of the disease with full recovery within one week were consistent with global TS triggered by the adjuvant therapy capecitabine and presenting with a life-threatening cardiogenic shock. Moreover, we have demonstrated the speedy dynamic of the left ventricular wall motion abnormality with global TS at presentation and basal (inverted) TS findings 4 days later on.

  18. Predictive risk factors of postoperative urinary incontinence following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate during the initial learning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Yano, Masataka; Nakayama, Takayuki; Kitahara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the predictive factors for postoperative urinary incontinence (UI) following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the initial learning period. We evaluated 127 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent HoLEP between January 2011 and December 2013. We recorded clinical variables, including blood loss, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, and the presence or absence of UI. Blood loss was estimated as a decline in postoperative hemoglobina levels. The predictive factors for postoperative UI were determined using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Postoperative UI occurred in 31 patients (24.4%), but it cured in 29 patients (93.5%) after a mean duration of 12 weeks. Enucleation time >100 min (p=0.043) and blood loss >2.5g/dL (p=0.032) were identified as significant and independent risk factors for postoperative UI. Longer enucleation time and increased blood loss were independent predictors of postoperative UI in patients who underwent HoLEP during the initial learning period. Surgeons in training should take care to perform speedy enucleation maneuver with hemostasis. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  19. ULtiMATE system for rapid assembly of customized TAL effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiao Yang

    Full Text Available Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA. The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions.

  20. Memetic Algorithm with Local Search as Modified Swine Influenza Model-Based Optimization and Its Use in ECG Filtering

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    Devidas G. Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swine Influenza Model Based Optimization (SIMBO family is a newly introduced speedy optimization technique having the adaptive features in its mechanism. In this paper, the authors modified the SIMBO to make the algorithm further quicker. As the SIMBO family is faster, it is a better option for searching the basin. Thus, it is utilized in local searches in developing the proposed memetic algorithms (MAs. The MA has a faster speed compared to SIMBO with the balance in exploration and exploitation. So, MAs have small tradeoffs in convergence velocity for comprehensively optimizing the numerical standard benchmark test bed having functions with different properties. The utilization of SIMBO in the local searching is inherently the exploitation of better characteristics of the algorithms employed for the hybridization. The developed MA is applied to eliminate the power line interference (PLI from the biomedical signal ECG with the use of adaptive filter whose weights are optimized by the MA. The inference signal required for adaptive filter is obtained using the selective reconstruction of ECG from the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs of empirical mode decomposition (EMD.

  1. Three early medieval architectures in Ourense: Santa Eufemia de Ambía, San Xés de Francelos and San Martiño de Pazó

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    José Carlos Sánchez-Pardo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore from an archaeological point of view, the constructive techniques and their social implications in northwest Iberia during the early middle ages by means of the comparative study of three standing churches in the current province of Ourense: Santa Eufemia de Ambía, San Xés de Francelos and San Martiño de Pazó. Our departure point is a previous extensive architectural survey focused to identify early medieval church remains in the area, in which these three churches were selected for further study. Then we applied a speedy stratigraphical analysis of their walls combined with the absolute dating of the earth mortars from the early medieval phases through Optically Stimulated Luminescence and Radiocarbon. This methodology, complemented by a historiographical review of each building, will allow us to discuss the transformations in the construction techniques that took place in this area between the 9th and 10th centuries and to contextualize them in the broader framework of the studies on early medieval architecture in the Iberian Peninsula.

  2. An open source infrastructure for managing knowledge and finding potential collaborators in a domain-specific subset of PubMed, with an example from human genome epidemiology

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    Khoury Muin J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying relevant research in an ever-growing body of published literature is becoming increasingly difficult. Establishing domain-specific knowledge bases may be a more effective and efficient way to manage and query information within specific biomedical fields. Adopting controlled vocabulary is a critical step toward data integration and interoperability in any information system. We present an open source infrastructure that provides a powerful capacity for managing and mining data within a domain-specific knowledge base. As a practical application of our infrastructure, we presented two applications – Literature Finder and Investigator Browser – as well as a tool set for automating the data curating process for the human genome published literature database. The design of this infrastructure makes the system potentially extensible to other data sources. Results Information retrieval and usability tests demonstrated that the system had high rates of recall and precision, 90% and 93% respectively. The system was easy to learn, easy to use, reasonably speedy and effective. Conclusion The open source system infrastructure presented in this paper provides a novel approach to managing and querying information and knowledge from domain-specific PubMed data. Using the controlled vocabulary UMLS enhanced data integration and interoperability and the extensibility of the system. In addition, by using MVC-based design and Java as a platform-independent programming language, this system provides a potential infrastructure for any domain-specific knowledge base in the biomedical field.

  3. Foot and mouth disease in turkey and middle eastern countries: Epizootiological situation

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    Stanojević Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic outbreaks of epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease in countries of the Middle East and Africa pose a serious health threat to European states, in particular countries of the Mediterranean region and the Balkan peninsula. There are multiple reasons for the frequent appearance of this disease in Africa and the territory of the Middle East, and they are all a consequence of the insufficient development of the states in these geographic regions. More precisely, epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control in these regions due to the limited possibilities for activities by veterinary services, insufficiently developed diagnostic capacities for speedy and precise laboratory diagnostics, the lack of more advanced knowledge among the village populations, and the traditional manner of breeding ruminants. As a result of intensive traffic in goods, services and people, the cultural and tourist links between the Middle East and European countries, there is a constant and real danger of a swift and uncontrolled spreading of foot-and-mouth disease to the territory of Europe. This is why it is a priority of epizootiological services of the majority of European countries constantly to monitor the epizootiological situation in the Middle East and in Africa.

  4. MOBILE TRAFFIC ALERT AND TOURIST ROUTE GUIDANCE SYSTEM DESIGN USING GEOSPATIAL DATA

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    D. Bhattacharya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes an integrated system for traffic data collection and alert warning. Geographical information based decision making related to traffic destinations and routes is proposed through the design. The system includes a geospatial database having profile relating to a user of a mobile device. The processing and understanding of scanned maps, other digital data input leads to route guidance. The system includes a server configured to receive traffic information relating to a route and location information relating to the mobile device. Server is configured to send a traffic alert to the mobile device when the traffic information and the location information indicate that the mobile device is traveling toward traffic congestion. Proposed system has geospatial and mobile data sets pertaining to Bangalore city in India. It is envisaged to be helpful for touristic purposes as a route guidance and alert relaying information system to tourists for proximity to sites worth seeing in a city they have entered into. The system is modular in architecture and the novelty lies in integration of different modules carrying different technologies for a complete traffic information system. Generic information processing and delivery system has been tested to be functional and speedy under test geospatial domains. In a restricted prototype model with geo-referenced route data required information has been delivered correctly over sustained trials to designated cell numbers, with average time frame of 27.5 seconds, maximum 50 and minimum 5 seconds. Traffic geo-data set trials testing is underway.

  5. Mobile Traffic Alert and Tourist Route Guidance System Design Using Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Painho, M.; Mishra, S.; Gupta, A.

    2017-09-01

    The present study describes an integrated system for traffic data collection and alert warning. Geographical information based decision making related to traffic destinations and routes is proposed through the design. The system includes a geospatial database having profile relating to a user of a mobile device. The processing and understanding of scanned maps, other digital data input leads to route guidance. The system includes a server configured to receive traffic information relating to a route and location information relating to the mobile device. Server is configured to send a traffic alert to the mobile device when the traffic information and the location information indicate that the mobile device is traveling toward traffic congestion. Proposed system has geospatial and mobile data sets pertaining to Bangalore city in India. It is envisaged to be helpful for touristic purposes as a route guidance and alert relaying information system to tourists for proximity to sites worth seeing in a city they have entered into. The system is modular in architecture and the novelty lies in integration of different modules carrying different technologies for a complete traffic information system. Generic information processing and delivery system has been tested to be functional and speedy under test geospatial domains. In a restricted prototype model with geo-referenced route data required information has been delivered correctly over sustained trials to designated cell numbers, with average time frame of 27.5 seconds, maximum 50 and minimum 5 seconds. Traffic geo-data set trials testing is underway.

  6. THE OTHER PATENT AGENCY: CONGRESSIONAL REGULATION OF THE ITC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sapna

    2009-07-01

    The United States International Trade Commission has recently experienced a dramatic increase in patent infringement investigations under section sign 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. In fact, the number of patent enforcement actions submitted to the ITC has nearly doubled in the last five years. Patent holders are selecting this forum because of its speedy proceedings and its ability to award broad exclusion orders. This rise in ITC patent litigation, however, has revealed weaknesses in the structure of section sign 337. In broadening the provision to facilitate the enforcement of patent rights, Congress failed to consider the impact of this change on technological innovation and on the coherence of the patent system. In particular, Congress did not clarify the relationship between section sign 337 and the Patent Act, thereby jeopardizing the uniformity of the patent system. Nor did it consider the effect that patent-related exclusion orders would have on innovation and on strategic behavior. This Article recommends that Congress harmonize ITC patent law with the Patent Act and related federal precedent, or alternatively, abolish section sign 337.

  7. [Study of medicine: "full" load as a parameter for the organization of a successful curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, J; Brauner, A

    2007-11-01

    The licensing regulations for doctors (AAppO) allow medical faculties a wide range of possibilities in their implementation. Are there parameters which are easy to survey and which at the same time contribute to the speedy detection of possible undesirable developments? The results of a retrospective student evaluation of the preclinical period clearly revealed that there are extreme fluctuations in the "perceived" stress of students in Semester one to four. In succession, classes were restructured so that stress was as equally balanced as possible throughout the four semesters. Over a period of half a decade, the "perceived" stress of students in the four semesters of the preclinical period was stabilised at an optimum level. At the same time, the students' satisfaction with organisation of curriculum increased and their exam results improved significantly. The parameter "perceived" stress has been conducive to developing the curriculum to such an extent that teaching in Lübeck has improved considerably. Simultaneously, new space for development has been created for both students and lecturers, which makes it possible to shape the academic aspect of medical studies in a more challenging manner.

  8. CONSIDÉRATIONS THÉORIQUES ET PRATIQUES CONCERNANT LA PROCÉDURE DE LA SOMMATION DE PAYER

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    Alexandrina ZAHARIA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 6th book, entitled "Procédures spéciales", the Code of Civil Procedure regulates the way to solve some civil cases in accordance with the special procedural standards, but which are perfect and supplemented by depositions of the law. In the category of special procedures, the legislator has included: Presidential Ordinance, the procedure of the recasting of the writings and decisions disappeared, the procedure of real offer, the procedure of divorce, the procedure of judicial partition, sequester (taken-closed, the court sequester, the solution of commercial disputes, and others. A significant number of special procedures are reviewed under the disciplines of administrative law, financial and constitutional law, and so on. There are others that are regulated by special legislation, such as: Law no. 64 / 1995, republished and modified, concerning the procedure of judicial reorganization and bankruptcy, the Law no. 7 / 1996 of cadastre and real estate advertising, the Law no. 168 / 1999 on resolving labor disputes and Government Ordinance no. 5 / 2001 on the procedure for the summons in order to pay. These special regulations are taken into consideration for the achievement of a speedy trial in certain domains, with the result of the advocacy and social values.

  9. Information processing speed as a predictor of IQ in children with and without specific language impairment in grades 3 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisook; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Miller, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether nonlinguistic processing speed predicts nonverbal IQ in TD children and children with SLI and (2) if the proposed relationship is different at two time points. The participants consisted of a subset of a longitudinal dataset, 55 typically developing children and 55 children with SLI. Children completed four nonverbal speed tasks and four subtests of the WISC-III. The WISC-III subtests requiring timed and untimed responses were examined separately. Linear mixed model analyses indicated that in both groups, processing speed predicted nonverbal IQ subtests that reward speedy responses, but not IQ subtests that do not. The relationships between processing speed and IQ with speed bonuses did not differ at grades 3 and 8, and these relationships also were not significantly different in children with SLI and their TD peers. The results suggest that the presence of processing speed limitations in many children with SLI raises questions about the utility of timed nonverbal IQ measures as tools for diagnosis of SLI. Future studies should investigate other cognitive assessments that could be used as inclusionary criteria for SLI. The reader will be able to (1) describe the relationship between processing speed and nonverbal IQ in children with TD and SLI and (2) discuss problems using an IQ criterion to diagnose children as having SLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of degree maturation of edam cheese by FT Near Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Květoslava Šustová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with use of FT NIR spectroscopy to speedy analysis of maturation of edam cheese. Maturation of cheese was study with the measure of soluble nitrogen, tyrosine and tryptophane. This method can be able to make optimal making raw material to production of processed cheese. Samples of edam cheese (45% fat in dry matter were analysed with time of ripening 7 to 99 days. Soluble nitrogen, tyrosine and tryptophane were analysed on UV–VisSpectrometer (270 and 290 nm. Sequentially samples were analysed on FT NIR spectrometer of two methods: 1 slice of cheese was analysed help with optical probe, 2 grated cheese was analysed on the integration sphere. The values of correlation coefficient of calibration on the integration sphere were as follows: soluble nitrogen 0.922, tyrosine 0.911 and tryptophane 0.852. The values of correlation coefficient of calibration with optical probe were as follows: soluble nitrogen 0.996, tyrosine 0.958 and tryptophane 0.922.

  11. Use of skin staples to fix film dressings on scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Reiji; Ishikura, Naotaka; Kawakami, Shigehiko; Heshiki, Takaya; Shimada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Tomoko

    2002-05-01

    Split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) from the scalp have been used in large burns. The donor site wounds are usually covered using occlusive dressings, such as film dressings because they contribute to reduce donor site pain and infection under exudative crust and to enhance re-epithelialization. However, it is not always easy to fix such film dressings to the scalp because of the presence of hair. In this paper, we report the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressings. Eight donor sites in four patients were dressed in this way. The patients had 50-78% of the body burned, all of them survived. The mean healing time for the donor sites was 6.8 days. Three patients had their scalps re-harvested several times (range two to three times). There were no infections nor secondary skin ulcers at the donor sites. The technique of this dressing is very simple and speedy, thus we recommend the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressing to scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

  12. Fault Tolerant Implementation of Xilinx Vertex FPGA for Sensor Systems through On-Chip System Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandaraj, S. P.; Kumar, R. Naveen; Ravi, S.; Sharma, S. S. V. N.

    Nowadays, majority of applications struggle to achieve good behavior of their subsystems by cooperation of systems, which is independently designed, separately located, but mutually affecting subsystems. Such coordinating systems are hard to attain the specific structural models and effective parameters. In such cases, the evolved hardware (EHW) methods with evolutionary Algorithms (EA) to achieve sophisticated level of information [2]. Numeral systems were introduced with evolvable hardware on a single chip to overcome the lack of flexibility, with the support of modifiable evolutionary algorithm stored in software on a built-in processor. This paper proposed the architecture with Xilinx Virtex-II Pro FPGA with interfaced PowerPC processor. Due to this speedy processing, time consumption in hardware and also allows other parts to be easily modifiable software. The proposed technique will provide more benefits in the future work as regards cost and compactness [1]. The system was completely analyzed on physical devices with software executing in parallel with fitness computation in digital logic circuits, and the results determine that the system uses only double the time when compared to a PC running at 10 times faster clock speed[6].

  13. CLIPS: A tool for corn disease diagnostic system and an aid to neural network for automated knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cathy; Taylor, Pam; Whitson, George; Smith, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the building of a corn disease diagnostic expert system using CLIPS, and the development of a neural expert system using the fact representation method of CLIPS for automated knowledge acquisition. The CLIPS corn expert system diagnoses 21 diseases from 52 symptoms and signs with certainty factors. CLIPS has several unique features. It allows the facts in rules to be broken down to object-attribute-value (OAV) triples, allows rule-grouping, and fires rules based on pattern-matching. These features combined with the chained inference engine result to a natural user query system and speedy execution. In order to develop a method for automated knowledge acquisition, an Artificial Neural Expert System (ANES) is developed by a direct mapping from the CLIPS system. The ANES corn expert system uses the same OAV triples in the CLIPS system for its facts. The LHS and RHS facts of the CLIPS rules are mapped into the input and output layers of the ANES, respectively; and the inference engine of the rules is imbedded in the hidden layer. The fact representation by OAC triples gives a natural grouping of the rules. These features allow the ANES system to automate rule-generation, and make it efficient to execute and easy to expand for a large and complex domain.

  14. Production of recombinant antigens and antibodies in Nicotiana benthamiana using 'magnifection' technology: GMP-compliant facilities for small- and large-scale manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimyuk, Victor; Pogue, Gregory; Herz, Stefan; Butler, John; Haydon, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the adaptation of the plant virus-based transient expression system, magnICON(®) for the at-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical proteins. The system utilizes so-called "deconstructed" viral vectors that rely on Agrobacterium-mediated systemic delivery into the plant cells for recombinant protein production. The system is also suitable for production of hetero-oligomeric proteins like immunoglobulins. By taking advantage of well established R&D tools for optimizing the expression of protein of interest using this system, product concepts can reach the manufacturing stage in highly competitive time periods. At the manufacturing stage, the system offers many remarkable features including rapid production cycles, high product yield, virtually unlimited scale-up potential, and flexibility for different manufacturing schemes. The magnICON system has been successfully adaptated to very different logistical manufacturing formats: (1) speedy production of multiple small batches of individualized pharmaceuticals proteins (e.g. antigens comprising individualized vaccines to treat NonHodgkin's Lymphoma patients) and (2) large-scale production of other pharmaceutical proteins such as therapeutic antibodies. General descriptions of the prototype GMP-compliant manufacturing processes and facilities for the product formats that are in preclinical and clinical testing are provided.

  15. Structural Analysis and Total Coal Demand Forecast in China

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    Qing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the speedy growth of industrialization and urbanization in China and the continued rise of coal consumption, this paper identifies factors that have impacted coal consumption in 1985–2011. After extracting the core factors, the Bayesian vector autoregressive forecast model is constructed, with variables that include coal consumption, the gross value of industrial output, and the downstream industry output (cement, crude steel, and thermal power. The impulse response function and variance decomposition are applied to portray the dynamic correlations between coal consumption and economic variables. Then for analyzing structural changes of coal consumption, the exponential smoothing model is also established, based on division of seven sectors. The results show that the structure of coal consumption underwent significant changes during the past 30 years. Consumption of both household sector and transport, storage, and post sectors continues to decline; consumption of wholesale and retail trade and hotels and catering services sectors presents a fluctuating and improving trend; and consumption of industry sector is still high. The gross value of industrial output and the downstream industry output have been promoting coal consumption growth for a long time. In 2015 and 2020, total coal demand is expected to reach 2746.27 and 4041.68 million tons of standard coal in China.

  16. PERAN GEN AIM1 DAN INTENSITAS CAHAYA TERHADAP KARAKTER POLA PIGMEN IKAN BADUT HITAM (Amphiprion percula

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    Daniar Kusumawati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pola pigmen merupakan faktor utama yang menentukan tingginya kualitas ikan hias. Pada benih-benih F1 populasi budidaya ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula diketahui mengalami degeneratif pola pigmen yang menyimpang dibandingkan dengan populasi di alam. Pola pigmen merupakan salah satu karakter fenotip yang diturunkan di mana ekspresinya bergantung pada interaksi genetik dengan faktor eksternal yaitu lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji peran gen yaitu Aim1 yang mengontrol sintesis melanin dan kondisi lingkungan dalam menginduksi pola pigmen hitam ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula. Analisis gen Aim1 dilakukan dengan menggunakan program speedy PCR dilanjutkan dengan SSCP (single strand confirmation polymorphism untuk mengidentifikasi variasi genetik dari gen Aim1. Analisis SDS Page dilakukan untuk mengetahui peranan lingkungan terhadap profil protein yang disintesis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa primer Aim1 memiliki sisi pengenalan pada whole genom ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula pada target sequence 45 bp. Berdasarkan analisis SSCP profil fragmentasi amplicon primer Aim1 pada masing-masing tingkatan pada populasi budidaya homolog dengan populasi alam, sehingga gen Aim1 bukan merupakan gen yang mengontrol fenomena degeneratif pola pigmen ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula. Peran lingkungan yaitu cahaya memberikan pengaruh positif dalam menginduksi pola pigmen melalui stimulus pada sistem neuron dan migrasi melanophore.

  17. Development of Network-type Archaeological Investigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, F.; Yokokoyama, S.; Kaneda, A.; Konno, K.

    2015-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 is said to be a once-in-1000-year catastrophic quake. The Tsunami triggered by the earthquake destroyed broad coastal areas in northeast Japan. As recovery from the earthquake proceeds, the demand for new road construction, housing hill development, and residential construction is rapidly increasing. Culture plays a critical role in the district's recovery. For that reason, before development, cultural properties in the corresponding districts must be urgently investigated. This is a must, although balancing cultural recovery with rapid economic recovery is no easy task. With this in mind, we have developed a new system focusing on speedy archaeological investigation and adequate documentation. The authors reexamined the existing investigation process to categorize tasks into two types: those that must be done only at archaeological sites (site A) and ones available at other places (site B). We then formulated a scheme where the tasks on both sites are performed simultaneously in parallel over the network. Experiments are ongoing. This presentation reports the process and issues of our research and development.

  18. A tale of two commons. Some preliminary hypotheses on the long-term development of the commons in Western and Eastern Europe, 11th-19th centuries

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    Miguel Laborda Pemán

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present our hypotheses regarding the divergence in the development of common-property regimes between Eastern and Western Europe. The latter area developed formalized arrangements for the collective exploitation of natural resources particularly early, and it was chosen not only by farmers, but also in the cities – by craftsmen – to deal with the economic and social problems during the late medieval and early modern times. In the East the development of such institutions for collective action started – we believe – much later, due to a number of factors. Whereas in the West population growth and urbanization occurred together with a speedy commercialization of the economy, putting pressure on natural resources and hence leading to an increasing demand by peasants to formalize the collective use of their land, the peasants east of the Elbe River lacked the agency to demand such change in the governance regime of their land. They were limited in their behaviour by the strictures of the second serfdom, which was accompanied by lesser urbanization and commercialization. In this article, we offer some explanatory frameworks to understand and study this long-term development – or lack thereof – of institutions for collective action across the European continent.

  19. Development of a competitive immunochromatographic assay for the sensitive detection of amantadine in chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songsong; Zhu, Fangfei; Hu, Liming; Xia, Jun; Xu, Guomao; Liu, Daofeng; Guo, Qi; Luo, Kai; Lai, Weihua

    2017-10-01

    Amantadine (AMD) is a prohibitive veterinary medicine in the entire world. In this study, a sensitive colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (CGICA) was established for the rapid semi-quantitative detection of AMD in chicken muscle. Under optimal conditions, the detection results were obtained in 12min with a limit of detection for 1.80ng/mL. CGICA presented a good linear range from 2.5ng/mL to 25ng/mL, with only 11.5% cross-reactivity with rimantadine. The recovery rates for the fortified samples were ranged from 81% to 120%. The coefficient of variation of the intra-assay and inter-assay was less than 15%. The accuracy of CGICA was confirmed by systematically comparing the result of the proposed method with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Given the advantages of its simplicity, convenience, and speediness, the proposed CGICA is suitable for the on-site rapid detection of AMD in chicken muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

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    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  1. Ozone levels in the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia--application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Masiur; Khondaker, A N; Khan, Rouf Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    In arid regions, primary pollutants may contribute to the increase of ozone levels and cause negative effects on biotic health. This study investigates the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for ozone prediction. The initial fuzzy inference system is developed by using fuzzy C-means (FCM) and subtractive clustering (SC) algorithms, which determines the important rules, increases generalization capability of the fuzzy inference system, reduces computational needs, and ensures speedy model development. The study area is located in the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia, which is considered as a source of huge potential for oil and gas field development. The developed clustering algorithm-based ANFIS model used meteorological data and derived meteorological data, along with NO and NO₂ concentrations and their transformations, as inputs. The root mean square error and Willmott's index of agreement of the FCM- and SC-based ANFIS models are 3.5 ppbv and 0.99, and 8.9 ppbv and 0.95, respectively. Based on the analysis of the performance measures and regression error characteristic curves, it is concluded that the FCM-based ANFIS model outperforms the SC-based ANFIS model.

  2. Multi-step infrared macro-fingerprint features of ethanol extracts from different Cistanche species in China combined with HPLC fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Sun, Suqin; Zhu, Weicheng; Xu, Changhua; Liu, Yougang; Shen, Liang; Shi, Yue; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    The genus Cistanche generally has four species in China, including C. deserticola (CD), C. tubulosa (CT), C. salsa (CS) and C. sinensis (CSN), among which CD and CT are official herbal sources of Cistanche Herba (CH). To clarify the sources of CH and ensure the clinical efficacy and safety, a multi-step IR macro-fingerprint method was developed to analyze and evaluate the ethanol extracts of the four species. Through this method, the four species were distinctively distinguished, and the main active components phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) were estimated rapidly according to the fingerprint features in the original IR spectra, second derivative spectra, correlation coefficients and 2D-IR correlation spectra. The exclusive IR fingerprints in the spectra including the positions, shapes and numbers of peaks indicated that constitutes of CD were the most abundant, and CT had the highest level of PhGs. The results deduced by some macroscopic features in IR fingerprint were in agreement with the HPLC fingerprint of PhGs from the four species, but it should be noted that the IR provided more chemical information than HPLC. In conclusion, with the advantages of high resolution, cost effective and speediness, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method should be a promising analytical technique for discriminating extremely similar herbal medicine, monitoring and tracing the constituents of different extracts and even for quality control of the complex systems such as TCM.

  3. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, “ecopharmacovigilance” (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia. PMID:24550578

  4. Modern treatment of infection and ischaemia to reduce major amputation in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic patients suffer a high rate of amputation. There are two main reasons; infection which can spread rapidly leading to overwhelming tissue destruction and severe peripheral arterial disease. Studies that have stratified patients according to the presence or absence of both peripheral arterial disease and infection have shown significantly worse outcomes in patients with both peripheral arterial disease and infection. There have been two crucial significant advances in diabetic foot care to improve the outlook of these diabetic patients. First, there has been the realisation that diabetic foot patients experience repeated crises from the rapid onset infection and need a special form of easily accessible care within a multidisciplinary diabetic foot service to provide prompt treatment of infection before it progresses to necrosis. Secondly, within such a service, prompt diagnosis of ischaemia and urgent revascularisation has been established as a further important aspect of successful management. The critical factor in saving limbs is making a rapid diagnosis of infection and ischaemia and administering the appropriate treatment early. In this way speedy healing can be achieved and this can prevent patients from needing amputations.

  5. Santa Fé: building a virtual city to develop a family health game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubelo, Rodrigo; Dahmer, Alessandra; Pinheiro, Luciana; Pinto, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    The current tendency of education in health is the use of new technologies like Virtual Reality. The course of UNASUS-UFCSPA specialization in family health was developed for health professionals that work in primary health care (PHC); in order to reach all Brazilian territory. Moodle is a platform where virtual activities are posted and evaluated. Santa Fé is a virtual city created in the Sketch up Pro, which aims to fit in specific clinical cases that involve matters of medicine, nursing and dentistry. The Software eAdventure was the tool used for the development of a game, offering interaction to the student with the Virtual City and the clinical cases, in the perspective of learning utilizing an entertainment method and evaluating individual performance of the students. The building of the city in the Sketch up Pro was successful and at low cost. The eAdventure was an efficient and intuitive tool, therefore, there was not necessarily a huge specific knowledge of technology or hardware with high speed processing and also speedy broad band internet for its use.

  6. Tech-Assisted Language Learning Tasks in an EFL Setting: Use of Hand phone Recording Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakarami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology with its speedy great leaps forward has undeniable impact on every aspect of our life in the new millennium. It has supplied us with different affordances almost daily or more precisely in a matter of hours. Technology and Computer seems to be a break through as for their roles in the Twenty-First century educational system. Examples are numerous, among which CALL, CMC, and Virtual learning spaces come to mind instantly. Amongst the newly developed gadgets of today are the sophisticated smart Hand phones which are far more ahead of a communication tool once designed for. Development of Hand phone as a wide-spread multi-tasking gadget has urged researchers to investigate its effect on every aspect of learning process including language learning. This study attempts to explore the effects of using cell phone audio recording feature, by Iranian EFL learners, on the development of their speaking skills. Thirty-five sophomore students were enrolled in a pre-posttest designed study. Data on their English speaking experience using audio–recording features of their Hand phones were collected. At the end of the semester, the performance of both groups, treatment and control, were observed, evaluated, and analyzed; thereafter procured qualitatively at the next phase. The quantitative outcome lent support to integrating Hand phones as part of the language learning curriculum. Keywords:

  7. BURKINA FASO

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    Lydie S. A. Yiougo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities in developing countries are faced waste management challenges in terms of quantity and quality. Most of the time, solid and liquid wastes are dumped on street and open spaces. Uncontrolled waste dumped has led to diverse kind of health problems. The purpose of this article is to characterize urban cities and evaluate their waste generation using the Geographical Info rmation System (GIS. The focus is on two cities in Burkina Faso. Specific variabl es which were considered during the survey include urban fabric, grey water outlets a nd household garbage dumps sites/techniques. The study shows that in the two cities, the most dominant urban fabric is low standard of living (about 64% of housing in Fada and 62% of housing in Pouytenga. The urban fabric is also characterized by the exis tence of empty spaces. Overall, the average density of grey water discharge points is 0.85 points and 5.7 points per ha of street in Fada N’Gourma and Pouytenga respectivel y. The average density of solid waste dumps is 1.45 waste dumps per ha street a nd 7 waste dumps per ha street in Fada N'Gourma and Pouytenga respectively. In case of urgent waste management intervention, the priority areas for speedy intervention are area 10 in Fada N’Gourma, areas 2 and 5 in Pouytenga. GIS applied to w aste management can be a decision making tool for urban planne rs in developing country.

  8. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2016-05-15

    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pemantau Lalu Lintas dengan Sensor LDR Berbasis Mikrokontroler ATmega16

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    Adam Vrileuis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This system was designed to monitor the condition of traffic by measuring the speed and density of vehicles on the road. This system uses Light Dependent Sensor (LDR that can detect the vehicles when there is no light stimulus. Light Dependent Sensor is used as a switch in the circuit. When the light on the sensor is blocked, it provides a response to microcontroller to turn on and turn off the timer, and to run the counter. Theoretically, the condition of traffic flow, such as traffic jams, can be indicated on the vehicle speed and density. The speed and density data were processed by microcontroller using C programming for RISC AVR (Alf and Vegard’s RISC processor. Timing data obtained from the timer and counter were computed by applying arithmetic process to describe the traffic condition. Kinematics theory was applied to find the speedy by multiplying the distance between the sensors which was determined when the vehicles passing the sensors. This system is able to detect congestion at a road if the speed is lower and the density is higher than the setup values.

  10. Analyzing comprehensive QoS with security constraints for services composition applications in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Zhao; Huang, Yannong; Xu, Degang

    2014-12-01

    Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF) shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique-vector universal generating function (VUGF)-which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs.

  11. A Review of the Growth of the Fast Food Industry in China and Its Potential Impact on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfa Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fast-food (FF industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. This study examined the FF industry growth in China, key factors contributing to the growth, and the association between FF consumption (FFC and obesity. We collected related data from multiple sources and conducted analysis including linear regression analysis on the increase in FF revenue. It was found that FF industry in China is large, with over two million FF facilities. Its total revenue (in million US$ increased from 10,464 in 1999 to 94,218 in 2013, and by 13% annually since 2008. Increased income, urbanization, busier lifestyle, speedy FF service, assurance of food safety, new brands and foods have stimulated demand for FF. Studies have linked FFC with obesity risk, including a few reporting a positive association between FFC and obesity in China. Rapid expansion of Western-style FF restaurants has also stimulated local FF industry growth. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. Lessons learned in China will help other countries.

  12. Data on spatiotemporal urban sprawl of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaltu Taffa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper shows the spatiotemporal expansion of Dire Dawa City (eastern Ethiopia and the ensuing land use land cover changes in its peri-urban areas between 1985 and 2015. The data were generated from satellite images of Thematic Mapper (TM, Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+ and OLI (Operational Land Image with path/raw value of 166/053 by using Arc GIS 10.1 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS receiver. Four LULC classes (built up area, vegetation, barren land and farmland with their respective spatiotemporal dimensions were clearly identified in the analysis. Built up area had shown an overall annual increment of 15.8% (82 ha per year from 517 ha in 1985 to 2976 ha in 2015. Expansion took place in all directions but it was more pronounced along the main road towards other nearby towns, recently established business/service areas and the Industrial Park. Barren land, farmland and vegetation areas showed speedy decline over the years.

  13. [Percutaneous intervention in the correction of congenital heart deffects (DCC): experience in as UMAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Vicente; Ordóñez-Toquero, Guillermo; Monjaraz-Rodríguez, Sarain; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo

    Congenital heart defects are common in infants and adults, affecting quality of life if not corrected. Unlike open surgery, percutaneous intervention allows correction with a high success rate and speedy recovery. In Mexico, there are not enough studies to describe their efficacy and safety. A cohort study was conducted in the Hospital "Manuel Avila Camacho", in Puebla, Mexico, including 149 patients with congenital heart defects repaired by percutaneous intervention, recording data from clinical records. The following were documented: post-guided fluoroscopy, hemodynamic changes, cardiac catheterization drilling anatomical changes, and complications six months later such as infection or bleeding at the puncture site, device migration, endocarditis, or death. SPSS was used, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The patients' congenital heart defects treated were ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, and aortic coarctation, with ductus arteriosus being recorded as the most frequent congenital heart defect. Primary angioplasties were performed in 75% and stenting in the rest. Anatomical corrections of congenital defects were successful in 96.4% of patients (p < 0.01), with minimal adverse effects (p < 0.01). We conclude that our hospital has good efficacy and safety in percutaneous intervention, comparable to published reports.

  14. The legal system of immigration in Spain: continuous change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ruiz de Huidobro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a first analysis of the Organic Law (LO 8/2000, which reformed the LO 4/2000 shortly after the latter was approved. This speedy modification was due LO 4/2000 having been approved at the end of the last legislature and against the will of the government in power. This legislative process has led to the break up of the basic consensus which had existed among the political parties and has given rise to a bitter, unbalanced social debate on how to address the issue of immigration. The reform involves alterations being made to almost all the articles of the LO 4/2000 and reveals a general change of orientation in this regard, as the emphasis is transferred from social integration to the control of migratory flows. However, from the technical, judicial point of view, the legal reform cannot be given a positive assessment. The whole legal process has failed to appreciate that the application or management of the legal framework and the instrumentation of specific policies on social integration are just as important as the legal framework itself; this erroneous focus on the issue raises serious questions regarding the future of immigration into Spain.

  15. Codon-by-codon modulation of translational speed and accuracy via mRNA folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid cell growth demands fast protein translational elongation to alleviate ribosome shortage. However, speedy elongation undermines translational accuracy because of a mechanistic tradeoff. Here we provide genomic evidence in budding yeast and mouse embryonic stem cells that the efficiency-accuracy conflict is alleviated by slowing down the elongation at structurally or functionally important residues to ensure their translational accuracies while sacrificing the accuracy for speed at other residues. Our computational analysis in yeast with codon resolution suggests that mRNA secondary structures serve as elongation brakes to control the speed and hence the fidelity of protein translation. The position-specific effect of mRNA folding on translational accuracy is further demonstrated experimentally by swapping synonymous codons in a yeast transgene. Our findings explain why highly expressed genes tend to have strong mRNA folding, slow translational elongation, and conserved protein sequences. The exquisite codon-by-codon translational modulation uncovered here is a testament to the power of natural selection in mitigating efficiency-accuracy conflicts, which are prevalent in biology.

  16. Concept Mapping for Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Marie Zvacek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineering education is facing a changing world in which how one thinks is becoming more important than what one thinks; that is, our course content is important but constantly changing and we need to help students learn how to think about that content.Today’s students have grown accustomed to immediate rewards, multi-channel stimuli, and rapid-fire communications.  As a result, they are often impatient and suffer a lack of focus. When reflection is called for in the learning process - a time consuming practice - students may find it difficult to overcome the conflict between their typically speedy management of priorities and the focused, time-intensive thinking required to acquire a strong foundation of declarative knowledge.Therefore, the exploration of tools to facilitate the formation of deep knowledge structures is essential. One instructional strategy that shows promise is the use of concept mapping, a learning activity that requires students to explain their understanding of important ideas and the relationships among those ideas.  This paper describes a pilot project to integrate concept mapping into a Mechanical Engineering Course and the preliminary results of that project.This project has been established within the Working Group of “Tools for Developing High Order Thinking Skills”, of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, in which the first author is the leader and the other two co-authors, are working group members

  17. A comprehensive review of the policy and programmatic response to chronic non-communicable disease in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, W K

    2012-06-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Ghana have caused significant illness and death in Ghana for many years. Yet, until recently, they have been neglected and not considered a health priority. This paper reviews the national policy and programme response to chronic NCDs over the period 1992 to 2009. Unpublished reports, documents, relevant files of the Ghana Health Service (GHS) were examined to assess programmatic response to chronic NCDs. Literature was searched to locate published articles on the epidemiology of chronic NCDs in Ghana. The websites of various local and international health institutions were also searched for relevant articles. Several policy and programme initiatives have been pursued with limited success. A national control programme has been established, NCDs are currently a national policy priority, draft tobacco control legislation prepared, public education campaigns on healthy lifestyles, instituted cervical cancer screening and a national health insurance system to reducing medical costs of chronic NCD care. Major challenges include inefficient programme management, low funding, little political interest, low community awareness, high cost of drugs and absence of structured screening programmes. Emerging opportunities include improving political will, government's funding of a national cancer screening programme; basic and operational research; and using funds from well-resourced health programmes for overall health system strengthening. Although Ghana has recently determined to emphasise healthy lifestyles and environment as a major health policy for the prevention and control of chronic NCDs, low funding and weak governance have hindered the effective and speedy implementation of proposed interventions.

  18. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  19. Improved image retrieval based on fuzzy colour feature vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ahmeida, Ahlam M.; Ben Sasi, Ahmed Y.

    2013-03-01

    One of Image indexing techniques is the Content-Based Image Retrieval which is an efficient way for retrieving images from the image database automatically based on their visual contents such as colour, texture, and shape. In this paper will be discuss how using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method by colour feature extraction and similarity checking. By dividing the query image and all images in the database into pieces and extract the features of each part separately and comparing the corresponding portions in order to increase the accuracy in the retrieval. The proposed approach is based on the use of fuzzy sets, to overcome the problem of curse of dimensionality. The contribution of colour of each pixel is associated to all the bins in the histogram using fuzzy-set membership functions. As a result, the Fuzzy Colour Histogram (FCH), outperformed the Conventional Colour Histogram (CCH) in image retrieving, due to its speedy results, where were images represented as signatures that took less size of memory, depending on the number of divisions. The results also showed that FCH is less sensitive and more robust to brightness changes than the CCH with better retrieval recall values.

  20. Extraction method enhancement techniques for the analysis of PCDDS and PCDFS in meat sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Uk [Gyeonsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea). Division of Applied Life Science]|[National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Busan Regional Office; Kwon, Jin-Wook [National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Anyang city

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins are the most concerned persistent organic pollutants(POPs) to human beings and being fat soluble tend to accumulate in higher animals including humans. Dioxins has 75 congeners of PCDD and 135 congeners of PCDF, but generally only 7 congeners of PCDD and 10 congeners of PCDF are analyzed because of their toxicity, stability and so on. Since dioxins contamination is regarded as a global issue, a large amount of samples have been analyzed, and various methods for measuring dioxins have been developed and improved. Dioxins analysis needs very complicated analytical procedure including extraction, cleanup and instrument analysis. Because analytical procedure is very complicated and needs many steps, conventional analytical procedure are very time consuming and use large volumes of solvents. So current methods are time consuming and very expensive. In this study, speedy and cost reducing methods without reducing recovery and stability should be focused. So to present the new extraction method to simplify and stabilize of extraction method, the recovery and stability of 7 congeners of PCDD and 10 congeners of PCDF using soxhlet, forced convection dry oven and microwave oven were compared.

  1. Stimulating music increases motor coordination in patients afflicted with Morbus Parkinson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatzky, Günther; Bernatzky, Patrick; Hesse, Horst-Peter; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther

    2004-05-06

    The present study measured the short-term effect of special stimulating music on motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Eleven patients with a dominant akinetic Parkinson syndrome as well as ten healthy persons (age-matched control group) participated in this study. In the Parkinson group, the measurement of fine motor coordination with the 'Vienna Test System' showed an improvement in two (aiming, line tracking) of the four subtests after listening to the music. The patients improved their performance with the right arm significantly in the subtest aiming-error-time. No statistical differences were found in the other two subtests (steadiness, tapping) in both groups. There was also no improvement in frequency of tapping movement on the power-force-working-plate. Accordingly, music effects more the precision of a movement than the speediness. The measurements on the power-force-working-plate showed a significant improvement in two of five measured parameters: contact time, variability coefficient for total step and impact maximum changed significantly. This study gives evidence that specific music can improve the precision of arm and finger movements.

  2. Colorimetric and fluorimetric detection of Hg2 + and Cr3 + by boronic acid conjugated rhodamine derivatives: Mechanistic aspects and their bio-imaging application in bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallu, Rama Krishna; Velugula, Krishna; Doshi, Sejal; Chinta, Jugun Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Colorimetric and fluorimetric detection of toxic metal ions such as Hg2 + and Cr3 + has gained tremendous popularity over the conventional methods due to their operational simplicity, high selectivity, and speediness. Although numerous colorimetric and fluorescent receptors for Hg2 + or Cr3 + were reported in the literature, boronic acid-based receptors for these metal ions are rather scarce in the literature. Hence, in the present study dual function boronic acid conjugated rhodamine derivatives were developed, and their toxic metal ion detection abilities were studied by absorption, emission and visual detection methods. Absorption and emission spectral studies revealed that these derivatives displayed selectivity towards Hg2 +, Cr3 + and Fe3 + among the other metal ions studied by forming new absorption band. Both the derivatives exhibited colorimetric response towards Hg2 + and Cr3 + by the change in color of the solution to pink and reddish pink with Fe3 +. The detailed mechanism involved in the detection of Hg2 + was deduced by 1H NMR and ESI-MS studies. Further, these derivatives were used for fluorescence imaging of Hg2 + and Cr3 + in S. aureus bacterial cells. Thus the present manuscript demonstrated the use of boronic acid conjugated rhodamine derivatives as a dual function (colorimetric and fluorescent) probes and as imaging agents for Hg2 + and Cr3 +, which are known for their toxic influence on bacterial cells.

  3. General procedures in diagnosis of malignant diseases in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors occur in all domestic and wild animals. They are most often diagnosed in dogs and cats, and their numbers increase from year to year. In the recent years, cancer is believed to be the most frequent cause of pet deaths. A speedy and reliable diagnosis is of paramount importance because it enables the veterinarian to begin therapy and make a prognosis. The objective of an early diagnosis is to enable the detection of neoplastic diseases before the tumor spreads throughout the organism, consequently enabling the timely administration of therapy and providing greater chances for curing the animal. A tumor is diagnosed on the grounds of the anamnesis, clinical picture, and special diagnostic procedures. The most frequently applied diagnostic procedures are laboratory diagnostics, cytology, biopsy and pathohistology, imaging diagnostics (roentgenography and roentgenoscopy, ultrasound diagnostics, endoscopy, computer tomography, magnetic resonance, and scintigraphy and molecular diagnostics. Each of these methods has its advantages and faults in connection with costs, availability, sensitivity, specificity and quality of anatomic vs functional pictures. Every one of these techniques has its own field of implementation and each one provides different and additional information in connection with the nature and position of the primary lesion and the presence of metastases.

  4. Risk and Return under Shari’a Framework: An Attempt to Develop Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A speedy emerging area of finance is the Shari’a compliant financial system. In first decade of 21st century Islamic financing has shown tremendous increase and global volume has reached to US $ 1,041 billion by the end of 2009. Being financial intermediaries Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs have shown commendable progress in deposit collection under profit and loss sharing schemes however investment avenues are limited in comparison of conventional banks. Although a large number of financing modes are available to IFIs, yet maintenance of required liquidity is serious issue because money market and capital market is dominated by interest based instruments and conventional practices (some are clearly prohibited by Shari’a. Recently Al-meezan Investment Management Ltd. (AIML has started screening of Shari’a compliant stocks on KSE, and provided an avenue for Shari’a Compliant Investors/IFIs to invest in equities. This study is conducted to understand conventional asset pricing models, document any mismatching with Shari’a financial system, and suggest amendments if required. Findings suggest existing models of equity pricing (CAPM, APT/MFM are very much practicable under Shari’a framework with slight modification of risk free return because under Shari’a frame work risk free returns do not exist.

  5. National hospital antibiotic timing measures for pneumonia and antibiotic overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Douglas E; Cohen, Abigail; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The development of drug-resistant bacteria from the overuse of antibiotics is a serious problem, with overutilization threatening to disarm caregivers and their patients even as together they face increasingly virulent strains of microbes. On the other hand, the speedy treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics is a firmly established, evidence-based practice, enshrined in Joint Commission on Accreditation for Healthcare Organizations Core Measures used in hospital accrediting and public reporting, and in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) public-reporting and pay-for-performance hospital measures. This sets the stage for a potential conflict between (a) not doing the wrong thing by overprescribing antibiotics and (b) prescribing antibiotics on time for pneumonia. In November 2005, pneumonia antibiotic timing results were announced for the 133 top-performing hospitals in the first year of the 3-year CMS Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (HQID) pay-for-performance project, conducted in collaboration with Premier Inc, a hospital purchasing and informatics alliance. Premier client hospitals participating in the HQID also submit drug utilization and other comparative data to Premier for client access for benchmarking purposes; this makes it possible to see how the antibiotics specified for pneumonia are used by Premier hospitals for other conditions. In this study we look at where increased success in meeting the HQID pneumonia antibiotic timing measure is tied to an increase in antibiotic use for conditions where antibiotics are unwarranted--with the potential for promoting antibiotic resistance.

  6. Different Injection Strategies to Enhance the Performance of Diesel Engine Powered with Biodiesel Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khandal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The compression ignition (CI engines are most efficient and robust but they rely on depleting fossil fuel. Hence there is a speedy need to use alternative fuels that replaces diesel and at the same time engine should yield better performance. Accordingly, honge oil methyl ester (BHO and cotton seed oil methyl ester (BCO were selected as an alternative fuel to power CI engine in the study. In the first part, this paper aims to evaluate best fuel injection timing (IT and injector opening pressure (IOP for the biodiesel fuels (BDF. The combustion chamber (CC used for the study is toriodal re-entrant (TRCC. The experimental tests showed that BHO and BCO yielded overall better performance at IT of 19° before top dead centre (bTDC and IOP of 240 bar. In the second part, the effect of number of holes on the performance of BDF powered CI engine was studied keeping optimized IT and IOP. The six-hole injector with 0.2 mm injector orifice diameter yielded better performance compared to other injectors of different holes and size tested.

  7. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  8. The heart failure epidemic: a UK perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Cowie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is appropriately described as an epidemic, with 1–2% of health care expenditure being directed at its management. In England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE has issued guidance on the best practice for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Echocardiography is key to the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac abnormalities, and access to this (with our without biochemical testing using natriuretic peptides is key to high-quality and speedy diagnosis. New models of care aim to speed up access to echocardiography, but a shortage of technically trained staff remains a limiting factor in improving standards of care. The NHS audits the quality of care and outcome for patients admitted to hospital with heart failure, and this continues to show wide variation in practice, particularly, where patients are not reviewed by the local heart failure multidisciplinary team. Recently, the All Party Parliamentary Group on Cardiac Disease issued 10 suggestions for improvement in care for patients with heart failure – access to echocardiography being one of the key suggestions. Time will tell as to whether this support from law makers will assist in the implementation of NICE-recommended standards of care consistently across the country.

  9. Use of SMS-Based Surveys in the Rapid Response to the Ebola Outbreak in Liberia: Opening Community Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Amanda; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During an emerging health crisis like the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, communicating with communities to learn from them and to provide timely information can be a challenge. Insight into community thinking, however, is crucial for developing appropriate communication content and strategies and for monitoring the progress of the emergency response. In November 2014, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative partnered with GeoPoll to implement a Short Message Service (SMS)-based survey that could create a link with affected communities and help guide the communication response to Ebola. The ideation metatheory of communication and behavior change guided the design of the survey questionnaire, which produced critical insights into trusted sources of information, knowledge of transmission modes, and perceived risks-all factors relevant to the design of an effective communication response that further catalyzed ongoing community actions. The use of GeoPoll's infrastructure for data collection proved a crucial source of almost-real-time data. It allowed for rapid data collection and processing under chaotic field conditions. Though not a replacement for standard survey methodologies, SMS surveys can provide quick answers within a larger research process to decide on immediate steps for communication strategies when the demand for speedy emergency response is high. They can also help frame additional research as the response evolves and overall monitor the pulse of the situation at any point in time.

  10. Implications of Web of Science journal impact factor for scientific output evaluation in 16 institutions and investigators' opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Arora, Richa; Choi, Yongdoo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Egorov, Vyacheslav I; Frahm, Jens; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Kuyumcu, Suleyman; Laurent, Sophie; Loffroy, Romaric; Maurea, Simone; Morcos, Sameh K; Ni, Yicheng; Oei, Edwin H G; Sabarudin, Akmal; Yu, Xin

    2014-12-01

    Journal based metrics is known not to be ideal for the measurement of the quality of individual researcher's scientific output. In the current report 16 contributors from Hong Kong SAR, India, Korea, Taiwan, Russia, Germany, Japan, Turkey, Belgium, France, Italy, UK, The Netherlands, Malaysia, and USA are invited. The following six questions were asked: (I) is Web of Sciences journal impact factor (IF) and Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) citation the main academic output performance evaluation tool in your institution? and your country? (II) How does Google citation count in your institution? and your country? (III) If paper is published in a non-SCI journal but it is included in PubMed and searchable by Google scholar, how it is valued when compared with a paper published in a journal with an IF? (IV) Do you value to publish a piece of your work in a non-SCI journal as much as a paper published in a journal with an IF? (V) What is your personal view on the metric measurement of scientific output? (VI) Overall, do you think Web of Sciences journal IF is beneficial, or actually it is doing more harm? The results show that IF and ISI citation is heavily affecting the academic life in most of the institutions. Google citation and evaluation, while is being used and convenient and speedy, has not gain wide 'official' recognition as a tool for scientific output evaluation.

  11. Detection of Hypertension Retinopathy Using Deep Learning and Boltzmann Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwijoyo, B. K.; Pradipto, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    hypertensive retinopathy (HR) in the retina of the eye is disturbance caused by high blood pressure disease, where there is a systemic change of arterial in the blood vessels of the retina. Most heart attacks occur in patients caused by high blood pressure symptoms of undiagnosed. Hypertensive retinopathy Symptoms such as arteriolar narrowing, retinal haemorrhage and cotton wool spots. Based on this reasons, the early diagnosis of the symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy is very urgent to aim the prevention and treatment more accurate. This research aims to develop a system for early detection of hypertension retinopathy stage. The proposed method is to determine the combined features artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR) as well as changes position with Optic Disk (OD) in retinal images to review the classification of hypertensive retinopathy using Deep Neural Networks (DNN) and Boltzmann Machines approach. We choose this approach of because based on previous research DNN models were more accurate in the image pattern recognition, whereas Boltzmann machines selected because It requires speedy iteration in the process of learning neural network. The expected results from this research are designed a prototype system early detection of hypertensive retinopathy stage and analysed the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods.

  12. Can internet access growth help reduce the global burden of noncommunicable diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes, are currently the leading causes of death in several regions of the world. The continuing fast increase in the global burden of noncommunicable diseases is accompanied by a speedy worldwide internet access growth. The worldwide number of internet users has doubled over the past five years. As the internet can make the access to information on a healthy lifestyle and disease prevention activities easier, internet access growth may help to promote good health. Against this background, I discuss the roles the internet and access to information can play in health promotion. I also present an open access web portal on local prevention and health promotion activities. It was initiated by two German states to link health information from disparate sources and to organize this information in a user-friendly way. The web portal focuses on reducing preventable lifestyle-related risk factors associated with noncommunicable diseases, including physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use, and the harmful use of alcohol. This local initiative has the potential for scaling up and can serve as a blueprint for other areas that have or will acquire internet access.

  13. Multicomponent chemistry in the synthesis of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Stanislav; Supuran, Claudiu T; Krasavin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are of growing interest since various isoforms of the enzyme are identified as promising drug targets for treatment of disease. The principal drawback of the clinically used CAIs is the lack of isoform selectivity, which may lead to observable side effects. Studies aiming at the design of isoform-selective CAIs entail generation and biological testing of arrays of compounds, which is a resource- and time-consuming process. Employment of multicomponent reactions is an efficient synthetic strategy in terms of gaining convenient and speedy access to a range of scaffolds with a high degree of molecular diversity. However, this powerful tool appears to be underutilized for the discovery of novel CAIs. A number of studies employing multicomponent reactions in CAI synthesis have been reported in literature. Some of these reports provide inspiring examples of successful use of multicomponent chemistry to construct novel potent and often isoform-selective inhibitors. On critical reading of several publications, however, it becomes apparent that for some chemical series designed as CAIs, the desired inhibitory properties are only assumed and never tested for. In these cases, the biological profile is reported based on the results of phenotypical cellular assays, with no correlation with the intended on-target activity. Present review aims at critically assessing the current literature on the multicomponent chemistry in the CAI design.

  14. [Rapid simultaneous determination of ten major flavonoids in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum by UPLC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Fu, Zhi-Qin; Lin, Jing; Huang, Xue-Cheng; Yu, Hong-Min; Huang, Ze-Hao; Fan, Shi-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of 10 major compounds (procyanidin B1, catechin, procyanidin B2, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, astragalin, quercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol) in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. UPLC-MS/MS assay with negative ion mode was performed on a Waters CORTECS C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.6 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% aqueous formic acid (B) in gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL · min(-1) and the column temperature was set at 45 °C. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, good separation for 10 target compounds were obtained including chiral isomer procyanidins B1 and B2 were completely separated within 8.5 min. Satisfactory linearity was achieved with wide linear range and fine determination coefficient (r > 0.996 6), the overall recoveries were ranged from 95.44%-110.40% with the RSD ranging from 2.37%-8.69%. It is the first report about simultaneous analysis of 10 major flavonoids components in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum by using UPLC-MS/MS method, which affords highly sensitive, specific, speedy and efficient method for quality control of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum

  15. Investigating the Tolerance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Cultivars to Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers in Khorassan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the tolerance of tomato cultivars to Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers., an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 3 replications in mazrae Nemoune Astan Quds Razavi in Mashhad, Iran, 2012. Treatment were 11 varieties (Peto early CH, Sterling (Karon, Khorram, Petorak, DNP 3005, PS 6515, SPEEDY, IDEN, VADI STAR, FIRINZEH and DNP 3001 which were transplanted in the field along with broomrape. Sampling was done at two stages: 1- after appearance and establishment of broomrape on tomato root where the dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and tomato dry weight were measured and 2- at the end of growing season where tomato fruit weight and its yield were determined. Result indicated that Sterling and Khorram cultivars did have the least broomrape dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and while produced highest plant dry weight, fruit and yield as compared to the other cultivars. Thus, may be considered as tolerant cultivars. Petorak and DNP 3001 on the other hand, presented the most broomrape dry weight, stem number and node number on tomato root. However, Petorak, Peto early CH and FIRINZEH cultivars produced the least plant weight, fruit and yield and thus, they can be called the sensitive cultivars. DNP 3001 being highly attacked by broomrape produced increased fruit yield and therefore compensated its ill effects.

  16. A resonance light scattering quenching system for studying DNA sequence recognition of actinomycin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanguang; Zhang, Guomin; Chen, Xi; Chen, Junhui; Qian, Sihua; Li, Qiang

    2012-02-07

    The DNA sequence recognition study of DNA-targeted anticancer drugs is a theoretical basis for improving the selectivity of anticancer drugs. With the high synergy effect of cocoamidopropyl hydroxy sulfobetaine (HSB), a resonance light scattering (RLS) quenching system for DNA sequence recognition studies of actinomycin D (ACTD) was developed in this contribution. By the strategy, DNA sequence selectivity as well as the recognition mechanisms of ACTD was systematically investigated. The results suggested that ACTD had the selectivity to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with an equilibrium constant (K(RLS)) of 12.4 mmol mg(-1). Also it had a preference for Guanine and Cytosine bases with a K(RLS) of 6.69 L mmol(-1). The selectivity mechanism between ACTD and DNA was also well discussed with the help of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Compared with other methods, the RLS quenching system has the advantages of reliability and speediness, and it avoids complex modification processes and is a better bionic system for the above research. Results obtained from this work would supply a theoretical basis for improving anticancer activity and designing similar anticancer drugs.

  17. Simple and cost-effective restriction endonuclease analysis of human adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Fujimoto, Tsuguto

    2014-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analyses (REAs) constitute the only inexpensive molecular approach capable of typing and characterizing human adenovirus (HAdV) strains based on the entire genome. However, the application of this method is limited by the need for time-consuming and labor-intensive procedures. We herein developed a simple and cost-effective REA for assessing HAdV. The method consists of (1) simple and cost-effective DNA extraction, (2) fast restriction endonuclease (RE) digestion, and (3) speedy mini agarose gel electrophoresis. In this study, DNA was isolated according to the kit-based method and 21.0 to 28.0  μg of viral DNA was extracted from prototypes (HAdV-1, HAdV-3, HAdV-4, and HAdV-37) in each flask. The amount of DNA ranged from 11.4 to 57.0  μg among the HAdV-3 (n=73) isolates. The obtained viral DNA was found to be applicable to more than 10 types of REAs. Fast-cut restriction endonucleases (REs) were able to digest the DNA within 15 minutes, and restriction fragments were easily separated via horizontal mini agarose gel electrophoresis. The whole procedure for 10 samples can be completed within approximately six hours (the conventional method requires at least two days). These results show that our REA is potentially applicable in many laboratories in which HAdVs are isolated.

  18. Health promotion and work: prevention of shift work disorders in companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kneginja D; Acker, Jens; Scholz, Friederike; Niklewski, Günter

    2010-12-01

    Workplace health promotion is a strategy to improve the health and well-being of people at work. The measures aim at the personal, organisational and work environment. Shift work is one of many reasons provoking increased job stress. According to worldwide epidemiological data, up to 30% of the working population are employed in shifts. Taking into consideration that shift work causes a large number of somatic and psychiatric diseases which bear considerable negative consequences for the health status and the quality of life, it seems to be important to initiate health promotion strategies for shift workers in the companies. The results of recent studies indicate that well-scheduled und targeted health programmes can change the lifestyle of shift working employees and have an impact on the risk factors involved. One problem, though, is a considerable time lag till effects become apparent; therefore, the long-term economic effects of workplace health promotion have not been evaluated sufficiently to date. These definitely positive effects highlight the demand for trainings and workshops for people in shift work. We urgently suggest a speedy implementation of the recommended strategies by companies with shift work systems. In our view, this poses a challenge to the "infant" interdisciplinary field of sleep medicine that should be solved.

  19. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-11-01

    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place.

  20. The health technology assessment adaptation toolkit: description and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sheila; Chase, Deborah L; Milne, Ruairidh; Cook, Andrew; Hicks, Nicholas J; Rosten, Claire; Payne, Liz; Coles, Suzanne; Bell, Eleanor

    2009-12-01

    Adapting health technology assessment (HTA) reports for different contexts could reduce the need for multiple reports on the same health technology with resultant saving of time and resources. This article describes an instrument, the adaptation toolkit, which has been developed to aid in the process of adaptation of HTA reports. The toolkit was developed by a partnership of HTA agencies and networks from across Europe. The role of the toolkit is to guide the user through the process of selecting possible relevant material from these report(s), assessing the relevance, reliability, and transferability of the material, and adapting it for the desired context. The adaptation toolkit has been developed, it comprises a collection of resources that help the user assess whether data and information in existing HTA reports should and could be adapted for their own setting. The toolkit contains two sections: a preliminary speedy sifting section and the main toolkit. The main toolkit includes five domains: (i) technology use and development, (ii) safety, (iii) effectiveness (including efficacy), (iv) economic evaluation, and (v) organizational aspects. Legal, ethical, and social aspects are beyond the scope of the toolkit. The toolkit is designed for the adaptation of evidence synthesis rather than primary research. The completed current version of the toolkit contains checklists and resources to aid in the adaptation of HTA reports. This collection of resources is available for use by all HTA agencies and can be accessed at: http://www.eunethta.net/upload/WP5/EUnetHTA_HTA_Adaptation_Toolkit_October08.pdf..

  1. Thermal tachyacoustic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhineet; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2014-08-01

    An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early Universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. nonrenormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early Universe is the tachyacoustic (or speedy sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study thermal tachyacoustic cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early Universe, around the scale of the grand unified theory (GUT scale; T ˜1015 GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by 25 orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of tensor modes (r≳10-3), that are detectable by CMBpol (and might have already been seen by the BICEP-Keck Collaboration).

  2. Children's sedentary behaviour: descriptive epidemiology and associations with objectively-measured sedentary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitsie, Tessa; Corder, Kirsten; Visscher, Tommy L S; Atkin, Andrew J; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2013-11-25

    Little is known regarding the patterning and socio-demographic distribution of multiple sedentary behaviours in children. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the leisure-time sedentary behaviour of 9-10 year old British children, and 2) establish associations with objectively-measured sedentary time. Cross-sectional analysis in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) (N=1513, 44.3% boys). Twelve leisure-time sedentary behaviours were assessed by questionnaire. Objectively-measured leisure-time sedentary time (Actigraph GT1M, reading (β = 0.1, p watching television (β = 0.04, p vs. none: 'low' β = 26.1,ns; 'high' 30.9, p vs. none: 'low' β = 49.1, p watching television (vs. lowest tertile: middle β = 22.2,ns; highest β = 31.9, p vs. none: 'low' β = -38.5, p vs. none: 'low' β = -30.7, p < 0.05; 'high' -4.2,ns) were negatively associated. Boys and girls and children of different socioeconomic backgrounds engage in different leisure-time sedentary behaviours. Whilst a number of behaviours may be predictive of total sedentary time, collectively they explain little overall variance. Future studies should consider a wide range of sedentary behaviours and incorporate objective measures to quantify sedentary time where possible.

  3. Application of Fuzzy Sets for the Improvement of Routing Optimization Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattas Konstantinos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal circular path has become widely known for its difficulty in producing a solution and for the numerous applications in the scope of organization and management of passenger and freight transport. It is a mathematical combinatorial optimization problem for which several deterministic and heuristic models have been developed in recent years, applicable to route organization issues, passenger and freight transport, storage and distribution of goods, waste collection, supply and control of terminals, as well as human resource management. Scope of the present paper is the development, with the use of fuzzy sets, of a practical, comprehensible and speedy heuristic algorithm for the improvement of the ability of the classical deterministic algorithms to identify optimum, symmetrical or non-symmetrical, circular route. The proposed fuzzy heuristic algorithm is compared to the corresponding deterministic ones, with regard to the deviation of the proposed solution from the best known solution and the complexity of the calculations needed to obtain this solution. It is shown that the use of fuzzy sets reduced up to 35% the deviation of the solution identified by the classical deterministic algorithms from the best known solution.

  4. Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreti, B M; Sharma, G K

    2012-05-01

    Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. × 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K(40), U(238) and Th(232). This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven species of Dendrobium using infrared spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congpei; He, Tao; Chun, Ze

    2013-04-01

    Dendrobium is a commonly used and precious herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The high biodiversity of Dendrobium and the therapeutic needs require tools for the correct and fast discrimination of different Dendrobium species. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by cluster analysis for discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven Dendrobium species. Despite the general pattern of the IR spectra, different intensities, shapes, peak positions were found in the IR spectra of these samples, especially in the range of 1800-800 cm-1. The second derivative transformation and alcoholic extracting procedure obviously enlarged the tiny spectral differences among these samples. The results indicated each Dendrobium species had a characteristic IR spectra profile, which could be used to discriminate them. The similarity coefficients among the samples were analyzed based on their second derivative IR spectra, which ranged from 0.7632 to 0.9700, among the seven Dendrobium species, and from 0.5163 to 0.9615, among the ethanol extracts. A dendrogram was constructed based on cluster analysis the IR spectra for studying the chemical phylogenetic relationships among the samples. The results indicated that D. denneanum and D. crepidatum could be the alternative resources to substitute D. chrysotoxum, D. officinale and D. nobile which were officially recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In conclusion, with the advantages of high resolution, speediness and convenience, the experimental approach can successfully discriminate and construct the chemical phylogenetic relationships of the seven Dendrobium species.

  6. A mobile phone integrated health care delivery system of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Maria Y Y; Lee, Ares C H; Chan, Lawrence W C

    2004-09-01

    With the growing computing capability of mobile phones, a handy mobile controller is developed for accessing the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to enhance image management for clinicians with nearly no restriction in time and location using various wireless communication modes. The PACS is an integrated system for the distribution and archival of medical images that are acquired by different imaging modalities such as CT (computed tomography) scanners, CR (computed radiography) units, DR (digital radiography) units, US (ultrasonography) scanners, and MR (magnetic resonance) scanners. The mobile controller allows image management of the PACS including display, worklisting, query and retrieval of medical images in DICOM format. In this mobile system, a server program is developed in a PACS Web server which serves as an interface for client programs in the mobile phone and the enterprise PACS for image distribution in hospitals. The application processing is performed on the server side to reduce computational loading in the mobile device. The communication method of mobile phones can be adapted to multiple wireless environments in Hong Kong. This allows greater feasibility to accommodate the rapidly changing communication technology. No complicated computer hardware or software is necessary. Using a mobile phone embedded with the mobile controller client program, this system would serve as a tool for heath care and medical professionals to improve the efficiency of the health care services by speedy delivery of image information. This is particularly important in case of urgent consultation, and it allows health care workers better use of the time for patient care.

  7. Empleo del colgajo muscular extensor digitorum brevis con flujo retrógrado para defectos distales en el pie Use of reverse flow extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap for distal foot defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Lope Falcón

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos en isla con vascularización distal y, entre ellos, el colgajo muscular Extensor Digitorum Brevis, son en la actualidad una opción excelente para conseguir la cobertura satisfactoria de los defectos de tejidos blandos a nivel del dorso del pie y de los dedos. En este artículo revisamos casos publicados por otros autores de defectos distales del pie, resueltos mediante este colgajo muscular, así como estudios anatómicos sobre la vascularización del mismo y presentamos 2 casos intervenidos en nuestro Servicio en los que obtuvimos una cobertura satisfactoria y una pronta recuperación, sin complicaciones vasculares, morbilidad de la zona donante o limitación funcional; solo una hipoestesia persistente a nivel del dorso del pie.Island flaps with distal vascularization, including Extensor Digitorum Brevis flap, are an excellent choice for achieving satisfactory coverage of soft tissues defects at the back of the feet and fingers. In this article we review the use of this flap by other authors in distal foot defect and the anatomical studies about its vascularization. We report 2 cases operated on our Department of Plastic Surgery with distal foot defects solved with this flap. We obtained a satisfactory coverage and a speedy recovery. No vascular complications, morbidity of the donor site or functional limitation were noticed. The only complaint was persistent hypoaesthesia on the back foot.

  8. Direct detection of fibrinogen in human plasma using electric-double-layer gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Abiral; Sarangadharan, Indu; Chen, Yen-Wen; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Fibrinogen found in blood plasma is an important protein biomarker for potentially fatal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. This study focuses on the development of an assay to detect plasmatic fibrinogen using electrical double layer gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor biosensors without complex sample pre-treatment methods used in the traditional assays. The test results in buffer solution and clinical plasma samples show high sensitivity, specificity, and dynamic range. The sensor exhibits an ultra-low detection limit of 0.5 g/l and a detection range of 0.5-4.5 g/l in 1× PBS with 1% BSA. The concentration dependent sensor signal in human serum samples demonstrates the specificity to fibrinogen in a highly dense matrix of background proteins. The sensor does not require complicated automation, and quantitative results are obtained in 5 min with <5 μl sample volume. This sensing technique is ideal for speedy blood based diagnostics such as POC (point of care) tests, homecare tests, or personalized healthcare.

  9. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  10. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  11. The role of laparoscopy in staging of different gynaecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, K Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2015-08-01

    Apart from cervical and vaginal cancers that are staged by clinical examination, most gynaecological cancers are staged surgically. Not only can pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy offer accurate staging information that helps determine patients' prognosis and hence their treatment plan, but it may also provide a therapeutic effect under certain circumstances. In the past, such a procedure required a big laparotomy incision. With the advent of laparoscopic lighting and instrument, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy became popular since the late 1980s. Dargent et al. published the first report on laparoscopic staging in cervical cancers, and many studies then followed. To date, there are numerous case series and trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery in managing gynaecological cancers. In general, compared with laparotomy, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy has less intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pain, fewer wound complications, shorter length of hospital stay and more speedy recovery. However, this is at the expense of longer operative time. The incidence of port-site metastasis is extremely low, although it may be higher in advanced ovarian cancer. Preliminary data showed that there was no significant effect on recurrence and survival, but long-term data are lacking. In this article, the roles of laparoscopy in staging of uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers, the three most common gynaecological cancers, will be reviewed. Novel technologies such as robot-assisted surgery, single-port surgery and sentinel node biopsy will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of competitive adsorption isotherm of enantiomers on preparative chromatographic columns using inverse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Guoqian; Yu, Weifang; Ray, Ajar K

    2013-01-18

    Precise determination of competitive adsorption isotherm is of great importance for model-based optimization and scale-up of chromatographic separation processes, particularly for the simulated moving bed (SMB) systems due to its intrinsic complexity. In this study, five parameters of a bi-Langmuir model for adsorption of ketoprofen enantiomers on a preparative Chiralpak AD column at 25°C were determined by the application of inverse method (IM). Transport-dispersive (TD) model parameters, axial dispersion and mass transfer coefficients were independently estimated first by tuning a series of linear pulse experiments. Competitive adsorption isotherm model parameters were then determined independently by fitting the experimental data. A new numerical scheme that couples non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) was proposed for the data fitting. NSGA was capable of rapidly locating the optimal solution in the parametric space while LGA allowed speedy convergence given a good initial guess. Independently measured band profiles and simulated moving bed (SMB) experiments were later used to validate the model parameters. The experimental results were in good agreement with the model predictions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Determination of trace elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn from different habitat by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Xue, Yue-Qin; Gui, Ren-Yi; Sun, Su-Qin; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2010-03-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique was proposed to determine the content of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Al, Se and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The RSD of the method was between 1.23% and 3.32%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method were between 95.8% and 104.20%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of metal elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn. The experimental results also indicated that different areas' Lophantherum gracile brongn had different trace elements content. The content of trace elements K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Mn beneficial to the human body was rich. The content of the heavy metal trace element Pb in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Hunan province was slightly high. The content of the heavy metal trace element Cu in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Guangdong province and Anhui province is also slightly higher. Beside, the contents of harmful trace heavy metal elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation and National Food Sanitation Standard. These determination results provided the scientific data for further discussing the relationship between the content of trace elements in Lophantherum gracile brongn and the medicine efficacy.

  14. NOT SO WIDE, EUROPE: RECONSIDERING THE NORMATIVE POWER OF THE EU IN EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of political conditionality, the European Union (EU exercises what Ian Manners has termed ‘normative power’, which many scholars and political analysts have regarded as the primary force behind the speedy democratization process of the 2004 enlargement of the EU. The two most recent enlargements of the EU have extended the Union into a new neighbourhood bordering still relatively democratically infant and unstable states such as Belarus and Ukraine. Following the relative success of conditionality during the enlargement process, the ENP was developed in 2003 to once again take advantage of conditionality to spread EU ‘norms’ and secure political stability at its borders, this time without the incentive of membership. This article analyzes the ability of the EU to exercise normative power in Eastern Europe. It presents the argument that despite systematic attempts to spread EU policies, or so-called ‘norms’ beyond the Union’s external borders, disparities in norm-adoption among ENP target-states exemplifies incongruence in the success of the EU’s normative power in foreign relations. To address the question of whether the EU demonstrates normative power through its application of the Neighbourhood Policy, the authors’ analysis will address the cases of Ukraine and Belarus.

  15. Nicanor Abelardo: Tagapagbunsod ng Modernismo sa Sining Musika sa Pilipinas

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    Ramon P. Santos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The twentieth century has borne witness to some of the great changes in the musical art of Europe and the West. The historical events of the past century in economics and education, the speedy spread of intellectualization and the achievements in science all contributed to the creation of new perspectives in culture and the arts. These perspectives, which were reactions to the aesthetics of the time and to the accepted styles of expression, led to a major movement called "modernism." The various directions and views which formed the major characteristics of modernism in music came together under the aegis of freedom, freedom from the old ways. This freedom was seen as a departure from emotion and sentimentalism as well as emancipation from the long imprisonment in the system of tonal harmony, which in turn suppressed emotional breadth and human thought. While studying in America, Nicanor Abelardo embraced contemporary philosophy and techniques. This brought about a modern quality to his works during his last years. This article is an initial study of this rapid and dramatic metamorphosis in the art of NIcanor Abelardo.

  16. Joining the dots between omics and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kenneth My

    2017-11-24

    With the rapid advancement of DNA sequencing technologies and the substantial reduction of their running costs, environmental genomics and transcriptomics become more affordable and popular in environmental toxicology. In parallel, there are also speedy improvements of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, enabling high-throughput analyses of proteins and metabolites in biological samples and promoting research studies in proteomics and metabolomics. By applying these high-throughput omics technologies, researchers can quickly generate an unprecedentedly vast amount of biological data that may be useful to environmental management. However, the current pace of applying omics information in environmental management is still very slow, and lags well behind the rapid development of omics-based research. This timely commentary, therefore, calls for joint efforts to increase this pace and join the dots between omics and environmental management, turning omics into practical tools. Herein, I explore how omics can contribute to risk assessment and management of chemicals, and recommend what we can do to facilitate and promote the use of omics information in environmental management. This article is especially dedicated to my role model, mentor, and friend, Peter M Chapman (1951-2017), who sadly passed away on 26 September 2017. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;00:000-000. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Use of 3,3',5,5' tetramethylbenzidine as new electrochemical indicator of DNA hybridization and its application in genossensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Balvedi, R P; Caetano, L P; Madurro, J M; Brito-Madurro, A G

    2016-11-15

    Electrochemical tools are important biosensor platforms for disease diagnosis, due to their speediness, easiness, low cost and portability. However, for DNA detection, the use of indicators and/or intercalators is necessary to improve electrochemical sensitivity. Currently, ethidium bromide (EthBr) is the cheapest and most used DNA intercalators, but presents carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. Other indicators may be important for DNA photonic detection, and besides being more expensive, they behave similarly to EthBr. This investigation shows for the first time the use of tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) as a new remarkable non-carcinogenic DNA indicator for genosensing purposes, which may be used for nucleic acid detection of microorganisms, based on complementarity of base-pairing between probe and target molecules. The results indicate that TMB can be used as a new electrochemical indicator readily applicable in genosensors, which is able to detect the hybridization of single stranded DNA probe with its complementary target strand. An additional advantage of TMB, beside its non-genotoxicity, is the electrochemical reduction property, which prevents interference of serum components and other oxidative samples in the electrochemical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of the Growth of the Fast Food Industry in China and Its Potential Impact on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Wang, Liang; Xue, Hong; Qu, Weidong

    2016-11-09

    The fast-food (FF) industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. This study examined the FF industry growth in China, key factors contributing to the growth, and the association between FF consumption (FFC) and obesity. We collected related data from multiple sources and conducted analysis including linear regression analysis on the increase in FF revenue. It was found that FF industry in China is large, with over two million FF facilities. Its total revenue (in million US$) increased from 10,464 in 1999 to 94,218 in 2013, and by 13% annually since 2008. Increased income, urbanization, busier lifestyle, speedy FF service, assurance of food safety, new brands and foods have stimulated demand for FF. Studies have linked FFC with obesity risk, including a few reporting a positive association between FFC and obesity in China. Rapid expansion of Western-style FF restaurants has also stimulated local FF industry growth. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. Lessons learned in China will help other countries.

  19. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour; Carriles para alta velocidad. Comportamiento en fatiga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S{sub f}=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. Analyses of selected Maps of Czech Lands from the Period 1518 - 1720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, T. B.; Potůčková, M. P.; Čábelka, M. Č.

    2009-04-01

    scanned old map with a current digital data set, and subsequent identification, analysis and interpretation of discovered changes. It enables to analyze inaccuracies in old maps, making use of modern mathematical-geometrical procedures, thus contributing to the speediness and reliability of the analysis. Analyses of scale and rotation are an important factor illustrating the accuracy of the construction of a cartographic work. They are giving us interesting information about the accuracy in the construction of the map depending on the position of points. We use the program MapAnalyst which is specialized for cartometric analyses of old and historical maps. For this purpose the program contains a complex geometrical-analytical apparatus using multiquadratic interpolation of a set of identical points. The process of cartometric analysis is fully automated, with the exception of collection of identical points. This fact contributes to speediness and overall reliability of the analytic process. The results will be influenced especially by the selection of identical points which served as a basis for determining a transformation key, and by the method of multiquadratic interpolation which will be used. Because of the fact that cartographic work is a relatively extensive set of point, line and areal cartographic signs, it is not usually possible to perform an analysis of the map as a whole, due to time reasons. Therefore, it is necessary to choose only a subset of such elements which represent a sample set in which we can suppose a higher degree of positional accuracy. To prevent distortion of the geometrical and positional relationship between the points we used affine transformation of first order. Higher-degree transformations were not used for the analyses because they cause unnatural distortions of the map image. Because of the redundancy of identical points the transformation coefficients were adjusted according to the method of the least squares. The results of

  1. A Study on historical-cultural architectural fabric of Bushehr Port an Urban, cultural and sanitary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    darioush Ranjbar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays ancient cultural historic sites are considered as a local cultural asset. The cultural historic fabric of Bushehr port is one of the most unique historical urban sites which is confronting destruction because of speedy urban development. Therefore, the viewpoints of the historic fabric inhabitants were investigated to map its pathological pattern through a multidisciplinary approach. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, the viewpoints of the inhabitants in the historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port was assessed, through a questionnaire, using random cluster multistage sampling method. The questionnaire was based on four dimensions including: social, sanitary, urban and cultural heritage. Results: A total of 218 residential units of the historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port were surveyed. A portion of one fifth of the inhabitants were familiar with cultural heritage item, yet more than 60% of them agreed upon a renovation of the historic fabric of Bushehr. Meanwhile, more than 80% of the residents received no facility to renew their houses. Drug abuses were mentioned as the most important factor regarding insecurity (52.8%. The most important prospect of people from the municipality of the historic fabric of Bushehr port was renewal and renovation of the residential units (36.7% and 24.9% asked for renovation of pathways and alleys. Providing a sewage collecting network and regular daily gathering of garbage were reported as the most important sanitary need by the inhabitants. Conclusion: The inhabitants of historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port are interested in preserving their residential units as a cultural heritage, but sanitary and urban problems such as sewage and garbage collection system and the lack of patronage from the side of responsible organizations for renovating this Iranian historic fabric architecture are the deep problematic points.

  2. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children's Objectively Measured Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Andrew J; Foley, Louise; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children's objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years. Data are from the second (2008) and third (2011) waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY) study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline) and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Daily sedentary time increased by 30-40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07). No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified. Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children's mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this period and should be examined further, alongside

  3. PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION IN PATIENTS ADMITTED IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

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    Murali T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND WHO defines malnutrition as underweight is a serious public health problem that has been linked to a substantial increase in the risk of mortality and morbidity. Critically ill patients admitted in ICU will require approximately 25 kcal/kg to 50 kcal/kg of nutrition depending on the severity of disease and length of stay in ICU. Most of the deaths after prolonged ICU stay occur due to indirect causes or hospital-acquired causes, one among is malnutrition, which led to catabolism, loss of lean body mass and increased risk of infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were assessed irrespective of age, sex and comorbid diseases and diagnosis using SGA score within 24 hours of admission into MICU. RESULTS Male are little older in well-nourished group and almost comparable in moderately nourished group. Severely malnourished group seen in only male patients with mean age of 95.16. In females, moderately malnourished group are older than wellnourished group. Male patients shows that more moderately malnourished (54% patients when compared to well-nourished patients. Female patients also showed more moderately malnourished (57.89% patients were observed compared to wellnourished (42.10% patients. Overall, diabetes and hypertension are the comorbidities, which is associated with moderately and severely malnourished patients. CONCLUSION Most of the patients admitted to ICU has pre-existing malnourishment, which is seen in both gender group. This shows that one need to concentrate more on nutritional aspect for the better and speedy recovery of the patients.

  4. Accelerating simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with motion compensation using CUDA-enabled GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wai-Man; Qin, Jing; Lu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yongming; Chui, Chee-Kong; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2011-03-01

    To accelerate the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) with motion compensation for speedy and quality computed tomography reconstruction by exploiting CUDA-enabled GPU. Two core techniques are proposed to fit SART into the CUDA architecture: (1) a ray-driven projection along with hardware trilinear interpolation, and (2) a voxel-driven back-projection that can avoid redundant computation by combining CUDA shared memory. We utilize the independence of each ray and voxel on both techniques to design CUDA kernel to represent a ray in the projection and a voxel in the back-projection respectively. Thus, significant parallelization and performance boost can be achieved. For motion compensation, we rectify each ray's direction during the projection and back-projection stages based on a known motion vector field. Extensive experiments demonstrate the proposed techniques can provide faster reconstruction without compromising image quality. The process rate is nearly 100 projections s (-1), and it is about 150 times faster than a CPU-based SART. The reconstructed image is compared against ground truth visually and quantitatively by peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and line profiles. We further evaluate the reconstruction quality using quantitative metrics such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mean-square-error (MSE). All these reveal that satisfactory results are achieved. The effects of major parameters such as ray sampling interval and relaxation parameter are also investigated by a series of experiments. A simulated dataset is used for testing the effectiveness of our motion compensation technique. The results demonstrate our reconstructed volume can eliminate undesirable artifacts like blurring. Our proposed method has potential to realize instantaneous presentation of 3D CT volume to physicians once the projection data are acquired.

  5. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the

  6. Marine actinomycetes: a new source of compounds against the human malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Prudhomme

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a devastating parasitic disease that causes the death of 2 million individuals annually. The increase in multi-drug resistance together with the absence of an efficient vaccine hastens the need for speedy and comprehensive antimalarial drug discovery and development. Throughout history, traditional herbal remedies or natural products have been a reliable source of antimalarial agents, e.g. quinine and artemisinin. Today, one emerging source of small molecule drug leads is the world's oceans. Included among the source of marine natural products are marine microorganisms such as the recently described actinomycete. Members of the genus Salinispora have yielded a wealth of new secondary metabolites including salinosporamide A, a molecule currently advancing through clinical trials as an anticancer agent. Because of the biological activity of metabolites being isolated from marine microorganisms, our group became interested in exploring the potential efficacy of these compounds against the malaria parasite.We screened 80 bacterial crude extracts for their activity against malaria growth. We established that the pure compound, salinosporamide A, produced by the marine actinomycete, Salinispora tropica, shows strong inhibitory activity against the erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle. Biochemical experiments support the likely inhibition of the parasite 20S proteasome. Crystal structure modeling of salinosporamide A and the parasite catalytic 20S subunit further confirm this hypothesis. Ultimately we showed that salinosporamide A protected mice against deadly malaria infection when administered at an extremely low dosage.These findings underline the potential of secondary metabolites, derived from marine microorganisms, to inhibit Plasmodium growth. More specifically, we highlight the effect of proteasome inhibitors such as salinosporamide A on in vitro and in vivo parasite development. Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052 now

  7. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  8. Prognostic factors for short-term improvement in acute and persistent musculoskeletal pain consulters in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Jennifer E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs associated with the management of musculoskeletal pain in primary care, predicting the course of these conditions remains a research priority. Much of the research into prognostic indicators however considers musculoskeletal conditions in terms of single pain sites whereas in reality, many patients present with pain in more than one site. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for early improvement in primary care consulters with acute and persistent musculoskeletal conditions across a range of pain sites. Methods Consecutive patients with a new episode of musculoskeletal pain completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, and then again at the 4/5th treatment visit, and if they were still consulting, at the 10th visit. The outcome was defined as patient self-report improvement sufficient to make a meaningful difference. Independent predictors of outcome were identified using multivariate regression analyses. Results Acute (th visit. Several variables at baseline were associated with improvement at the 4/5th visit, but the predictive models were weak and unable to discriminate between patients who were improved and those who were not. In contrast, it was possible to elicit a predictive model for improvement later on at the 10th visit, but only in patients with persistent pain. Being employed, reporting a decline in work fear-avoidance behaviour at the 4/5th visit, and being better by the 4/5th visit, were all independently associated with improvement. This model accounted for 34.3% (p Conclusions We were unable to identify baseline characteristics that predicted early outcome in musculoskeletal pain patients. However, early self-reported improvement and decline in work fear-avoidance behaviour as predictors of later improvement highlighted the importance of speedy recovery in persistent musculoskeletal pain consulters. Our findings reinforce the elusive nature of baseline predictors, and

  9. Pedagogical implications of approaches to study in distance learning: developing models through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnwell, R

    2000-05-01

    The need for flexibility in the delivery of nurse education has been identified by various initiatives including: widening the entry gate; continuous professional development; and the specialist practitioner. Access to degree level programmes is creating the need to acquire academic credit through flexible learning. The aim of this study was to further develop relationships between the need for guidance, materials design and learning styles and strategies and how these impact upon the construction of meaning. The study is based on interviews of 20 female community nurses purposively selected from the 96 respondents who had previously completed a survey questionnaire. The interviews were underpinned by theories relating to learning styles and approaches to study. Of particular concern was how these variables are mediated by student context, personal factors and materials design, to influence the need for support and guidance. The interview transcripts were first analysed using open and axial coding. Three approaches to study emerged from the data - systematic waders, speedy-focusers and global dippers - which were linked to other concepts and categories. Categories were then assigned numerical codes and subjected to logistical regression analysis. The attributes of the three approaches to study, arising from both qualitative and quantitative analysis, are explained in detail. The pedagogical implications of the three approaches to study are explained by their predicted relationships to other variables, such as support and guidance, organization of study, materials design and role of the tutor. The global dipper approach is discussed in more detail due to its association with a variety of predictor variables, not associated with the other two approaches to study. A feedback model is then developed to explore the impact of guidance on the global dipper approach. The paper makes recommendations for guidance to students using different approaches to study in distance

  10. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  11. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S N; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  12. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S N Lam

    Full Text Available We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  13. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients of an urban area of Iran: clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis, etiology, and epilepsy subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Sayed Shahaboddin; Delbari, Ahmad; Salman-Roghani, Reza; Shahgholi, Leili; Fadayevatan, Reza; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Lokk, Johan

    2013-08-01

    The incidences of seizures and epilepsy in the population show a peak after 60 years of age. Due to the lack of reported clinical aspects of seizure and epilepsy in the older patients in our region in Iran, this study was conducted to describe the clinical manifestation, etiology, differential diagnosis, and epilepsy subtypes of epilepsy and seizure. A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed on all consecutively elderly seizure and epilepsy patients, referred to the Epilepsy Association in the city of Qom, Iran over a 10-year period. A total of 466 patients aged >60 years were admitted. 31 % of the patients had epilepsy or seizure and 69 % of them had non-epileptic events. The most prevalent differential diagnoses in the beginning were syncope and cardiovascular disorders. The most frequent clinical symptom of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (75 %). The most common cause of seizure was systemic metabolic disorder (27 %). In epileptic elderly patients, no cause was ascertained for 38 % and the most frequently observed pathological factors were cerebrovascular diseases, which accounted for 24 %. The most common type of epileptic seizure was generalized epileptic seizures (75 %). 10 % of elderly epileptic patients suffered from status epilepticus, which was primarily caused by anoxia. Despite the rising rate and potentially profound physical and psychosocial effects of seizures and epilepsy, these disorders have received surprisingly little research focus and attention in Iran. Referring older patients to a specialist or a specialist epilepsy center allows speedy assessment, appropriate investigation and treatment, and less likely to miss the diagnosis.

  14. Learning by observation: insights from Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Francesca; Menghini, Deny; Mandolesi, Laura; Federico, Francesca; Vicari, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer's acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Observational learning makes an interesting and potentially important topic in the developmental domain, especially when disorders are considered. The implications of studies aimed at clarifying whether and how this form of learning is spared by pathology are manifold. We focused on a specific population with learning and intellectual disabilities, the individuals with Williams syndrome. The performance of twenty-eight individuals with Williams syndrome was compared with that of mental age- and gender-matched thirty-two typically developing children on tasks of learning of a visuo-motor sequence by observation or by trial and error. Regardless of the learning modality, acquiring the correct sequence involved three main phases: a detection phase, in which participants discovered the correct sequence and learned how to perform the task; an exercise phase, in which they reproduced the sequence until performance was error-free; an automatization phase, in which by repeating the error-free sequence they became accurate and speedy. Participants with Williams syndrome beneficiated of observational training (in which they observed an actor detecting the visuo-motor sequence) in the detection phase, while they performed worse than typically developing children in the exercise and automatization phases. Thus, by exploiting competencies learned by observation, individuals with Williams syndrome detected the visuo-motor sequence, putting into action the appropriate procedural strategies. Conversely, their impaired performances in the exercise phases appeared linked to impaired spatial working memory, while their deficits in automatization phases to deficits in processes increasing efficiency and speed of the response. Overall, observational experience was advantageous for acquiring competencies

  15. Learning by observation: insights from Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Foti

    Full Text Available Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer's acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Observational learning makes an interesting and potentially important topic in the developmental domain, especially when disorders are considered. The implications of studies aimed at clarifying whether and how this form of learning is spared by pathology are manifold. We focused on a specific population with learning and intellectual disabilities, the individuals with Williams syndrome. The performance of twenty-eight individuals with Williams syndrome was compared with that of mental age- and gender-matched thirty-two typically developing children on tasks of learning of a visuo-motor sequence by observation or by trial and error. Regardless of the learning modality, acquiring the correct sequence involved three main phases: a detection phase, in which participants discovered the correct sequence and learned how to perform the task; an exercise phase, in which they reproduced the sequence until performance was error-free; an automatization phase, in which by repeating the error-free sequence they became accurate and speedy. Participants with Williams syndrome beneficiated of observational training (in which they observed an actor detecting the visuo-motor sequence in the detection phase, while they performed worse than typically developing children in the exercise and automatization phases. Thus, by exploiting competencies learned by observation, individuals with Williams syndrome detected the visuo-motor sequence, putting into action the appropriate procedural strategies. Conversely, their impaired performances in the exercise phases appeared linked to impaired spatial working memory, while their deficits in automatization phases to deficits in processes increasing efficiency and speed of the response. Overall, observational experience was advantageous for

  16. Responsible vendors, intelligent consumers: Silk Road, the online revolution in drug trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Silk Road is located on the Deep Web and provides an anonymous transacting infrastructure for the retail of drugs and pharmaceuticals. Members are attracted to the site due to protection of identity by screen pseudonyms, variety and quality of product listings, selection of vendors based on reviews, reduced personal risks, stealth of product delivery, development of personal connections with vendors in stealth modes and forum activity. The study aimed to explore vendor accounts of Silk Road as retail infrastructure. A single and holistic case study with embedded units approach (Yin, 2003) was chosen to explore the accounts of vendor subunits situated within the Silk Road marketplace. Vendors (n=10) completed an online interview via the direct message facility and via Tor mail. Vendors described themselves as 'intelligent and responsible' consumers of drugs. Decisions to commence vending operations on the site centred on simplicity in setting up vendor accounts, and opportunity to operate within a low risk, high traffic, high mark-up, secure and anonymous Deep Web infrastructure. The embedded online culture of harm reduction ethos appealed to them in terms of the responsible vending and use of personally tested high quality products. The professional approach to running their Silk Road businesses and dedication to providing a quality service was characterised by professional advertising of quality products, professional communication and visibility on forum pages, speedy dispatch of slightly overweight products, competitive pricing, good stealth techniques and efforts to avoid customer disputes. Vendors appeared content with a fairly constant buyer demand and described a relatively competitive market between small and big time market players. Concerns were evident with regard to Bitcoin instability. The greatest threat to Silk Road and other sites operating on the Deep Web is not law enforcement or market dynamics, it is technology itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  17. Learning by observation in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, F; Mazzone, L; Menghini, D; De Peppo, L; Federico, F; Postorino, V; Baumgartner, E; Valeri, G; Petrosini, L; Vicari, S

    2014-08-01

    Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer's acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Learning by observation requires specific skills such as attending, imitating and understanding contingencies. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit deficits in these skills. The performance of 20 ASD children was compared with that of a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological age (CA), IQ and gender on tasks of learning of a visuomotor sequence by observation or by trial and error. Acquiring the correct sequence involved three phases: a detection phase (DP), in which participants discovered the correct sequence and learned how to perform the task; an exercise phase (EP), in which they reproduced the sequence until performance was error free; and an automatization phase (AP), in which by repeating the error-free sequence they became accurate and speedy. In the DP, ASD children were impaired in detecting a sequence by trial and error only when the task was proposed as first, whereas they were as efficient as TD children in detecting a sequence by observation. In the EP, ASD children were as efficient as TD children. In the AP, ASD children were impaired in automatizing the sequence. Although the positive effect of learning by observation was evident, ASD children made a high number of imitative errors, indicating marked tendencies to hyperimitate. These findings demonstrate the imitative abilities of ASD children although the presence of imitative errors indicates an impairment in the control of imitative behaviours.

  18. Analysis of enhanced current-generating mechanism of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain via model-driven metabolism simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Xu, Zixiang; Guo, Jing; Yue, Yunxia; Sun, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a class of ideal technologies that function via anaerobic respiration of electricigens, which bring current generation and environmental restoration together. An in-depth understanding of microbial metabolism is of great importance in engineering microbes to further improve their respiration. We employed flux balance analysis and selected Fe(iii) as a substitute for the electrode to simulate current-generating metabolism of Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA with a fixed acetate uptake rate. Simulation results indicated the fluxes of reactions directing acetate towards dissimilation to generate electrons increased under the suboptimal growth condition, resulting in an increase in the respiration rate and a decrease in the growth rate. The results revealed the competitive relationship between oxidative respiration and cell growth during the metabolism of microbe current generation. The results helped us quantitatively understand why microbes growing slowly have the potential to make good use of fuel in MFCs. At the same time, slow growth does not necessarily result in speedy respiration. Alternative respirations may exist under the same growth state due to redundant pathways in the metabolic network. The big difference between the maximum and minimum respiration mainly results from the total formate secretion. With iterative flux variability analysis, a relatively ideal model of variant of G. sulfurreducens PCA was reconstructed by deleting several enzymes in the wild model, which could reach simultaneous suboptimal growth and maximum respiration. Under this ideal condition, flux towards extracellular electron transfer rather than for biosynthesis is beneficial for the conversion of organic matter to electricity without large accumulations of biomass and electricigens may maximize utilization of limited fuel. Our simulations will provide an insight into the enhanced current-generating mechanism and identify theoretical range of respiration

  19. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  20. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  1. Stigma Sensitivity and the Duration of Temporary Closure Are Affected by Pollinator Identity in Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae), a Species with Bilobed Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Fang; Ye, Zhong-Ming; Amboka, Grace M; Wang, Qing-Feng; Yang, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    A sensitive bilobed stigma is thought to assure reproduction, avoid selfing and promote outcrossing. In addition, it may also play a role in pollinator selection since only pollinators with the appropriate body size can trigger this mechanism. However, no experimental study has investigated how the sensitive stigma responds to different pollinators and its potential effects on pollination. Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae), a plant with a bilobed stigma was studied to investigate the relationship between stigma behaviors and its multiple insect pollinators. The reaction time of stigma closure after touched, duration of temporary closure, and factors determining permanent closure of the stigma were studied when flowers were exposed to different visitors and conducted with hand pollination. Manual stimulation was also used to detect the potential differences in stigmas when touched with different degrees of external forces. Results indicated that, compared to pollinators with a small body size, larger pollinators transferred more pollen grains to the stigma, causing a rapid stigma response and resulting in a higher percentage of permanent closures. Duration of temporary closure was negatively correlated with the speed of stigma closure; a stigma that closed more rapidly reopened more slowly. Manual stimulation showed that reaction time of stigma closure was likely a response to external mechanical forces. Hand pollination treatments revealed that the permanent closure of a stigma was determined by the size of stigmatic pollen load. For large pollinators, the speedy reaction of the stigma might help to reduce pollen loss, enhance pollen germination and avoid obstructing pollen export. Stigmas showed low sensitivity when touched by inferior pollinators, which may have increased the possibility of pollen deposition by subsequent visits. Therefore, the stigma behavior in M. miquelii is likely a mechanism of pollinator selection to maximize pollination success.

  2. Stigma Sensitivity and the Duration of Temporary Closure Are Affected by Pollinator Identity in Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae, a Species with Bilobed Stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fang Jin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive bilobed stigma is thought to assure reproduction, avoid selfing and promote outcrossing. In addition, it may also play a role in pollinator selection since only pollinators with the appropriate body size can trigger this mechanism. However, no experimental study has investigated how the sensitive stigma responds to different pollinators and its potential effects on pollination. Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae, a plant with a bilobed stigma was studied to investigate the relationship between stigma behaviors and its multiple insect pollinators. The reaction time of stigma closure after touched, duration of temporary closure, and factors determining permanent closure of the stigma were studied when flowers were exposed to different visitors and conducted with hand pollination. Manual stimulation was also used to detect the potential differences in stigmas when touched with different degrees of external forces. Results indicated that, compared to pollinators with a small body size, larger pollinators transferred more pollen grains to the stigma, causing a rapid stigma response and resulting in a higher percentage of permanent closures. Duration of temporary closure was negatively correlated with the speed of stigma closure; a stigma that closed more rapidly reopened more slowly. Manual stimulation showed that reaction time of stigma closure was likely a response to external mechanical forces. Hand pollination treatments revealed that the permanent closure of a stigma was determined by the size of stigmatic pollen load. For large pollinators, the speedy reaction of the stigma might help to reduce pollen loss, enhance pollen germination and avoid obstructing pollen export. Stigmas showed low sensitivity when touched by inferior pollinators, which may have increased the possibility of pollen deposition by subsequent visits. Therefore, the stigma behavior in M. miquelii is likely a mechanism of pollinator selection to maximize pollination

  3. Accuracy of Bone Marrow Flow Cytometry Analysis in Patients With Plasma Cell Neoplasm in Thailand: A Single Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limvorapitak, Wasithep; Srisum-Ang, Thammasiree; Chimres, Chutima; Warnnissorn, Naree; Kanitsap, Nonglak

    2016-03-01

    Plasma cell neoplasm is a common hematologic malignancy. Treatment with novel agents results in favorable outcomes. Reliable investigations are required to monitor the residual disease, especially after such effective treatments. Flow cytometric analysis is a speedy and accurate method to detect abnormal cells. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of flow cytometry in the detection of abnormal plasma cells in bone marrow specimens. We included bone marrow samples taken from patients suspected to harbor plasma cell neoplasm at the time of diagnosis or follow-up after treatment from 2013 to 2015. Flow cytometric analyses, using cluster of differentiation (CD)19/CD20/CD27/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD117/CD138 and cytoplasmic κ/λ, were done and results compared with morphologic evaluation of marrow aspirate smear, histology, and immunohistochemistry of marrow biopsy and protein electrophoretic analyses. A total of 154 specimens were included. Plasma cell neoplasm was detected in 56 samples (36.4%). Most abnormal plasma cells in this study were CD19-negative (CD19(-))/CD20(-)/CD27(+)/CD38(+)/CD45(-) (or weakly positive)/CD56(+)/CD117(+)/CD138(+). Light chain restriction was found only in 18 samples (32.1%). Sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometric analysis were 91.1% and 96.9%, respectively. For the follow-up cohort, sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% and 66.7%, respectively. Analysis of plasma cell neoplasm using flow cytometry has high sensitivity and specificity. As an adjunct to marrow histology and immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry can be used in diagnosis of plasma cell neoplasm and more importantly in monitoring the disease after treatment. We propose a limited panel of CD19/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD117/CD138 for detecting minimal residual disease in Thai patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quasi-solid state polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Effect of the electrolyte components variation on the triiodide ion diffusion properties and charge-transfer resistance at platinum electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazmutdinova, G.; Sensfuss, S.; Schroedner, M. [Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastics Research, Breitscheidstrasse 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Hinsch, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Sastrawan, R. [Freiburg Materials Research Center FMF, Stefan-Meier-Street 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Gerhard, D.; Himmler, S.; Wasserscheid, P. [Friedrich-Alexander-University, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-11-30

    Quasi-solid state polymer electrolytes have been prepared from poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) as gelator for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids (with anions like trifluoromethanesulfonate [EMIM][TfO], bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [EMIM][Tf{sub 2}N]) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for gelation of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide [EMIM][DCA] as well as I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} as the redox couple. All electrolytes exhibit high ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -3} S/cm. The effect of gelation, redox couple concentration, I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} ratio, choice of cations and additives on the triiodide diffusion and charge-transfer resistance of the platinum/electrolyte interface (R{sub ct}) were studied. The apparent diffusion coefficient of triiodide ion (D(I{sub 3}{sup -})) at various iodide/triiodide ratios in liquid and gelified electrolytes has been calculated from measurements of the diffusion limited current (I{sub lim}) in electrochemical cell resembling the set-up of a dye-sensitized solar cell. The charge-transfer resistance of the platinum/electrolyte interface as well as the capacitance of the electrical double layer (C{sub dl}) have been calculated from impedance measurements. Electrolytes with reduced content of polymer (2.5 wt.%) were doped with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles of different sizes (50 nm, 300 nm, 1 {mu}m). The dispersion of the particles proceeds by speedy stirring of the hot electrolyte and the addition of PAN provides a homogeneous suspension. The addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles causes a slight increase of the triiodide diffusion constants. Furthermore the suggested enhancement of the charge transfer rate shows a dependence on the size of the particles. (author)

  5. Aromatherapy with Rosa Damascenes in Apnea, Bradycardia and Spo2 of Preterm Infants; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Aghagoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background  Apnea is one of the most common problems in preterm neonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy on the reduction of apnea, bradycardia, and Pulse Oximetry (SPO2 in premature infants. Materials and Methods In a clinical trial study, 60 preterm neonates randomly divided in two groups and exposed to aromatherapy with Rosa damascenes distillate or distilled water beside the routine treatment. In experimental group, two drops of 10% Rosa damascenes distillate was dropped on the pad eye in second day of birth at 6 Am. The intervention was repeated in 9 AM, 12 Am, 15 PM and 18 PM hours. A same condition applied for control group and distilled water was dropped on the pad eye. The number of apnea attacks, bradycardia and decrease in SpO2 compared between two groups using chi-square test, independent t-test and repeated measure test. Results The overall apnea attacks, bradycardia, and SPO2 in tree studied days were lower in intervention group than control group (0.47±0.13 vs. 2.6±0.41, 0.47±0.13 vs. 2.56±0.41 and 0.70±0.17 vs. 2.77±0.21, respectively. In addition, the repeated measurement test showed that the mean number of apnea attacks, decrease in heart pulse rate, and decrease in SpO2 was statistically lower in intervention group with aromatherapy than controls in first, second, third and sum of three days (P< 0.05. Conclusion Aromatherapy with Rosa damascenes distillate can reduce more and speedy the occurrence of apnea attacks, bradycardia and SPO2 in premature infants, along with other routine treatment.

  6. Introgression of null allele of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor through marker-assisted backcross breeding in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranna, Shivakumar; Verma, Khushbu; Talukdar, Akshay; Lal, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Mukherjee, Keya

    2016-07-12

    Presence of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) in soybean seeds necessitates pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour for its inactivation before using it in food and feed products. The heat treatment not only enhances processing costs of the soy-based foods and feeds but also affects seed-protein quality and solubility. Genetic elimination of KTI is an important and effective approach. Therefore, molecular marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) approach was adopted for genetic elimination of KTI from two popular soybean genotypes, DS9712 and DS9814. PI542044, an exotic germplasm line was used as donor of the kti allele which inhibits functional KTI peptide production. Foreground selection for the kti allele was performed with three closely linked SSR markers while background selection was done with 93 polymorphic SSR markers. Plants in the BC1F1 generation were found to recover 70.4-87.63 % and 60.26-73.78 % of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) of DS9712 and DS9814, respectively. Similarly, selected plants in the BC2F1 generation had 93.01-98.92 % and 83.3-91.67 % recovery of their respective RPGs. Recombinant selection was performed so as to identify plants with minimal linkage drag. Biochemical analysis of the seeds of the selected plants (ktikti) confirmed absence of KTI peptides in the seeds. Phenotypically, the selected plants were comparable to the respective recurrent parent in yield and other traits. MABB approach helped in speedy development of 6 KTI free breeding lines of soybean. Such lines will be suitable for the farmers and the soybean industries to use in production of soy-based foods and feeds without pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour. It would contribute towards wider acceptability of soy-based foods and feeds.

  7. Antifungal Therapy: New Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula E Silva, Ana C A; Marcos, Caroline M; Assato, Patrícia A; de Melo, Wanessa C M A; de Oliveira, Haroldo C; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline B; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J S; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality caused by fungal infections are associated with the current limited antifungal arsenal and the high toxicity of the compounds. Additionally, identifying novel drug targets is challenging because there are many similarities between fungal and human cells. The most common antifungal targets include fungal RNA synthesis and cell wall and membrane components, though new antifungal targets are being investigated. Nonetheless, fungi have developed resistance mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pump proteins and biofilm formation, emphasizing the importance of understanding these mechanisms. To address these problems, different approaches to preventing and treating fungal diseases are described in this review, with a focus on the resistance mechanisms of fungi, with the goal of developing efficient strategies to overcoming and preventing resistance as well as new advances in antifungal therapy. Due to the limited antifungal arsenal, researchers have sought to improve treatment via different approaches, and the synergistic effect obtained by the combination of antifungals contributes to reducing toxicity and could be an alternative for treatment. Another important issue is the development of new formulations for antifungal agents, and interest in nanoparticles as new types of carriers of antifungal drugs has increased. In addition, modifications to the chemical structures of traditional antifungals have improved their activity and pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, a different approach to preventing and treating fungal diseases is immunotherapy, which involves different mechanisms, such as vaccines, activation of the immune response and inducing the production of host antimicrobial molecules. Finally, the use of a mini-host has been encouraging for in vivo testing because these animal models demonstrate a good correlation with the mammalian model; they also increase the speediness of as well as facilitate the

  8. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n-3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION (Children's Health and Mental Performance Influenced by Optimal Nutrition) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Eilander, Ans; Transler, Catherine; Thomas, Tinku; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; van Klinken, B Jan Willem; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Kurpad, Anura V

    2009-06-01

    Fortification with multiple micronutrients has been shown to improve growth and cognitive performance among children in developing countries, but it is unknown whether higher concentrations are more effective than lower concentrations. We compared the effect of 2 different concentrations of a combination of micronutrients and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids on indicators of growth and cognitive performance in low-income, marginally nourished schoolchildren in Bangalore, India. In a 2-by-2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 598 children aged 6-10 y were individually allocated to 1 of 4 intervention groups to receive foods fortified with either 100% or 15% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients in combination with either 900 mg alpha-linolenic acid plus 100 mg docosahexaenoic acid or 140 mg alpha-linolenic acid for 12 mo. Anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed at baseline and 12 mo. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. The high micronutrient treatment significantly improved linear growth at 12 mo (0.19 cm; 0.01, 0.36) and short-term memory at 6 mo (0.11 SD; 0.01, 0.20) and was less beneficial on fluid reasoning at 6 (-0.10 SD; -0.17, -0.03) and 12 (-0.12 SD; -0.20, -0.04) mo than was the low micronutrient treatment, whereas no differences were observed on weight, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, and overall cognitive performance. No significant differences were found between the n-3 treatments. The high micronutrient treatment was more beneficial for linear growth than was the low micronutrient treatment. However, with some small differential effects, higher micronutrient concentrations were as effective as lower concentrations on cognitive performance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00467909.

  10. THE EXPERIENCE OF REMICADE USAGE IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N F Soroka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A bstract. Objective. To study the efficacy and tolerability of Remicade in RA Material and methods. 20 reliable RA pts compatible to criteria for inclusion into the study and without exclusion criteria. 18 women and 2 men aged 30-60 and older wilh disease term from 3 lo 10 years and longer. In 14 pts RA activity was of 2" J and in 6 pts оГ 3d degree. All pts long period to the beginning of the study had methotrexate in dosage of 7.5-10 mg/week and NSAID, 4 pts had metipred 4-8 mg/day. Remicade was administrated i.v. in droplet in dosage 3 ml/kg of body weight per 250.0 ml of physiological solution lor 2 hours in 0.2, 6, 8 weeks (total 9 infusions for 54 weeks. Results. Full course of Remicade therapy on the background of methotrexate was carried out in 19 pts. All pts demonstrated speedy (after I м infusion positive effect as reliable decrease of the number of inflamed joints, period of morning stiffness and ESR. Results of 54-weck course assessed as «excellent» in 9, «good» in 8 and «satisfactory» in 2 pts. In 6 cases remission was observed. Remicade tolerabilily was satisfactory. Only in 1 pts during the 7"' infusion bronchospasm and attack Quincke’s oedema she was excluded from further study. Transient hypotension was noticed in 2 pts. In 3 cases infection exacerbation developed (otitis, pneumonia which required antibiotics use.

  11. To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important prerequisites for neurosurgeries are brain relaxation, need of stable haemodynamics with less fluctuation in intracranial pressure and speedy recovery from anaesthesia. Endotracheal intubation is the major stressful stimuli that can elicit a marked pressor response. Various drugs have been used to attenuate these reflexes. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and sedative effects so it is potentially useful during neuroanaesthesia. This is a prospective randomised control trial carried out to see whether administration of Dexmedetomidine prior to intubation can attenuate the various haemodynamic responses, intraocular pressure (IOP and the requirement of induction dose of propofol in control and study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (ASA grade 1, 2 scheduled for intracranial tumour surgeries were divided into two groups (25 each. Group D received Dexmedetomidine 0.8 μg/kg i.v. over 10 mins and group C received 20 ml saline. Anaesthesia induced with Propofol, dose adjusted using bispectral index monitor. The groups were compared with IOP, Heart rate (HR, Mean arterial pressure (MAP, and dose of Propofol required for induction. Results : Groups were well matched for their demographic data and pre-operative. IOP in both the eyes decreases significantly after premedication and remained below baseline even after 10 th min of intubation in group D while in Group C; it increased significantly after intubation and remained above baseline. The difference between groups was also statistically significant. HR and MAP decreased significantly in patients of group D compared to group C (P < 0.05. Patients were more haemodynamicaly stable at all time points after premedication in group D (P < 0.05. Propofol requirements for induction was lesser in group D (P < 0.05. Bradycardia and hypotension incidences were higher in group D. Conclusion

  12. A complete transformation of a forest environment detected by the fusion of 11 Spot and Landsat-TM images over 15 years: the example of a pioneer front in Peten, Guatemala.

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    Selleron, Gilles

    2005-10-01

    The experimentation takes place in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, in the heart of the Peten region in Guatemala. In this natural area intermingled rivers and lakes, the forest which was in balance with environmental conditions dominated all the space. However, the landscape has just suffered a real transformation for the last 15 years. Since 1987, populating has settle up regularly by succesive waves. They have appropriated, cleared and changed the native forest in pasture and milpa (field of corn). This process of systematic deforestation by large fires, permits the creation of new rural societies, a new area of distinctly diverse uses. But the sudden and non control setting up of these populations threaten environment conditions. A conflict for the land has been appeared around and inside of the Maya Biosphere Reserve, whitch is itself threatened. The State of Guatemala, as the NGO need a local and regional perception. And yet, faced with this speedy phenomenon non finished, the lack of updated cartographic data in a area little known and badly statistical informed, high resolution remote sensing becomes an irreplaceable tool to understand such radical transformations. To understand spatio temporal process of this new rural pioneer front, to make a dynamic diagnosis, to date, to follow, to map, to update environmental and statistical data, the method of image processing proposed is based on satellite data fusions--Landsat-TM and Spot--by multidated approaches (11 images over 15 years), multi-scale (from local to regional) and multispectral (only one image resultant of 41 georeferenced channels) ; the results have been ratified by field work.

  13. Dietary preference and digestive enzyme activities as indicators of trophic resource utilization by six species of crab.

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    Johnston, Danielle; Freeman, Joel

    2005-02-01

    The digestive physiology and stomach contents of six crab species from a variety of habitats were investigated to provide an indication of their digestive capability and dietary preferences. Stomach contents varied between species, but the key enzymes present were generally consistent with the types of dietary material being ingested. Nectocarcinus integrifons (red rock crab) consumed large quantities of seagrass and had high cellulase activity (0.02+/-0.004 units mg-1) to digest the constituent cellulose. Petrolisthes elongatus (porcelain crab) ingested brown and green phytoplankton and algae and had considerable laminarinase (0.35+/-0.08 units mg-1) and beta-glucosidase (0.025+/-0.005 units mg-1) activities to digest the laminarin in its diet. Leptograpsus variegatus (omnivorous swift-footed shore crab) had high activities of protease (1.2+/-0.02 units mg-1), alpha-glucosidase, and alpha-amylase and appeared well equipped to utilize both dietary protein and carbohydrate. Stomach contents in Nectocarcinus tuberculosus (velvet crab) and Carcinus maenas (green crab) also suggest that these species are omnivorous. N. tuberculosus had high cellulase and chitinase for digesting the cellulose in plants and the chitin in invertebrate shells respectively. C. maenas had intermediate digestive enzyme levels and may employ more of a generalist feeding strategy than other species. Plagusia chabrus (speedy crab) is carnivorous, consuming encrusting bryozoans, hydroids, crustaceans, and fish. It has high protease activity, particularly trypsin (0.73+/-0.12 units mg-1), to digest the protein in its animal prey. Each species of crab studied had a complex suite of digestive enzymes, the relative activities of which reflected individual and very different species-specific dietary niches.

  14. The impact of rainfall and school break time policies on physical activity in 9-10 year old British children: a repeated measures study

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    Cassidy Aedín

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weather may be a driver of seasonal patterns in children's physical activity (PA. A better understanding of the relationships between weather and PA may help increase children's PA. This study aims to examine the association between PA and rainfall in 9-10 year old children, and how it may be modified by school policies. Methods 1794 participants in the SPEEDY study in Norfolk, UK recorded PA using ActiGraph accelerometers over up to six days in the summer term of 2007. Multilevel regression models were used to determine the day-by-day association between rainfall and minutes spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA, and average counts per minute (cpm over the whole day (07:00-21:00 and the lunchtime period (12:00-14:00. School policies for break times in bad weather were fitted as interaction terms with rainfall. Results Relative to days with no rain, children spent 9.4 minutes (95%CI 7.0 to 11.9 fewer in MVPA, were sedentary for 13.6 minutes (8.8 to 18.4 more, and accumulated 85.9 cpm (66.2 to 105.5 fewer over the whole day on the wettest days. Children allowed to play outside in wet weather showed the lowest lunchtime PA levels on the wettest days, undertaking 9.8 minutes (6.2 to 13.5 fewer MVPA, 16.1 minutes (10.3 to 21.9 more sedentary, and accumulating 408.0 cpm (250.9 to 565.1 fewer than those allowed to be active indoors. Conclusions Rainfall is negatively associated with PA in primary school children, but providing indoor physical activities in wet weather may help children maintain physical activity levels irrespective of rainfall.

  15. An investigation into the usage of mobile phones among technical and vocational educational and training students in South Africa

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    Herring Shava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs are gaining popularity in South Africa; this includes the use of mobile phones and the Internet. Mobile phones also seem to be popular with the student cohort of the South African population, especially for communication purposes. Empirical evidence affirms the importance of mobile phones to this cohort, including the need to research further how these groups use and experience such devices.Objectives: This study seeks to provide an understanding of how mobile phone features, the motivation to use and time spent on a mobile phone influence behavioural intention to use mobile phones among a sample of technical and vocational educational and training (TVET students in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.Method: A survey was carried out with 161 TVET students through a self-administered questionnaire completed by each respondent. Pre-testing and pilot testing of measures were conducted using a sample of final-year students using mobile phones who fit the same characteristics as the intended sample. To arrive at findings, data analysis was undertaken through the Chi-square test.Results: Descriptive results of the study reveal that the majority of mobile phones owned by TVET students were in the category of smartphones, bearing modern features that facilitate instant messaging, exchange of data and information as well as speedy access to information via the Internet.Conclusion: Inferential results of the study indicate that the more features a mobile phone has, the higher the desire to make use of the phone for communication purposes. Furthermore, motivation and time were found to play insignificant roles in influencing student utilisation of mobile phones for communication purposes.

  16. RAId_DbS: mass-spectrometry based peptide identification web server with knowledge integration

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    Ogurtsov Aleksey Y

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing scientific literature is a rich source of biological information such as disease markers. Integration of this information with data analysis may help researchers to identify possible controversies and to form useful hypotheses for further validations. In the context of proteomics studies, individualized proteomics era may be approached through consideration of amino acid substitutions/modifications as well as information from disease studies. Integration of such information with peptide searches facilitates speedy, dynamic information retrieval that may significantly benefit clinical laboratory studies. Description We have integrated from various sources annotated single amino acid polymorphisms, post-translational modifications, and their documented disease associations (if they exist into one enhanced database per organism. We have also augmented our peptide identification software RAId_DbS to take into account this information while analyzing a tandem mass spectrum. In principle, one may choose to respect or ignore the correlation of amino acid polymorphisms/modifications within each protein. The former leads to targeted searches and avoids scoring of unnecessary polymorphism/modification combinations; the latter explores possible polymorphisms in a controlled fashion. To facilitate new discoveries, RAId_DbS also allows users to conduct searches permitting novel polymorphisms as well as to search a knowledge database created by the users. Conclusion We have finished constructing enhanced databases for 17 organisms. The web link to RAId_DbS and the enhanced databases is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBResearch/qmbp/RAId_DbS/index.html. The relevant databases and binaries of RAId_DbS for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available for download from the same web page.

  17. Simultaneous determination of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters in PC12 cells and rats models of Parkinson's disease using a sensitizing derivatization reagent by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Yang, Hongmei; You, Jinmao; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-07-15

    Multi-analytes simultaneous monitoring of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters (NTs) has important scientific significance for their related pathology, physiology and drug screening. In this work, in virtue of a mass spectrometry sensitizing reagent 10-ethyl-acridone-3-sulfonyl chloride (EASC) as derivatization reagent, an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six amino acid NTs, two monoamine ones and its one metabolite. The simple and rapid derivatization reaction was innovatively combined with plasma preparation by using EASC acetonitrile solution as protein precipitant. This interesting combination brought the advantages of speediness, simpleness and high-throughput in a cost-effective way. Under the optimized conditions, LODs (0.004-3.80nM) and LOQs (0.014-13.3nM) of EASC derivatized-NTs were calculated and found to be significantly lower than those of direct UHPLC-MS/MS detection about 11.5-275.0 and 14.4-371.4 times, respectively. Moreover, EASC derivatization significantly improved chromatographic resolution and matrix effect when compared with direct UPLC-MS/MS detection method without derivatization. Meanwhile, it also brought acceptable precision (3.0-13.0%, peak area CVs%), accuracy (86.4-112.9%), recovery (88.3-107.8%) and stability (3.8-8.5%, peak area CVs%) results. This method was successfully applied for the antiparkinsonian effect evaluation of levodopa and Ginsenoside Rg1 using PC12 cells and rats models by measuring multiple NTs. This provided a new method for the NTs related studies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effective assimilation of global precipitation: simulation experiments

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    Guo-Yuan Lien

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Past attempts to assimilate precipitation by nudging or variational methods have succeeded in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed values. However, the model forecasts tend to lose their additional skill after a few forecast hours. In this study, a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF is used to effectively assimilate precipitation by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights in the analysis. In addition, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are found to alleviate the problems related to the non-Gaussianity of the precipitation variable: (a transform the precipitation variable into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution (an approach that could also be used in the assimilation of other non-Gaussian observations and (b only assimilate precipitation at the location where at least some ensemble members have precipitation. Unlike many current approaches, both positive and zero rain observations are assimilated effectively. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs are conducted using the Simplified Parametrisations, primitivE-Equation DYnamics (SPEEDY model, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When uniformly and globally distributed observations of precipitation are assimilated in addition to rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium-range forecasts of all model variables, including precipitation, are significantly improved as compared to only assimilating rawinsonde observations. The effect of precipitation assimilation on the analyses is retained on the medium-range forecasts and is larger in the Southern Hemisphere (SH than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH because the NH analyses are already made more accurate by the denser rawinsonde stations. These improvements are much reduced when only the moisture field is modified by the precipitation observations. Both the Gaussian transformation and

  19. Texting As A Discursive Approach For The Production Of Agricultural Solutions

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    Ronan G. Zagado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how the short messaging service SMS popularly known as texting has facilitated production of solutions to farm issues using the Farmers Text Centre FTC of the Philippine Rice Research PhilRice as the case study. Text messages registered in the FTC database in 2010 covering one cropping season were discourse analyzed. Interpretive qualitative research particularly the Grounded Theory was employed to interprettheorize said data. Since texting is a new emerging discourse in agricultural development Grounded Theory allows the explication of theoretical accounts that explain its existence and impact. Results indicate that timing queries received within working days from 8am to 5pm get speedy response content the easier the question the faster it gets reply length the shorter the message the better and clarity of the querytext message as well as cultural factors such as greetings and terms of respect are all important governing factors in texting for farm use. Moreover analysis reveals that the series of text messages sent back and forth by farmers and agricultural specialist in FTC suggests a dynamic process of negotiation rather than passive information sharing. The analysis further reveals that texting has allowed farmers to have access to a negotiated knowledge rather than a standard scientific recommendation vis--vis the solution to their farm issues. The term negotiated implies that farmers are actively involved in knowledge production via texting. Textholder is coined in this paper to describe farmers and agricultural specialists as co-creators of knowledge in texting as opposed to their traditional role as knowledge generator and user respectively. From the analysis reflections implications and theoretical contributions are drawn in relation to the value of SMSing in agricultural extension and communication.

  20. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty through six French catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, P; Moles, V P; Pande, A K; Verine, V; Haine, E; Meier, B

    1992-09-01

    We present the results of 221 coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures in which a 6 French diagnostic catheter was chosen as a guiding catheter. A total of 218 were done through a femoral and 3 through an axillary approach. Total occlusion PTCA was done in 9 (4%) and multivessel PTCA in 19 procedures (9%). In 191 (86%) procedures a fixed-wire system was used (ACE Scimed, Probe USCI, Orion Cordis), and in 30 (14%) a monorail system (Speedy Schneider, Express Scimed). The mean nominal inflated balloon diameter was 2.9+/-0.3 mm (range 2.0-4.0), and the catheter internal lumen varied between 0.041 and 0.055 inch. In 186 procedures (84%) all targeted lesions could be successfully dilated through the 6 French catheter. In 30 (14%) patients, the guiding catheter was changed to a 7 or 8 French, for an overall success rate of 95%. Results with 6 French catheters were significantly better in our late experience (success rate of 92% for the last 110 procedures compared to 77% for the first 111 procedures) (p less than 0.01). There were no new Q-wave myocardial infarctions, but 6 patients (2.7%) had moderate CK elevation, 1 required emergent bypass surgery, 1 underwent emergent coronary stenting, and there was 1 in-hospital death. The overall major complication rate was 3.2%. In selected patients, PTCA can be safely and effectively done through a diagnostic 6 French guiding catheter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The role of intraoperative ultrasound in small renal mass robotic enucleation

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    Roberta Gunelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As a result of the growing evidence on tumor radical resection in literature, simple enucleation has become one of the best techniques associated to robotic surgery in the treatment of renal neoplasia, as it guarantees minimal invasiveness and the maximum sparing of renal tissue, facilitating the use of reduced or zero ischemia techniques during resection. The use of a robotic ultrasound probe represents a useful tool to detect and define tumor location, especially in poorly exophytic small renal mass. Materials and methods: A total of 22 robotic enucleations were performed on < 3 cm renal neoplasias (PADUA score 18 Pz 6/7 e 4 Pz 8 using a 12-5 MHz robotic ultrasound probe (BK Drop-In 8826. Results: Once kidney had been isolated from the adipose capsule at the site of the neoplasia (2, the exact position of the lesion could be easily identified in all cases (22/22, even for mostly endophytic lesions, thanks to the insertion of the ultrasound probe through the assistant port. Images were produced and visualized by the surgeon using the TilePro feature of the DaVinci surgical system for producing a picture-in-picture image on the console screen. The margins of resection were then marked with cautery, thus allowing for speedy anatomical dissection. This reduced the time of ischemia to 8 min (6-13 and facilitated the enucleation technique when performed without clamping the renal peduncle (6/22. No complications due to the use of the ultrasound probe were observed. Conclusions: The use of an intraoperative robotic ultrasound probe has allowed for easier identification of small, mostly endophytic neoplasias, better anatomical approach, shorter ischemic time, reduced risk of pseudocapsule rupture during dissection, and easier enucleation in cases performed without clamping. It is noteworthy that the use of intraoperative ultrasound probe allows mental reconstruction of the tumor through an accurate 3D vision of the hidden field during

  2. The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation.

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    Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G

    2015-06-01

    The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.

  3. A History of High-Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Faster than most speedy computers. More powerful than its NASA data-processing predecessors. Able to leap large, mission-related computational problems in a single bound. Clearly, it s neither a bird nor a plane, nor does it need to don a red cape, because it s super in its own way. It's Columbia, NASA s newest supercomputer and one of the world s most powerful production/processing units. Named Columbia to honor the STS-107 Space Shuttle Columbia crewmembers, the new supercomputer is making it possible for NASA to achieve breakthroughs in science and engineering, fulfilling the Agency s missions, and, ultimately, the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly after being built in 2004, Columbia achieved a benchmark rating of 51.9 teraflop/s on 10,240 processors, making it the world s fastest operational computer at the time of completion. Putting this speed into perspective, 20 years ago, the most powerful computer at NASA s Ames Research Center, home of the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (NAS), ran at a speed of about 1 gigaflop (one billion calculations per second). The Columbia supercomputer is 50,000 times faster than this computer and offers a tenfold increase in capacity over the prior system housed at Ames. What s more, Columbia is considered the world s largest Linux-based, shared-memory system. The system is offering immeasurable benefits to society and is the zenith of years of NASA/private industry collaboration that has spawned new generations of commercial, high-speed computing systems.

  4. Temporality in British young women's magazines: food, cooking and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rosemary J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-01

    The present study examines seasonal and temporal patterns in food-related content of two UK magazines for young women focusing on food types, cooking and weight loss. Content analysis of magazines from three time blocks between 1999 and 2011. Desk-based study. Ninety-seven magazines yielding 590 advertisements and 148 articles. Cluster analysis of type of food advertising produced three clusters of magazines, which reflected recognised food behaviours of young women: vegetarianism, convenience eating and weight control. The first cluster of magazines was associated with Christmas and Millennium time periods, with advertising of alcohol, coffee, cheese, vegetarian meat substitutes and weight-loss pills. Recipes were prominent in article content and tended to be for cakes/desserts, luxury meals and party food. The second cluster was associated with summer months and 2010 issues. There was little advertising for conventional foods in cluster 2, but strong representation of diet plans and foods for weight loss. Weight-loss messages in articles focused on short-term aesthetic goals, emphasising speedy weight loss without giving up nice foods or exercising. Cluster 3 magazines were associated with post-New Year and 2005 periods. Food advertising was for everyday foods and convenience products, with fewer weight-loss products than other clusters; conversely, article content had a greater prevalence of weight-loss messages. The cyclical nature of magazine content - indulgence and excess encouraged at Christmas, restraint recommended post-New Year and severe dieting advocated in the summer months - endorses yo-yo dieting behaviour and may not be conducive to public health.

  5. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2015-05-01

    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  6. Roads at risk - traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2014-10-01

    Globalization and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load expressed as vehicle kilometers because of debris-flow related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network, and quantify the associated path failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and northwestern part of the study area are associated with high link failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold, and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying of speedy delivery of services and goods.

  7. RED-ML: a novel, effective RNA editing detection method based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye; Lei, Mengyue; Xu, Liqin; Wu, Liang; Wang, Zongji; Ren, Shancheng; Li, Wangsheng; Xia, Min; Lu, Lihua; Lu, Haorong; Hou, Yong; Zhu, Shida; Liu, Xin; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Wu, Kui; Xu, Xun; Lee, Leo J

    2017-05-01

    With the advancement of second generation sequencing techniques, our ability to detect and quantify RNA editing on a global scale has been vastly improved. As a result, RNA editing is now being studied under a growing number of biological conditions so that its biochemical mechanisms and functional roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available. The output not only contains detected RNA editing sites, but also a confidence score to facilitate downstream filtering. We have carefully designed validation experiments and performed extensive comparison and analysis to show the efficiency and effectiveness of RED-ML under different conditions, and it can accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data. With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  9. Satellite-observed changes in vegetation sensitivities to surface soil moisture and total water storage variations since the 2011 Texas drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Geruo; Velicogna, Isabella; Kimball, John S.; Du, Jinyang; Kim, Youngwook; Colliander, Andreas; Njoku, Eni

    2017-05-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E and AMSR-2, and changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) from time-variable gravity data from GRACE to delineate and characterize the evolution of drought and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE-derived TWS provides spatially continuous observations of changes in overall water supply and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite-derived SM provides enhanced delineation of shallow-depth soil water supply. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from water components at different depths in relation to satellite-based enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) from MODIS and solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from GOME-2, during and following major drought events observed in the state of Texas, USA and its surrounding semiarid area for the past decade. We find that in normal years the spatial pattern of the vegetation-moisture relationship follows the gradient in mean annual precipitation. However since the 2011 hydrological drought, vegetation growth shows enhanced sensitivity to surface SM variations in the grassland area located in central Texas, implying that the grassland, although susceptible to drought, has the capacity for a speedy recovery. Vegetation dependency on TWS weakens in the shrub-dominated west and strengthens in the grassland and forest area spanning from central to eastern Texas, consistent with changes in water supply pattern. We find that in normal years GRACE TWS shows strong coupling and similar characteristic time scale to surface SM, while in drier years GRACE TWS manifests stronger persistence, implying longer recovery time and prolonged water supply constraint on vegetation growth. The synergistic combination of GRACE TWS and surface SM, along with remote-sensing vegetation observations provides new insights into drought impact on

  10. Differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells from peri-pubertal testes of three different bovine breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh Kumar Tripathi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sub-fertility is one of the most common problems observed in crossbred males, but the aetiology remains unknown in most of the cases. Although proteomic differences in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma between breeds have been investigated, the possible differences at the sperm precursor cells and supporting/nourishing cells have not been studied. The present study reports the differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells in crossbred and purebred bulls. Testis was removed by unilateral castration of 12 peri-pubertal bulls (10 months age, four each from crossbred (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar, exotic purebred (Holstein Friesian and indigenous purebred (Tharparkar bulls. Spermatogenic and Sertoli cells were isolated and subjected to proteomic analysis. Protein extracts from the Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of each breed were analysed with 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and analysed with DecyderTM software. Compared to Holstein Friesian, 26 protein spots were over expressed and 14 protein spots were under expressed in spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls. Similarly, 7 protein spots were over expressed and 15 protein spots were under expressed in the spermatogenic cells of Tharparkar bulls compared to that of crossbred bulls. Out of 12 selected protein spots identified through mass spectrometry, Phosphatidyl ethanolamine binding protein was found to be over expressed in the spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls compared to Tharparkar bulls. The protein, gamma actin was found to be over expressed in the Sertoli cells of Holstein Friesian bulls, whereas Speedy Protein-A was found to be over expressed in Sertoli cells of crossbred bulls. It may be concluded that certain proteomic level differences exist in sperm precursor cells and nourishing cells between breeds, which might be associated with differences in the fertility among these breeds.

  11. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  12. Maxillofacial Traumas in Farmers Caused by Farm Animals, Agricultural Vehicles, and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakabay, Taliye; Gokdogan, Ozan; Bezgin, Selin Üstün; Kocyigit, Murat

    2016-06-01

    It has been aimed at evaluating the relationship of maxillofacial fractures in farmers, which are caused due to traumas while working in farms, with trauma etiologies, maxillofacial fracture areas, age, sex, and seasonal variables. Among the farmers who have come to our emergency service unit as a result of maxillofacial trauma between 2010 and 2012, 146 patients have been analyzed retrospectively. The patients' demographic findings, trauma etiologies, seasonal variables of trauma, and maxillofacial fracture area distribution have been analyzed. Patients' age varies between 12 and 80 and 87 of them are female (59.59%), while 59 are male (40.41%). The subjects' etiological distribution is as follows: 47.5% is traumas caused by cattle among the farm animals; 15.75% is traumas caused by the blows of agricultural tools; 12.33% is traumas caused by tractor accidents; 9.59% is traumas caused by falling from haystacks; 7.53% is traumas caused by falling from agricultural vehicles, and 6.85% is traumas caused by horse kicks. When trauma etiology, age, sex, seasonal distribution, and the maxillofacial fractures were analyzed, statistically significant results have been determined. Although the number of maxillofacial traumas is considerably high in farmers due to farm animals, agricultural devices, and agricultural tools, while these traumas can cause functional and aesthetically minor fractures on the face, they can cause important and serious fractures as well. While knowing the mechanism of etiological fractures and accidents in different study groups can be guiding in the speedy diagnosis and treatment of possible fractures, it can also be helpful in taking precautions against traumas in these groups as well.

  13. Serverification of Molecular Modeling Applications: The Rosetta Online Server That Includes Everyone (ROSIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchúir, Shane Ó.; Der, Bryan S.; Drew, Kevin; Kuroda, Daisuke; Xu, Jianqing; Weitzner, Brian D.; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Sripakdeevong, Parin; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Kortemme, Tanja; Bonneau, Richard; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Das, Rhiju

    2013-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. PMID:23717507

  14. "Bouncing back": how Australia's leading women's magazines portray the postpartum 'body'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Heike; Homer, Caroline; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    To examine how the Australian media portrays the childbearing body through the use of celebrity stories in women's magazines. The study aimed to provide insight into socially constructed factors that might influence women's body image and expectations during pregnancy and the early postnatal period. Media content analysis was used to analyse 25 celebrity stories about the childbearing postnatal body (images and texts) collected from Australia's three leading women's magazines between January and June 2009 (n=58). A variety of persuasive textual and visual messages were elicited. The major theme representing how the postnatal body was constructed was labelled 'Bouncing back'; the focus of this paper. The social messages inherent in the magazine stories were that women need to strive towards regaining a pre-pregnant body shape with the same effort one would employ when recovering from an illness. Three specific sub-themes that promoted weight loss were identified. These were labelled 'Racing to bounce back', 'Breastfeeding to bounce back' and 'Pretending to bounce back'. A fourth sub-theme, 'Refusing to bounce back: Celebrating my new body', grouped together stories about celebrities who appeared to embrace their changed, but healthy, postnatal body. The study highlighted the expectations of the postpartum body in relation to speedy return to the pre-pregnant state. Understanding how these portrayals may contribute to women's own body image and expectations in the early postpartum period may better assist maternity health care providers to engage with women in meaningful discussions about this important time in their lives and challenge notions of ideal body types. Assisting women to accept and nurture themselves and have confidence in their ability as a new parent is a crucial element of quality maternity service provision. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elasto-plastic deformation analysis of rotating disc beyond its limit speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekhteraei Toussi, Hamid [Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Boulevard, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); RezaeiFarimani, Mahdi, E-mail: ma_re974@stu-mail.um.ac.ir [Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Boulevard, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The development of new materials is leading to the production of more speedy rotating discs. The knowledge of elastic-plastic response of rotating discs may be helpful in the manufacture and development of discs. Using two types of material properties including the Elastic Perfectly Plastic (EPP) and Ramberg-Osgood models, the concepts of failure and limit speed of discs are studied. Different steps of solution consisting of discretization and imaging process are expounded. The effect of different parameters including the cross section profiles and material properties upon the limit speed is investigated. The study includes the analysis of the post failure mechanical behavior of the discs. It is seen that the hardening exponent in the Ramberg-Osgood equation controls the sensitivity of disc expansion relative to the increase of its rotational speed. For the special case of a disc with uniform thickness, the index of sensitivity is connected to the exponent of the Ramberg-Osgood equation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper emphasizes the importance of the plastic limit speed of the rotating discs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two material models of elastic perfectly plastic (EPP) and Ramberg-Osgood are used in the analyses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis shows the difference between the material models in the prediction of rotating disc plastic failure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among the discs with similar thickness at the internal and external radii, the limit speed of a disc with linear cross section is the most. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, at velocities higher than the limit speed, the expansion of disc is not abrupt.

  16. Las dos caras de la enfermedad: Experiencia de una persona ostomizada The two faces of the illness: Experience of a person with an ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Bonill de las Nieves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El relato biográfico es un tipo de investigación cualitativa que nos permite conocer y comprender las vivencias de una persona expresada con sus propias palabras. El protagonista del relato que se presenta a continuación se llama Antonio, tiene 63 años y en 2005 le diagnosticaron cáncer de colon. Fue intervenido y tuvo una rápida recuperación, volviendo a su vida normal. Sin embargo al año y medio le volvieron a detectar un pólipo maligno. Tuvo que ser intervenido de nuevo y finalmente, en una tercera intervención, le realizaron una ileostomía de urgencia. A lo largo del relato Antonio nos cuenta como vivió el proceso desde que le diagnosticaron hasta el día de hoy, poniendo de relieve la indefensión y el vacío de información con el que se encontró al ser dado de alta, hasta conocer a su enfermera estomaterapeuta.The biographical report is a kind of qualitative research which allows us to know and understand the experience of a person in his own words. The protagonist of the report is called Antonio, he is 63 years old and in 2005 he was diagnosed from colon cancer. He was operated and he had a speedy recovery, returning to his everyday life. Nevertheless, one year and a half later, he was detected again of a malignant polyp. He had to be operated again and finally, in a third operation, the physician had to make an emergency ileostomy. Antonio tells us, through the report, how he lived the process from the diagnosis to nowadays, underlining the helpless and the lack of information that he faced after been discharged from the hospital, until he meet the stomatherapist nurse.

  17. Interbudgetary Distribution of Taxes in Russia: Concentration of Power or Management Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For Russia as a democratic federal state, federal relations are basic for the whole social development of the country. In this regard, it is particularly important to strike a balance between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The analysis of budget indicators presented in the article revealed the growing process of centralization, which enabled to conclude the low efficiency of the modern mechanism of tax allocation and its non-compliance to the principles of fiscal federalism. The growing budget crisis of the regions and the long-felt need of the structural reforming of Russian tax system require speedy implementation of internal reserves. Among these provisions, Russian scientists including the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences see the urgent need of the structural reform of the tax system in the Russian Federation. The results of the scientific search for answers to the questions of how and what it is expedient to amend, supplement, and delete in the Russian tax system are presented. In order to create incentives for the territorial authorities to increase the income, the algorithm of the distribution of tax revenue between the federal and regional budgets is developed on the basis of the estimations of the ratio of the volume of tax revenues collected in the region and received by the federal budget. Experimental calculations on the example of 83 subjects of the Russian Federation have identified the existing provisions of tax revenue growth in 36 subjects that could increase revenues by 2 –12 %. The authors have proposed a set of key measures for optimizing the tax incentive policies, involving the development of selective and differential principles of tax incentives, the introduction of compensatory forms of the loss of income as a result of benefits. The main measures to enhance the collection of regional and local property taxes are systematized.

  18. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat bone fracture from North-Central Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Bhat, Shripad; Hurkadale, Pramod J; Kholkute, S D; Hegde, G R

    2012-07-13

    North Central Western Ghats in India comprises rich bio-cultural diversity and is also home to varied ethnomedicinal practices. The study was taken up for documentation and analysis of traditional knowledge regarding the practice and use of plants in the treatment of bone fracture. This is an effort to preserve the vanishing wealth of traditional knowledge. Key informants identified in a preliminary survey and collection of information was through semi structured, open ended interviews. The details on age, place of practice, experience of key informants and learning of practice, disease they treat and mode of diagnosis, storage and usage of plants were collected. The identity of plants and their information was confirmed through repeated guided transect walks in different seasons with the informants and focus group discussions. Identified plants were deposited at the herbaria of Regional Medical Research Centre, Belgaum. Forty four key informants providing treatment for bone fracture in this region were identified. Thirty eight plant species belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study. Highest number of species representation is found in families Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. The habit of the species showed that 45% of the herbal drugs were obtained from trees, followed by herbs, shrubs and climbers and majority of plants used were collected from wild (76%). The stem or stem bark (33%) was most commonly used plant part to prepare medicine. Twenty six formulations of 30 plant species were directly used in treating bone fracture, where Cissus quadrangularis has the highest use-value (0.14). Eleven plants were found to be administered for bone strengthening, pain relieving, inflammation reduction and speedy recovery and Gmelina arborea has the highest use value (0.27). The results indicated the importance of traditional herbal practices in community for their health needs. Both conservational strategies and further validation studies are the need

  19. A simple and reliable health monitoring system for shoulder health: proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long

    2014-02-26

    The current health care system is complex and inefficient. A simple and reliable health monitoring system that can help patients perform medical self-diagnosis is seldom readily available. Because the medical system is vast and complex, it has hampered or delayed patients in seeking medical advice or treatment in a timely manner, which may potentially affect the patient's chances of recovery, especially those with severe sicknesses such as cancer, and heart disease. The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology in designing a simple, low cost, Internet-based health-screening platform. This health-screening platform will enable patients to perform medical self-diagnosis over the Internet. Historical data has shown the importance of early detection to ensure patients receive proper treatment and speedy recovery. The platform is designed with special emphasis on the user interface. Standard Web-based user-interface design is adopted so the user feels ease to operate in a familiar Web environment. In addition, graphics such as charts and graphs are used generously to help users visualize and understand the result of the diagnostic. The system is developed using hypertext preprocessor (PHP) programming language. One important feature of this system platform is that it is built to be a stand-alone platform, which tends to have better user privacy security. The prototype system platform was developed by the National Cheng Kung University Ergonomic and Design Laboratory. The completed prototype of this system platform was submitted to the Taiwan Medical Institute for evaluation. The evaluation of 120 participants showed that this platform system is a highly effective tool in health-screening applications, and has great potential for improving the medical care quality for the general public.

  20. Is Late or Non-Payment a Significant Problem to Malaysian Contractors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Che Munaaim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some developed countries have drawn lip construction-specific statutory security of payment acts/legislations typically known as Construction Contracts Act to eliminate poor payment practices and to assist continuous uninterrupted construction works. Malaysia too cannot pretend not to have these problems. This paper presents findings of a study conducted amongst Malaysian contractors with the aims to determine the seriousness of late and non- payment problems; to identify the main causes and effects of late and non-payment; and to identify ways to sustain the payment flows in the Malaysian construction industry. The study focused on contractual payments from the paymaster (government or private to the contractors. The main factors for late and nonpayment in the construction industry identified from the study include: delay in certification, paymaster's poor financial management, local culture/attitude, pay master's failure to implement good governance in business, underpayment of certified amounts by the pay master and the use of 'pay when paid' clauses in contracts. The research findings show that late and non-payment can create cash flow problems, stress and financial hardship on the contractors. Amongst the most appropriate solutions to overcome the problem of late and non-payment faced by local contractors include: a right to regular periodic payment, a right to a defined time frame (or payment and a right to a speedy dispute resolution mechanism. Promptness of submitting, processing, issuing interim payment certificates and honouring the certificates are extremely important issues in relation to progress payment claims. Perhaps, an increased sense of professionalism in construction industry could overcome some of the problems related to late and non- payment issues.

  1. Analysing DHPC/DMPC bicelles by diffusion NMR and multivariate decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnerås, Johannes; Nilsson, Mathias; Mäler, Lena

    2015-11-01

    Mixtures of lipids and detergents are known to form bicelles at certain parameter ranges, but many uncertainties remain concerning the details of the phase behaviour of these mixtures and the morphology of the formed lipid assemblies. Here we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion data in combination with the multivariate processing method speedy component resolution (SCORE) to analyse mixtures of 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) with the relative concentration q=[DMPC]/[DHPC]=0.5 at total lipid concentrations ranging from 15 to 300 mM. With this approach we were able to resolve the heavily overlapping mixture spectra into component spectra and obtained reliable diffusion coefficients for lipid concentrations in the range 15 to 300 mM, although at high concentrations (250-300 mM), non-negativity constraints or overfactoring was required to successfully decompose the data. At 50-300 mM total lipid concentration, the radii estimated from the diffusion coefficient of DMPC indicate assemblies of the appropriate bicelle size, although small size variations exist, while at lower concentrations the morphology appears to change to larger assemblies. Taken together, the results suggest that for q=0.5 DMPC/DHPC mixtures there is a relatively broad concentration range above 50 mM where bicelles may reliably be assumed to adopt the 'classical' bicelle morphology. The study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of our approach for accurately determining physical properties of complex mixtures such as bicelles. Both reliable diffusion coefficients and chemical shifts can be derived from overlapping data. This should prove useful for analysing the behaviour of other, more complex, lipid mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions as predictors of active commuting behaviour in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, J R; Jones, A P; van Sluijs, E M F; Griffin, S J

    2010-01-01

    Environmental perceptions appear to play a role in determining behaviour in children, although their influence on active commuting remains unclear. This study examines whether attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions are associated with active commuting behaviour in school children and whether these associations are moderated by the distance to school. Data were collected as part of the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people), a cross-sectional study of 2064 children from schools in Norfolk, UK. Data regarding the usual mode of travel to school, attitudes towards and social support for active commuting, perceptions of the neighbourhood and route to school were assessed using questionnaires completed by 2012 children and their parents. Distance to school was estimated using a Geographic Information System and this was used to compare associations between personal and environmental factors and active travel, across different distance categories. Forty per cent of children reported usually walking to school, with 9% cycling and the remainder using motorised travel. Parental attitudes and safety concerns, the presence of social support from parents and friends and parent-reported neighbourhood walkability were all found to be predictors of active commuting, with children receiving peer and family support and living in supportive environments being more likely to walk or cycle. There was some evidence of a moderating effect of distance whereby attitudes were more important for short distances and safety concerns long. Both attitudinal and environmental perceptions are associated with children's active commuting behaviours. Given the difficulty in modifying attitudes directly, the effect on them of interventions to provide more supportive environments should be evaluated.

  3. Design and Implement a Digital H∞ Robust Controller for a MW-Class PMSG-Based Grid-Interactive Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonobu Senjyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A digital H∞ controller for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based wind energy conversion system (WECS is presented. Wind energy is an uncertain fluctuating resource which requires a tight control management. So, it is still an exigent task for the control design engineers. The conventional proportional-integral (PI control is not ideal during high turbulence wind velocities, and the nonlinear behavior of the power converters. These are raising interest towards the robust control concepts. The robust design is to find a controller, for a given system, such that the closed-loop system becomes robust that assurance high-integrity and fault tolerant control system, robust H∞ control theory has befallen a standard design method of choice over the past two decades in industrial control applications. The robust H∞ control theory is also gaining eminence in the WECS. Due to the implementation complexity for the continuous H∞ controller, and availability of the high speedy micro-controllers, the design of a sample-data or a digital H∞ controller is very important for the realistic implementation. But there isn’t a single research to evaluate the performance of the digital H∞ controller for the WECS. In this paper, the proposed digital H∞ controller schemes comprise for the both generator and grid interactive power converters, and the control performances are compared with the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy controller. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method Energies 2013, 6 2085 which are ensured the WECS stabilities, mitigate shaft stress, and improving the DC-link voltage and output power qualities.

  4. ANALISIS KUALITAS KINERJA PRAMUWISATA TERHADAP KEPUASAN WISATAWAN JEPANG PADA PARADISE BALI TOUR AND TRAVEL DI BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Adi Palguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The type of data used are qualitative and quantitative data, while-for the data source is the primary and secondary data. Techniques of data collection is conducted through observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The sampling technique used purposive sampling i.e. applied particular consideration determined by the researcher itself. In another words the researchers have their own criteria toward the Japanese tourists who had ever utilized the services of Paradise Bali Tour and Travel. The result of this study shows that tourists are satisfied by the performance of the Japanese tour guides in Paradise Bali Tour and Travel, with an average rate of suitability is 74.39 percent. Being used Cartesian diagram to analyze the indicators to be a top priority and must be done in accordance with expectations of tourists, such as: guides appearance and neatness and another items and must be used by guide when pick-up the guests, providing clear and accurate information about the condition of destination, and efficiency of time and speedy when pick up the tourists. Indicators are considered important and needed to be maintained its performance are the mastering of foreign languages by guides in order to fluent communication, the courtesy of guides when providing services. Indicators considered less important by tourists but its implementation is quite well done, namely responsiveness guides in providing clear and concise information. Indicator that overestimated by tourist but it have done very well, such as the convenience of tourists when receiving services from the guide during the tour taken place.

  5. Influencia de los parámetros de corte en el espesor de la zona de deformación plástica secundaria // Influence of cutting parameters on the thickness of the secondary-plastic-deformation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rodríguez - Moliner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar la influencia de los parámetros de corte en el espesor de lazona de deformación plástica secundaria (ezdps, utilizando calzos recubiertos con nano capas deTiN/TiAlN en un acero AISI 1045. Los resultados han sido comparados contra los obtenidos con unacuchilla calzada convencional de la firma SANDVIK con recubrimientos de TiCN-Al2O3-TiN,posibilitando el estudio del efecto de los recubrimientos nano-capas en el proceso de corte demetales.Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los efectos de la profundidad de corte y la velocidad deavance en el ezdps, usando cuchillas recubiertas con nano capas, siguen la misma tendencia que enlas cuchillas convencionales aunque con valores mucho menores. A medida que la profundidad decorte y la velocidad de avance aumentan el ezdps aumenta proporcionalmente. Estos resultados secorresponden con los obtenidos por otros autores usando cuchillas convencionales.Palabras claves: Deformación plástica secundaria, viruta, corte de metales, cuchillas recubiertas connanocapas.___________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe aim of this paper is to study the influence of the cutting parameters in the thickness of thesecondary plastic deformation zone (ezdps, for nano-layered (TiN/TiAlN cutting tools. The resultshave been compared with the ones obtained for a conventional cutting tool.The results show the effects of cutting speed, cut thickness and advance speed on the ezdps. Theezdps increases as the cut thickness, and advance speed increases. The effect of the cutting speedis contrary to the others. These results agree with the trend obtained by previous investigators,although the values obtained for the nano-layered-coated cutting tool are lower than withconventional tools.Key words: Secondary plastic deformation, chip, cutting metals, nano-layered-coated cutting tool.

  6. Electronic Referrals and Digital Imaging Systems in Ophthalmology: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Hall, H Nikki; Sanders, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmology departments face intensifying pressure to expedite sight-saving treatments and reduce the global burden of disease. The use of electronic communication systems, digital imaging, and redesigned service care models is imperative for addressing such demands. The recently developed Scottish Eyecare Integration Project involves an electronic referral system from community optometry to the hospital ophthalmology department using National Health Service (NHS) email with digital ophthalmic images attached, via a virtual private network connection. The benefits over the previous system include reduced waiting times, improved triage, e-diagnosis in 20% without the need for hospital attendance, and rapid electronic feedback to referrers. We draw on the experience of the Scottish Eyecare Integration Project and discuss the global applications of this and other advances in teleophthalmology. We focus particularly on the implications for management and screening of chronic disease, such as glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, and ophthalmic disease, such as retinopathy of prematurity where diagnosis is almost entirely and critically dependent on fundus appearance. Currently in Scotland, approximately 75% of all referrals are electronic from community to hospital. The Scottish Eyecare Integration Project is globally the first of its kind and unique in a national health service. Such speedy, safe, and efficient models of communication are geographically sensitive to service provision, especially in remote and rural regions. Along with advances in teleophthalmology, such systems promote the earlier detection of sight-threatening disease and safe follow-up of non-sight-threatening disease in the community. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  7. EXO70C2 is a key regulatory factor for optimal tip growth of pollen

    KAUST Repository

    Synek, Lukas

    2017-03-30

    The exocyst, an eukaryotic tethering complex, co-regulates targeted exocytosis as an effector of small GTPases in polarized cell growth. In land plants, several exocyst subunits are encoded by double or triple paralogs, culminating in tens of EXO70 paralogs. Out of 23 Arabidopsis EXO70 isoforms, we analyzed seven isoforms expressed in pollen. Genetic and microscopic analyses of single mutants in EXO70A2, C1, C2, F1, H3, H5, and H6 genes revealed that only a loss-of-function EXO70C2 allele resulted in a significant male-specific transmission defect (segregation 40%:51%:9%) due to aberrant pollen tube growth. Mutant pollen tubes grown in vitro exhibited enhanced growth rate and a decreased thickness of the tip cell wall, causing tip bursts. However, exo70C2 pollen tubes could frequently recover and restart their speedy elongation, resulting in a repetitive stop-and-go growth dynamics. A pollen-specific depletion of the closest paralog, EXO70C1, using ami-RNA in the exo70C2 mutant background resulted in a complete pollen-specific transmission defect, suggesting redundant functions of EXO70C1 and EXO70C2. Both EXO70C1 and EXO70C2, GFP-tagged and expressed under their native promoters, localized in the cytoplasm of pollen grains, pollen tubes, and also root trichoblast cells. Expression of EXO70C2-GFP complemented aberrant growth of exo70C2 pollen tubes. The absent EXO70C2 interactions with core exocyst subunits in the yeast two-hybrid assay, cytoplasmic localization, and genetic effect suggest an unconventional EXO70 function possibly as a regulator of exocytosis outside the exocyst complex. In conclusion, EXO70C2 is a novel factor contributing to the regulation of optimal tip growth of Arabidopsis pollen tubes.

  8. Single-chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenoside Re as an effective tool for the determination of ginsenosides in various ginsengs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Morinaga, Osamu; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    A single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) against ginsenoside Re (G-Re) was constructed and applied to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determining the total concentration of ginsenosides in various ginsengs. The variable heavy and light chain genes were cloned directly from the cDNA of the 4G10 hybridoma cell line and assembled by means of splicing by overlapping extension PCR (SOE-PCR) using specific primers designed to have flexible peptide (Gly(4)Ser)(3) between the variable heavy chain and light chain domains. The constructed scFv gene was ligated into the pET28a expression vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant scFv against G-Re (GRe-scFv) was expressed as a chimera protein containing the His6-tag at its N-termini, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), and refolded by a stepwise dialysis method. The yield of GRe-scFv after purification was 1.7 mg per liter of culture medium. Characterization of GRe-scFv revealed that it retained the characteristics of the parental monoclonal antibody (MAb) against G-Re (MAb-4G10) which has wide cross-reactivity with 20(S)-protopanaxadiol- and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides. The detectable range for G-Re in ELISA using scFv antibody was 0.02-10 µg/ml. Based on validation analysis, the use of GRe-scFv in ELISA is a precise, accurate, and sensitive method. In light of the time-consuming and labor-intensive procedures for the preparation of MAb, speedy bacterial expression of GRe-scFv is a powerful alternative tool for producing MAb to use in ELISA for quantitative analysis of total ginsenoside concentrations.

  9. Click yes to consent: Acceptability of incorporating informed consent into an internet-based testing program for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Bonnell, Amanda; Farrell, Janine; Haag, Devon; Bondyra, Mark; Unger, David; Elliot, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous use of online health care services without interaction with a health care provider challenges existing models for achieving informed consent (IC); current examinations of this issue have focused on commercial direct-to-consumer genetic testing. As IC is integral to publicly funded clinical testing services, we incorporated pre-test concepts necessary for IC in GetCheckedOnline (GCO), British Columbia's online sexually transmitted and blood-borne infection (STBBI) testing service. We assessed the acceptability of this IC step and its design options among potential users during usability testing of GCO. English-speaking participants≥19years were recruited from Craigslist and among provincial STI clinic clients for usability testing of an early version of GCO, which included a consent webpage presenting 8 pre-test statements for review prior to completing testing. Participants were interviewed regarding their acceptability, perceptions, and understanding of the consent page; transcripts were analyzed thematically. We conducted 13 interviews (9 males, 4 females; 9 self-identified as heterosexual; all had previously tested for STBBI). We identified three main themes: i) the meaning of IC (consent page viewed as important and for protection of individual and organization; participants demonstrated varying understandings of specific components); ii) the impact of previous experience on understanding IC (participants understood difference between online and in-person testing; IC concepts were better understood by participants with more testing experience); iii) the role of website design on achieving IC (design of page to disrupt speedy click-throughs was valued and demonstrated seriousness of the consent page). Our careful attention to both content and design of the consent page of GCO was highly valued by potential users of the service, and effective in disrupting routinization of consent on websites. We argue that principles of IC apply equally in online

  10. Representations of Death in a Changing World: An Anthropological Perusal of Death Rites of Gurungs in Nepal

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    Prakash Upadhyay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available People have developed ceremonies and rituals to help make sense or celebrate an alteration in position, circumstance or relationship. However, over time some have become diluted or rejected for whom they are intended. In majority of cultures, the greatest effort is given to the death rite of passage– and yet paradoxically it is the one that is now most often distorted or lost. This study attempted to describe the multiple aspects of changes that are occurring in Gurung death rite. Gurungs are followers of ‘Bonism’ but they are under the profound influence of Tibetan Mahayani Lamaism. Gurung community is changing from Mechanical to Organic Solidarity in which the Mechanical Unity of their traditional culture is transforming to loosely united Organic Solidarity of body. Gurung death rites have been influenced by many rudiments--migration, urbanization and modernization due to which there has been the emergence of deformed usages and behaviors in death rite. Urbanization impact on death rite is closely linked to modernization and the sociological process of rationalization, a speedy and historic transformation of Gurung social roots whereby predominantly rural Gurung culture is being rapidly modified by urban ostentatious culture. However, there is very vital element of unity, cooperation, sympathy and we feeling among the Gurungs owing to death rite that has tied all Gurungs under a shared and endorsed bond. It has created a reciprocal relationship between the living and dead-- both depending upon each other. Death rituals have been a means of co-ordination creating solidarity through ‘Syaisyai’ which is a social institution for uniting the Gurungs. This bond between giver and gift, the act of giving creates a social bond in Gurung community with an obligation to reciprocate on part of the recipient.

  11. Learning by Observation: Insights from Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandolesi, Laura; Federico, Francesca; Vicari, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer’s acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Observational learning makes an interesting and potentially important topic in the developmental domain, especially when disorders are considered. The implications of studies aimed at clarifying whether and how this form of learning is spared by pathology are manifold. We focused on a specific population with learning and intellectual disabilities, the individuals with Williams syndrome. The performance of twenty-eight individuals with Williams syndrome was compared with that of mental age- and gender-matched thirty-two typically developing children on tasks of learning of a visuo-motor sequence by observation or by trial and error. Regardless of the learning modality, acquiring the correct sequence involved three main phases: a detection phase, in which participants discovered the correct sequence and learned how to perform the task; an exercise phase, in which they reproduced the sequence until performance was error-free; an automatization phase, in which by repeating the error-free sequence they became accurate and speedy. Participants with Williams syndrome beneficiated of observational training (in which they observed an actor detecting the visuo-motor sequence) in the detection phase, while they performed worse than typically developing children in the exercise and automatization phases. Thus, by exploiting competencies learned by observation, individuals with Williams syndrome detected the visuo-motor sequence, putting into action the appropriate procedural strategies. Conversely, their impaired performances in the exercise phases appeared linked to impaired spatial working memory, while their deficits in automatization phases to deficits in processes increasing efficiency and speed of the response. Overall, observational experience was advantageous for acquiring competencies

  12. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

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    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  13. Three-Year Outcome of Fixed Partial Rehabilitations Supported by Implants Inserted with Flap or Flapless Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, Paulo; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Lopes, Armando

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the 3-year outcome of fixed partial prostheses supported by implants with immediate provisionalization without occlusal contacts inserted in predominantly soft bone with flap and flapless protocols. Forty-one patients partially rehabilitated with 72 NobelSpeedy implants (51 maxillary; 21 mandibular) were consecutively included and treated with a flapless surgical protocol (n = 20 patients; 32 implants) and flapped surgical protocol (n = 21 patients; 40 implants). Primary outcome measure was implant survival; secondary outcome measures were marginal bone resorption (comparing the bone levels at 1 and 3 years with baseline) and the incidence of biological, mechanical, and esthetic complications. Survival was computed through life tables; descriptive statistics were applied to the remaining variables of interest. Eight patients with eight implants dropped out of the study. One implant failed in one patient (flapless group) giving an overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 98.6%. No failures were noted with the flapped protocol (CSR 100%), while for the implants placed with the flapless surgical technique, a 96.9% CSR was registered. The overall average marginal bone resorption at 3 years was 1.37 mm (SD = 0.94 mm), with 1.14 mm (SD = 0.49 mm) and 1.60 mm (SD = 1.22 mm) for the flap and flapless groups, respectively. Mechanical complications occurred in nine patients (n = 5 patients in the flapless group; n = 4 patients in the flap group). Implant infection was registered in three implants and three patients (flapless group), who exhibited inadequate oral hygiene levels. Partial edentulism rehabilitation through immediate provisionalization fixed prosthesis supported by dental implants inserted through flap or flapless surgical techniques in areas of predominantly soft bone was viable at 3 years of follow-up. The limitations and risks of the "free-hand" method in flapless surgery should be considered when

  14. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate partner violence in Limpopo

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    Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives:To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by survivors of physical assault by their intimate partners. Method:A quantitative cross-sectional comparative study design was used to compare 30 sexually-assaulted women and 30 physically-assaulted women regarding depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder and coping styles three months after the incident. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the survivors of both types of assault and the Beck Depression Inventory posttraumatic stress disorder checklist and Brief COPE Inventory were administered in order to obtain quantitative data. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed. Ethical measures were adhered to throughout the research process. Results:A significantly-higher proportion of sexually-assaulted women disclosed the incident to family (p = 0.021. The majority of sexually- (90% and physically- (86% assaulted women were likely to recall the incident. Sexually-assaulted women had a significantly-higher mean for avoidance/numbness (p 0.051. About 41%of sexually-assaulted participants reported severe depression. Findings confirmed that sexual assault is more personal whilst physical assault is more interpersonal. If physically-assaulted women were removed from the perpetrators they recovered faster than sexually-assaulted women. Their stay with the perpetrators may perpetuate the violence. Conclusion:The need for counselling and support for the survivors of both traumas was recommended. All stakeholders should be educated to provide support to survivors of both traumas.

  15. An Advanced Model to Precisely Estimate the Cell-Free Fetal DNA Concentration in Maternal Plasma.

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    Xiongbin Kang

    Full Text Available With the speedy development of sequencing technologies, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT has been widely applied in clinical practice for testing for fetal aneuploidy. The cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA concentration in maternal plasma is the most critical parameter for this technology because it affects the accuracy of NIPT-based sequencing for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. Several approaches have been developed to calculate the cffDNA fraction of the total cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. However, most approaches depend on specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP allele information or are restricted to male fetuses.In this study, we present an innovative method to accurately deduce the concentration of the cffDNA fraction using only maternal plasma DNA. SNPs were classified into four maternal-fetal genotype combinations and three boundaries were added to capture effective SNP loci in which the mother was homozygous and the fetus was heterozygous. The median value of the concentration of the fetal DNA fraction was estimated using the effective SNPs. A depth-bias correction was performed using simulated data and corresponding regression equations for adjustments when the depth of the sequencing data was below 100-fold or the cffDNA fraction is less than 10%.Using our approach, the median of the relative bias was 0.4% in 18 maternal plasma samples with a median sequencing depth of 125-fold. There was a significant association (r = 0.935 between our estimations and the estimations inferred from the Y chromosome. Furthermore, this approach could precisely estimate a cffDNA fraction as low as 3%, using only maternal plasma DNA at the targeted region with a sequencing depth of 65-fold. We also used PCR instead of parallel sequencing to calculate the cffDNA fraction. There was a significant association (r = 98.2% between our estimations and those inferred from the Y chromosome.

  16. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

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    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  17. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children's Objectively Measured Sedentary Time.

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    Andrew J Atkin

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviours (SB are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours.To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children's objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years.Data are from the second (2008 and third (2011 waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored.Daily sedentary time increased by 30-40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07. No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified.Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children's mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this period and should be examined further

  18. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

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    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-04-01

    rhythmically. Moreover, the training of conversational speech formulas led to long-term progress in the production of formulaic language. The patients were able to establish their own individual formulaic repertoire in order to communicate some basic needs in daily life. This finding may result from the fact that, according to present knowledge, the production of formulaic language engages bilateral neural networks including right frontotemporal areas, the right basal ganglia and, possibly, the right cerebellum (Hughlings-Jackson, 1878; Speedie et al., 1993; Ackermann et al., 1998; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Sidtis et al., 2009. In other words, left-hemisphere stroke patients may use right-hemisphere language resources to produce conversational speech formulas, whether they are sung or rhythmically spoken. In conclusion, the current experiments highlight the critical role of rhythm and conversational speech formulas in melody-based aphasia therapy.

  19. The inorganic route to the low temperature chemical vapor deposition of TiN for ultra large scale integration technologies: Process and material development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermeier, Cheryl Gail

    1997-11-01

    The demand for computers with more functionality, more memory, and higher speed are the major factors affecting the design of computer chips. This demand for increased capacity is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. In order to meet these demands, new material processes must be developed for computer chip fabrication. This thesis focuses on the identification, development, and optimization of a novel approach to a low temperature ({process for the deposition of TiN diffusion barrier liners for ULSI applications using the inorganic halide tetraiodotitanium, TiIsb4, as the source precursor. Correspondingly, Chapter 2 concentrated on establishing a fundamental understanding of precursor decomposition pathways and associated film nucleation and growth kinetics. As part of the study, key process parameters were varied systematically in order to establish functionality curves for film purity, growth rate, structure, and morphology. In the identified optimum process window, the TiN films were nitrogen-rich, with iodine concentrations below 2 at%, displayed resistivities in the range 100-150 muOmega-cm depending on thickness, and exhibited excellent step coverage-with better than 90% conformality in both nominal 0.45 mum, 3:1 aspect ratio and 0.25 mum, 4:1 aspect ratio contact structures. Chapter 3 describes and discusses mechanistic studies which used the profile emulator Stanford Profile Emulator for Etching and Deposition in IC Engineering (SPEEDIE) in combination with specialized cantilever structures. The purpose was to determine the underlying mechanisms (direct deposition, re-emission, and surface diffusion) which control the deposition profiles of TiN in steps, trenches, and via holes. Corresponding sticking coefficients were subsequently established for different process windows, and optimum processing conditions were identified for conformal step coverage in sub-quarter-micron device structures. In Chapter 4, the performance of TiN as diffusion

  20. Miniplating of metacarpal fractures: an outcome study

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    Fallah E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Trauma to the hand is very common and consequently, metacarpal fractures are not rare entities. Some of these fractures need surgery. Considering the diversity of surgical methods available for these kinds of fractures and also the importance of achieving full function and speedy return to work for patients that are mainly young workers or athletes, this study was undertaken to investigate the outcome of treating these fractures by mini-plates."n"nMethods : Eighteen patients with open or comminuted fractures of metacarpal bones who were admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital between the years 2007 and 2010 underwent fixation surgery using mini-plates. Fourteen patients with 17 metacarpal fractures completed the study."n"nResults : Thirteen out of 14 patients had complete fracture union. The patient with non-union underwent revision surgery and bone graft. Four individuals developed an extensor lag of 15 degrees without functional impairment. Two patients had joint stiffness that was relieved after a period of physiotherapy and one developed wound dehiscence and discharge that improved with debridement and use of antibiotics without plate removal. Six patients had

  1. Análise da profilaxia da raiva humana em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, em 2002 Human rabies prophylaxis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rigo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A instituição de um tratamento adequado, a rapidez na observação do animal e no repasse de informações dão qualidade à vigilância epidemiológica em caso de agressão animal. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a vigilância da raiva e a utilização de um sistema informatizado nesse processo. Foram avaliados 4.168 acidentes com animais. As lesões foram consideradas graves em 65,9% das agressões. Os cães foram responsáveis por 87,6% destas, os gatos por 10,5% e os morcegos por 0,6%. Foram analisados dois locais de registro dos tratamentos. De acordo com a ficha anti-rábica, 41,9% dos tratamentos indicados estavam corretos; nos casos com resultado negativo da observação, 7,4% tiveram um tratamento adequado. De acordo com o programa de vacinação, 42,2% dos tratamentos indicados estavam corretos; nos casos com resultado negativo da observação, 3,2% tiveram um tratamento adequado. Concluiu-se que deve haver uma melhora na indicação e no registro dos tratamentos, bem como na busca dos faltosos, para que ocorra uma melhora na qualidade do serviço oferecido e evite-se um incidente mais grave com uma pessoa vítima de agressão animal.Timely application of adequate treatment, speedy and thorough observation of animals, and streamlined information transfer provide quality rabies epidemiological surveillance in cases of attacks by animals. This study aims to evaluate rabies surveillance and the use of a computerized system in the surveillance process. A total of 4,168 attacks by animals were analyzed. The injuries were considered severe in 65.9% of cases. Dogs accounted for 87.6% of the severe cases, cats 10.5%, and bats 0.6%. Two treatment recording sites were analyzed. According to the rabies treatment record sheet, 41.9% of the treatments were adequate; in cases with negative observation, 7.4% showed adequate treatment. According to the vaccination program, 42.2% of the prescribed treatments were correct; in cases with

  2. Association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old British White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, P A J; Jones, A P; van Sluijs, E M F; Jennings, A; Welch, A; Cassidy, A; Griffin, S J

    2013-03-01

    To examine the association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old children. A cross-sectional study using data from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study undertaken in Norfolk, UK. Data from 4-day food diaries and 7 days of accelerometery were matched on concurrent days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent in sedentary behaviour and various measures of dietary intake were collected. Covariates included age, sex, weight status, family socio-economic status, and energy intake reporting quality. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for clustering of children by school and stratified by sex, were fitted to examine the associations between dietary measures and physical activity and sedentary outcomes. In total, 1317 children (584 boys and 733 girls) provided concurrent data. Boys in the highest quartile of energy percentage from protein spent approximately 6 min [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-12] less in MVPA compared with boys in the lowest quartile. Those in the highest quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake and fruit juice intake had respective average activity counts per minute that were 56 above (95% CI 8-105) and 48 below (95% CI 2-95) those in the lowest quartiles, whilst those in the highest quartile of fizzy drink consumption spent approximately 7 min (95% CI 2-13) more in MVPA and approximately 14 min (95% CI 5-24 min) less in sedentary behaviour. Boys in the highest quartile of savoury snack consumption spent approximately 8 min (95% CI 2-13 min) more in MVPA per day, and approximately 12 min (95% CI 2-23) less in sedentary behaviour. No significant associations were apparent among girls. Few associations were detected, and the directions of those that were apparent were mainly counterintuitive. The extent to which this reflects a true lack of association or is associated with the measurement methods used for

  3. Data storage and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisman, M; Kalisman, A

    1986-07-01

    The entire face of modern medical and surgical practice is being significantly affected by the application of technologic developments to the practice of surgery--developments that will tie together such areas as information management and processing, robotics, communication networks, and computerized surgical equipment. The achievements in these areas will create a sophisticated, fully automatic system that will assist the plastic surgeon in many aspects of work, such as regular office activities, doctor-patient interaction, professional updating, communication, and even assistance during the operational process itself. It will be as simple as dialing a telephone today. When it is necessary to consult with other colleagues, a combined vocal and visual consulting network in other medical centers as well as consulting computerized expert systems will be available all day and night as part of the communication services. The plastic surgical expert systems will store valuable information, based on the knowledge of the best human experts, on any important subtopics and will be accessed in a very friendly way. This will be an invaluable tool for the residents in training, for emergency room work, and for just getting a second opinion, even for the more experienced practitioner. All the electronic mail, professional magazines, and any other required professional information will flow between central and personal retrieval systems. The doctor, at a desired time in the privacy and comfort of his or her own home or office, can read the mail, make required changes to suit his or her needs, and store, send back, or distribute information, all in a speedy and efficient manner. The simulation of a planned surgery will give the surgeon the ability to prepare and will prevent difficulties during complicated procedures through the luxury of a dry run, without any sequelae if certain expected outcomes fail to materialize. The preprogrammed control of sophisticated surgical

  4. PENGEMBANGAN RADIO ONLINE SEBAGAI PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DAN KOMUNIKASI UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI MAHASISWA DILINGKUNGAN USM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Indriyawati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengan pesatnya perkembangan teknologi dan komunikasi, diketahui teknologi yang disebut sebagai teknologi streaming yang memungkinkan untuk mendistribusikan data audio besar atau video secara real time melalui Internet. Jika di radio konvensional, sinyal ditransmisikan dan dipancarkan melalui FM / AM radio, radio streaming, sinyal ditransmisikan melalui internet danditangkap oleh komputer. Radio Streaming sering disebut sebagai Radio Online, karena proses tidak menggunakan transmisisiaran dari sinyal radio melalui frekuensi, tetapi menggunakan data audio yang dikirim menggunakan jalur internet. Pendengar radio online tidak dapat mendengarkan radio ini dengan menggunakan radio konvensional, tapi harus menggunakan perangkat elektronik yang terhubung ke Internet, seperti komputer dan laptop yang sudah dilengkapi dengan peralatan multimedia.Persyaratan lain yang dibutuhkan oleh pendengar dimiliki bandwidth internet. Menurut pengalaman, koneksi Speedy dengan bandwidth 384kbps sudah cukup untuk mendengarkan siaran radio online dengan nyaman. Tentu saja, jika ia memiliki bandwidth yang lebih dari 384 kbps, maka akan mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik. Penelitian ini akan menampilkan desain trasmitter radio online yang tidak memerlukan perangkat yang sangat mahal, tetapi hanya membutuhkan satu set server dan bandwidth melalui koneksi FO (Fiber Optic di Universitas Semarang. Perlu biaya rendah diinvestasikan untuk membangun sebuah radio online menggunakan FO. Dari sudut pandang pendengar, mereka dapat mengambil keuntungan dari lingkungan Universitas Semarangdengan menggunakan koneksi FO (Fiber Optic yang dihubungkan antara gedung-gedung di Universitas Semarang.

  5. The patient's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachagan, S S; Sharon, K

    2003-03-01

    doctors who are clearly negligent quietly settle and are rarely censured. We need to revamp the existing system to allow for speedy and equitable compensation; true accountability; and articulation and auditing of standards of practice.

  6. Differential Counting of Asbestos Using Phase Contrast and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoki; Alexandrov, Maxym; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-11-01

    Considering the increasing use of various asbestos substitutes, asbestos risk management in many industries may require accurate techniques for detecting and distinguishing asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Using fluorescently labeled asbestos-binding proteins, we previously developed a novel method for detection and counting of asbestos fibers under fluorescence microscopy (FM). This method can provide speedy, on-site detection and identification of the asbestos fibers and has higher sensitivity than phase contrast microscopy (PCM). However, current asbestos exposure limits are derived from risk assessments based on epidemiological studies that were conducted using PCM fiber counts. Therefore, the sensitivity of asbestos testing should be maintained at PCM level to properly assess compliance with these limit values. Here, we developed and tested a novel application of FM as a differential counting method that complements PCM analysis and is fully compatible with the PCM-based epidemiological data. In the combined PCM-FM method, the fluorescent asbestos-binding probe is applied prior to filter clearing. The method makes it possible to easily switch between two microscopic techniques while analyzing the same fields of view: PCM is used for counting fibers, and FM for differentiating asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Using airborne dust samples from demolition sites in Japan, we compared PCM-FM with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based differential counting method. Statistical analysis indicated a slight conservative bias of PCM-FM method, combined with relatively high variability across the full range of fiber concentrations in our sample set. Using correlative microscopy, we also evaluated the specificity of FM staining, which is a potential cause of variability between the two methods. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that ~95% of fluorescently stained fibers in the demolition site samples were correctly identified as asbestos. While further

  7. School polices, programmes and facilities, and objectively measured sedentary time, LPA and MVPA: associations in secondary school and over the transition from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Corder, Kirsten; Suhrcke, Marc; Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andy P; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-04-26

    There is increasing policy interest in ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between schools' policies, programmes and facilities for physical activity (PA) and adolescents' objectively-measured activity intensity during the school day and lunchtime. Accelerometer-derived PA (proportion of time spent in sedentary (SED), light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)) during school hours and lunchtime from 325 participants in the SPEEDY study were obtained from baseline measurements (primary school, age 9/10 years) and +4y follow-up (secondary school). School environment characteristics were assessed by teacher questionnaire. Multivariable multi-level linear regression analyses accounting for school and adjusted for sex, age, BMI and family socio-economic status assessed cross-sectional associations with lunchtime and school-day SED, LPA and MVPA; effect modification by sex was investigated. The association of changes in school environment with changes in outcomes was examined using multivariable cross-classified linear regression models. There were significant differences between primary and secondary schools for 6/10 school environment characteristics investigated (including secondary schools reporting shorter breaks, more lunchtime PA opportunities, and higher number of sports facilities). Cross-sectional analyses showed that boys attending secondary schools with longer breaks spent significantly less time in SED and more time in MVPA during the school day. Longitudinally, an increase in break-time duration between primary and secondary school was associated with smaller reductions in MVPA during the school day. Moreover, participants who moved from a primary school that did not provide opportunities for PA at lunchtime to a secondary school that did provide such opportunities exhibited smaller increases in SED and smaller reductions in MVPA at lunchtime. Schools should

  8. Transferring knowledge from observations and models to decision makers: an overview and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada A.

    2004-02-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, homeland security, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution,(4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is

  9. An in vitro study on the burn wound healing activity of cotton fabrics incorporated with phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles in male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannerselvam, Balashanmugam; Dharmalingam Jothinathan, Mukesh Kumar; Rajenderan, Murugan; Perumal, Palani; Pudupalayam Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Singh, Vijay; Rangarajulu, Senthil Kumaran

    2017-03-30

    wound dressings for speedy recovery of burn wounds, for improved human welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synchronization ability of coupled cell-cycle oscillators in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biochemical oscillator that controls periodic events during the Xenopus embryonic cell cycle is centered on the activity of CDKs, and the cell cycle is driven by a protein circuit that is centered on the cyclin-dependent protein kinase CDK1 and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Many studies have been conducted to confirm that the interactions in the cell cycle can produce oscillations and predict behaviors such as synchronization, but much less is known about how the various elaborations and collective behavior of the basic oscillators can affect the robustness of the system. Therefore, in this study, we investigate and model a multi-cell system of the Xenopus embryonic cell cycle oscillators that are coupled through a common complex protein, and then analyze their synchronization ability under four different external stimuli, including a constant input signal, a square-wave periodic signal, a sinusoidal signal and a noise signal. Results Through bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain synchronization intervals of the sensitive parameters in the individual oscillator and the coupling parameters in the coupled oscillators. Then, we analyze the effects of these parameters on the synchronization period and amplitude, and find interesting phenomena, e.g., there are two synchronization intervals with activation coefficient in the Hill function of the activated CDK1 that activates the Plk1, and different synchronization intervals have distinct influences on the synchronization period and amplitude. To quantify the speediness and robustness of the synchronization, we use two quantities, the synchronization time and the robustness index, to evaluate the synchronization ability. More interestingly, we find that the coupled system has an optimal signal strength that maximizes the synchronization index under different external stimuli. Simulation results also show that the ability and robustness of the synchronization for the square

  11. Physical activity maintenance in the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study of the roles of sport and lifestyle activities in British youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Brooke

    Full Text Available Promoting physical activity in youth is important for health, but existing physical activity interventions have had limited success. We aimed to inform intervention design by i describing drop-out, continuation and uptake of specific activities over the transition to adolescence; and ii examining Variety (number of different activities/week and Frequency (number of activity session/week of activity participation and their associations with changes in objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence.At age 10.2±0.3 and 14.2±0.3 years, 319 children in the SPEEDY study (46% boys wore GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days and provided self-reported participation (never, once, 2 to 3 times or four or more times, over the last 7 days in 23 leisure-time activities. Associations of change in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA (≥2000 counts/minute and change in total physical activity (TPA (average accelerometer counts/minute with exposure variables Z-score transformed (change in Variety and Frequency were examined using multilevel linear regression, clustered by school, in simple and adjusted models.The number of children ever reporting a specific activity ranged from 30 ('Hockey' to 279 ('Running or jogging'. Some activities were susceptible to drop-out (e.g. 'Skipping' but others were commonly continued or taken up (e.g. 'Household chores'. Overall, Variety and Frequency declined (mean±SD ΔVariety -3.1±4.4 activities/week; ΔFrequency -7.2±12.0 session/week. ΔMVPA and ΔTPA were not associated with Variety or Frequency at baseline, nor with ΔVariety or ΔFrequency (p>0.29 in all models.Popularity of specific activities as well as drop-out, continuation and uptake should be considered in future intervention development. Activities that are commonly continued or taken up may be more valuable to encourage in interventions than those with low participation or high drop-out. We did not find evidence to support the idea

  12. Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis; DONET/ DONET2, Part2 -Development and data application for the mega thrust earthquakes around the Nankai trough-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, M.; Kamiya, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Baba, T.; Ohori, M.; Hori, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneko, S.; Donet Research; Development Group

    2010-12-01

    Yoshiyuki Kaneda Katsuyoshi Kawaguchi*, Eiichiro Araki*, Shou Kaneko*, Hiroyuki Matsumoto*, Takeshi Nakamura*, Masaru Nakano*, Shinichirou Kamiya*, Keisuke Ariyoshi*, Toshitaka Baba*, Michihiro Ohori*, Narumi Takakahashi*, and Takane Hori** * Earthquake and Tsunami Research Project for Disaster Prevention, Leading Project , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) **Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) DONET (Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) is the real time monitoring system of the Tonankai seismogenic zones around the Nankai trough southwestern Japan. We were starting to develop DONET to perform real time monitoring of crustal activities over there and the advanced early warning system. DONET will provide important and useful data to understand the Nankai trough maga thrust earthquake seismogenic zones and to improve the accuracy of the earthquake recurrence cycle simulation. Details of DONET concept are as follows. 1) Redundancy, Extendable function and advanced maintenance system using the looped cable system, junction boxes and the ROV/AUV. DONET has 20 observatories and incorporated in a double land stations concept. Also, we are developed ROV for the 10km cable extensions and heavy weight operations. 2) Multi kinds of sensors to observe broad band phenomena such as long period tremors, very low frequency earthquakes and strong motions of mega thrust earthquakes over M8: Therefore, sensors such as a broadband seismometer, an accelerometer, a hydrophone, a precise pressure gauge, a differential pressure gauge and a thermometer are equipped with each observatory in DONET. 3) For speedy detections, evaluations and notifications of earthquakes and tsunamis: DONET system will be deployed around the Tonankai seismogenic zone. 4) Provide data of ocean floor crustal deformations derived from pressure sensors: Simultaneously, the development of data

  13. In situ derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of neurotransmitters in Parkinson's rat brain microdialysates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongrui; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Wei, Na; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Yubi; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Guang; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2016-08-05

    Simultaneous monitoring of several neurotransmitters (NTs) linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) has important scientific significance for PD related pathology, pharmacology and drug screening. A new simple, fast and sensitive analytical method, based on in situ derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DUADLLME) in a single step, has been proposed for the quantitative determination of catecholamines and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. The method involved the rapid injection of the mixture of low toxic bromobenzene (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant), which containing commercial Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl chloride (LRSC) as derivatization reagent, into the aqueous phase of sample and buffer, and the following in situ DUADLLME procedure. After centrifugation, 50μL of the sedimented phase (bromobenzene) was directly injected for ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This interesting combination brought the advantages of speediness, simpleness, low matrix effects and high sensitivity in an effective way. Parameters of in situ DUADLLME and UHPLC-MS/MS conditions were all optimized in detail. The optimum conditions of in situ DUADLLME were found to be 30μL of microdialysates, 150μL of acetonitrile containing LRSC, 50μL of bromobenzene and 800μL of NaHCO3-Na2CO3 buffer (pH 10.5) for 3.0min at 37°C. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was observed with LODs (S/N>3) and LOQs (S/N>10) of LRSC derivatized-NTs in the range of 0.002-0.004 and 0.007-0.015 nmol/L, respectively. It also brought good precision (3.2-12.8%, peak area CVs%), accuracy (94.2-108.6%), recovery (94.5-105.5%) and stability (3.8-8.1%, peak area CVs%) results. Moreover, LRSC derivatization significantly improved chromatographic resolution and MS detection sensitivity of NTs when compared with the

  14. EVITA: a tool for the early evaluation of pharmaceutical innovations with regard to therapeutic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püntmann, Isabel; Schmacke, Norbert; Melander, Arne; Lindberg, Gunnar; Mühlbauer, Bernd

    2010-03-16

    acid. Only the first achieved an EVITA score above zero indicating therapeutic advantage. The strength of EVITA appears to lie in its speedy assessment of the potential therapeutic advantage of a new drug for a given indication. At the same time, this approach draws attention to the typical deficits of data used for drug approval. EVITA is not intended to replace classical health technology assessment reports but rather serves as a screening tool in the sense of horizon scanning.

  15. Training to acquire psychomotor skills for endoscopic endonasal surgery using a personal webcam trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Umegaki, Masao; Kagawa, Naoki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2013-05-01

    Existing training methods for neuroendoscopic surgery have mainly emphasized the acquisition of anatomical knowledge and procedures for operating an endoscope and instruments. For laparoscopic surgery, various training systems have been developed to teach handling of an endoscope as well as the manipulation of instruments for speedy and precise endoscopic performance using both hands. In endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), especially using a binostril approach to the skull base and intradural lesions, the learning of more meticulous manipulation of instruments is mandatory, and it may be necessary to develop another type of training method for acquiring psychomotor skills for EES. Authors of the present study developed an inexpensive, portable personal trainer using a webcam and objectively evaluated its utility. Twenty-five neurosurgeons volunteered for this study and were divided into 2 groups, a novice group (19 neurosurgeons) and an experienced group (6 neurosurgeons). Before and after the exercises of set tasks with a webcam box trainer, the basic endoscopic skills of each participant were objectively assessed using the virtual reality simulator (LapSim) while executing 2 virtual tasks: grasping and instrument navigation. Scores for the following 11 performance variables were recorded: instrument time, instrument misses, instrument path length, and instrument angular path (all of which were measured in both hands), as well as tissue damage, max damage, and finally overall score. Instrument time was indicated as movement speed; instrument path length and instrument angular path as movement efficiency; and instrument misses, tissue damage, and max damage as movement precision. In the novice group, movement speed and efficiency were significantly improved after the training. In the experienced group, significant improvement was not shown in the majority of virtual tasks. Before the training, significantly greater movement speed and efficiency were demonstrated in

  16. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantjes Joyce A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in 9- to 10-year-old British children. Methods Data were analysed from 839 children attending 89 schools in the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating behaviours: Environmental Determinants in Young People study. Outcomes variables were one year changes in objectively measured sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, with baseline measures taken when the children were 9–10 years old. School characteristics hypothesised to be associated with change in physical activity were identified from questionnaires, grounds audits, and computer mapping. Associations were examined using simple and multivariable multilevel regression models for both school (9 am – 3 pm and travel (8–9 am and 3–4 pm time. Results Significant associations during school time included the length of the morning break which was found to be supportive of moderate (β coefficient: 0.68 [p: 0.003] and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.52 [p: 0.002] activities and helps to prevent adverse changes in sedentary time (β coefficient: -2.52 [p: 0.001]. During travel time, positive associations were found between the presence of safe places to cross roads around the school and changes in moderate (β coefficient: 0.83 [p:0.022] and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.56 [p:0.001] activity, as well as sedentary time (β coefficient: -1.61 [p:0.005]. Conclusion This study suggests that having longer morning school breaks and providing road safety features such as cycling infrastructure, a crossing guard, and safe places for children to cross the road may have a role to play in supporting the maintenance of moderate and vigorous activity behaviours, and preventing the development of

  17. Earth Science Data Analysis in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment

  18. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  19. EDITORIAL: Nanostructured solar cells Nanostructured solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Neil C.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-01

    surfaces and interfaces, which are often the limiting factor in device performance. This issue provides concrete examples of how the techniques of nanoscience and nanotechnology can be used to understand, control and optimize the performance of novel photovoltaic devices. We are grateful to the contributors for submitting high-quality papers around a common theme, even though they may not normally consider their work to fall under the banner of 'nanotechnology'. We would also like to thank the editorial and production staff at Nanotechnology for their efficient and speedy work in putting this issue together.

  20. Physical activity maintenance in the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study of the roles of sport and lifestyle activities in British youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Hannah L; Corder, Kirsten; Griffin, Simon J; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2014-01-01

    Promoting physical activity in youth is important for health, but existing physical activity interventions have had limited success. We aimed to inform intervention design by i) describing drop-out, continuation and uptake of specific activities over the transition to adolescence; and ii) examining Variety (number of different activities/week) and Frequency (number of activity session/week) of activity participation and their associations with changes in objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence. At age 10.2±0.3 and 14.2±0.3 years, 319 children in the SPEEDY study (46% boys) wore GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days and provided self-reported participation (never, once, 2 to 3 times or four or more times, over the last 7 days) in 23 leisure-time activities. Associations of change in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) (≥2000 counts/minute) and change in total physical activity (TPA) (average accelerometer counts/minute) with exposure variables Z-score transformed (change in) Variety and Frequency were examined using multilevel linear regression, clustered by school, in simple and adjusted models. The number of children ever reporting a specific activity ranged from 30 ('Hockey') to 279 ('Running or jogging'). Some activities were susceptible to drop-out (e.g. 'Skipping') but others were commonly continued or taken up (e.g. 'Household chores'). Overall, Variety and Frequency declined (mean±SD ΔVariety -3.1±4.4 activities/week; ΔFrequency -7.2±12.0 session/week). ΔMVPA and ΔTPA were not associated with Variety or Frequency at baseline, nor with ΔVariety or ΔFrequency (p>0.29 in all models). Popularity of specific activities as well as drop-out, continuation and uptake should be considered in future intervention development. Activities that are commonly continued or taken up may be more valuable to encourage in interventions than those with low participation or high drop-out. We did not find evidence to support the idea

  1. CAFTAN: a tool for fast mapping, and quality assessment of cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotz-Wagenblatt Agnes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German cDNA Consortium has been cloning full length cDNAs and continued with their exploitation in protein localization experiments and cellular assays. However, the efficient use of large cDNA resources requires the development of strategies that are capable of a speedy selection of truly useful cDNAs from biological and experimental noise. To this end we have developed a new high-throughput analysis tool, CAFTAN, which simplifies these efforts and thus fills the gap between large-scale cDNA collections and their systematic annotation and application in functional genomics. Results CAFTAN is built around the mapping of cDNAs to the genome assembly, and the subsequent analysis of their genomic context. It uses sequence features like the presence and type of PolyA signals, inner and flanking repeats, the GC-content, splice site types, etc. All these features are evaluated in individual tests and classify cDNAs according to their sequence quality and likelihood to have been generated from fully processed mRNAs. Additionally, CAFTAN compares the coordinates of mapped cDNAs with the genomic coordinates of reference sets from public available resources (e.g., VEGA, ENSEMBL. This provides detailed information about overlapping exons and the structural classification of cDNAs with respect to the reference set of splice variants. The evaluation of CAFTAN showed that is able to correctly classify more than 85% of 5950 selected "known protein-coding" VEGA cDNAs as high quality multi- or single-exon. It identified as good 80.6 % of the single exon cDNAs and 85 % of the multiple exon cDNAs. The program is written in Perl and in a modular way, allowing the adoption of this strategy to other tasks like EST-annotation, or to extend it by adding new classification rules and new organism databases as they become available. We think that it is a very useful program for the annotation and research of unfinished genomes. Conclusion CAFTAN is

  2. Polarimetric SAR Interferometry based modeling for tree height and aboveground biomass retrieval in a tropical deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Khati, Unmesh G.; Chandola, Shreya; Agrawal, Shefali; Kushwaha, Satya P. S.

    2017-08-01

    The regulation of the carbon cycle is a critical ecosystem service provided by forests globally. It is, therefore, necessary to have robust techniques for speedy assessment of forest biophysical parameters at the landscape level. It is arduous and time taking to monitor the status of vast forest landscapes using traditional field methods. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are efficient tools that can monitor the health of forests regularly. Biomass estimation is a key parameter in the assessment of forest health. Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) remote sensing has already shown its potential for forest biophysical parameter retrieval. The current research work focuses on the retrieval of forest biophysical parameters of tropical deciduous forest, using fully polarimetric spaceborne C-band data with Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques. PolSAR based Interferometric Water Cloud Model (IWCM) has been used to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB). Input parameters to the IWCM have been extracted from the decomposition modeling of SAR data as well as PolInSAR coherence estimation. The technique of forest tree height retrieval utilized PolInSAR coherence based modeling approach. Two techniques - Coherence Amplitude Inversion (CAI) and Three Stage Inversion (TSI) - for forest height estimation are discussed, compared and validated. These techniques allow estimation of forest stand height and true ground topography. The accuracy of the forest height estimated is assessed using ground-based measurements. PolInSAR based forest height models showed enervation in the identification of forest vegetation and as a result height values were obtained in river channels and plain areas. Overestimation in forest height was also noticed at several patches of the forest. To overcome this problem, coherence and backscatter based threshold technique is introduced for forest area identification and accurate height estimation in non-forested regions. IWCM based modeling for forest

  3. Patient-perceived benefits of and barriers to using out-of-hours primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, C; Payne, F; Dale, J; Jessopp, L

    2001-04-01

    The rapid growth of GP co-operatives has encouraged the development of primary care centres, but little is known about patients' views and experiences of these new forms of out-of-hours service delivery. This study was designed to understand patients' views, expectations and experiences of attending an out-of-hours primary care centre which was part of an inner London GP co-operative. Systematic samples of patients using the out-of-hours service received semi-structured interviews covering the decision to contact the service, expectations and experience of the service and, if relevant, the experience of travelling to the primary care centre. Interviews were conducted by telephone between 7 and 10 days after patient contact. Interviews were completed with 55.4% (72/130) of sampled patients who were primary care centre attenders, 50.0% (47/94) of those receiving telephone advice and 45.3% (53/117) of those receiving a home visit. Most attenders of the primary care centre said that they were satisfied with the consultation (90.0%, 65) and were able to get all the help they needed (83%, 60). The speed of being seen and the opportunity of having a face-to-face consultation were key benefits identified. For some, this outweighed difficulties experienced in attending the centre, including arranging transport, caring for other children, managing several children on the journey and travelling while ill. The main barriers patients identified for not wanting to attend the primary care centre included feeling too ill to travel, having other dependants to care for or lacking transportation. While primary care centres offer patients speedy access to face-to-face consultations, there are a range of obstacles which are encountered. Those who are socially disadvantaged appear likely to experience greatest difficulty, raising concerns about equity in access to services. Out-of-hours services may need to give consideration to patient transport and a more flexible approach to visiting

  4. How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to? A cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Burgoine, Thomas; Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Jones, Andy

    2014-02-14

    The school journey may make an important contribution to children's physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes. Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models. GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation. GIS modelled routes between home and school were not truly representative of accurate GPS

  5. Combination of Alternative Models by Mutual Data Assimilation: Supermodeling With A Suite of Primitive Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, G. S.; Selten, F.

    2016-12-01

    Different models of climate and weather commonly give projections/predictions that differ widely in their details. While averaging of model outputs almost always improves results, nonlinearity implies that further improvement can be obtained from model interaction in run time, as has already been demonstrated with toy systems of ODEs and idealized quasigeostrophic models. In the supermodeling scheme, models effectively assimilate data from one another and partially synchronize with one another. Spread among models is manifest as a spread in possible inter-model connection coefficients, so that the models effectively "agree to disagree". Here, we construct a supermodel formed from variants of the SPEEDO model, a primitive-equation atmospheric model (SPEEDY) coupled to ocean and land. A suite of atmospheric models, coupled to the same ocean and land, is chosen to represent typical differences among climate models by varying model parameters. Connections are introduced between all pairs of corresponding independent variables at synoptic-scale intervals. Strengths of the inter-atmospheric connections can be considered to represent inverse inter-model observation error. Connection strengths are adapted based on an established procedure that extends the dynamical equations of a pair of synchronizing systems to synchronize parameters as well. The procedure is applied to synchronize the suite of SPEEDO models with another SPEEDO model regarded as "truth", adapting the inter-model connections along the way. The supermodel with trained connections gives marginally lower error in all fields than any weighted combination of the separate model outputs when used in "weather-prediction mode", i.e. with constant nudging to truth. Stronger results are obtained if a supermodel is used to predict the formation of coherent structures or the frequency of such. Partially synchronized SPEEDO models give a better representation of the blocked-zonal index cycle than does a weighted average

  6. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew P; Coombes, Emma G; Griffin, Simon J; van Sluijs, Esther Mf

    2009-07-17

    There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of English schoolchildren. The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people), a cohort of 2064 9-10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more) of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23) versus 11 (SD 15) minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002), especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p < 0.05). Children tended to be active close to home, with 63% of all bout time occurring inside neighbourhoods, although boys (p = 0.05) and rural children (p = 0.01) were more likely to roam outside their neighbourhood. Amongst urban children, gardens (28% of bout time) and the street environment (20%) were the most commonly used environments for MVPA bouts. Amongst rural children farmland (22%) and grassland (18%) were most frequently used. The study

  7. Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children.

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    Leonie K Elsenburg

    Full Text Available Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet.To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines.Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY study. Participants (n = 1472, 42.9% male were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013.83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 1.69 (1.21,2.37 and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62 were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99, participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94 and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94 were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile.A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours

  8. An EJC factor RBM8a regulates anxiety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, A; Jiang, D; Harrison, M; Zhou, Y; Chen, G; Mao, Y

    2013-07-01

    Neuroplasticity depends on the precise timing of gene expression, which requires accurate control of mRNA stability and rapid elimination of abnormal mRNA. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an RNA surveillance mechanism that ensures the speedy degradation of mRNAs carrying premature termination codons (PTCs). This mechanism relies on several key Exon Junction Complex (EJC) factors to distinguish PTCs from normal stop codons. NMD degrades not only aberrant transcripts carrying PTCs, but also normal transcripts harboring a normal stop codon [1]. Intriguingly, mutations in an NMD factor, Upf3b, have been found in patients with autism [2, 3]. A binding partner of Upf3b, RBM8a, is located in the 1q21.1 copy-number variation (CNV) associated with mental retardation, autism [4], schizophrenia [5], and microcephaly [6]. However, the functions of EJC factors and their roles in behavioral regulation are still elusive. RBM8a protein is a core component of the EJC that plays an important role in NMD. Recent genetic study indicated that RBM8a gain-of-function significantly associated with intellectual disability [7]. In this study we investigated the effect of RBM8a overexpression on affective behaviors in mice. Lentivirus expressing RBM8a was infused into the hippocampus of adult mice to conduct behavioral studies including social interaction, open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Our results showed that overexpression of RBM8a in the mouse dentate gyrus (DG) leads to increased anxiety-like behavior, abnormal social interaction and decreased immobile time in forced swimming test (FST). To examine the underlying mechanism, we found that overexpressing RBM8a in cultured primary neurons lead to significant higher frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). To explore the underlying mechanism of RBM8a mediated behavioral changes, RNA-immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) detected that RBM8a binds to CaMK2, GluR1 and Egr1 mRNA, suggesting that

  9. A retrospective study of edentulous patients rehabilitated according to the 'all-on-four' or the 'all-on-six' immediate function concept using flapless computer-guided implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Carmen; Pomares Puig, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    To report the outcome of an implant therapy protocol using 4 or 6 implants supporting immediately loaded fixed prostheses following 3D software planning and flapless guided surgery. A total of 30 patients (24 women, 6 men), mean age of 53 years (range 35-84 years) were treated with 195 immediately loaded implants (97 NobelSpeedy Groovy and 98 Brånemark MKIII Groovy) supporting 25 maxillary and 17 mandibular fixed full-arch acrylic prostheses and followed for 1 year. The Procera Software v1.6 and v2.0 was used to plan implant position and to obtain a surgical template for the guided flapless implant placement. To perform immediate loading, the implants had to be inserted with torque of at least 35 Ncm. Provisional prostheses were made before surgery using software planning and were placed in the same session as the implants. Definitive restorations were delivered 6-12 months after surgery. Outcome measures were failures of the prosthesis and of the implants, marginal bone level changes, complications, clinical time and patient satisfaction. Four patients with full edentulism and 26 with advanced periodontitis were enrolled in this study. A total of 195 implants were immediately loaded (128 implants were placed in the maxilla and 67 implants were placed in the mandible). Four implants out of 195 failed in three patients during the healing period: 2 in the maxilla (1 straight and 1 tilted), and 2 in the mandible (both of them tilted). Three of them were successfully replaced. One year after loading there were no dropouts and no failure of the definitive prosthesis occurred. In three cases, the surgical template fractured during surgery. In one patient, a new impression had to be taken to fit the provisional prosthesis onto the implants. Three patients were subjected to surgery and systemic antibiotics to treat apically infected implants. The 'all-on-four' and 'all-on-six' treatment protocol combined with computer-guided flapless implant surgery could be a viable and

  10. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, B.; Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2017-02-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a "soft core" CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four 10 Gigabit

  11. Lambda Red-mediated recombinogenic engineering of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campellone Kenneth G

    2003-12-01

    recombineering in these and other strains of pathogenic bacteria for faster identification of virulence factors and the speedy generation of bacterial mutants for vaccine development.

  12. Dėl kuršių kalbos palikimo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Mažiulis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ON THE HERITAGE OF CURONIANSummaryLithuanian dial. aukà/ aũkas “Opfer” (“victim, sacrifice” is from Lith. alkà / al̃̃kas “Hain”, which is from Balt. *alkā / *alkas „Hain“, which along with Goth. alks „Hain“ suggests that I.-E. *alk- „Hain“, is most likely derived from the I.-E. verb *alk- (: *alek- „to preserve, protect“. Perhaps the I.-E. verb *ol- / *el- „to flow“,“to twist, meander“ is hidden in it.The Samogitian hill Girgždū̃tė is in the place of the older Girgždutà < Cur. *Girzdutā, which is mobile subst. (fem. *girzdutā „that (stream, which gurgles, babbles“← verb. Cur. *girzd- „to gurgle“, a derivative from subst. Cur. *girzda- „gurgle, gravel“. Criticism is provided against the traditional opinion, that the name of the hill Cur. *Girzdutā is attested inaccurately to in historical sources (XIV—XV centuries.The settlement Lith. (Žem. Krãžiai, as the plur. collectivum, presupposes the former Cur. river/settlement *Kraźā́ from onomatopoetic Cur. (mobile subst. *kraźā́ „the murmurer“← verb. Cur. *kreź-/*kraź- „to murmur“. Afterwards, when the river *Kraźantē appeared, the form *Kraźā́ from river/settlement turned into the settlement name *Kraźā́. The issue of the West Balt. (and Cur. words for „ant“ are touched upon. First of all Prus. (E 791 sangis „ant“, is most likely from *zangis „speedy one“; further on the Lith. skruzdìs „ant“ is discussed. Also discussed is the Curonian origin of the Žem. place names Šatrijà and Var̃niai, and evidence is given, that the latter appeared not from the word „varna (crow“ which is the traditionally held view, but from „that, which is blackish“.

  13. Combining of both RPAS and GPR methods for documentation and verifying of archaeological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, Karel; Šedina, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    UAV (unmanned aircraft vehicle) or RPAS (remote piloted aircraft systems) are a modern technology for non - contact mapping and monitoring small areas. Nowadays, for control and piloting, RPAS are equipped with sophisticated micro-instruments such as IMU, gyroscopes, GNSS receivers, wireless image insights, wireless controls, automatic stabilization, flight planners, etc. RPAS can provide not only photographic data, but also other data types like multispectral (with NDVI capability), thermal data too (depending on sensors and type). Bigger RPAS can be equipped with more complex and expensive instruments like laser scanners or hyperspectral scanners. The RPAS method of acquisition combines the benefits of close range and aerial photogrammetry. As a result, a higher resolution and mapping precision can be obtained over compact and possibly less accessible areas (e.g. mountains, moors, swamps, dumps, small natural reserves, archaeological areas and dangerous or restricted areas). In our project, many small archaeological places are monitored. It is low cost, simple, and speedy. From these photos, a DSM (digital surface model) and orthophoto can be derived, which are useful for archaeologists (DSM is often used in shaded relief form). Based on the type of processing software, a textured virtual model can be obtained. Near infrared photos from height 100-200m give a new possibility in archaeology. We used both RPAS and GPR methods in three case projects in the Czech Republic in 2014. 1.Historical field fortification In the neighbourhood of town Litoměřice, there are still visible ramparts from the Prussian - Austrian war in the 19th Century. This was a field forward fortification, but has never been used in battle and later disappeared because of agricultural activities. Some parts are detectable by their terrain signatures, visible on shaded DSMs. By the documentation and research of these relics, we measured profiles with GPR for verifying of parts, which were

  14. 25 años de estudios rurales 25 years of rural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2003-01-01

    almost only to the analysis of the history of ideas - an indication of the aforesaid displacement. In reviewing literature one faces outmoded-sounding debates, with no current importance and sometimes even pointless. Besides, the inertia of current studies points to the lack of renovation and the absence of new approaches. That is why critique has to be exercised. This article assays the hypothesis that in this period the rural issue as well as the rural society have lost their autonomy and there emerges - or there should emerge - a new approach towards those subjects in order to understand the meaning that "rural" still has and will have in our societies. The rural issue is still relevant and it will be increasingly relevant, but perhaps not as a production system or a distinct society, but rather as a symbolic identitarian source and force to societies that are heading to a speedy process of globalization, anchoring them in their cultural profundities. It will probably refer to sociability relations, systems of belonging, an essence of basic relations, perhaps the only one to provide meaning in face of collective globalized action.

  15. Propuesta de una nueva metodología para la ubicación de infraestructuras viarias ambientalmente sostenibles. Aplicación en el tramo viario de la pedemontana Fabriano-Muccia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri, M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the creation of a model to define the best allocation within the area of new projects for road infrastructures, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a road which is part of a wide-ranging project currently under construction, known as the Marches-Umbria Quadrilateral Project. The aim of the work is to develop a speedy, versatile instrument which will be able not only to calculate but also to interpret and correlate the various environmental, social, economic, technical and operational aspects of the construction of road works. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the use and consumption of the natural habitats and the problems linked to the phenomena of ecological fragmentation caused by the road network and by settlements. The methodology which has been developed includes the collection and implementation within a dedicated territorial informative system of a wide range of information capable of defining the special characteristics of the area under study, which will then be interpreted and summarised by means of the application of a series of specific indicators. The defined indicators are subsequently integrated by applying techniques of multi-criterial analysis to define an index of concise evaluation capable of assessing and supporting the sensitivity of the territory to the integration of new road infrastructures. In order to validate the methodology, the proposed indices were applied to a study area in which a road infrastructure of considerable importance is currently being built to link central Italy from one side of the country to the other.

    El trabajo contempla la creación de un modelo para definir la mejor localización en el territorio de nuevos proyectos de infraestructuras viarias y su convalidación en una carretera que forma parte de un proyecto de gran envergadura denominado Cuadrilátero Marcas-Umbría, en vías de realización. El objetivo del trabajo consiste en la puesta a punto de una

  16. Inertial and GPS data integration for positioning and tracking of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; D'Alvano, Alessandro; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays many applications and studies use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to integrate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data [1-2]. The aim is the production of detailed detection maps that are geo-referenced and superimposable on geographic maps themes. GPS provides data to determine static positioning, and to track the mobile detection system path on the land. A low-cost standard GPS, like GPS-622R by RF Solutions Ltd, allows accuracy around 2.5 m CEP (Circular Error Probability), and a maximum update rate of 10 Hz. These accuracy and update rate are satisfying values when we evaluate positioning datum, but they are unsuitable for precision tracking of a speedy-mobile GPR system. In order to determine the relative displacements with respect to an initial position on the territory, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) can be used. Some inertial-system applications for GPR tracking have been presented in recent studies [3-4]. The integration of both GPS and IMU systems is the aim of our work, in order to increase GPR applicability, e.g. the case of a GPR mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle for the detection of people buried under avalanches [5]. In this work, we will present the design, realization and experimental characterization of our electronic board that includes GPS-622R and AltIMU-10 v3 by Pololu. The latter comprises an inertial-measurement unit and an altimeter. In particular, the IMU adopts L3GD20 gyro and LSM303D accelerometer and magnetometer; the digital barometer LPS331AP provides data for altitude evaluation. The prototype of our system for GPR positioning and tracking is based on an Arduino microcontroller board. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar. ' References [1] M. Solla, X. Núñez-Nieto, M. Varela-González, J. Martínez-Sánchez, and P. Arias, 'GPR for Road Inspection: georeferencing and efficient

  17. Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS: Building a data-driven framework to inform policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vanderhoeven

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS, identify emerging problem species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving AS policy landscape both locally and internationally. In recent years, Belgium has developed decision support tools to inform invasive alien species (IAS policy, including information systems, early warning initiatives and risk assessment protocols. However, the current workflows from biodiversity observations to IAS science and policy are slow, not easily repeatable, and their scope is often taxonomically, spatially and temporally limited. This is mainly caused by the diversity of actors involved and the closed, fragmented nature of the sources of these biodiversity data, which leads to considerable knowledge gaps for IAS research and policy. We will leverage expertise and knowledge from nine former and current BELSPO projects and initiatives: Alien Alert, Invaxen, Diars, INPLANBEL, Alien Impact, Ensis, CORDEX.be, Speedy and the Belgian Biodiversity Platform. The project will be built on two components: 1 The establishment of a data mobilization framework for AS data from diverse data sources and 2 the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. We will use facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG and expertise from Lifewatch to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data will be gathered from a large set of regional, national and international

  18. The concept of adverse drug reaction reporting: awareness among pharmacy students in a Nigerian university

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    Johnson Segun Showande

    2013-01-01

    personally experienced in detail, however, they did not know the channel of reporting it. Only 3% reported incidences of personal experience of ADR to the physician while another 3% reported cases of such to the pharmacist. There was a significant difference comparing students’ year of study in the pharmacy program with their opinion scores on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC guidelines on ADR reporting (p <0.05. The lack of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting courses in the pharmacy school curriculum result in the poor knowledge of the students on the concept of adverse drug reaction reporting, nonetheless the view and knowledge they had garnered from different sources helped the students in identifying and describing ADR but this is not enough in properly documenting cases of ADRs. Thus, the poor knowledge on ADR reporting among the students requires speedy implementation of new curriculum incorporating pharmacovigilance to enhance the involvement of pharmacists in ADR reporting in Nigeria.

  19. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  20. Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to International Journal of Anatomical Variations (IJAV - an annual journal of anatomical variations and clinical anatomy case reports. After having a notable experience for eight years in NEUROANATOMY, we are pleased to introduce you IJAV. We are eventually announcing our new journal after three years of feasibility and background study period. We hope that IJAV will fill in the gap in anatomy journals’ bunch. IJAV is an annual, open access journal having electronic version only. Despite of unavailability of a budget for publishing IJAV, the evaluation of submissions and access to the full text articles is totally free of charge.Our vision for IJAV is to constitute an online compendium for anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy, neuroanatomy and case reports in clinical anatomy. We believe that cases have an important role in clinical anatomy education. In this aspect, we aim to serve as an open source of case reports. We hope that IJAV will be cited in most of the case reports related to clinical anatomy and anatomical variations in near future.In NEUROANATOMY, we encouraged the submission of case reports in the area of neuroanatomy. Whereas in IJAV, besides neuroanatomy, we will consider case reports in any area related to human anatomy. The scope of IJAV will encompass any anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy. Case reports in clinical anatomy are also welcome.All submitted articles will be peer-reviewed. No processing fee will be charged from authors. One of the most important features of IJAV will be speedy review and rapid publication. We strive to publish an accepted manuscript within three weeks of initial submission. Our young and dynamic Scientific Advisory Board will achieve this objective.A few remarks about our logo and page design: Prof. Dr. M. Mustafa ALDUR designed our logo, being inspired by a quadricuspid aortic valve case, reported by Francesco FORMICA et al

  1. Making and Breaking Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    they create. But to match with observations, this wouldsuggest that molecular clouds are short-lived objects that are built (and therefore replenished) just as quickly as they are destroyed. Is this possible?Speedy Building?In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Mordecai-Mark Mac Low (American Museum of Natural History and Heidelberg University, Germany) explore whether there is a way to create molecular clouds rapidly enough to match the necessary rate of destruction.Mac Low and collaborators find that some common mechanisms used to explain the formation of molecular clouds like gas being swept up by supernovae cant quite operate quickly enough to combat the rate of cloud destruction. On the other hand, the Toomre gravitational instability,which is a large-scale gravitational instability that occurs in gas disks,can very rapidly assemble gas into clumps dense enough to form molecules.A composite of visible and near-infrared images from the VLT ANTU telescope of the Barnard 68 molecular cloud, roughly half a light-year in diameter. [ESO]A Rapid CycleBased on their findings, the authors argue that dense, star-forming molecular clouds persist only for a short time before collapsing into stars and then being blown apart by stellar feedback but these very clouds are built equally quickly via gravitational instabilities.Conveniently, this model has a very testable prediction: the Toomre instability is expected to become even stronger at higher redshift, which suggests that the fraction of gas in the form of molecules should increase at high redshifts. This appears to agree with observations, supporting the authors picture of a rapid cycle of cloud assembly and destruction.CitationMordecai-Mark Mac Low et al 2017 ApJL 847 L10. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8a61

  2. Pesquisas brasileiras psicossociais e operacionais face às metas da UNGASS Brazilian psychosocial and operational research vis-à-vis the UNGASS targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    2006-04-01

    /AIDS, and mother-child transmission, is discussed. These items were put into operation in the form of keywords, in systematic searches within the standard biomedicine databases, also including the subdivisions of the Web of Science relating to natural and social sciences. The Brazilian experience relating to testing and counseling strategies has been consolidated through the utilization of algorithms aimed at estimating incidence rates and identifying recently infected individuals, testing and counseling for pregnant women, and application of quick tests. The introduction of alternative methods and new technologies for collecting data from vulnerable populations has been allowing speedy monitoring of the epidemic. Psychosocial support assessments for people living with HIV/AIDS have gained impetus in Brazil, probably as a result of increased survival and quality of life among these individuals. Substantial advances in controlling mother-child transmission have been observed. This is one of the most important victories within the field of HIV/AIDS in Brazil, but deficiencies in prenatal care still constitute a challenge. With regard to prevention methods for women, Brazil has only shown a shy response. Widespread implementation of new technologies for data gathering and management depends on investments in infrastructure and professional skills acquisition.

  3. How Do Earth-Sized, Short-Period Planets Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Matching theory to observation often requires creative detective work. In a new study, scientists have used a clever test to reveal clues about the birth of speedy, Earth-sized planets.Former Hot Jupiters?Artists impression of a hot Jupiter with an evaporating atmosphere. [NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech]Among the many different types of exoplanets weve observed, one unusual category is that of ultra-short-period planets. These roughly Earth-sized planets speed around their host stars at incredible rates, with periods of less than a day.How do planets in this odd category form? One popular theory is that they were previously hot Jupiters, especially massive gas giants orbiting very close to their host stars. The close orbit caused the planets atmospheres to be stripped away, leaving behind only their dense cores.In a new study, a team of astronomers led by Joshua Winn (Princeton University) has found a clever way to test this theory.Planetary radius vs. orbital period for the authors three statistical samples (colored markers) and the broader sample of stars in the California Kepler Survey. [Winn et al. 2017]Testing MetallicitiesStars hosting hot Jupiters have an interesting quirk: they typically have metallicities that are significantly higher than an average planet-hosting star. It is speculated that this is because planets are born from the same materials as their host stars, and hot Jupiters require the presence of more metals to be able to form.Regardless of the cause of this trend, if ultra-short-period planets are in fact the solid cores of former hot Jupiters, then the two categories of planets should have hosts with the same metallicity distributions. The ultra-short-period-planet hosts should therefore also be weighted to higher metallicities than average planet-hosting stars.To test this, the authors make spectroscopic measurements and gather data for a sample of stellar hosts split into three categories:64 ultra-short-period planets (orbital period shorter than a

  4. Expression of thankfulness to the Editor and his team through ‘Letter to the Editor’ for well-doing job IJAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma DK

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dear Dr. Selcuk Tunali MD, PhDEditor-in-Chief / Publisher, IJAV:Thanks for putting together this article submission tool in the form of IJAV for Anatomy and my sincere compliments to you and the members of Scientific Advisory Board to take the road in this arduous journey [1]. It has made link building way easier and presented a platform for us to publish or demonstrate our works at international level.No doubt IJAV is peculiar and unique as it is an open access journal giving right to readers to “read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link” to the full texts of the articles free of charge. Not accepting advertisements or link/banner exchange and personally funding website are showing its transparency and compatibility towards goals and its speedy review and rapid publication making it more attractive. IJAV has initiated a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach towards medical science.Previously the publication was not chargeable but now fee is being applied for the manuscripts submitted after April 17th, 2010 and a waiver is being granted for lower income countries, students, and authors experiencing financial hardship, upon contacting the Editor-in-Chief with this waiver procedure completely confidential between the author and the Editor-in-Chief. It is a reasonable step for the maintenance of the journal by viewing the increasingly high number of submissions and fee is much less than those charged by many other journals [2].The necessity of having a simple accessible, systematized and perfect journal had been long felt in anatomy, which is now fulfilled by the nice IJAV. A sincere attempt has been made to deal. The entire approach is such as to attract and inspire the readers and researchers for a deeper dive in the subject of Anatomy.I have gone through some portion of IJAV and found interesting specially the articles titled ‘Variant origin of right testicular artery’ by Salve et al. [3], ‘Multiple variations of

  5. EXCELENCIA Y EQUIDAD EN PRUEBAS DE ADMISIÓN: UNA PROPUESTA EMERGENTE PARA LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Rojas Eiliana

    2010-08-01

    this University, the purpose of the admission tests is to measure potential for learning and not what the examinee already knows. In this context, Raymond Cattell’s concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence seem to be appropriate frames of reference to create a scientific answer to analyze this issue. Fluid intelligence refers to abilities that depend less from previous educational opportunities and culture, compared to crystallized intelligence. A test of fluid intelligence is being constructed and validated. The expectation is that this test could help to better identify students who have academic potential but have had fewer educational opportunities. Some empirical evidences that support this proposal come from a preliminary pilot test with an initial version of the instrument that was carried out using a sample of 321 UCR’s students. Cattel’s Factor g test, a very well known measure of fluid intelligence, was also administered to the same groups. The study aimed to obtain evidence of concurrent validity of the two tests and generate estimates of time, difficulty and reliability for the test developed at the University. The results produced by this author showed acceptable (but not optimal levels of concurrent validity and reliability. The speediness effect is probably causing an underestimation of the reliability, therefore, for future studies, a test-retest design is recommended.

  6. [Arthroscopic stabilization of the fractured intercondylar eminence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasa, L; Visna, P; Kocis, J; Muzík, V; Veselý, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors present the results of arthroscopic reduction of a displaced fracture of the intercondylar eminence and stabilization of the fracture with a tension band wire and absorbable, double PDS sutures. In the years 1998 to 2002, a fracture of the intercondylar eminence was arthroscopically diagnosed in 34 patients, 21 women and 13 men in the age range of 17 to 46 years. Five patients had type I fracture, 13 had type II fracture and 16 had type III fracture, as classified by the Meyers and McKeever system. Arthroscopic stabilization was used for all type II and type III fractures in a total of 29 patients. Double PDS sutures no. 1 were always applied. One double PDS loop was used in eight patients and, in the rest, two or three double PDS loops were employed. PDS no. 1 sutures were inserted, by means of wire loops, through bone tunnels. These were drilled with 2-mm Kirschner's wires, using an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reamer, medial to the tibial tuberosity. Double PDS sutures were applied to the distal portion of the ACL, which permits good stabilization even in comminuted fractures of the eminence. The strength of a double PDS loop is sufficient and facilitates speedy recovery. Before terminating surgery it is necessary to check joint mobility and fixation stability. Only good stability allows for early mobilization of the joint. The postoperative treatment involved immobilization of the knee joint with a rigid brace in a semi-flexed position at 20 degrees for 6 weeks. However, from the second postoperative day, the brace was removed during targeted rehabilitation. Exercise on a continuous passive motion device, strengthening of the thigh muscles, patellar mobilization, walking with the use of crutches, while wearing the brace, with partial weight bearing until pain were practised. A treadmill without loading was used from the fifth postoperative week. Twenty-nine patients in whom stabilization with PDS sutures was used were evaluated. Of them 26 were

  7. Contemporary approach in diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of footrot in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Biljana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Footrot in sheep is a chronic, infectious disease of the acropodium in sheep, less frequently in goats and mountain goats, of a multifactor nature, which is also considered to be a disease of poor management in sheep breeding. Over the recent years, Dichelobacter nodosus is given as the main cause, previously known as Bacteroides nodosus. Coaction with several other saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria is no longer so significant in etiopathogenesis, and it is considered more important to determine the virulence of the strain D. nodosus. The disease is called contagiousus ovine digital dermatitis (CODD if the infection was caused by a very virulent strain of D. nodosus, and the disease often ends with the so-called removal of the foot. A speedy identification of the agent can provide insight into the clinical form of the disease, its course and predicted outcome. A benign strain of the agent causes only a mild to medium virulent laminitis, with poorly expressed interdigital dermatitis, when the animal openly limps on one or two legs. A very virulent strain leads to a grave form of infectious interdigital dermatitis, as a supurous-necrotic dermatitis, with significant damage to the bone and expressed limping of the animal. Footrot is present in sheep in almost all countries of the world, in particular in countries with a developed sheep production (New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom, where it causes significant economic damages. In our country, footrot in sheep occurs mainly in the Raska district, eastern Serbia and Vojvodina province, but the percentage varies from herd to herd. The irregular and incorrect processing of hoofs (an important zootechnical measure significantly contributes to the occurrence and spreading of this disease, as well as a series of other contributing factors, such as soft and moist earch, bad climatic conditions (warm and humid weather. In activities on prevention and prophylaxis of this disease, as well as the

  8. VAK Kahl - decommissioning and demolition continued under new auspices; VAK Kahl - Fortsetzung des Rueckbaus unter neuem Vorzeichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, W.; Runge, H. [RWE NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The Kahl experimental nuclear power station (VAK), the first German nuclear power plant, was decommissioned after 25 years of operation (1961 to 1985). The BWR plant generated approx. 2 million kWh of electricity in 150,000 hours of operation at a gross power of MWe. After the operator, VAK GmbH, had filed an application for decommissioning, the first of four decommissioning permits was issued in 1988. The plant is to be demolished completely so that the site will no longer be within the scope of the Atomic Energy Act. By 2001, demolition work covered by the first decommissioning permit had been finished, also the 2nd and 3rd decommissioning permits had largely been completed, and work under the 4th decommissioning permit had been begun. To acquire technical and organization experience and know-how, the decommissioning and demolition phases are accompanied by research and development work carried out by the operators and by VAK shareholders RWE and E.ON. After the bulk of the work had been completed, the radioactive inventory had been removed from the plant, and the end of the project was in sight, RWE NUKEM GmbH was commissioned to carry on. The main objectives now are speedy completion of the jobs still to be finished, further development for other projects of the know-how acquired, and job protection. The main work still to be carried out includes dismantling of systems no longer needed and of the biological shield as well as decontamination of building structures accompanied by the clearance of buildings and open areas for subsequent conventional demolition. The waste arising will be packaged in accordance with its classification, and will be removed into interim storage or managed in the conventional way. The project is to be completed in the 3rd quarter of 2006. (orig.) [German] Das Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) mit Siedewasserreaktor, das erste deutsche Kernkraftwerk, wurde nach 25 Betriebsjahren (1961 bis 1985) stillgelegt. Die Siedewasserreaktoranlage

  9. Tool for Generation of MAC/GMC Representative Unit Cell for CMC/PMC Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    tool capability includes generation of RUCs for square packing, hexagonal packing, and random fiber packing as well as RUCs based on actual composite micrographs. All these options have the fibers modeled as having a circular cross-sectional area. In addition, a simplified version of RUC is provided where the fibers are treated as having a square cross section and are distributed randomly. This RUC facilitates a speedy analysis using the higher fidelity version of GMC known as HFGMC. The first four mentioned options above support uniform subcell discretization. The last one has variable subcell sizes due to the primary intention of keeping the RUC size to a minimum to gain the speed ups using the higher fidelity version of MAC. The code is implemented within the MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA) developmental framework; however, a standalone application that does not need a priori MATLAB installation is also created with the aid of the MATLAB compiler.

  10. Construction management of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohra, S.A. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)]. E-mail: sabohra@npcil.co.in; Sharma, P.D. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2006-04-15

    Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, the visionary architects of Science and Technology of modern India foresaw the imperative need to establish a firm base for indigenous research and development in the field of nuclear electricity generation. The initial phase has primarily focused on the technology development in a systematic and structured manner, which has resulted in establishment of strong engineering, manufacturing and construction base. The nuclear power program started with the setting up of two units of boiling light water type reactors in 1969 for speedy establishment of nuclear technology, safety culture, and development of operation and maintenance manpower. The main aim at that stage was to demonstrate (to ourselves, and indeed to the rest of the world) that India, inspite of being a developing country, with limited industrial infrastructure and low capacity power grids, could successfully assimilate the high technology involved in the safe and economical operation of nuclear power reactors. The selection of a BWR was in contrast to the pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR), which was identified as the flagship for the first stage of India's nuclear power program. The long-term program in three stages utilizes large reserves of thorium in the monazite sands of Kerala beaches in the third stage with first stage comprising of series of PHWR type plants with a base of 10,000 MW. India has at present 14 reactors in operation 12 of these being of PHWR type. The performance of operating units of 2720 MW has improved significantly with an overall capacity factor of about 90% in recent times. The construction work on eight reactor units with installed capacity of 3960 MW (two PHWRs of 540 MW each, four PHWRs of 220 MW each and two VVERs of 1000 MW each) is proceeding on a rapid pace with project schedules of less than 5 years from first pour of concrete. This is being achieved through advanced construction technology and management. Present

  11. Tweet Content Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: No Joking Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie YS

    2014-01-01

    Background Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of “tweeters” (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of “tweet” messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs—chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. Methods We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words “chlamydia” or “HIV”, and the hashtags “#chlamydia” or “#HIV”. Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. Results A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words “chlamydia” and/or “HIV”. Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20

  12. FLUID INGESTION STRATEGIES OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS DURING 40 KM TIME TRIAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Backx

    2007-12-01

    replacement values. It is notable that the range for fluid replacement was between 2.8% and 61.5% of total body mass loss; mean (20.4 ± 12.0%.This study has identified fluid replacement strategies and body mass losses sustained by competitive 40 km TT cyclists from field data. Recently, there has been an increased awareness of excessive hydration during endurance exercise (Noakes and Speedy, 2006. From our observations, the fluid volume ingested was similar to the recommended pre- competition volume of 0.005 L·kg-1 body mass (Burke et al., 1996, however, many cyclists do not meet the guidelines presented by the ACSM during exercise (Convertino et al., 1996. Many riders chose to ingest fluid during the warm-up period; however very few drank during the TT. It is important to point out that these data are limited to cycling TT in moderate conditions. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of different environmental conditions on actual TT performance outside the laboratory, to enable appropriate fluid replacement strategies to be devised

  13. Les organisations populaires à Quito et Guayaquil: forces et faiblesses de ces 'nouveaux' acteurs urbains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    población rural, expulsada de los campos por una reforma agraria que se revela como un semi-fracaso, viene a engrosar los efectivos de las aglomeraciones. La deficiente política urbana, los errores de la planificación y la falta de interés del Estado por los menos favorecidos, explican la rápida extensión de los barrios populares. Los habitantes intentan resolver, por sus propios medios, los problemas más graves a los que se enfrentan (posesión del suelo urbano, dotación de infraestructuras... y que el Estado no puede o no quiere resolver. Los años setenta ven a los barrios organizarse y presionar a las autoridades para tratar de aportar una solución a los problemas que los afectan cotidianamente. Estas mutaciones tienen importantes repercusiones en el crecimiento de las dos aglomeraciones y en el surgimiento y posterior consolidación de las organizaciones populares. Se trata de hacer el balance de las organizaciones populares, insistiendo en sus fuerzas y debilidades y en el aspecto comparativo: ¿son estas organizaciones tan dinámicas en Quito como en Guayaquil? ¿Son sus objetivos y estrategias idénticos? ¿Cuáles son sus perspectivas de futuro? He aquí algunas interrogantes a las que trataremos de dar respuesta. THE POPULAR ORGANIZATIONS IN QUITO AND IN GUAYAQUIL: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THESE “NEW” URBAN ACTORS. From 1972 -- petroleum economy development and currency income increase -- the state plays a more and more important part in the economical policy orientation the drift from the land intensifies and the country population, forced to flee the country by an agrarian reform which is considered like a semi failure, add to the inhabitants of the towns. The deficient urban policy, the planification mistakes and the lack of state interest towards the most impoverished, explain the speedy extension of the popular districts. The inhabitants try to resolve, on their own, the most serious problems that the state cannot or don’t want to resolve

  14. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely

  15. PREFACE: Dynamically slow processes and near-arrest phenomena in soft matter Dynamically slow processes and near-arrest phenomena in soft matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2009-12-01

    transition in biomolecules. Tartaglia studies the kinetics of formation of branched loopless structures in mixtures of particles with different shapes and functionalities, with appropriate Smoluchowski rate equations, including condensation and fragmentation terms. Fierro, Coniglio et al describe the sol-gel transition by introducing an order parameter and its fluctuations. It appears that the dynamical transition associated to gelation is a real thermodynamic transition as it happens in spin glasses. Medebach, Glatter et al discuss the photon correlation spectroscopic studies of dense oil-water emulsions and demonstrate experimentally that there is no real structural arrest transition in these systems. The guest editor of this Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issue would like to thank Lucy Smith, Philip Semple, Stephanie Kent and in particular, Richard Palmer sincerely for their efforts and assistance in the speedy publication of this issue.

  16. QuakeUp: An advanced tool for a network-based Earthquake Early Warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo; Colombelli, Simona; Caruso, Alessandro; Elia, Luca; Brondi, Piero; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Martino, Claudio; Picozzi, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    real-time estimations without losing the essential requirements of speediness and robustness,

  17. EDITORIAL: The present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M.

    2006-09-01

    , Trends in Neuroscience, Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science as well as in engineering and physics journals such as Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Physical Review Letters and IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. However, the number of citations in clinical journals is limited. What is special about Journal of Neural Engineering? JNE has published two special issues: (1) The Eye and the Chip (visual prostheses) (vol. 2, (1), 2005) and (2) Sensory Integration: Role of Internal Models (vol. 2, (3), 2005). These special issues have attracted a lot of attention based on the number of article downloads. JNE also publishes tutorials intended to provide background information on specific topics such as classification, sensory substitution and cortical neural prosthetics. A series of tutorials from the 3rd Neuro-IT and Neuroengineering Summer School has been published with the first appearing in vol. 2 (4), 2005. What is in the future for Journal of Neural Engineering? The goal of any journal should be to provide a particular field with the best venue for scientists and engineers to make their work available and noticeable to the rest of the community. In particular, attracting a strong readership base and high quality manuscripts should be the first priority. Providing accurate, reliable and speedy reviews should be the next. With an international board of experts in the field of neural engineering, a solid base of reviewers, readers and contributors, JNE is in a strong position to continue to serve the neural engineering community. However, this is still a small community and growth is essential for continued success in this area. There are two areas of expansion of great interest for the field of neural engineering currently poised between basic science on one hand and clinical implementation on the other: translational neuroscience and therapeutic neural engineering. We should strive to bridge the gap between basic neuroscience

  18. Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - A case study of the state of Maharashtra, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2001-07-01

    energy policy documents, equipment manufacturers, tariff schedules, etc. In the second part analysis was carried out based on the data collected through stake holder level surveys. For doing this, sample surveys of residential, commercial and industrial firms were conducted through structured questionnaires. Policy makers and wind energy developers were also interviewed to understand their perception on barriers to RETs. The barriers that emerged would help to understand the factors that need to be addressed which in turn play an important role in policy analysis and speedy implementation of these RETs. The major findings of the study are as follows: In the case of solar-water heating (SWH), the adoption levels were very low. As already mentioned, electric water heaters are being used by majority of the consumers in all the sectors. A small percentage of commercial and industrial establishments use SWHs (< 10% of total) while wind energy developers supply a small amount of energy (less than 1% of the total) to the utilities. The awareness level about RETs varies with the type of consumer. In the commercial and industrial sectors, majority of the consumers are aware about the SWH, its costs and benefits. In the case of residential sector, a significant percentage are still unaware about this technology. Renewable energy technologies encounter a variety of barriers, as summarised below: 1) Information and awareness; 2) Financial and Economic; 3) Technological; 4) Institutional; and 5) Market. For the effective penetration of RETs, it is necessary for the consumers, utilities and the government to enlarge their role by active participation in the penetration programmes. The cost of saved demand is much lower than that of augmenting supply in centralised power plants. Hence, programmes for implementing these technologies needs to be integrated into the power planning and management process. It would be very desirable if every State Electricity Board (SEB) formulates a

  19. Use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in T2 diabetics with pelvic lesions. Clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Castro-López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organisation indicates that the number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus is more than 366 million and is expected to increase to 552 million by 2030, i.e., 8.3% of the total adult population. Each year, 14.9% of patients with this disease experience plantar ulcers, which in most cases are resistant to standard treatments. Of these, 15–20% require radical amputation within five years of diagnosis. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study reviewing the records of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and complications from lower limb injuries. We selected 220 records of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lower limb injuries, undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. We grouped wounds according to the Wagner Grading System and classified them according to the Skeik Modified Scale to determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT on the healing time of wounds. By way of comparison, the study was divided a second time, adjusting the initial population so as to include only cases that benefited from HBOT. Results: Overall improvement was achieved in 149 patients (67.7%, with a greater response in Wagner stages II and III. In patients who received 16–30 sessions, it was found that 77 (64.16% maintained their improvement and only 43 (28.85% had a relapse. Conclusions: At the end of the study, we found that HBOT is favourable and permanent in 52.72% of patients, seeing temporary improvement in 15%. This opens up the possibility of new developments that successfully determine suitable selective parameters and lead to a speedy recovery. Resumen: Antecedentes: La Organización Mundial de la Salud, indica que el número de personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es superior a 366 millones y se espera que para el año 2030, aumente a 552 millones de la población global adulta, correspondiente al 8.3%. Cada año, el 14.9% de pacientes con esta enfermedad, presentan

  20. Radiology – Changing Role in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Khalilur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    also as a major contributor to treatment and recovery. Working in tandem with other disciplines, radiology has had a major impact on achievements in such significant areas as early cancer detection, speedy trauma analysis, precise stroke localization and many others.7 Interventional radiology, one of the subspecialty areas of radiology, uses the imaging modalities of diagnostic radiology to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures, such as that in laparoscopic gallstone surgery. The number of interventional radiology examinations has shown a huge rise, increasing by over 50% since 2007. Therapeutic radiology, better known as radiation oncology uses radiation to treat diseases such as cancer using a form of treatment called radiation therapy.5,8 The last few decades have witnessed dramatic innovations and improvisations in imaging technology. In all sense radiological advances have revolutionized the practice of modern medicine. Imaging now uses a wide range of modalities that vary in their mode of image acquisition. In order to request the correct imaging technique and thereby improve patient management, it is useful for the practicing clinician to be conversant with all imaging techniques available, their advantages as well as limitations, indications and contraindications of each modality.

  1. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    limiting or current interrupting capabilities. It can be applied to variety of applications from distribution class to transmission class power delivery grids and networks. It can also be applied to single major commercial and industrial loads and distributed generator supplies. The active switching of devices can be further utilized for protection of substation transformers. The stress on the system can be reduced substantially improving the life of the power system. It minimizes the voltage sag by speedy elimination of heavy fault currents and promises to be an important element of the utility power system. DOE Perspective This development effort is now focused on a 15kV system. This project will help mitigate the challenges of increasing available fault current. DOE has made a major contribution in providing a cost effective SSCL designed to integrate seamlessly into the Transmission and Distribution networks of today and the future. Approach SSCL development program for a 69kV SSCL was initiated which included the use of the Super GTO advanced semiconductor device which won the 2007 R&D100 Award. In the beginning, steps were identified to accomplish the economically viable design of a 69kV class Solid State Current Limiter that is extremely reliable, cost effective, and compact enough to be applied in urban transmission. The prime thrust in design and development was to encompass the 1000A and the 3000A ratings and provide a modular design to cover the wide range of applications. The focus of the project was then shifted to a 15kV class SSCL. The specifications for the 15kV power stack are reviewed. The design changes integrated into the 15kV power stack are discussed. In this Technical Update the complete project is summarized followed by a detailed test report. The power stack independent high voltage laboratory test requirements and results are presented. Keywords Solid State Current Limiter, SSCL, Fault Current Limiter, Fault Current Controller, Power electronics

  2. Papel da fibrobroncoscopia no diagnóstico de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar Role of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of patients with suspected pulmonary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Luiza Summers Caymmi

    2004-02-01

    que representam diagnósticos diferenciais.BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease of high prevalence and incidence. The use of sputum bacilloscopy is a sure and speedy way of reaching a diagnosis. However as 30% to 50% of the bearers of pulmonary tuberculosis have a negative sputum smear or have no sputum the fiber bronchoscopy acquires a special importance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sensitivity of the specimens collected by means of the fiber bronchoscopy (brochoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy for the diagnosis of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis, without confirmation by sputum bacilloscopy. METHOD: By review of the ledgers of fiber bronchoscopies carried out from March 1997 to March 2001, we identified and included in the study patients over 18 years of age and referred with suspicion of tuberculosis and at least three negative sputum smears. Data regarding age, gender, changes detected at thorax imaging and endoscopy were collected. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients with ages ranging from 19 to 77 years (median of 39, were included, 58% were of the male gender and 37% were patients from the Official Health System. Prevailing finding at chest X-ray was the alveolar infiltrate (80%. In 35 patients tuberculosis was the final diagnosis (one with associated neoplasia; in 28 patients (80% diagnosis was achieved by bronchoscopy. Other diagnoses disclosed by bronchoscopy were neoplasias, histoplasmosis chronic eosinophil alvelolitis, pneumonia by Pneumocystis carinii and pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSION: results of this study point to the use of fiber bronchoscopy in patients suspect of tuberculosis, not diagnosed thorough sputum bacilloscopy, not only for pulmonary tuberculosis but also of those that represent differential diagnoses.

  3. Globalización y competitividad: contexto desafiante para la formación de enfermería Globalização e competitividade: contexto desafiante para a formação da enfermeira Globalization and competitivity: challenging context to nurses' professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    ção de recursos humanos como parte da crise de nosso tempo. A abordagem é analítico-discursiva com destaque para a globalização, que não é equânime para todos, e a competitividade como desafio permanente para todos os trabalhadores no campo da saúde. A autora não apresenta resultados investigativos, porém assume posição em relação à formação profissional na enfermagem, para a qual apresenta um modelo curricular adotado no Brasil. Um modelo de formação coerente com a função de enfermeiros para empreender mudanças na prática assistencial, para a formação do espírito científico e para a pesquisa consistente com a produção de resultados e a construção do conhecimento para a área da enfermagem.This text contextualizes globalization and competitiveness in relation to nursing professional education. Present days aspects and their crisis, speedy changes, imbalances given social changes and scientific advances are discussed. The utopia of a core world unity does not grant equal civil rights for all, much less the citizenship idea all around the world, especially in relation to nursing professionals and clients or users of the health system. Nursing issues and human resources formation are discussed as part of present days' crisis. The approach is analytic-descriptive highlighting globalization, which is not equal for all, and competitiveness as a permanent challenge to all workers in the health area. The author does not present investigative results, however, takes a stand in relation to nursing professional education, to which presents a curricular framework or model adopted in Brazil. A framework model that is coherent with nurses' role in implementing changes in care practice, in developing scientific critical thinking and conducting research consistent with outcomes, and in knowledge building to nursing.

  4. The Ndynamics package—Numerical analysis of dynamical systems and the fractal dimension of boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.; de Melo, N.; Skea, J. E. F.

    2012-09-01

    , this version of the package only deals with systems of first-order differential equations. Unusual features This package provides user-friendly software tools for analyzing the character of a dynamical system, whether it displays chaotic behaviour, and so on. Options within the package allow the user to specify characteristics that separate the trajectories into families of curves. In conjunction with the facilities for altering the user's viewpoint, this provides a graphical interface for the speedy and easy identification of regions with interesting dynamics. An unusual characteristic of the package is its interface for performing the numerical integrations in C using a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method (default). This potentially improves the speed of the numerical integration by some orders of magnitude and, in cases where it is necessary to calculate thousands of graphs in regions of difficult integration, this feature is very desirable. Besides that tool, somewhat more experienced users can produce their own C integrator and, by using the commands available in the package, use it as the C integrator provided with the package as long as the new integrator manages the input and output in the same format as the default one does. Running time This depends strongly on the dynamical system. With an Intel® Core™ i3 CPU M330 @ 2.13 GHz, the integration of 50 graphs, for a system of two first-order equations, typically takes less than a second to run (with the C integration interface). Without the C interface, it takes a few seconds. In order to calculate the fractal dimension, where we typically use 10,000 points to integrate, using the C interface it takes from 20 to 30 s. Without the C interface, it becomes really impractical, taking, sometimes, for the same case, almost an hour. For some cases, it takes many hours.

  5. Seeking a Rational Approach to a Regional Refugee Crisis: Lessons from the Summer 2014 “Surge” of Central American Women and Children at the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Musalo

    2017-03-01

    policies that make coming to the US less attractive and profitable would be a more effective deterrent. In that latter case, tactics imposing human costs on migrants, such as detention, speedy return, or other harsh or cursory treatment — while perhaps not morally justified — would at least make logical sense. Immediately upon the summer influx of 2014, the Obama administration unequivocally adopted the “pull” factor narrative and enacted a spate of hostile deterrence-based policies as a result. In July 2014, President Obama asked Congress to appropriate $3.7 billion in emergency funds to address the influx of Central American women and children crossing the border (Cohen 2014. The majority of funding focused on heightened enforcement at the border — including funding for 6,300 new beds to detain families (LIRS and WRC 2014, 5. The budget also included, in yet another demonstration of a “pull”-factor-based deterrence approach, money for State Department officials to counter the supposed “misinformation” spreading in Central America regarding the possibility of obtaining legal status in the United States. The US government also funded and encouraged the governments of Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras to turn around Central American asylum seekers before they ever could reach US border (Frelick, Kysel, and Podkul 2016. Each of these policies, among other harsh practices, continues to the present day. But, by and large they have not had a deterrent effect. Although the numbers of unaccompanied children and mothers with children dropped in early 2015, the numbers began climbing again in late 2015 and remained high through 2016, exceeding in August and September 2015 the unaccompanied child and “family unit” apprehension figures for those same months in 2014 (USBP 2016a; USBP 2016b. Moreover, that temporary drop in early 2015 likely reflects US interdiction policies rather than any “deterrent” effect of harsh policies at or within US own borders, as the

  6. La formación del "staff": la clave para la gestión efectiva del cambio en las instituciones de educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. COWAN

    2009-11-01

    é es calidad en relación con lo que hace. El desarrollo de nuevas metodologías de trabajo y la creación de nuevos modelos que tengan en cuenta el contexto de trabajo y aplicación del mismo podrían, a nuestro modo de ver, conducir a una mejora de esa calidad. La intención de este artículo no es otra, pues, que mostrar modos en que las universidades podrían poner en marcha mecanismos para esa siempre bienvenida mejora de quienes forman y conforman dichas organizaciones, tan complejas y, al mismo tiempo, apasionantes.ABSTRACT: It is well documented that Higher Educational institutions have not, until recently, been known for their speedy response to innovation and opportunity. Furthermore, academic staff are frequently so preoccupied with endeavours to satisfy the three fundamental demands on their existence (research, administration and teaching that entrepreneurial and visionary strategies are largely ignored. Coping with change then, tends largely to be reactive with staff only responding to such matters as the decline in student numbers or the threat of reduction in research funds. This paper seeks to examine the radical transformation of skills currently required by all those working in higher education. It will present briefly an outline of relevant models on how to manage successful change. A consideration will be made of current staff development initiatives, designed to equip higher education staff with skills to cope with their changing role. Throughout the world funds for higher education are dwindling. Departments and individuáis are bound to consider such, hitherto disreputable, practices as marketing, and entrepreneuralism and the need for long and short term development plans. Staff development in higher education has been frequently of a fire-fighting nature. Little heed has been taken of specific needs or the identification of future trends or threats to the organisation. Higher education staff are now expected to evalúate their work more