WorldWideScience

Sample records for speed control including

  1. Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

  2. Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

  3. Sensorless speed Control including Zero Speed on Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

  4. Adaptive sensorless field oriented control of PM motors including zero speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple control method for controlling permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in a wide speed range without a shaft sensor. An adaptive observer is used for estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates...... for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaption structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different...... from zero. In order to verify the applicability of the method the controller has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....

  5. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  6. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  7. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-09

    The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  8. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  9. Optimal Speed Control for Cruising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1994-01-01

    With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability......With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability...

  10. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  11. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolie, V.W.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

  12. High-speed elevators controlled by inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    1988-10-25

    The super-high-speed elevator with superiority to 300m/min of speed, requires both the large capacity power and wide range speed controls. Therefore, in order to materialize the smooth and quiet operation characteristics, by applying the inverter control, the low torque ripple control in the low frequency range and high frequency large capacity inverting for lowering the motor in noise are necessary with their being assured of reliability. To satisfy the above necessary items, together with the development of a sine wave pulse width and frequency modulation (PWM/PFM) control system, to more precisely enable the sine wave electric current control, and 3kHz switching power converter, using a 800A power transistor module, a supervoltage control circuit under the extraordinary condition was designed. As a result of commercializing a 360m/min super-high speed inverter elevator, the power source unit, due to the effect of high power factor, could be reduced by 30% in capacity and also the higher harmonic wave including ratio could be considerably lowered to the inferiority to 5%. 2 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  13. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  14. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, M

    2008-01-01

    Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI...... controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is developed in this paper, in which it does not need well known about the system and the mean wind speed is used to compensate the non-linear sensitivity. The fuzzy logic control strategy may have...... the potential when the system contains strong non-linearity, such as wind turbulence is strong, or the control objectives include fatigue loads. The design of the fuzzy logic controller and the comparisons with conversional pitch angle control strategies with various controlling variables are carried out...

  15. Advanced nonlinear engine speed control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterholm, Thomas; Hendricks, Elbert

    1994-01-01

    Several subsidiary control problems have turned out to be important for improving driveability and fuel consumption in modern spark ignition (SI) engine cars. Among these are idle speed control and cruise control. In this paper the idle speed and cruise control problems will be treated as one......: accurately tracking of a desired engine speed in the presence of model uncertainties and severe load disturbances. This is accomplished by using advanced nonlinear control techniques such as input/output-linearization and sliding mode control. These techniques take advantage of a nonlinear model...... of the engine dynamics, a mean value engine model....

  16. Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the...

  17. Tickover speed controller for car engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, R L

    1980-05-22

    In general, the tickover speed of a car engine is made sufficiently high, in order to permit an assumed maximum load to be taken from the engine at tickover. This setting of the tickover speed is usually done by stops in the fuel supply. Matching the actual load would lead to lower fuel consumption, without any danger of the engine stalling. The purpose of the invention is to provide a tickover speed controller, so that the tickover speed is adjusted by electronic control equipment, independently of the machine load. The fuel consumption on tickover is reduced and the emission of noxious substances is decreased. The electro-magnetic control of the throttle valve tickover setting is explained by extensive section drawings of the system. This process dispenses with the special tickover cams for a cold start.

  18. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajendra Prasad; Balaji, Rajoo

    2018-02-01

    Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

  19. Controlling the speed of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Stainko, Roman

    Interesting phenomena of photonic crystals (PhCs), like bandgaps and waveguiding, have lead to a tremendous increase of research interest in this area. High-end functionalities in electro-optical circuts urge to optimize these structures. So far mostly trial and error methods have been applied to...... method to not only to create a bandgap around an a-priorily chosen guided mode, but also to control it's group-velocity under the light-line....

  20. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  1. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

  2. DC motor speed control using fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. L.; Zakaria, K. A.; Nazar, N. S. Moh; Syaripuddin, M.; Mokhtar, A. S. N.; Thanakodi, S.

    2018-02-01

    The automatic control has played a vital role in the advance of engineering and science. Nowadays in industries, the control of direct current (DC) motor is a common practice thus the implementation of DC motor controller speed is important. The main purpose of motor speed control is to keep the rotation of the motor at the present speed and to drive a system at the demand speed. The main purpose of this project is to control speed of DC Series Wound Motor using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The expectation of this project is the Fuzzy Logic Controller will get the best performance compared to dc motor without controller in terms of settling time (Ts), rise time (Tr), peak time (Tp) and percent overshoot (%OS).

  3. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years

  4. Safety Impact of Average Speed Control in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Brassøe, Bo; Johansen, Jonas Wibert

    2016-01-01

    of automatic speed control was point-based, but in recent years a potentially more effective alternative automatic speed control method has been introduced. This method is based upon records of drivers’ average travel speed over selected sections of the road and is normally called average speed control...... in the UK. The study demonstrates that the introduction of average speed control results in statistically significant and substantial reductions both in speed and in number of accidents. The evaluation indicates that average speed control has a higher safety effect than point-based automatic speed control....

  5. Evaluation of train-speed control algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, M.M. [BKS Advantech (Pty.) Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    A relatively simple and fast simulator has been developed and used for the preliminary testing of train cruise-control algorithms. The simulation is done in software on a PC. The simulator is used to gauge the consequences and feasibility of a cruise-control strategy prior to more elaborate testing and evaluation. The tool was used to design and pre-test a train-cruise control algorithm called NSS, which does not require knowledge of exact train mass, vertical alignment, or actual braking force. Only continuous measurements on the speed of the train and electrical current are required. With this modest input, the NSS algorithm effected speed changes smoothly and efficiently for a wide range of operating conditions. (orig.)

  6. Direct Torque Control of a Small Wind Turbine with a Sliding-Mode Speed Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Lal Senanayaka, Jagath; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper. the method of direct torque control in the presence of a sliding-mode speed controller is proposed for a small wind turbine being used in water heating applications. This concept and control system design can be expanded to grid connected or off-grid applications. Direct torque control of electrical machines has shown several advantages including very fast dynamics torque control over field-oriented control. Moreover. the torque and flux controllers in the direct torque control algorithms are based on hvsteretic controllers which are nonlinear. In the presence of a sliding-mode speed control. a nonlinear control system can be constructed which is matched for AC/DC conversion of the converter that gives fast responses with low overshoots. The main control objectives of the proposed small wind turbine can be maximum power point tracking and soft-stall power control. This small wind turbine consists of permanent magnet synchronous generator and external wind speed. and rotor speed measurements are not required for the system. However. a sensor is needed to detect the rated wind speed overpass events to activate proper speed references for the wind turbine. Based on the low-cost design requirement of small wind turbines. an available wind speed sensor can be modified. or a new sensor can be designed to get the required measurement. The simulation results will be provided to illustrate the excellent performance of the closed-loop control system in entire wind speed range (4-25 m/s).

  7. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  8. Using Variable Speed Control on Pump Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Aida Spahiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the most common variable speed drive (VSD system applications and special interest has focused on improving their energy efficiency by using variable speed control instead of throttling or other less efficient flow control methods. Pumps are the single largest user of electricity in industry in the European Union, consuming 160 TWh per annum of electricity and accounting for 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions [1]. Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on energy savings when applied with a variable speed drive. To help illustrate this, are conducted benchmark testing to document various head and flow scenarios and their corresponding effect on energy savings. Paper shows the relationship of static and friction head in the energy efficiency equation and the effect of motor, pump and VSD efficiencies. The received results are good reference points for engineers and managers of water sector in Albania to select the best prospects for maximizing efficiency and energy savings.

  9. Critical Speed Control for a Fixed Blade Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Rossander

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical speed controller for avoiding a certain rotational speed is presented. The controller is useful for variable speed wind turbines with a natural frequency in the operating range. The controller has been simulated, implemented and tested on an open site 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype. The controller is based on an adaptation of the optimum torque control. Two lookup tables and a simple state machine provide the control logic of the controller. The controller requires low computational resources, and no wind speed measurement is needed. The results suggest that the controller is a feasible method for critical speed control. The skipping behavior can be adjusted using only two parameters. While tested on a vertical axis wind turbine, it may be used on any variable speed turbine with the control of generator power.

  10. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  11. Speed Sensorless Field Oriented Control of an Induction Motor at zero speed with identification of inverter parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2002-01-01

    Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer for speed sensorless control is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states and for the motor and inverter parameters including the rotor speed. Assuming motor parameters ...... known the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. Experiments demonstrate high dynamic performance even at zero rotor speed based only on the slip frequency caused by the load torque....

  12. Speed control of diesel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenzer, J.

    1989-01-01

    In some marine and stationary power plants, it is often of interest to be able to give some information about the dynamic behaviour of the engine when it is loaded according to a given programme: How well it reacts to the application of a step load and to a load rejection. What is the best speed governor type and its optimum parameter adjustment in order to satisfy the requested specification of maximum speed engine deviation and recovery time. How great is the influence of turbocharger options such as jet assist or waste gate on the dynamic behaviour of the plant. Such kinds of questions occur for all stand-by power stations and in marine installations where the engine is submitted to very large load variations in the form of steps, ramps or any other load programme. The computer program GENERAT fully fulfils the aims described above. The comparison of measurements and simulation is good enough to allow us to use simulation as a means of predicting the dynamic behaviour of stationary power plant with four-stroke engines submitted to a given load programme. This program allows us also to determine the optimum generator inertia and to find the optimum governor parameters. The next step of development will be to model the turbocharger and supercharging method for two-stroke engines and some new digital speed controls and to rewrite the program with the help of the simulation package ACSL. This last point presents some advantages, as for example in large reduction of program maintenance and higher flexibility

  13. Equations of motion for a rotor blade, including gravity, pitch action and rotor speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends Hodges-Dowell's partial differential equations of blade motion, by including the effects from gravity, pitch action and varying rotor speed. New equations describing the pitch action and rotor speeds are also derived. The physical interpretation of the individual terms...... in the equations is discussed. The partial differential equations of motion are approximated by ordinary differential equations of motion using an assumed mode method. The ordinary differential equations are used to simulate a sudden pitch change of a rotating blade. This work is a part of a project on pitch blade...

  14. Speed control device for coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention intends to increase a margin relative of the oscillations of neutron fluxes when the temperature of feedwater is lowered in a compulsory recycling type BWR reactor. That is, when the operation point represented by a reactor thermal power and a reactor core inlet flow rate is in a state approximate to an oscillation limit of the reactor power, the device of the present invention controls the recycling pump speed in the increasing direction depending on the lowering range of the feedwater temperature from a stationary state. With such a constitution, even if the reactor power is in the operation region near the oscillation limit in the BWR type reactor and a feedwater heating loss is caused, the speed of the coolant recycling pump is increased by 10% at the maximum depending on the extent of the reduction of the feedwater temperature, so that the oscillation of the reactor power can be prevented from lasting for a long period of time even if a reactivity external disturbance should occur in the reactor. (I.S.)

  15. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... for power system studies. This paper focuses on describing and validating the single wind turbine model, and is therefore neither describing wind speed modeling nor aggregation of contributions from a whole wind farm or a power system area. The state-of-the-art is to use static power curves for the purpose...... of power system studies, but the idea of the proposed wind turbine model is to include the main dynamic effects in order to have a better representation of the fluctuations in the output power and of the fast power ramping especially because of high wind speed shutdowns of the wind turbine. The high wind...

  16. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  17. Torque- and Speed Control of a Pitch Regulated Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasila, Mika

    2003-07-01

    Variable speed operated wind turbines has the potential to reduce fatigue loads, compared to fixed speed wind turbines. With pitch controllable rotor blades limitation of the power at high wind speeds is obtained. The thesis describes different controlling aspects concerning wind turbines and how these together can be used to optimize the system's performance. Torque control is used in order to achieve reduction on the mechanical loads on the drive-train for low wind speeds and limitation of power output for high wind speeds. In the high wind speed interval torque control is effective in order to limit the output power if a sufficiently fast pitch actuator is used. In the middle wind speed interval filter utilization can be used to give a reference signal to the controller in order to reduce speed and torque variations.

  18. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  19. Speed Control Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using TakagiSugeno Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asri Abd Samat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a speed control design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM using Field Oriented Control (FOC. The focus is to design a speed control using Takagi — Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Control (T-S FLS. These systems will replace the conventional method which is proportional-integral (PI. The objective of this paper is to study the T—S Fuzzy Inference System (FIS speed regulator and acceleration observer for PMSM. The scope of study basically is to design and analyse the Takagi Sugeno FLC and the PMSM. This paper also will describe the methodology and process of modelling the PMSM including data analysis. The simulation work is implemented in Matlab-Simulink to verify the control method. The effectiveness of this proposed control method was confirmed through various range of speed and torque variation.

  20. Multivariable Techniques for High-Speed Research Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Brett A.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the activities and findings conducted under contract with NASA Langley Research Center. Subject matter is the investigation of suitable multivariable flight control design methodologies and solutions for large, flexible high-speed vehicles. Specifically, methodologies are to address the inner control loops used for stabilization and augmentation of a highly coupled airframe system possibly involving rigid-body motion, structural vibrations, unsteady aerodynamics, and actuator dynamics. Design and analysis techniques considered in this body of work are both conventional-based and contemporary-based, and the vehicle of interest is the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Major findings include: (1) control architectures based on aft tail only are not well suited for highly flexible, high-speed vehicles, (2) theoretical underpinnings of the Wykes structural mode control logic is based on several assumptions concerning vehicle dynamic characteristics, and if not satisfied, the control logic can break down leading to mode destabilization, (3) two-loop control architectures that utilize small forward vanes with the aft tail provide highly attractive and feasible solutions to the longitudinal axis control challenges, and (4) closed-loop simulation sizing analyses indicate the baseline vane model utilized in this report is most likely oversized for normal loading conditions.

  1. PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARABA, V. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.

  2. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  3. Variable speed control for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.

    A robust variable speed control for vertical axis wind turbine applications is implemented. It is a PI rotor speed controller based on an induction generator model operated at variable frequency. The generator dynamics are approximated by a first order differential equation with a prescribed slip....... In order to allow variability in the rotor speed an inverter is assumed which changes the nominal generator speed. Below rated power the optimum tip speed ratio is tracked, while above the power is constrained to rated. The wind speed which is needed in the control it is considered as a known signal...... the Inflow project. The investigation of the VAWT performance under different control parameters such as the PI gains has been performed by Christos Galinos. Deterministic and turbulent wind speed steps of 2 m/s from 6 m/s to 24 m/s and back to 12 m/s are applied. The controller gives smooth transient...

  4. Simulation of load traffic and steeped speed control of conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article examines the possibilities of the step control simulation of conveyor speed within Mathcad, Simulink, Stateflow software. To check the efficiency of the control algorithms and to more accurately determine the characteristics of the control system, it is necessary to simulate the process of speed control with real values of traffic for a work shift or for a day. For evaluating the belt workload and absence of spillage it is necessary to use empirical values of load flow in a shorter period of time. The analytical formulas for optimal speed step values were received using empirical values of load. The simulation checks acceptability of an algorithm, determines optimal parameters of regulation corresponding to load flow characteristics. The average speed and the number of speed switching during simulation are admitted as criteria of regulation efficiency. The simulation example within Mathcad software is implemented. The average conveyor speed decreases essentially by two-step and three-step control. A further increase in the number of regulatory steps decreases average speed insignificantly but considerably increases the intensity of the speed switching. Incremental algorithm of speed regulation uses different number of stages for growing and reducing load traffic. This algorithm allows smooth control of the conveyor speed changes with monotonic variation of the load flow. The load flow oscillation leads to an unjustified increase or decrease of speed. Work results can be applied at the design of belt conveyors with adjustable drives.

  5. Grey Wolf based control for speed ripple reduction at low speed operation of PMSM drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerioui, Ali; Houari, Azeddine; Ait-Ahmed, Mourad; Benkhoris, Mohamed-Fouad; Chouder, Aissa; Machmoum, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Speed ripple at low speed-high torque operation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drives is considered as one of the major issues to be treated. The presented work proposes an efficient PMSM speed controller based on Grey Wolf (GW) algorithm to ensure a high-performance control for speed ripple reduction at low speed operation. The main idea of the proposed control algorithm is to propose a specific objective function in order to incorporate the advantage of fast optimization process of the GW optimizer. The role of GW optimizer is to find the optimal input controls that satisfy the speed tracking requirements. The synthesis methodology of the proposed control algorithm is detailed and the feasibility and performances of the proposed speed controller is confirmed by simulation and experimental results. The GW algorithm is a model-free controller and the parameters of its objective function are easy to be tuned. The GW controller is compared to PI one on real test bench. Then, the superiority of the first algorithm is highlighted. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

    This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  7. An Analysis of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Power-Control Methods with Fluctuating Wind Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Il Moon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs typically use a maximum power-point tracking (MPPT method to optimize wind-energy acquisition. MPPT can be implemented by regulating the rotor speed or by adjusting the active power. The former, termed speed-control mode (SCM, employs a speed controller to regulate the rotor, while the latter, termed power-control mode (PCM, uses an active power controller to optimize the power. They are fundamentally equivalent; however, since they use a different controller at the outer control loop of the machine-side converter (MSC controller, the time dependence of the control system differs depending on whether SCM or PCM is used. We have compared and analyzed the power quality and the power coefficient when these two different control modes were used in fluctuating wind speeds through computer simulations. The contrast between the two methods was larger when the wind-speed fluctuations were greater. Furthermore, we found that SCM was preferable to PCM in terms of the power coefficient, but PCM was superior in terms of power quality and system stability.

  8. High speed serial communications for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieson, D.; Kalbfleisch, C.; Hunt, S.; Low, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is a complex of accelerators being built in Ellis County, Texas. The SSCL control system consists of front-end processors and their associated control points remotely distributed from the Central and Regional control rooms. Control messages passing between these locations require timely (deterministic) distribution. A prototype network consisting of point-to-point links utilizing commercial T1 (1.544 Mb/s) communication boards has been implemented. These dedicated communication links will replace networking services traditionally provided for by shared medium networks like Ethernet(IEEE 802.3) and FDDI(IEEE 802.5). A seamless migration will be achieved by using packet encapsulation based on PPP(Point-to-Point Protocol, RFC 1171). All other networking functions including routing and reliable delivery are still being handled by the usual internet services. A distributed control system that currently uses Ethernet for communication is being re-implemented using these point-to-point links. The authors report on throughput measurements, timing constraints and ease of transition of a point-to-point network

  9. Fuzzy adaptive speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Rae-Young

    2012-05-01

    A fuzzy adaptive speed controller is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed fuzzy adaptive speed regulator is insensitive to model parameter and load torque variations because it does not need any accurate knowledge about the motor parameter and load torque values. The stability of the proposed control system is also proven. The proposed adaptive speed regulator system is implemented by using a TMS320F28335 floating point DSP. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy adaptive speed controller under uncertainties such as motor parameter and load torque variations using a prototype PMSM drive system.

  10. Engine control system having speed-based timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Martin L [Dunlap, IL; Fiveland, Scott B [Metamora, IL; Montgomery, David T [Edelstein, IL; Gong, Weidong [Dunlap, IL

    2012-02-14

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator. The controller is configured to receive a signal indicative of engine speed and compare the engine speed signal with a desired engine speed. The controller is also configured to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve to control an amount of air/fuel mixture delivered to the cylinder based on the comparison.

  11. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power...... oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.......Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG...

  12. Supplementary speed control for wind power smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Frunt, J.; Kechroud, A.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Wind fluctuations result in even larger wind power fluctuations because the power of wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. This report analyzes wind power fluctuations to investigate inertial power smoothing, in particular for the frequency range of 0.08 - 0.5 Hz. Due to the growing

  13. Telerobotic Control Architecture Including Force-Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of a telerobotic control architecture to manipulate a standard six-degree-of-freedom robot via a unique seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting exoskeleton...

  14. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  15. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  16. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  17. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is defined to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

  18. Observer Backstepping Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff; Blanke, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    . The nonlinear controller aims at regulating the generator torque such that an optimal tip-speed ratio can be obtained. Simply relying on the measured rotor angular velocity the proposed observer backstepping controller guarantees global asymptotic tracking of the desired trajectory while maintaining a globally......This paper presents an observer backstepping controller as feasible solution to variable speed control of wind turbines to maximize wind power capture when operating between cut-in and rated wind speeds. The wind turbine is modeled as a two-mass drive-train system controlled by the generator torque...

  19. Automatic Tuning of Control Parameters for Single Speed Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Johan

    2004-01-01

    In Scania’s single speed engines for industrial and marine use, the engine speed is controlled by a PI-controller. This controller is tuned independent of engine type and application. This brings certain disadvantages since the engines are used in a wide range of applications where the dynamics may differ. In this thesis, the possibility to tune the controller automatically for a specific engine installation has been investigated. The work shows that automatic tuning is possible. By performin...

  20. Brushless DC motor speed control strategy of simulation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the brushless DC motor speed regulation problem, an ideal control strategy is designed. Through the model and analysis of Brushless DC motor, the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor is obtained. By comparing three control strategies of PID control strategy, fuzzy control strategy and fuzzy PID control strategy, PID controller, fuzzy controller and fuzzy PID controller are designed respectively for simulation test. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID controller has good control effect.

  1. Control structures for high speed processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, G. K.; Mankin, R.; Owsley, P. A.; Kim, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A special processor was designed to function as a Reed Solomon decoder with throughput data rate in the Mhz range. This data rate is significantly greater than is possible with conventional digital architectures. To achieve this rate, the processor design includes sequential, pipelined, distributed, and parallel processing. The processor was designed using a high level language register transfer language. The RTL can be used to describe how the different processes are implemented by the hardware. One problem of special interest was the development of dependent processes which are analogous to software subroutines. For greater flexibility, the RTL control structure was implemented in ROM. The special purpose hardware required approximately 1000 SSI and MSI components. The data rate throughput is 2.5 megabits/second. This data rate is achieved through the use of pipelined and distributed processing. This data rate can be compared with 800 kilobits/second in a recently proposed very large scale integration design of a Reed Solomon encoder.

  2. Apparatus for decelerating the dropping speed of a control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce the dropping speed (i.e. withdrawal) of a control rod of the upward insertion type in a BWR type reactor without reducing the speed of insertion. Structure: A control rod is provided with a flaring lower end so as to constitute a speed limiter which is penerated by vertically extending and upwardly open flow ducts that each have a narrow opening and flare upwardly. Thus, at the time of insertion of the control rod, the resistance offered thereto by the surrounding fluid is reduced to provide increased insertion speed. On the other hand, at the time of withdrawal the resistance offered by the fluid is increased to reduce the dropping speed of the control rod. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Research on fuzzy PID control to electronic speed regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-gang; Chen, Xue-hui; Zheng, Sheng-guo

    2007-12-01

    As an important part of diesel engine, the speed regulator plays an important role in stabilizing speed and improving engine's performance. Because there are so many model parameters of diesel-engine considered in traditional PID control and these parameters present non-linear characteristic.The method to adjust engine speed using traditional PID is not considered as a best way. Especially for the diesel-engine generator set. In this paper, the Fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. Some problems about its utilization in electronic speed regulator are discussed. A mathematical model of electric control system for diesel-engine generator set is established and the way of the PID parameters in the model to affect the function of system is analyzed. And then it is proposed the differential coefficient must be applied in control design for reducing dynamic deviation of system and adjusting time. Based on the control theory, a study combined control with PID calculation together for turning fuzzy PID parameter is implemented. And also a simulation experiment about electronic speed regulator system was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and the Fuzzy-Toolbox. Compared with the traditional PID Algorithm, the simulated results presented obvious improvements in the instantaneous speed governing rate and steady state speed governing rate of diesel-engine generator set when the fuzzy logic control strategy used.

  4. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion..

  5. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion.

  6. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  7. Robust Control Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekan, P.; Subramani, C.

    2018-04-01

    An effective control strategy for the hydro-turbine governor in time scenario is adjective for this paper. Considering the complex dynamic characteristic and the uncertainty of the hydro-turbine governor model and taking the static and dynamic performance of the governing system as the ultimate goal, the designed logic combined the classical PID control theory with artificial intelligence used to obtain the desired output. The used controller will be a variable control techniques, therefore, its parameters can be adaptively adjusted according to the information about the control error signal.

  8. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  9. Indirect sensorless speed control of a PMSG for wind application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.A.; Silva, C.; Juliet, J.

    2009-01-01

    the method usually referred in the literature as indirect speed control (ISC). The principle of this method is the regulation of the generator torque as function of rotor speed such that the steady state operation is at the MPPT. This strategy normally requires the knowledge of the shaft speed to determinate...... in the whole wind generator system a sensorless scheme is proposed, thereby avoiding problems of electromagnetic interferences and failures in the position sensor. Usually, in wind drive system, the generator is not operated a very low speeds, therefore problems related to low back-emf for flux estimation...... the reference torque and rotor position for the orientation of the vector torque control of the PMSG. To achieve both, speed and position estimation, the sensorless technique based in back-emf estimation is proposed. Also in this paper, a laboratory set-up is described. The experimental bench is composed...

  10. Active surge control for variable speed axial compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Yang, Chunjie; Wu, Ping; Song, Zhihuan

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses active surge control in variable speed axial compressors. A compression system equipped with a variable area throttle is investigated. Based on a given compressor model, a fuzzy logic controller is designed for surge control and a proportional speed controller is used for speed control. The fuzzy controller uses measurements of the change of pressure rise as well as the change of mass flow to determine the throttle opening. The presented approach does not require the knowledge of system equilibrium or the surge line. Numerical simulations show promising results. The proposed fuzzy logic controller performs better than a backstepping controller and is capable to suppress surge at different operating points. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the significant part in the flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines with PMSG during continuous operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.

  12. Variable speed control in wells turbine-based oscillating water column devices: optimum rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekube, J.; Garrido, A. J.; Garrido, I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of climate change and global warming reveal the need to find alternative sources of clean energy. In this sense, wave energy power plants, and in particular Oscillating Water Column (OWC) devices, offer a huge potential of energy harnessing. Nevertheless, the conversion systems have not reached a commercially mature stage yet so as to compete with conventional power plants. At this point, the use of new control methods over the existing technology arises as a doable way to improve the efficiency of the system. Due to the non-uniform response that the turbine shows to the rotational speed variation, the speed control of the turbo-generator may offer a feasible solution for efficiency improvement during the energy conversion. In this context, a novel speed control approach for OWC systems is presented in this paper, demonstrating its goodness and affording promising results when particularized to the Mutriku’s wave power plant.

  13. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

  14. High-speed precision motion control

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Pang, Chee Khiang

    2011-01-01

    Written for researchers and postgraduate students in Control Engineering, as well as professionals in the Hard Disk Drive industry, this book discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). The editors present a number of control algorithms that enable fast seeking and high precision positioning, and propose problems from commercial products, making the book valuable to researchers in HDDs. Each chapter is self contained, and progresses from concept to technique, present application examples that can be used within automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufactu

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  16. Tip Speed Ratio Based Maximum Power Tracking Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines; A Comprehensive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karabacak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive control method of wind turbines used to generate electric energy from wind is the fixed speed control method. With this method, it is not possible that turbine input power is transferred to grid at maximum rate. For this reason, Maximum Power Tracking (MPT schemes are proposed. In order to implement MPT, the propeller has to rotate at a different speed for every different wind speed. This situation has led MPT based systems to be called Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT systems. In VSWT systems, turbine input power can be transferred to grid at rates close to maximum power. When MPT based control of VSWT systems is the case, two important processes come into prominence. These are instantaneously determination and tracking of MPT point. In this study, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method based on tip speed ratio, power available in wind is transferred into grid over a back to back converter at maximum rate via a VSWT system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. Besides a physical wind turbine simulator is modelled and simulated. Results show that a time varying MPPT point is tracked with a high performance.

  17. Integrated High-Speed Torque Control System for a Robotic Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A control system for achieving high-speed torque for a joint of a robot includes a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) having a collocated joint processor and high-speed communication bus. The PCBA may also include a power inverter module (PIM) and local sensor conditioning electronics (SCE) for processing sensor data from one or more motor position sensors. Torque control of a motor of the joint is provided via the PCBA as a high-speed torque loop. Each joint processor may be embedded within or collocated with the robotic joint being controlled. Collocation of the joint processor, PIM, and high-speed bus may increase noise immunity of the control system, and the localized processing of sensor data from the joint motor at the joint level may minimize bus cabling to and from each control node. The joint processor may include a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  18. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter GIROVSKÝ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

  19. Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Speed Controller for a Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper DC motor control models were mathematically extracted and implemented using fuzzy logic speed controller. All control systems suffer from problems related to undesirable overshoot, longer settling times and vibrations while going from one state to another. To overcome the maximum overshoot, fuzzy logic ...

  20. Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)

  1. An industrial sewing machine variable speed controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Christa; Spiggle, Charles; Swift, Shannon; Vangeffen, Stephen; Youngner, Frank

    The apparel industry is attempting to move in a new direction in the coming decade. Since the invention of an electrically powered sewing machine, the operator has been seated. Today, companies are switching from a sit down operation to a stand up operation involving modular stations. The old treadle worked well with the sitting operator, but problems have been found when trying to use the same treadle with a standing operator. This report details a new design for a treadle to operate an industrial sewing machine that has a standing operator. Emphasis is placed on the ease of use by the operator, as well as the ergonomics involved. Procedures for testing the design are included along with possible uses for the treadle in other applications besides an industrial sewing machine.

  2. LOFT PSMG Speed Control System frequency response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis was done to gain insight into the shape of the open loop frequency response of the PSMG Speed Control System. The results of the analysis were used as a guide to groom the proportional band and reset time settings of the 2 mode controller in the speed control system. The analysis shows that when an actuator with a timing of 90 degrees per 60 seconds is installed in the system the proportional band and reset time should be 316% and 1 minute. Whereas when grooming the system a proportional band and reset time of 150% and 1.5 minutes were found to be appropriate. The closeness of the settings show that even though a linear model was used to describe the non-linear PSMG Speed Control System, it was accurate enough to be used as a guide to groom the proportional band and reset time settings

  3. MODELLING OF DYNAMIC SPEED LIMITS USING THE MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of traffic management using intelligent system “Car-Road” (IVHS, which consist of interacting intelligent vehicles (IV and intelligent roadside controllers. Vehicles are organized in convoy with small distances between them. All vehicles are assumed to be fully automated (throttle control, braking, steering. Proposed approaches for determining speed limits for traffic cars on the motorway using a model predictive control (MPC. The article proposes an approach to dynamic speed limit to minimize the downtime of vehicles in traffic.

  4. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  5. Speed Loop Control of PMSM Driving Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    Various simulation models are set up and closed speed loop control strategy of PMSM is proposed based on flux weakening control in this paper. First the model of maximum torque per ampere(MTPA) is modeled based on mathematical models and gave the corresponding simulation tests. Second the formula...

  6. An integrated optimum design approach for high speed prop-rotors including acoustic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Wells, Valana; Mccarthy, Thomas; Han, Arris

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop optimization procedures to provide design trends in high speed prop-rotors. The necessary disciplinary couplings are all considered within a closed loop multilevel decomposition optimization process. The procedures involve the consideration of blade-aeroelastic aerodynamic performance, structural-dynamic design requirements, and acoustics. Further, since the design involves consideration of several different objective functions, multiobjective function formulation techniques are developed.

  7. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  8. Efficient speed control of induction motor using RBF based model reference adaptive control method

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Erdal; Ozcalik, Hasan Riza; Yilmaz, Saban

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a model reference adaptive speed controller based on artificial neural network for induction motor drives. The performance of traditional feedback controllers has been insufficient in speed control of induction motors due to nonlinear structure of the system, changing environmental conditions, and disturbance input effects. A successful speed control of induction motor requires a nonlinear control system. On the other hand, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that ar...

  9. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    , (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...... adaptive speed control of the CVC drive. A direct truly adaptive speed controller has been implemented. The adaptive controller is a moving Average Self-Tuning Regulator which is abbreviated MASTR throughout the thesis. Two practical implementations of this controller were proposed. They were denoted MASTR...... and measurement noise in general, were the major reasons for the drifting parameters. Two approaches was proposed to robustify MASTR2 against the output noise. The first approach consists of filtering the output. Output filtering had a significant effect in simulations, but the robustness against the output noise...

  10. LOFT pump speed controller stability and accuracy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Two system modifications to the primary coolant pumps motor generators control systems have recently been completed. The range of pump speed operation has been extended and the scoop tube positioner motor replaced. This has necessitated a re-analysis of PSMG stability throughout its range of operation. System accuracy requirements of less than 4 Hz differential pump speed when operating at less than 35 Hz and 8.5 Hz differential pump speed when operating at greater than 35 Hz can be guaranteed by specifying the gain of the system. The installation of the new scoop tube positioner motor will increase the PSMG system's bandwidth and stability. Low speed pump trips should be carefully evaluated if the pump's operational range is to extend to 10 Hz

  11. Intelligent control for large-scale variable speed variable pitch wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinfang ZHANG; Daping XU; Yibing LIU

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale wind turbine generator systems have strong nonlinear multivariable characteristics with many uncertain factors and disturbances.Automatic control is crucial for the efficiency and reliability of wind turbines.On the basis of simplified and proper model of variable speed variable pitch wind turbines,the effective wind speed is estimated using extended Kalman filter.Intelligent control schemes proposed in the paper include two loops which operate in synchronism with each other.At below-rated wind speed,the inner loop adopts adaptive fuzzy control based on variable universe for generator torque regulation to realize maximum wind energy capture.At above-rated wind speed, a controller based on least square support vector machine is proposed to adjust pitch angle and keep rated output power.The simulation shows the effectiveness of the intelligent control.

  12. An Adaptive Speed Control Approach for DC Shunt Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Tapia-Olvera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A B-spline neural networks-based adaptive control technique for angular speed reference trajectory tracking tasks with highly efficient performance for direct current shunt motors is proposed. A methodology for adaptive control and its proper training procedure are introduced. This algorithm sets the control signal without using a detailed mathematical model nor exact values of the parameters of the nonlinear dynamic system. The proposed robust adaptive tracking control scheme only requires measurements of the velocity output signal. Thus, real-time measurements or estimations of acceleration, current and disturbance signals are avoided. Experimental results confirm the efficient and robust performance of the proposed control approach for highly demanding motor operation conditions exposed to variable-speed reference trajectories and completely unknown load torque. Hence, laboratory experimental tests on a direct current shunt motor prove the viability of the proposed adaptive output feedback trajectory tracking control approach.

  13. High speed, locally controlled data acquisition system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.K.; Bradish, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A high speed, locally controlled, data acquisition and transmission system has been developed by the CICADA (Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition) Group for extracting certain timecritical data during a TFTR pulse and passing it to the control room, 1000 feet distant, to satisfy realtime requirements of frequently sampled variables. The system is designed to utilize any or all of the standard CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) modules now employed on the CAMAC links for retrieval of the main body of data, but to operate them in a much faster manner than in a standard CAMAC system. To do this, a pre-programmable ROM sequencer is employed as a controller to transmit commands to the modules at intervals down to one microsecond, replacing the usual CAMAC dedicated computer, and increasing the command rate by an order of magnitude over what could be sent down a Branch Highway. Data coming from any number of channels originating within a single CAMAC ''crate'' is then time-multiplexed and transmitted over a single conductor pair in bi-phase at a 2.5 MHz bit rate using Manchester coding techniques. Benefits gained from this approach include: Reduction in the number of conductors required, elimination of line-to-line skew found in parallel transmission systems, and the capability of being transformer coupled or transmitted over a fiber optic cable to avoid safety hazards and ground loops. The main application for this system so far has been as the feedback path in this closed loop control of currents through the Tokamak's field coils. The paper will treat the system's various applications

  14. Digital Speed Cascade Control, using Scilab / Xcos Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of digital cascade control implemented in Scilab / Xcos environment, using a P type regulator for the position adjustment circuit, a PI controller for the speed circuit adjustment; the current respectively moments control circuits are rendered by elements of PT1 type. On this basis the program is done in Scilab and the related signal block diagram implemented in Xcos; through simulation, the step response of the system is analyzed for different sampling times.

  15. Adaptive Torque Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. E.

    2004-08-01

    The primary focus of this work is a new adaptive controller that is designed to resemble the standard non-adaptive controller used by the wind industry for variable speed wind turbines below rated power. This adaptive controller uses a simple, highly intuitive gain adaptation law designed to seek out the optimal gain for maximizing the turbine's energy capture. It is designed to work even in real, time-varying winds.

  16. Implementation Of Automatic Wiper Speed Control And Headlight Modes Control Systems Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    ThetKoKo; ZawMyoTun; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a cars wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And according to the rain intensity the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam...

  17. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Smida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Pitch control is a practical technique for power regulation above the rated wind speed it is considered as the most efficient and popular power control method. As conventional pitch control usually use PI controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well.This paper deals with the operation and the control of the direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG.Different conventional strategies of pitch angle control are described and validated through simulation results under Matlab\\Simulink.

  18. The Effect of Concurrent Visual Feedback on Controlling Swimming Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Developing the ability to control the speed of swimming is an important part of swimming training. Maintaining a defined constant speed makes it possible for the athlete to swim economically at a low physiological cost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent visual feedback transmitted by the Leader device on the control of swimming speed in a single exercise test. Material and methods. The study involved a group of expert swimmers (n = 20. Prior to the experiment, the race time for the 100 m distance was determined for each of the participants. In the experiment, the participants swam the distance of 100 m without feedback and with visual feedback. In both variants, the task of the participants was to swim the test distance in a time as close as possible to the time designated prior to the experiment. In the first version of the experiment (without feedback, the participants swam the test distance without receiving real-time feedback on their swimming speed. In the second version (with visual feedback, the participants followed a beam of light moving across the bottom of the swimming pool, generated by the Leader device. Results. During swimming with visual feedback, the 100 m race time was significantly closer to the time designated. The difference between the pre-determined time and the time obtained was significantly statistically lower during swimming with visual feedback (p = 0.00002. Conclusions. Concurrently transmitting visual feedback to athletes improves their control of swimming speed. The Leader device has proven useful in controlling swimming speed.

  19. Effective and Robust Generalized Predictive Speed Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi Alkorta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and validates a new proposal for effective speed vector control of induction motors based on linear Generalized Predictive Control (GPC law. The presented GPC-PI cascade configuration simplifies the design with regard to GPC-GPC cascade configuration, maintaining the advantages of the predictive control algorithm. The robust stability of the closed loop system is demonstrated by the poles placement method for several typical cases of uncertainties in induction motors. The controller has been tested using several simulations and experiments and has been compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and Sliding Mode (SM control schemes, obtaining outstanding results in speed tracking even in the presence of parameter uncertainties, unknown load disturbance, and measurement noise in the loop signals, suggesting its use in industrial applications.

  20. Energy Efficient Control of High Speed IPMSM Drives - A Generalized PSO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GECIC, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized particle swarm optimization (GPSO algorithm was applied to the problems of optimal control of high speed low cost interior permanent magnet motor (IPMSM drives. In order to minimize the total controllable electrical losses and to increase the efficiency, the optimum current vector references are calculated offline based on GPSO for the wide speed range and for different load conditions. The voltage and current limits of the drive system and the variation of stator inductances are all included in the optimization method. The stored optimal current vector references are used during the real time control and the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional high speed control algorithm, which is mostly voltage limit based. The computer simulations and experimental results on 1 kW low cost high speed IPMSM drive are discussed in details.

  1. Optimal multivariable control of a wind turbine with variable speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.

    1987-01-01

    The control system design for a 310 kW horizontal axis wind energy conversion system with a synchronous generator and DC link is investigated. Because the wind turbine system has multiple inputs (pitch angle, field vollage alld delay angle), and multiple outputs, (speed and power), and because the

  2. LQG Controller Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammed; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed wind turbine is a complex and nonlinear system, a sophisticated control is required to meet the challenges posed by these systems. This paper is presenting a pitch regulation strategy based on LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) to regulate turbine at its rated power and to reject...

  3. Implementation of FPGA based PID Controller for DC Motor Speed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita SONOLI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the implementation of software module using ‘VHDL’ for Xilinx FPGA (XC3S400 based PID controller for DC motor speed control system is presented. The tools used for building and testing the software modules are Xilinx ISE 9.2i and ModelSim XE III 6.3c. Before verifying the design on FPGA the complete design is simulated using Modelsim Simulation tool. A test bench is written where the set speed can be changed for the motor. It is observed that the motor speed gradually changes to the set speed and locks to the set speed.

  4. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...... of cases show that a likely effect of the regulations is that ship operators will often choose to sail longer distances to avoid sailing time within ECAs. Another effect is that they will sail at lower speeds within and higher speeds outside the ECAs in order to use less of the more expensive fuel. On some......Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...

  5. Speed-controlled three-phase drives. Drehzahlgeregelte Drehstromantriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, E

    1981-01-01

    Present semiconductor circuit elements have made it possible to produce frequency converters for speed-controlled three-phase drives from the k'' range to the MW range at low cost. Line-powered frequency converter circuits are already in the standardisation stage while the development trends in the field of speed-controlled frequency converter circuits are not foreseeable as yet. Recent developments in the field of electronics have made the circuits simpler and able to implement an increasing number of functions. There is a trend towards programmable digital control systems with microcomputers. Of the 8 articles in the publication, the contribution by M. Wild and R. Wetzl (Synchronous motors with frequency converters drive boiler feed pumps at Bergkamen power plant) has been entered in the data base as a separate citation.

  6. Experimental Comparison of Speed : Fuel-flow and Speed-area Controls on a Turbojet Engine for Small Step Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, L M; Hart, C E; Craig, R T

    1957-01-01

    Optimum proportional-plus-integral control settings for speed - fuel-flow control, determined by minimization of integral criteria, correlated well with analytically predicted optimum settings. Engine response data are given for a range of control settings around the optimum. An inherent nonlinearity in the speed-area loop necessitated the use of nonlinear controls. Response data for two such nonlinear control schemes are presented.

  7. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  8. REDUCTION IN CUTS SPEED AT THE BEGINNING OF A SORTING SIDINGS, EQUIPPED WITH QUASI-CONTINUOUS SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Clear and uninterrupted operation of humps depends on the quality of technical equipment and control technology of cuts speed. Technology of interval and purposive regulation of cuts speed is used at most humps. The article discusses ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings equipped with quasi-continuous speed control system. Methodology. It proposed three fundamentally different ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding. The analysis of the ways to reduce cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings was conducted using simulation the process of cuts rolling from humps equipped with quasi-continuous speed control. Findings. As a result of analysis, the inappropriateness of opposite elevation using on the roll-out part of the hump after the last separation switch point. Spot regulators of cars speed can be used to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding, but this leads to a division conditions deterioration on the last separating switch points of long cuts with the following after them short cuts. Reducing the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite simple. All produce should be unhooked from it at a safe speed. If the accuracy of the implementation of the set speed output to unhook from the park brake position is low, it is possible to eliminate the error of point regulators cars speed. Originality. The question where to start location point of wagon retarders zone to reduce speed to cut level requires additional research. Reducing rolling cut the speed at the beginning of the sorting sidings can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Practical value. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite

  9. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  10. A wide range and high speed automatic gain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.

    1993-05-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) techniques have been largely used since the beginning of electronics, but in most of the applications the dynamic response is slow compared with the carrier frequency. The problem of developing an automatic gain control with high dynamic response and wide control range simultaneously is analyzed in this work. An ideal gain control law, with the property that the total loop gain remains constant independent of the carrier amplitude, is obtained. The resulting AGC behavior is compared by computer simulations with a linear multiplier AGC. The ideal gain control law can be approximated using a transconductance amplifier. A practical circuit that has been used at CERN in the radio frequency loops of the Booster Synchrotron is presented. The circuit has high speed and 80-dB gain control range

  11. Power Control of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    When the wind power accounts for a large portion of the grid, it will be required to regulate the active power and reactive power. This paper investigates a MWlevel variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The power control capabilities of two kinds...... of control schemes conducted respectively on this wind turbine under two conditions, including rapid wind speed change and grids faults, are compared. The simulation study of the wind turbine system is conducted using PSCAD/EMTDC, and the results show the different power control capabilities of the two...

  12. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Matrix Convert for Variable Speed Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alizadeh Moghadam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modeling, simulation and control of matrix converter (MC for variable speed wind turbine (VSWT system including permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. At a given wind velocity, the power available from a wind turbine is a function of its shaft speed. In order to track maximum power, the MC adjusts the PMSG shaft speed.The proposed control system allowing independent control maximum power point tracking (MPPT of generator side and regulate reactive power of grid side for the operation of the VSWT system. The MPPT is implemented by a new control system. This control system is based on control of zero d-axis current (ZDC. The ZDC control can be realized by transfer the three-phase stator current in the stationary reference frame into d-and q-axis components in the synchronous reference frame. Also this paper is presented, a novel control strategy to regulate the reactive power supplied by a variable speed wind energy conversion system. This control strategy is based on voltage oriented control (VOC. The simulation results based on Simulink/Matlab software show that the controllers can extract maximum power and regulate reactive power under varying wind velocities.

  13. Speed adaptation in a powered transtibial prosthesis controlled with a neuromuscular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jared; Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Eilenberg, Michael F; Endo, Ken; Barnhart, Chris; Herr, Hugh

    2011-05-27

    Control schemes for powered ankle-foot prostheses would benefit greatly from a means to make them inherently adaptive to different walking speeds. Towards this goal, one may attempt to emulate the intact human ankle, as it is capable of seamless adaptation. Human locomotion is governed by the interplay among legged dynamics, morphology and neural control including spinal reflexes. It has been suggested that reflexes contribute to the changes in ankle joint dynamics that correspond to walking at different speeds. Here, we use a data-driven muscle-tendon model that produces estimates of the activation, force, length and velocity of the major muscles spanning the ankle to derive local feedback loops that may be critical in the control of those muscles during walking. This purely reflexive approach ignores sources of non-reflexive neural drive and does not necessarily reflect the biological control scheme, yet can still closely reproduce the muscle dynamics estimated from biological data. The resulting neuromuscular model was applied to control a powered ankle-foot prosthesis and tested by an amputee walking at three speeds. The controller produced speed-adaptive behaviour; net ankle work increased with walking speed, highlighting the benefits of applying neuromuscular principles in the control of adaptive prosthetic limbs.

  14. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  15. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly......, (LS) identification and generalized predictive control (GPC) has been implemented and tested on the CVC drive. Allthough GPC is a robust control method, it was not possible to maintain specified controller performance in the entire operating range. This was the main reason for investigating truly...... and measurement noise in general, were the major reasons for the drifting parameters. Two approaches was proposed to robustify MASTR2 against the output noise. The first approach consists of filtering the output. Output filtering had a significant effect in simulations, but the robustness against the output noise...

  16. Control Method for Variable Speed Wind Turbines to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) to support temporary primary frequency control of power system. The control method contains two parts: (1) up-regulate support control when a frequency drop event occurs; (2) down-regulate support control when a frequen...

  17. High speed turning of compacted graphite iron using controlled modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalbaum, Tyler Paul

    Compacted graphite iron (CGI) is a material which emerged as a candidate material to replace cast iron (CI) in the automotive industry for engine block castings. Its thermal and mechanical properties allow the CGI-based engines to operate at higher cylinder pressures and temperatures than CI-based engines, allowing for lower fuel emissions and increased fuel economy. However, these same properties together with the thermomechanical wear mode in the CGI-CBN system result in poor machinability and inhibit CGI from seeing wide spread use in the automotive industry. In industry, machining of CGI is done only at low speeds, less than V = 200 m/min, to avoid encountering rapid wear of the cutting tools during cutting. Studies have suggested intermittent cutting operations such as milling suffer less severe tool wear than continuous cutting. Furthermore, evidence that a hard sulfide layer which forms over the cutting edge in machining CI at high speeds is absent during machining CGI is a major factor in the difference in machinability of these material systems. The present study addresses both of these issues by modification to the conventional machining process to allow intermittent continuous cutting. The application of controlled modulation superimposed onto the cutting process -- modulation-assisted machining (MAM) -- is shown to be quite effective in reducing the wear of cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools when machining CGI at high machining speeds (> 500 m/min). The tool life is at least 20 times greater than found in conventional machining of CGI. This significant reduction in wear is a consequence of reduction in the severity of the tool-work contact conditions with MAM. The propensity for thermochemical wear of CBN is thus reduced. It is found that higher cutting speed (> 700 m/min) leads to lower tool wear with MAM. The MAM configuration employing feed-direction modulation appears feasible for implementation at high speeds and offers a solution to this challenging

  18. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using sliding mode control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, G. [Kenetech Windpower, Livermore, CA (United States); Eastham, A.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A robust speed drive system for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using sliding mode control strategy (SLMC) is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a SLMC based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is implemented using a micro-controller and a high resolution position sensor. The parameter insensitive characteristics are demonstrated through computer simulations and experimental verification.

  19. Embedded systems design for high-speed data acquisition and control

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design embedded systems for high-speed data acquisition and control systems. A minimum amount of theory is presented, along with a review of analog and digital electronics, followed by detailed explanations of essential topics in hardware design and software development. The discussion of hardware focuses on microcontroller design (ARM microcontrollers and FPGAs), techniques of embedded design, high speed data acquisition (DAQ) and control systems. Coverage of software development includes main programming techniques, culminating in the study of real-time operating systems. All concepts are introduced in a manner to be highly-accessible to practicing engineers and lead to the practical implementation of an embedded board that can be used in various industrial fields as a control system and high speed data acquisition system.   • Describes fundamentals of embedded systems design in an accessible manner; • Takes a problem-solving ...

  20. A novel technology for control of variable speed pumped storage power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Semsar

    2016-01-01

    Variable speed pumped storage machines are used extensively in wind power plant and pumped storage power plant. This paper presents direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of a variable speed pumped storage power plant (VSPSP). By this method both torque and flux have been applied to control the VSPSP. The comparison between VSPSP’s control strategies is studied. At the first, a wind turbine with the capacity 2.2 kW and DTFC control strategies simulated then a 250 MW VSPSP is simulated with all of its parts (including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and its control system) by MATLAB software. In all of simulations, both converters including two-level voltage source converter (2LVSC) and three-level voltage source converter (3LVSC) are applied. The results of applying 2LVSC and 3LVSC are the rapid dynamic responses with better efficiency, reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) and ripple of rotor torque and flux.

  1. Speed limiter integrated fatigue analyzer (SLIFA) for speed and fatigue control on diesel engine truck and bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Haris; Pranoto, Hadi; Leman, A. M.; Sebayang, Darwin; Baba, I.

    2017-09-01

    Every second, the number of road traffic deaths is increased globally with millions more sustaining severe injuries and living with long-term adverse health consequences. Jakarta alone in year 2015 had recorded 556 people died due to road accidents, approximately reached 6.231 road accident cases. The identified major contributory factors of such unfortunate events are both driver fatigue and over speeding habit especially related to the driving of truck and bus. This paper presents the idea on how to control the electronic system from input fuel system of injection pump and the combustion chamber engine will control the valve solenoid in injection pump which can lock and fuel will stop for moment, and speed limit can be success, by using sensor heart rate we can input reduce speed limit when fatigue detection driver. Integration process this tool can be relevant when Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) trial in the diesel engine for truck and bus, the result of this research Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) able to control speed of diesel engine for truck and bus almost 30km/h, 60km/h, and until 70 km/h. The installation of the sensor heart rate as the input speed limit SLIFA would work when the driver is detected to be in the fatigue condition. We make Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) for control and monitoring system for diesel engine in truck and bus. Speed Limiter Integrated Fatigue Analyser (SLIFA) system can save the historical of the speed record, fatigue, rpm, and body temperature of the driver.

  2. To the Problem of Electromechanical Interaction in Elevators with Controlled Electric Drive and Fuzzy Speed Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Koval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning electromechanical interaction in elevators with an adjustable asynchronous electric drive equipped with the vector control systems under direct torque control and direct torque control with pulse-width modulator. A mathematical description of electromechanical elevator system with due account of nonlinearity of the worm gear is given in the paper. The paper presents a simplified circuit design of a control system with a fuzzy speed controller. It has been established that the factor of electromechanical interaction in electromechanical system with the adjustable asynchronous electric drive and an fuzzy speed controller is within the range which corresponds to existence of the essential electromechanical interaction.

  3. Transient analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicio, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, new technical challenges emerge: dynamic stability and power quality. The influence of wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction on the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid is studied for variable-speed wind turbines with different power-electronic converter topologies. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators. The performance of disturbance attenuation and system robustness is ascertained. Simulation results are presented and conclusions are duly drawn.

  4. Transient analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melicio, R. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-04-15

    As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, new technical challenges emerge: dynamic stability and power quality. The influence of wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction on the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid is studied for variable-speed wind turbines with different power-electronic converter topologies. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators. The performance of disturbance attenuation and system robustness is ascertained. Simulation results are presented and conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  5. Combined Flux Observer With Signal Injection Enhancement for Wide Speed Range Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPMSM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Andreescu, G.-D.; Pitic, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    voltage-current model with PI compensator for low-speed operations. As speed increases, the observer switches gradually to a PI compensated closed-loop voltage model, which is solely used at high speeds. High-frequency rotating-voltage injection with a single D-module bandpass vector filter and a phase......This paper proposes a motion-sensorless control system using direct torque control with space vector modulation for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives, for wide speed range operation, including standstill. A novel stator flux observer with variable structure uses a combined...

  6. Electromagnetic application device for flow rate/flow speed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Senji.

    1994-01-01

    Electric current and magnetic field are at first generated in a direction perpendicular to a flow channel of a fluid, and forces generated by electromagnetic interaction of the current and the magnetic field are combined and exerted on the fluid, to control the flow rate and the flow speed thereby decreasing flowing pressure loss. In addition, an electric current generation means and a magnetic field generation means integrated together are disposed to a structural component constituting the flow channel, and they are combined to attain the aimed effect. The current generating means forms a potential difference by supplying electric power to a pair of electrodes as a cathode and an anode by using structures disposed along the channel, to generate an electric field or electric current in a direction perpendicular to the flow channel. The magnetic field generating means forms a counter current (reciprocal current) by using structures disposed along the flow channel, to generate synthesized or emphasized magnetic field. The fluid can be applied with a force in the direction of the flowing direction by the electromagnetic interaction of the electric current and the magnetic field, thereby capable of propelling the fluid. Accordingly, the flowrate/flowing speed can be controlled inside of the flow channel and flowing pressure loss can be decreased. (N.H.)

  7. Control rod calibration including the rod coupling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, R.; Nelson, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a reactor containing more than one control rod, which includes all reactors licensed in the United States, there will be a 'coupling' or 'shadowing' of control rod flux at the location of a control rod as a result of the flux depression caused by another control rod. It was decided to investigate this phenomenon further, and eventually to put calibration table data or formulae in a small computer in the control room, so once could insert the positions of the three control rods and receive the excess reactivity without referring to separate tables. For this to be accomplished, a 'three control- rod reactivity function' would be used which would include the flux coupling between the rods. The function is design and measured data was fitted into it to determine the calibration constants. The input data for fitting the trial functions consisted of 254 data points, each consisting of the position of the reg, shim, and transient rods, and the total excess reactivity. (About 200 of these points were 'critical balance points', that is the rod positions for which reactor was critical, and the remainder were determined by positive period measurements.) Although this may be unrealistic from a physical viewpoint, the function derived gave a very accurate recalculation of the input data, and thus would faithfully give the excess reactivity for any possible combination of the locations of the three control rods. The next step, incorporation of the three-rod function into the minicomputer, will be pursued in the summer and fall of 1984

  8. Driver's behavioral adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): the case of speed and time headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Cruise Control is an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) that allows maintaining given headway and speed, according to settings pre-defined by the users. Despite the potential benefits associated to the utilization of ACC, previous studies warned against negative behavioral adaptations that might occur while driving with the system activated. Unfortunately, up to now, there are no unanimous results about the effects induced by the usage of ACC on speed and time headway to the vehicle in front. Also, few studies were performed including actual users of ACC among the subjects. This research aimed to investigate the effect of the experience gained with ACC on speed and time headway for a group of users of the system. In addition, it explored the impact of ACC usage on speed and time headway for ACC users and regular drivers. A matched sample driving simulator study was planned as a two-way (2×2) repeated measures mixed design, with the experience with ACC as between-subjects factor and the driving condition (with ACC and manually) as within-subjects factor. The results show that the usage of ACC brought a small but not significant reduction of speed and, especially, the maintenance of safer time headways, being the latter result greater for ACC users, probably as a consequence of their experience in using the system. The usage of ACC did not cause any negative behavioral adaptations to the system regarding speed and time headway. Based on this research work, the Adaptive Cruise Control showed the potential to improve road safety for what concerns the speed and the time headway maintained by the drivers. The speed of the surrounding traffic and the minimum time headway settable through the ACC seem to have an important effect on the road safety improvement achievable with the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis, control and design of speed control of electric vehicles delayed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; ShaSadeghi, Mokhtar; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to suggest an optimal multi-objective fuzzy fractional-order PIλDμPIλDμ controller (MOFFOPID) for the speed control of EV systems with time-delay. It is presumed that while the EV is in movement, the armature winding resistance of the direct current (DC) motor varies...... controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are implemented on a DC motor to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MOFFOPID controller in controlling the speed of the DC motor which has non-linear features. The results of the simulation confirm the desirable performance...

  10. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  11. Control and Health Monitoring of Variable Speed Wind Power Generation Systems; Period of Performance: 10 July 1997 - 10 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. D.; Bikdash, M.; Schulz, M. J.

    2001-09-01

    This document reports accomplishments on variable speed control, furling analysis, and health monitoring of wind turbines. There are three parts, prepared by Song, Bikdash, and Schulz, respectively. The first part discusses variable-speed control of wind turbines, exploring a memory-based method for wind speed prediction and wind turbine control. The second part addresses the yaw dynamics of wind turbines, including modeling, analysis, and control. The third part of the report discusses new analytical techniques that were developed and tested to detect initial damage to prevent failures of wind turbine rotor blades.

  12. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

  13. 75 FR 37453 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of certain dimmer and fan speed switch controls which may be offered to the United... determination CBP concluded that Mexico is the country of origin of the dimmer and fan speed switch controls for...

  14. Implementation of Close Loop Speed Control with VVVF Control and Slip Regulation on LIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aditya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open loop VVVF control has the disadvantage of low output torque when working at low frequency and poor speed precision at different load conditions.Various performance-improving schemes have been proposed for the basic VVVF control by compensating slips occurring in the low frequency range and slips caused by changing loads. Numerous papers have been published on the close loop speed control of rotary induction motor. In this paper a close loop speed control with VVVF control and slip regulation has been implemented for LIM based conveyor belt test Rig which compensates the disadvantages of traditional Volts/Hz control. SIMULINK results are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  15. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi [Young Researchers and Elite Club, AliAbad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, AliAbad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Mahmood [Department of Electrical Engineering, AliAbad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, AliAbad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  16. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear

  17. Induction motor IFOC based speed-controlled drive with asymptotic disturbance compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Đorđe M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of digitally controlled speed electrical drive, with the asymptotic compensation of external disturbances, implemented by using the IFOC (Indirect Field Oriented Control torque controlled induction motor. The asymptotic disturbance compensation is achieved by using the DOB (Disturbance Observer with the IMP (Internal Model Principle. When compared to the existing IMP-based DOB solutions, in this paper the robust stability and disturbance compensation are improved by implementing the minimal order DOB filter. Also, the IMP-based DOB design is improved by employing the asymptotic compensation of all elemental or more complex external disturbances. The dynamic model of the IFOC torque electrical drive is, also, included in the speed-controller and DOB section design. The simulation and experimental measurements presented in the paper illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme.

  18. Synthetic pulse radar including a microprocessor based controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.C.; Rubin, L.A.; Still, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to pulse radar detection of targets in extended media, including natural phenomena such as oil, coal and ore deposits within the earth. In particular, this invention relates to a pulse radar system employing a synthetic pulse formed from a fourier spectrum of frequencies generated and detected by a digitally controlled transmitter and receiver circuits

  19. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Y K; Moheimani, S O R; Kenton, B J; Leang, K K

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in high-speed scanning probe microscopy for high-throughput applications including video-rate atomic force microscopy and probe-based nanofabrication has sparked attention on the development of high-bandwidth flexure-guided nanopositioning systems (nanopositioners). Such nanopositioners are designed to move samples with sub-nanometer resolution with positioning bandwidth in the kilohertz range. State-of-the-art designs incorporate uniquely designed flexure mechanisms driven by compact and stiff piezoelectric actuators. This paper surveys key advances in mechanical design and control of dynamic effects and nonlinearities, in the context of high-speed nanopositioning. Future challenges and research topics are also discussed.

  20. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

  1. Intelligent speed control and effects on driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Hogema, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Supporting the driver in conducting his nowadays demanding task is a promising means to get the maximum out of the road system with respect to both efficiency and safety. With respect to safety, speed management is a main issue. Police enforcement of speeding is one approach, preventing high speeds

  2. Numerical optimization of circulation control airfoil at high subsonic speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T. C.; Kidwell, G. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical procedure for optimizing the design of the circulation control airfoil for use at high subsonic speeds is presented. The procedure consists of an optimization scheme coupled with a viscous potential flow analysis for the blowing jet. The desired airfoil is defined by a combination of three baseline shapes (cambered ellipse and cambered ellipse with drooped and spiraled trailing edges). The coefficients of these shapes are used as design variables in the optimization process. Under the constraints of lift augmentation and lift-to-drag ratios, the airfoil, optimized at free-stream Mach 0.54 and alpha = -2 degrees can be characterized as a cambered ellipse with a drooped trailing edge. Experimental tests support the performance improvement predicted by numerical optimization.

  3. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  4. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, S.

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs

  5. Performance comparison of control schemes for variable-speed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Savini, B.

    2007-07-01

    We analyze the performance of different control schemes when applied to the regulation problem of a variable-speed representative wind turbine. In particular, we formulate and compare a wind-scheduled PID, a LQR controller and a novel adaptive non-linear model predictive controller, equipped with observers of the tower states and wind. The simulations include gusts and turbulent winds of varying intensity in nominal as well as off-design operating conditions. The experiments highlight the possible advantages of model-based non-linear control strategies.

  6. Performance comparison of control schemes for variable-speed wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottasso, C L; Croce, A; Savini, B

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the performance of different control schemes when applied to the regulation problem of a variable-speed representative wind turbine. In particular, we formulate and compare a wind-scheduled PID, a LQR controller and a novel adaptive non-linear model predictive controller, equipped with observers of the tower states and wind. The simulations include gusts and turbulent winds of varying intensity in nominal as well as off-design operating conditions. The experiments highlight the possible advantages of model-based non-linear control strategies

  7. Implementation Of Automatic Wiper Speed Control And Headlight Modes Control Systems Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThetKoKo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a cars wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And according to the rain intensity the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam mode to low beam mode depending on the light intensity from the other vehicle coming from the opposite direction. The system comprises of PIC impedance sensor piezoelectric vibration sensor LDR headlamps and a DC motor to accurate the windshield wiper. Piezoelectric sensor is used to detect the rain intensity which is based on the piezoelectric effect. MATLAB software is used to achieve the designed goal.

  8. Can the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale be successfully used to predict Swedish drivers' speeding behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Henriette Wallén; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2010-07-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale in a Swedish sample of drivers. The second aim was to examine if this scale can be used to predict drivers' speeding behaviour. A sample of Swedish car owners (N=223) completed a questionnaire including questions based on the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale as well as questions about their speeding behaviour. The results showed a five factor solution including own skills, own behaviour, other drivers, vehicle/environment and fate. Own behaviour and vehicle/environment could be used to predict drivers' speeding behaviour on roads with a 90 km/h speed limit while none of the variables included in the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale could be used to predict drivers' speeding behaviour on roads with a 50 km/h speed limit. On 90 km/h roads own behaviour was positively related to drivers' speeding behaviour while vehicle/environment was negatively related to their speeding behaviour. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Speed Sensorless mixed sensitivity linear parameter variant H_inf control of the induction motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, R.; Fodor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the design of a robust control structure for the speed sensorless vector control of the IM, based on the mixed sensitivity (MS) linear parameter variant (LPV) H8 control theory. The controller makes possible the direct control of the flux and speed of the motor with torque adaptation

  10. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances. It is based on the mixed 'stator current - rotor flux linkage' induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with saturation included behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  11. Pitch Motion Stabilization by Propeller Speed Control Using Statistical Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakatani, Toshihiko; Blanke, Mogens; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes dynamics analysis of a small training boat and a possibility of ship pitch stabilization by control of propeller speed. After upgrading the navigational system of an actual small training boat, in order to identify the model of the ship, the real data collected by sea trials...... were used for statistical analysis and system identification. This analysis shows that the pitching motion is indeed influenced by engine speed and it is suggested that there exists a possibility of reducing the pitching motion by properly controlling the engine throttle. Based on this observation...

  12. Design and FPGA-implementation of an improved adaptive fuzzy logic controller for DC motor speed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ramadan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved adaptive fuzzy logic speed controller for a DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA hardware implementation. The developed controller includes an adaptive fuzzy logic control (AFLC algorithm, which is designed and verified with a nonlinear model of DC motor. Then, it has been synthesised, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE and Spartan-3E FPGA. The performance of this controller has been successfully validated with good tracking results under different operating conditions.

  13. Simplified Fuzzy Control for Flux-Weakening Speed Control of IPMSM Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified fuzzy logic-based speed control scheme of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM above the base speed using a flux-weakening method. In this work, nonlinear expressions of d-axis and q-axis currents of the IPMSM have been derived and subsequently incorporated in the control algorithm for the practical purpose in order to implement fuzzy-based flux-weakening strategy to operate the motor above the base speed. The fundamentals of fuzzy logic algorithms as related to motor control applications are also illustrated. A simplified fuzzy speed controller (FLC for the IPMSM drive has been designed and incorporated in the drive system to maintain high performance standards. The efficacy of the proposed simplified FLC-based IPMSM drive is verified by simulation at various dynamic operating conditions. The simplified FLC is found to be robust and efficient. Laboratory test results of proportional integral (PI controller-based IPMSM drive have been compared with the simulated results of fuzzy controller-based flux-weakening IPMSM drive system.

  14. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Parsapoor, Amir; Moallem, Mehdi; Lucas, Caro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  15. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  16. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  17. Ensuring Control Processes Quality in Relay System Without Speed Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Simonyants

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers topical issues of constructing relay systems to control spacecraft attitude and stabilization with no speed sensors (SS owing to use of internal feedback (IF. To research this system by point methods, e.g. a point mapping method, is difficult because of the need to solve the transcendent equations containing parameters both of control object and of IF. We propose the “diagram of superimpositions" (DS method based on topological transformations of the phase space and introduction of a relative time, which enables us to solve engineering problems in analysis and synthesis effectively.The concept of the method is based on the assertion that there is an unambiguous dependence between quality of dynamical regimes in the control system and characteristics of IF transition function. To justify the method a simplified mathematical model of spacecraft motion is applied. The following conditions are accepted: perturbations can be neglected; when the control function is activated, the signal of IF is equal to zero. To the phase surfaces are applied topological symmetry transformations, alignment and projection onto the plane with one of its coordinates being the relative time.The paper gives specific examples of systems with aperiodic feedback (AF for two versions of parameters to satisfy the requirements: I – in quality of self-oscillation mode (by pulse width in the limit cycle; II – in quality of transition process (lack of sliding modes. It is shown that the requirements II and I are contradictory for the system with AF while the sliding modes are unacceptable.It is shown that DS can be used to synthesize the IF to meet requirements of both steady and transient processes consistently. Using the IF it is possible to implement the shutdown laws of the control action on the DS without SS, the same as in case of using the SS. It is shown that in sliding modes transient processes poor in quality can be completely eliminated by

  18. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simley, Eric J.

    Wind turbines typically rely on feedback controllers to maximize power capture in below-rated conditions and regulate rotor speed during above-rated operation. However, measurements of the approaching wind provided by Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) can be used as part of a preview-based, or feedforward, control system in order to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce structural loads. But the effectiveness of preview-based control depends on how accurately lidar can measure the wind that will interact with the turbine. In this thesis, lidar measurement error is determined using a statistical frequency-domain wind field model including wind evolution, or the change in turbulent wind speeds between the time they are measured and when they reach the turbine. Parameters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5-MW reference turbine model are used to determine measurement error for a hub-mounted circularly-scanning lidar scenario, based on commercially-available technology, designed to estimate rotor effective uniform and shear wind speed components. By combining the wind field model, lidar model, and turbine parameters, the optimal lidar scan radius and preview distance that yield the minimum mean square measurement error, as well as the resulting minimum achievable error, are found for a variety of wind conditions. With optimized scan scenarios, it is found that relatively low measurement error can be achieved, but the attainable measurement error largely depends on the wind conditions. In addition, the impact of the induction zone, the region upstream of the turbine where the approaching wind speeds are reduced, as well as turbine yaw error on measurement quality is analyzed. In order to minimize the mean square measurement error, an optimal measurement prefilter is employed, which depends on statistics of the correlation between the preview measurements and the wind that interacts with the turbine. However, because the wind speeds encountered by

  19. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of an Operating Helical Rotor Pump at High Speeds and High Pressures including Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressures, high speeds, low noise and miniaturization is the direction of development in hydraulic pump. According to the development trend, an operating helical rotor pump (HRP at high speeds and high pressures has been designed and produced, which rotational speed can reach 12000r/min and outlet pressure is as high as 25MPa. Three-dimensional simulation with and without cavitation inside the HRP is completed by the means of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD in this paper, which contributes to understand the complex fluid flow inside it. Moreover, the influences of the rotational speeds of the HRP with and without cavitation has been simulated at 25MPa.

  20. Control of a high-speed switched reluctance machine using only the DC-link measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkov, Sava; De Jager, Bram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel speed control strategy for a high-speed Switched Reluctance Machine that uses only the DC-link voltage and current measurements. This eliminates a number of hardware components such as position, speed, phase current and phase voltage sensors. It further lowers the

  1. Proposed torque optimized behavior for digital speed control of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.M.B.; El-Shewy, H.M.; El-Kholy, M.M. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Zagazig (Egypt); Abdel-Kader, F.E. [Menoufyia Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Menoufyia (Egypt)

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, a control strategy for speed control of induction motors with field orientation is proposed. The proposed method adjusts the output voltage and frequency of the converter to operate the motor at the desired speed with maximum torque per ampere at all load torques keeping the torque angle equal to 90 deg. A comparison between the performance characteristics of a 2 hp induction motor using three methods of speed control is presented. These methods are the proposed method, the direct torque control method and the constant V/f method. The comparison showed that better performance characteristics are obtained using the proposed speed control strategy. A computer program, based on this method, is developed. Starting from the motor parameters, the program calculates a data set for the stator voltage and frequency required to obtain maximum torque per ampere at any motor speed and load torque. This data set can be used by the digital speed control system of induction motors. (Author)

  2. A new method for speed control of a DC motor using magnetorheological clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    In this research, a new method to control speed of DC motor using magnetorheological (MR) clutch is proposed and realized. Firstly, the strategy of a DC motor speed control using MR clutch is proposed. The MR clutch configuration is then proposed and analyzed based on Bingham-plastic rheological model of MR fluid. An optimal designed of the MR clutch is then studied to find out the optimal geometric dimensions of the clutch that can transform a required torque with minimum mass. A prototype of the optimized MR clutch is then manufactured and its performance characteristics are experimentally investigated. A DC motor speed control system featuring the optimized MR clutch is designed and manufactured. A PID controller is then designed to control the output speed of the system. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed DC motor speed control system, experimental results of the system such as speed tracking performance are obtained and presented with discussions.

  3. Optimage central organised image quality control including statistics and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Schilz, C.; Shannoun, F.; Schreiner, A.; Hermen, J.; Moll, C.

    2008-01-01

    Quality control of medical imaging systems is performed using dedicated phantoms. As the imaging systems are more and more digital, adequate image processing methods might help to save evaluation time and to receive objective results. The developed software package OPTIMAGE is focusing on this with a central approach: On one hand, OPTIMAGE provides a framework, which includes functions like database integration, DICOM data sources, multilingual user interface and image processing functionality. On the other hand, the test methods are implemented using modules which are able to process the images automatically for the common imaging systems. The integration of statistics and reporting into this environment is paramount: This is the only way to provide these functions in an interactive, user-friendly way. These features enable the users to discover degradation in performance quickly and document performed measurements easily. (authors)

  4. Real Time Implementation of a DC Motor Speed Control by Fuzzy Logic Controller and PI Controller Using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakthivel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic control has met with growing interest in many motor control applications due to its non-linearity, handling features and independence of plant modelling. The hardware implementation of fuzzy logic controller (FLC on FPGA is very important because of the increasing number of fuzzy applications requiring highly parallel and high speed fuzzy processing. Implementation of a fuzzy logic controller and conventional PI controller on an FPGA using VHDL for DC motor speed control is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme is to improve tracking performance of D.C. motor as compared to the conventional (PI control strategy .This paper describes the hardware implementation of two inputs (error and change in error, one output fuzzy logic controller based on PI controller and conventional PI controller using VHDL. Real time implementation FLC and conventional PI controller is made on Spartan-3A DSP FPGA (XC3SD1800A FPGA for the speed control of DC motor. It is observed that fuzzy logic based controllers give better responses than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of dc motor.

  5. Torque control of synchronous and induction generators for variable speed operation of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Ola; Ulen, E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate variable speed electrical systems. Synchronous generators with diode rectifiers and line-commutated thyristor converters are compared with induction generators with force commutated transistor converters and scalar control. The system characteristics are examined regarding possible speed of response (bandwidth) of the torque control, including the sensitivity to disturbances for the drive train and also the possibility to get damping of the drive train resonance. Analyses, simulations and laboratory tests with a 40 kW machine set-up have been performed. The investigation shows that the system with synchronous generator is well suited for wind power applications. A rapid standard DC-current regulator is included in the torque control and can be used for damping of the resonance. The torque control has a bandwidth up to about 3 Hz and the DC-voltage controller up to about 1 Hz. The system with induction generator with scalar control (no transformations) is more difficult to control. A linear approach is only possible up to about 1.5 Hz. In this region it turns out that the behaviour can be visualized as an added inertia on the generator side that can be rather big. 4 refs, 9 figs

  6. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  7. Artificial intelligence-based speed control of DTC induction motor drives - A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadoue, S.M.; Giaouris, D.; Finch, J.W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    The design of the speed controller greatly affects the performance of an electric drive. A common strategy to control an induction machine is to use direct torque control combined with a PI speed controller. These schemes require proper and continuous tuning and therefore adaptive controllers are proposed to replace conventional PI controllers to improve the drive's performance. This paper presents a comparison between four different speed controller design strategies based on artificial intelligence techniques; two are based on tuning of conventional PI controllers, the third makes use of a fuzzy logic controller and the last is based on hybrid fuzzy sliding mode control theory. To provide a numerical comparison between different controllers, a performance index based on speed error is assigned. All methods are applied to the direct torque control scheme and each control strategy has been tested for its robustness and disturbance rejection ability. (author)

  8. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Weihao Hu; Yunqian Zhang; Zhe Chen; Yanting Hu

    2013-01-01

    Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution) power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the sign...

  9. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor speed loop controller based on sliding mode control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jiang; Meng-wei, Liao; Ming-jie, Luo

    2018-03-01

    Abstract.The control performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor will be affected by the fluctuation or changes of mechanical parameters when PMSM is applied as driving motor in actual electric vehicle,and external disturbance would influence control robustness.To improve control dynamic quality and robustness of PMSM speed control system, a new second order integral sliding mode control algorithm is introduced into PMSM vector control.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control,the modified control scheme optimized has better control precision and dynamic response ability and perform better with a stronger robustness facing external disturbance,it can effectively solve the traditional sliding mode variable structure control chattering problems as well.

  10. Acceleration of small, light projectiles (including hydrogen isotopes) to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Small, light projectiles have been accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With 35-mg plastic projectiles (4 mm in diameter), speeds of up to 4.5 km/s have been recorded. The ''pipe gun'' technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in situ in the gun barrel has been used to accelerate deuterium pellets (nominal diameter of 4 mm) to velocities of up to 2.85 km/s. The primary application of this technology is for plasma fueling of fusion devices via pellet injection of hydrogen isotopes. Conventional pellet injectors are limited to pellet speeds in the range 1-2 km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for plasma fueling applications, and the two-stage pneumatic technique offers performance in a higher velocity regime. However, experimental results indicate that the use of sabots to encase the cryogenic pellets and protect them for the high peak pressures will be required to reliably attain intact pellets at speeds of ∼3 km/s or greater. In some limited tests, lithium hydride pellets were accelerated to speeds of up to 4.2 km/s. Also, repetitive operation of the two-stage gun (four plastic pellets fired at ∼0.5 Hz) was demonstrated for the first time in preliminary tests. The equipment and operation are described, and experimental results and some comparisons with a theoretical model are presented. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  12. Electronic control of a 4-speed automatic transmission with lock-up clutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the electronic control of an automatic 4-speed transmission with lock-up clutch. As compared to purely hydraulically controlled transmissions, this control offers a clearly improved quality of shifting and the possibility of achieving improvements in fuel consumption thanks to a special economy program. The electronic control unit is a Bosch MOTRONIC which has been expanded to include the functions of transmission control. A special feature is the engine torque control which is implemented by way of retarding the ignition when shifting. This opens up an additional degree of freedom for optimizing a transmission in terms of shift comfort, life of the friction elements and the power which can be transmitted.

  13. Model-Based Brake Control including Tyre Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, E.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to develop a method for controlled braking of a vehicle. The brake pedal depression has been considered to be proportional to the intended deceleration. The brake controller is not aimed to replace a cruise control; it will have an anti-lock braking (ABS) function. The

  14. Camera System Deployment for Speeding Control in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Ebrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, the Auditor-General plays the role of checking on system fiscal efficiency, performance and effective communications between safety professionals and the public road users. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of public approval of the information that is to be released, e.g. camera strategic initiatives assessed by through mail-out questionnaires. Two visual-and- policy related attributes were investigated in these questionnaires. Each attribute had 5 initiatives. A multi-logistic regression is performed on the approval level of the drivers for the strategic initiative of running a speed-awareness course. This initiative is determined to be statistically significant using independent variables age, years of experience, status, gender, and the driver environment. Our analysis shows that the driver environment/background is found to be a significant independent variable for approving speed awareness courses. The road users from non-industrial areas are more likely to approve the idea of speed awareness courses than road users from industrial areas. They also welcome tougher demerit rules and the police enforcement. Our study suggests the speed awareness course, an educational initiative, should incorporate the tougher demerit rules to change the repetitive offender's driving behaviour. It is foreseeable that once these drivers are enrolled into the course, safer driving practices would be achieved for mitigating dangers, risk and trauma as the result of speeding. Our study may benefit professionals involved with improving traffic safety such as those in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and the Arab gulf countries particularly the kingdom of Saudi Arabia where a high number of fatalities and serious injuries involved speeding. Our study confirms that positive, transparent and satisfying initiative should be executed with care to maintain sustainable and safer roads for enhancing national partnership between road users

  15. Control design for a pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.H.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Larsen, Torben J.

    2005-01-01

    The three different controller designs presented herein are similar and all based on PI-regulation of rotor speed and power through the collective blade pitch angle and generator moment. The aeroelastic and electrical modelling used for the time-domainanalysis of these controllers are however...... different, which makes a directly quantitative comparison difficult. But there are some observations of similar behaviours should be mentioned: • Very similar step responses in rotor speed, pitch angle, and powerare seen for simulations with steps in wind speed. • All controllers show a peak in power...... for wind speed step-up over rated wind speed, which can be almost removed by changing the parameters of the frequency converter. • Responses of rotor speed, pitchangle, and power for different simulations with turbulent inflow are similar for all three controllers. Again, there seems to be an advantage...

  16. Energy-optimal speed control of fans and compressor in a refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    Use of variable speed compressors and variable speed fans for both the evaporator and the condenser makes the refrigeration system more flexible, adds to the degree of freedom of the control system and therefore makes it possible to (on-line) optimise the various speeds involved. Say, for example...... and therefore the achievement of the potential for energy saving. This control/optimisation problem is investigated using a steady-state simulation model....

  17. Position and Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors Using Sensorless Techniques and Application Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez-Gil

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order and Artificial Neural Networks.

  18. Fuzzy Adaptive Model Following Speed Control for Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad BELABES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.

  19. Non Linear, Time Variant Speed Control of a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin Woo

    2009-01-01

    A high torque ripple in a given motor always presents a challenge for the speed control, since this ripple may lead to excessive actuation and ultimately may even lead to instability. The conventional solution is to low pass filter the measured speed, but this lowers dynamic control performance...

  20. Simulation model of an active-stall fixed-speed wind turbine controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.; Hansen, A.D.; Sorensen, P.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an active-stall wind turbine controller. The objective is to develop a general model of an active stall controller in order to simulate the operation of grid connected active stall wind turbines. The active stall turbine concept and its control strategies are presented and evaluated by simulations. The presented controller is described for continuous operation under all wind speeds from start-up wind speed to shut down wind speed. Due to its parametric implementation it is general i. e. it can represent different active stall wind turbine controllers and can be implemented in different simulation tools. (author)

  1. Transient performance of integrated SOFC system including spatial temperature control

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F; Fardadi, M; Shaffer, B; Brouwer, J; Jabbari, F

    2010-01-01

    Spatial temperature feedback control has been developed for a simulated integrated non-pressurized simple cycle solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The fuel cell spatial temperature feedback controller is based on (1) feed-forward set-points that minimize temperature variation in the fuel cell electrode-electrolyte solid temperature profile for the system operating power range, and (2) decentralized proportional-integral based feedback to maintain the fuel cell spatial temperature profile du...

  2. A Control Simulation Method of High-Speed Trains on Railway Network with Irregular Influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixing; Li Xiang; Li Keping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the discrete time method, an effective movement control model is designed for a group of highspeed trains on a rail network. The purpose of the model is to investigate the specific traffic characteristics of high-speed trains under the interruption of stochastic irregular events. In the model, the high-speed rail traffic system is supposed to be equipped with the moving-block signalling system to guarantee maximum traversing capacity of the railway. To keep the safety of trains' movements, some operational strategies are proposed to control the movements of trains in the model, including traction operation, braking operation, and entering-station operation. The numerical simulations show that the designed model can well describe the movements of high-speed trains on the rail network. The research results can provide the useful information not only for investigating the propagation features of relevant delays under the irregular disturbance but also for rerouting and rescheduling trains on the rail network. (general)

  3. Speed-constrained three-axes attitude control using kinematic steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Piggott, Scott

    2018-06-01

    Spacecraft attitude control solutions typically are torque-level algorithms that simultaneously control both the attitude and angular velocity tracking errors. In contrast, robotic control solutions are kinematic steering commands where rates are treated as the control variable, and a servo-tracking control subsystem is present to achieve the desired control rates. In this paper kinematic attitude steering controls are developed where an outer control loop establishes a desired angular response history to a tracking error, and an inner control loop tracks the commanded body angular rates. The overall stability relies on the separation principle of the inner and outer control loops which must have sufficiently different response time scales. The benefit is that the outer steering law response can be readily shaped to a desired behavior, such as limiting the approach angular velocity when a large tracking error is corrected. A Modified Rodrigues Parameters implementation is presented that smoothly saturates the speed response. A robust nonlinear body rate servo loop is developed which includes integral feedback. This approach provides a convenient modular framework that makes it simple to interchange outer and inner control loops to readily setup new control implementations. Numerical simulations illustrate the expected performance for an aggressive reorientation maneuver subject to an unknown external torque.

  4. Speed Synchronization of Multi Induction Motors with Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HACHEMI Glaoui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. Aspeed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed controlstrategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designedcontroller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Direct Torque Control System for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Fuzzy Speed Pi Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabti, K.; Abed, K.; Benalla, H.

    2008-06-01

    The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) speed regulation with a conventional PI regulator reduces the speed control precision, increase the torque fluctuation, and consequentially low performances of the whole system. With utilisation of fuzzy logic method, this paper presents the self adaptation of conventional PI regulator parameters Kp and Ki (proportional and integral coefficients respectively), using to regulate the speed in Direct Torque Control strategy (DTC). The ripples of both torque and flux are reduced remarkable, small overshooting and good dynamic of the speed and torque. Simulation results verify the proposed method validity.

  6. Decoupled Speed and Torque Control of IPMSM Drives Using a Novel Load Torque Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKY, M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes decoupled speed and torque control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM drives using a novel load torque estimator (LTE. The proposed LTE is applied for computing a load torque and yielding a feed-forward value in the speed controller to separate the torque control from the speed control. Indirect flux weakening using direct current component is obtained for high speed operation of the IPMSM drive, and its value for maximum torque per ampere (MTPA control in constant torque region is also used. LTE uses values of direct and quadrature currents to improve the behavior of the speed controller under the reference tracking and torque disturbances. The complete IPMSM drive by Matlab/Simulink is built. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using an experimental setup of the complete drive system implemented on a DSP-DS1102 control board is confirmed. Extensive results over a wide speed range are verified. The efficacy of the proposed method is confirmed in comparison to a conventional PI controller under both the reference speed tracking and load torque disturbance.

  7. Position control of a wheeled mobile robot including tire behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Schouten, H.E.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems are increasingly available on road vehicles. These systems require a thorough development procedure, an important part of which consists of hardware-in-the-loop experiments in a controlled environment. To this end, a facility called Vehicle Hardware-In-the-Loop

  8. Efficiency of particle swarm optimization applied on fuzzy logic DC motor speed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaoua Boumediene

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Fuzzy Logic for DC motor speed control using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. Firstly, the controller designed according to Fuzzy Logic rules is such that the systems are fundamentally robust. Secondly, the Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC used earlier was optimized with PSO so as to obtain optimal adjustment of the membership functions only. Finally, the FLC is completely optimized by Swarm Intelligence Algorithms. Digital simulation results demonstrate that in comparison with the FLC the designed FLC-PSO speed controller obtains better dynamic behavior and superior performance of the DC motor, as well as perfect speed tracking with no overshoot.

  9. Fuzzy Control of Idle Speed in a Ford Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Mamdani, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, initial configuration, final configuration, tuning, controller assessment results, conclusions, references, appendix 1: tuning procedure, Appendix 2: assessment results by Cambridge Control....

  10. Investigation of Inner Loop Flight Control Strategies for High-Speed Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Brett; Kassem, Ayman

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the activities and findings conducted under contract NAS1-19858 with NASA Langley Research Center. Subject matter is the investigation of suitable flight control design methodologies and solutions for large, flexible high-speed vehicles. Specifically, methodologies are to address the inner control loops used for stabilization and augmentation of a highly coupled airframe system possibly involving rigid-body motion, structural vibrations, unsteady aerodynamics, and actuator dynamics. Techniques considered in this body of work are primarily conventional-based, and the vehicle of interest is the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Major findings include 1) current aeroelastic vehicle modeling procedures require further emphasis and refinement, 2) traditional and nontraditional inner loop flight control strategies employing a single feedback loop do not appear sufficient for highly flexible HSCT class vehicles, 3) inner loop flight control systems will, in all likelihood, require multiple interacting feedback loops, and 4) Ref. H HSCT configuration presents major challenges to designing acceptable closed-loop flight dynamics.

  11. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Application of a fuzzy control algorithm with improved learning speed to nuclear steam generator level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the load of tuning works by trial-and-error for obtaining the best control performance of conventional fuzzy control algorithm, a fuzzy control algorithm with learning function is investigated in this work. This fuzzy control algorithm can make its rule base and tune the membership functions automatically by use of learning function which needs the data from the control actions of the plant operator or other controllers. Learning process in fuzzy control algorithm is to find the optimal values of parameters, which consist of the membership functions and the rule base, by gradient descent method. Learning speed of gradient descent is significantly improved in this work with the addition of modified momentum. This control algorithm is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the good performance of this control algorithm for level control and show that the fuzzy learning algorithm has the generalization capability for the relation of inputs and outputs and it also has the excellent capability of disturbance rejection

  13. Explicit Generalized Predictive Control of Speed and Position of PMSM Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Vošmik, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2016), s. 3889-3896 ISSN 0278-0046 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : current limitation * field weakening * motion control * permanent magnet synchronous motors * position control * predictive control * speed control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 7.168, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/belda-0457259.pdf

  14. Multi-objective PID Optimization for Speed Control of an Isolated Steam Turbine using Gentic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kr. Singh; D. Boolchandani; S.G. Modani; Nitish Katal

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine...

  15. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind tu......-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions....

  16. Should desperate volunteers be included in randomised controlled trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P; Mason, S

    2006-09-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) sometimes recruit participants who are desperate to receive the experimental treatment. This paper defends the practice against three arguments that suggest it is unethical first, desperate volunteers are not in equipoise. Second clinicians, entering patients onto trials are disavowing their therapeutic obligation to deliver the best treatment; they are following trial protocols rather than delivering individualised care. Research is not treatment; its ethical justification is different. Consent is crucial. Third, desperate volunteers do not give proper consent: effectively, they are coerced. This paper responds by advocating a notion of equipoise based on expert knowledge and widely shared values. Where such collective, expert equipoise exists there is a prima facie case for an RCT. Next the paper argues that trial entry does not involve clinicians disavowing their therapeutic obligation; individualised care based on insufficient evidence is not in patients best interest. Finally, it argues that where equipoise exists it is acceptable to limit access to experimental agents; desperate volunteers are not coerced because their desperation does not translate into a right to receive what they desire.

  17. Pulsewidth Modulated Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    sped acca - racy of the motoc is defined as tne difference Letweer the maximum and mir.imum motor speed divided by the commai. =e/ s~eed. TABLE I Motor...TO = .OOC C L N I5 THE SYvSTEM ELECTRICAL TIME CONSTANT lN = INCIC/RES F6 (1.c/FREcj D C/100. lIME =Ph 71ME2 l .CiFJREQ PMs C C EO IS THE BACK EtMF C...iu-8.2 J WR ITE (b , -0 I rI M 50 FGRM AT 11 ) t’I1N: 0,Fl 0 3,v ItM : a F10..3) WRITE (6t CC) IAV,IRMS 100 f -.FM tT 1 Xj IAV = ’ ,F 8.4,, v I11RMS F6

  18. Control model design to limit DC-link voltage during grid fault in a dfig variable speed wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Cajethan M.; Ogbuka, Cosmas U.; Oti, Stephen E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a control model design capable of inhibiting the phenomenal rise in the DC-link voltage during grid- fault condition in a variable speed wind turbine. Against the use of power circuit protection strategies with inherent limitations in fault ride-through capability, a control circuit algorithm capable of limiting the DC-link voltage rise which in turn bears dynamics that has direct influence on the characteristics of the rotor voltage especially during grid faults is here proposed. The model results so obtained compare favorably with the simulation results as obtained in a MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The generated model may therefore be used to predict near accurately the nature of DC-link voltage variations during fault given some factors which include speed and speed mode of operation, the value of damping resistor relative to half the product of inner loop current control bandwidth and the filter inductance.

  19. Implementation of PID Controller in MATLAB for Real Time DC Motor Speed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Reddy H. K.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of PIDC (proportional + integral + derivative controller in MATLAB environment for real time DC motor speed control is presented. The MATLAB environment is chosen because of availability of tool boxes which allows the effective way of implementation and analysis of the control system. The performance of PID controller for different inputs is studied. To establish a communication between PC and process parameter, an indigenous Analog to digital and digital to analog (AD-DA board is designed. This board consists of 12-bit A/D converter and 12-bit D/A converter to facilitate the data acquisition and control. In the present study Advantech make PCI-1751 DIOT card is used to interface AD-DA board to PC externally. The data between the AD-DA board and the PC is communicated through the script file written in MATLAB environment. By applying different standard test commands such as step, square, staircase and triangular, the performance of PID controller is studied. The PID controller provides better system response in terms of transient as well as steady-state performances. The controller parameters are manually tuned (kp=0.232, ki=0.078 and kd=0.035 and the results of the best tuned PID controller are presented.

  20. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

  1. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  2. Sensorless Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors by Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sliding mode control has the merits with respect to the variation of the disturbance and robustness. In this paper, the sensorless sliding-mode observer with least mean squared error approach for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to detect the rotor position by counter electromotive force and then compute motor speed is designed and implemented. In addition, the neural network control is also used to compensate the PI gain tuning to increase the speed accuracy without regarding the errors of the current measurement and motor noise. In this paper, a digital signal processor TMS320F2812 utilizes its high-speed ADC module to get current feedback information and thus to estimate the rotor position and takes advantage of the built-in modules to achieve SVPWM current control so that the senseless speed control will be accomplished. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control system will be verified from the experimental results.

  3. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind turbine. The present control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The strongest feature of the implemented control method is that it allows the turbine to operate with the optimum power efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions.

  4. Wind Turbine Generator Modeling and Simulation Where Rotational Speed is the Controlled Variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2004-01-01

    the interaction between a wind turbine and the power system. The model is intended to simulate the behaviour of the wind turbine using induction generators both during normal operation. Sample simulation results for two induction generators (2/0.5 MW) validate the fundamental issues.......To optimise the power produced in a wind turbine, the speed of the turbine should vary with the wind speed. A simple control method is proposed that will allow an induction machine to run a turbine at its maximum power coefficient. Various types of power control strategies have been suggested...... for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The paper describes a model, which is being developed to simulate...

  5. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

  6. Prefrontal, posterior parietal and sensorimotor network activity underlying speed control during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Bulea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests cortical circuits may contribute to control of human locomotion. Here, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG recorded from able-bodied volunteers during a novel treadmill walking paradigm was used to assess neural correlates of walking. A systematic processing method, including a recently developed subspace reconstruction algorithm, reduced movement-related EEG artifact prior to independent component analysis and dipole source localization. We quantified cortical activity while participants tracked slow and fast target speeds across two treadmill conditions: an active mode that adjusted belt speed based on user movements and a passive mode reflecting a typical treadmill. Our results reveal frequency specific, multi-focal task related changes in cortical oscillations elicited by active walking. Low γ band power, localized to the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, was significantly increased during double support and early swing phases, critical points in the gait cycle since the active controller adjusted speed based on pelvis position and swing foot velocity. These phasic γ band synchronizations provide evidence that prefrontal and posterior parietal networks, previously implicated in visuo-spatial and somotosensory integration, are engaged to enhance lower limb control during gait. Sustained μ and β band desynchronization within sensorimotor cortex, a neural correlate for movement, was observed during walking thereby validating our methods for isolating cortical activity. Our results also demonstrate the utility of EEG recorded during locomotion for probing the multi-regional cortical networks which underpin its execution. For example, the cortical network engagement elicited by the active treadmill suggests that it may enhance neuroplasticity for more effective motor training.

  7. An improvement of speed control performances of a two-mass system using a universal approximator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Blåbjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    A new control scheme using a universal approximator based on a radial basis ti.tnction network (RBFN) is proposed and investigated for improving the control characteristics of the high-performance motion control system. This control method presents better performance in the corresponding speed vi...

  8. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambregts, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

  9. Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; De Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2015-01-01

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a longer-term driving simulator study including 12 repeated measures spread out over 4 weeks. Nine healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 9 drivers between the ages of 68 and 82 years diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) participated in the study. Within the 4 weeks, groups completed 12 consecutive sessions (10 with ADAS and 2 without ADAS) in a driving simulator. Results indicate an effect of ADAS use on performance. Removing ADAS after short-term exposure led to deterioration of performance in all speed measures in the group of drivers diagnosed with PD. These results suggest that provision of traffic information was utilized by drivers diagnosed with PD in order to control their speed.

  10. Speed control with torque ripple reduction of switched reluctance motor by Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control scheme for simultaneous control of the speed of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM and minimizing the torque ripple employing Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search Algorithm (Hybrid MOLGSA technique. The control mechanism includes two controlling loops, the outer loop is governed for speed control and a current controller for the inner loop, intelligent selection of turn on and turn off angle for a 60 KW, 3-phase 6/8 SRM. It is noticed that the torque ripple coefficient, ISE of speed & current are reduced by 12.81%, 38.60%, 16.74% respectively by Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA algorithm. It is also observed that the settling times for the controller using the parameter values for obtaining best values of torque ripple, Integral square error of speed and current are reduced by 51.25%, 58.04% and 59.375% by proposed Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to the GSA algorithm.

  11. Applications of variable speed control for contending with recurrent highway congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This research project developed vital operational guidelines for design of a variable speed limit (VSL) system and its integrated operations with ramp metering control in contending with recurrent highway congestion. The developed guidelines can serv...

  12. Neuro-Fuzzy DC Motor Speed Control Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediene ALLAOUA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS control for DC motor speed optimized with swarm collective intelligence. First, the controller is designed according to Fuzzy rules such that the systems are fundamentally robust. Secondly, an adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy controller of the DC motor speed is then designed and simulated; the ANFIS has the advantage of expert knowledge of the Fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. Finally, the ANFIS is optimized by Swarm Intelligence. Digital simulation results demonstrate that the deigned ANFIS-Swarm speed controller realize a good dynamic behavior of the DC motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot, give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the ANFIS alone.

  13. PSO-based PID Speed Control of Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor under Temperature Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Traveling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUSMs) have a time varying dynamics characteristics. Temperature rise in TWUSMs remains a problem particularly in sustaining optimum speed performance. In this study, a PID controller is used to control the speed of TWUSM under temperature disturbance. Prior to developing the controller, a linear approximation model which relates the speed to the temperature is developed based on the experimental data. Two tuning methods are used to determine PID parameters: conventional Ziegler-Nichols(ZN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The comparison of speed control performance between PSO-PID and ZN-PID is presented. Modelling, simulation and experimental work is carried out utilizing Fukoku-Shinsei USR60 as the chosen TWUSM. The results of the analyses and experimental work reveal that PID tuning using PSO-based optimization has the advantage over the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method.

  14. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  15. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Su Kim; Il-Yop Chung; Seung-Il Moon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI con...

  16. The effect of speed-accuracy strategy on response interference control in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, S A; van den Wildenberg, W P M; Ridderinkhof, K R; Bashore, T R; Powell, V D; Manning, C A; Wooten, G F

    2009-07-01

    Studies that used conflict paradigms such as the Eriksen Flanker task show that many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have pronounced difficulty resolving the conflict that arises from the simultaneous activation of mutually exclusive responses. This finding fits well with contemporary views that postulate a key role for the basal ganglia in action selection. The present experiment aims to specify the cognitive processes that underlie action selection deficits among PD patients in the context of variations in speed-accuracy strategy. PD patients (n=28) and healthy controls (n=17) performed an arrow version of the flanker task under task instructions that either emphasized speed or accuracy of responses. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy rates decreased with speed compared to accuracy instructions, although to a lesser extent for the PD group. Differences in flanker interference effects among PD and healthy controls depended on speed-accuracy strategy. Compared to the healthy controls, PD patients showed larger flanker interference effects under speed stress. RT distribution analyses suggested that PD patients have greater difficulty suppressing incorrect response activation when pressing for speed. These initial findings point to an important interaction between strategic and computational aspects of interference control in accounting for cognitive impairments of PD. The results are also compatible with recent brain imaging studies that demonstrate basal ganglia activity to co-vary with speed-accuracy adjustments.

  17. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Wenchuan; Liao, Wenhao; Li, Danyong; Song, Yongduan

    2014-01-01

    Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST) is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate t...

  18. Speed Sensorless Control of PMSM using Model Reference Adaptive System and RBFN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gao; Zhirong Guo

    2013-01-01

    In the speed sensorless vector control system, the amended method of estimating the rotor speed about model reference adaptive system (MRAS) based on radial basis function neural network (RBFN) for PMSM sensorless vector control system was presented. Based on the PI regulator, the radial basis function neural network which is more prominent learning efficiency and performance is combined with MRAS. The reference model and the adjust model are the PMSM itself and the PMSM current, respectively...

  19. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saygin Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  20. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  1. Control of variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    draIn this paper, a Control method suitable for a variable speed grid connected pitch-controlled wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is developed. The targets of the Control system are: 1) to Control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine optimum operation point 2) to limit the power in case of high wind speeds and 3) to Control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The considered configuration of DFIG is an induction generator with a wound rotor connected to the grid through a back-to-back power converter and a stator directly connected to the grid. The paper presents the overall Control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the Control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical Control level of the wind turbine. There are two Control levels: a DFIG Control level and wind turbine Control level. The DFIG Control level contains a fast Control of the power converter and of the doubly-fed induction generator and it has as goal to Control the active and reactive power of the wind turbine independently. The wind turbine Control level supervises with Control signals both the DFIG Control level and the hydraulic pitch Control system of the wind turbine. The present Control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, which makes possible to investigate the dynamic performance of gid-connected wind turbines as a part of realistic electrical grid models. Several significant simulation results are performed With the overall Control-implemented algorithm applied on a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine model. (au)

  2. Speed control issues for tunnel-in-the-sky displays with predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Gottfried; Sperl, Roman

    2001-08-01

    Speed control issues are considered for tunnel-in-the-sky displays with a predictor presenting guidance information in a 3-dimensional format for flight path control. Factors driving the predictor design are described. With reference to the resulting predictor control law, it is shown that the pilot-predictor-aircraft system is stable for operation on the frontside of the power-required curve and unstable for operation on the reverse. This instability can be removed by thrust control. It is shown that this control loop is supported by the predictor control law because of favorable coupling effects between the two loops involved. Furthermore, an appropriate speed indication in the tunnel-in-the-sky display is considered an aid in manual speed control. The theoretical findings are supported by experimental results from pilot-in-the-loop simulations.

  3. State control of translational movement in high-speed Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, E

    1981-01-01

    The combination of state control with cascade control satisfies all demands made on train movements in a high-speed Maglev transportation system. The inner control loop compensates nonlinearities and disturbances and limits the acceleration. The dynamics of the control loop are determined by the riding characteristics. The superposed speed state control provides for running without overshoot within permissible limits. In order to reach a target point in the shortest possible time, the control signal for initiating the retardation is issued as late as possible and the speed is output as a function of position. The subsequent structure changeover to a position state control causes the train to come to a smooth halt at its destination in an almost optimal time.

  4. Very-low-speed variable-structure control of sensorless induction machine drives without signal injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Christian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A sensorless induction machine drive is presented, in which the principles of variable-structure control and direct torque control (DTC) are combined to ensure high-performance operation in the steady state and under transient conditions. The drive employs a new torque and flux controller......, the "linear and variable-structure control", which realizes accurate and robust control in a wide speed range. Conventional DTC transient merits are preserved, while the steady-state behavior is significantly improved. The full-order state observer is a sliding-mode one, which does not require the rotor speed...

  5. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  6. Speed control for a two-mass drive system using integrated fuzzy estimator and hybrid fuzzy PD/PI controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, N-S; Kuo, Y-P

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel speed control scheme for a 2- mass motor drive system. The speed controller is based on the estimated state feedback compensation. The integrated fuzzy observer can give a fast and accuracy estimation of the unmeasured states. Two kinds of hybrid fuzzy proportional-derivative and proportional-integral (HF PD/PI) are proposed to cope with this speed control problem. The first is the static HF PD/PI controller and the second is the dynamic one. Simulation results show that the developed integrated fuzzy observer provide the better estimation performance than that of the Kalman filter and the proposed control schemes can effectively track the desired speed in the presence of load disturbance

  7. On the modelling and partial-load control of variable-speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, P [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The focus of this thesis is on modelling and variable-speed control of wind turbines. A physical model structure including the fundamental drive-train mode is derived and validated by system-identification experiments on a full-scale wind turbine. The resulting, parametrized model has been used as a basis for an evaluation of controllers for partial-load operation, validated by non-linear simulations. This evaluation, including several controller concepts, verifies that a sophisticated controller becomes necessary, when stretching the limits in power-loss minimization. This control strategy also demands the sampling frequency to be pushed to a high level. As a consequence, the angular-position measurements become time correlated and, in the limit, periodic. It is shown in the thesis how the resulting, operating-point-dependent effects on the measurement errors influence the estimation quality, using a stationary Kalman filter as an example. A gain-scheduling estimation approach is shown to improve the performance. 39 refs, 63 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Electric Drive Control with Rotor Resistance and Rotor Speed Observers Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ben Regaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific researchers have proposed the control of the induction motor without speed sensor. These methods have the disadvantage that the variation of the rotor resistance causes an error of estimating the motor speed. Thus, simultaneous estimation of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is required. In this paper, a scheme for estimating simultaneously the rotor resistance and the rotor speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic has been developed. We present a method which is based on two adaptive observers using fuzzy logic without affecting each other and a simple algorithm in order to facilitate the determination of the optimal values of the controller gains. The control algorithm is proved by the simulation tests. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the two observers of the proposed method even in the case of variation of the rotor resistance.

  9. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

  10. Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R.; De Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Methods: Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a

  11. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 μs are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit

  12. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  13. Nonlinear Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives Taking into Account Mutual Inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rayan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A speed control algorithm is proposed for variable speed switched reluctance motor (SRM drives taking into account the effects of mutual inductances. The control scheme adopts two-phase excitation; exciting two adjacent phases can overcome the problems associated with single-phase excitation such as large torque ripple, increased acoustic noise, and rotor shaft fatigues. The effects of mutual coupling between two adjacent phases and their contribution to the generated electromagnetic torque are considered in the design of the proposed control scheme for the motor. The proposed controller guarantees the convergence of the currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results are given to illustrate the developed theory; the simulation studies show that the proposed controller works well. Moreover, the simulation results indicate that the proposed controller is robust to changes in the parameters of the motor and to changes in the load torque.

  14. A Comparison Study between Two MPPT Control Methods for a Large Variable-Speed Wind Turbine under Different Wind Speed Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongran Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs usually adopt a maximum power point tracking (MPPT method to optimize energy capture performance. Nevertheless, obtained performance offered by different MPPT methods may be affected by the impact of wind turbine (WT’s inertia and wind speed characteristics and it needs to be clarified. In this paper, the tip speed ratio (TSR and optimal torque (OT methods are investigated in terms of their performance under different wind speed characteristics on a 1.5 MW wind turbine model. To this end, the TSR control method based on an effective wind speed estimator and the OT control method are firstly presented. Then, their performance is investigated and compared through simulation test results under different wind speeds using Bladed software. Comparison results show that the TSR control method can capture slightly more wind energy at the cost of high component loads than the other one under all wind conditions. Furthermore, it is found that both control methods present similar trends of power reduction that is relevant to mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. From the obtained results, we demonstrate that, to further improve MPPT capability of large VSWTs, other advanced control methods using wind speed prediction information need to be addressed.

  15. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  16. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  17. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  18. Fuzzy sliding mode controller for doubly fed induction motor speed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the nonlinear fuzzy sliding mode method provides very good performance for motor operation and robustness of the control law despite the external/internal perturbations. The chattering effects is eliminated by a particular function "sat" that presents a serious problem to applications of variable structure systems.

  19. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... used to simulate critical engine failure must represent the most critical mode of powerplant failure with respect to controllability expected in service. (b) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at which, when... be necessary to reduce power or thrust of the operative engines. During recovery, the airplane may...

  20. 14 CFR 23.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not more than 5 degrees. The method used to simulate critical engine failure must represent the most critical mode of powerplant failure expected in service with respect to controllability. (b) VMC for... the critical engine is made inoperative to the point at which recovery to a direction parallel to the...

  1. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-06-05

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints.

  2. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

  3. Model predictive control of a high speed switched reluctance generator system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkov, Sava; De Jager, Bram; Steinbuch, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel voltage control strategy for the high-speed operation of a Switched Reluctance Generator. It uses a linear Model Predictive Control law based on the average system model. The controller computes the DC-link current needed to achieve the tracking of a desired voltage

  4. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  5. A disturbance decoupling nonlinear control law for variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a nonlinear control law for controlling variable speed wind turbines using feedback linearization. The novel aspect of the control law is its ability to decouple the effect of wind fluctuations. Furthermore, the transformation to feedback linearizable coordinates is chosen...

  6. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathryn E [Boulder, CO; Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  7. Robust Control for High-Speed Visual Servoing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Favrholdt, Peter; Paulin, Mads

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new control scheme for visual servoing applications. The approach employs quadratic optimization, and explicitly handles both joint position, velocity and acceleration limits. Contrary to existing techniques, our method does not rely on large safety margins and slow task...... execution to avoid joint limits, and is hence able to exploit the full potential of the robot. Furthermore, our control scheme guarantees a well-defined behavior of the robot even when it is in a singular configuration, and thus handles both internal and external singularities robustly. We demonstrate...... the correctness and efficiency of our approach in a number of visual servoing applications, and compare it to a range of previously proposed techniques....

  8. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

  9. SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR ON LOAD USING FUZZY LOGIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic controller for the driver DC motor in the lube oil system of the H25 Hitachi gas turbine generator. The turbine generator is required to run at an operating pressure of 1.5bar with the low and the high pressure trip points being 0.78 bar and 1.9 bar respectively. However, the ...

  10. Comparative studies on control systems for a two-blade variable-speed wind turbine with a speed exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Dongran; Dong, Mi; Chen, Sifan; Zou, Libing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    To avoid the coincidence between the tower nature frequency and rotational excitation frequency, a SEZ (speed exclusion zone) must be built for a two-blade wind turbine with a full rated converter. According to the literature, two methods of SEZ-crossing could be adopted. However, none of them have been studied in industrial applications, and their performance remains unclear. Moreover, strategies on power regulation operation are not covered. To fully investigate them, this paper develops two control systems for a two-blade WT (wind turbines) with a SEZ. Because control systems play vital roles in determining the performance of the WT, this paper focuses on comparative studies on their operation strategies and performance. In these strategies, optimal designs are introduced to improve existing SEZ algorithms. Moreover, to perform power regulation outside the SEZ, two operation modes are divided in the proposed down power regulation solutions. The developed control systems’ performance is confirmed by simulations and field tests. Two control systems present similar capabilities of power production and SEZ-bridging. Nevertheless, at the cost of significantly increased tower loads, one captures 1% more energy than the other. Overall consideration must be made for the control system selection for a WT with a SEZ. - Highlights: • Two control systems are developed for a two-blade WT with a SEZ. • Three strategies, that is, power optimization, power limitation and power regulation, are discussed. • Optimal designs are adopted to enhance the WT's SEZ-bridging capability. • Simple but effective power regulation solutions are presented. • Simulation and field test results show that Control System 2 produces 1% more energy at the cost of increased tower loads.

  11. Gain-scheduled Linear Quadratic Control of Wind Turbines Operating at High Wind Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses state estimation and linear quadratic (LQ) control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbines. On the basis of a nonlinear model of a wind turbine, a set of operating conditions is identified and a LQ controller is designed for each operating point. The controller gains...... are then interpolated linearly to get a control law for the entire operating envelope. A nonlinear state estimator is designed as a combination of two unscented Kalman filters and a linear disturbance estimator. The gain-scheduling variable (wind speed) is then calculated from the output of these state estimators...

  12. The research of automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Xiong, Hui; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Youyou; Zhang, Chuanqi

    2017-06-01

    Automatic speed control algorithm is one of the core technologies of train operation control system. It’s a typical multi-objective optimization control algorithm, which achieve the train speed control for timing, comfort, energy-saving and precise parking. At present, the train speed automatic control technology is widely used in metro and inter-city railways. It has been found that the automatic speed control technology can effectively reduce the driver’s intensity, and improve the operation quality. However, the current used algorithm is poor at energy-saving, even not as good as manual driving. In order to solve the problem of energy-saving, this paper proposes an automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC system. Based on the Green CBTC system, the algorithm can adjust the operation status of the train to improve the efficient using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy while ensuring the timing, comfort and precise parking targets. Due to the reason, the energy-using of Green CBTC system is lower than traditional CBTC system. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on Green CBTC system can effectively reduce the energy-using due to the improvement of the using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy.

  13. Switching EKF technique for rotor and stator resistance estimation in speed sensorless control of IMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta; Gokasan, Metin

    2007-01-01

    High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R r ' and stator, R s resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R r ' and R s is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R r ' or R s estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods

  14. The SAHR Setup-Controlling Hopping Speed and Height Using a Single Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cherouvim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and experimentally validate a control method for regulating both the forward speed and the apex height of a one-legged hopping robot, using only a single actuator. The control method is based on a dynamic model of the hopping robot and makes use of the dynamic coupling of the vertical and forward motions of the robot. The control is applied first to a simulated model of the robot and shown to track a desired forward robot speed and a desired apex height. Then the SAHR (single actuator hopping robot hardware is introduced and is used as an experimental platform with which to evaluate the performance of the control method. The control method is applied to the physical setup and is shown to lead to a stable hopping gait with a desired forward speed and apex height, despite the unmodelled disturbances met on the laboratory floor.

  15. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  16. Control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbine based on a disturbance observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haijun; Lei, Xin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode controller based on disturbance observer (DOB) to optimize the efficiency of variable speed variable pitch (VSVP) wind turbine is developed and analyzed. Due to the highly nonlinearity of the VSVP system, the model is linearly processed to obtain the state space model of the system. Then, a conventional sliding mode controller is designed and a DOB is added to estimate wind speed. The proposed control strategy can successfully deal with the random nature of wind speed, the nonlinearity of VSVP system, the uncertainty of parameters and external disturbance. Via adding the observer to the sliding mode controller, it can greatly reduce the chattering produced by the sliding mode switching gain. The simulation results show that the proposed control system has the effectiveness and robustness.

  17. The Speed Control of Constant Tension Motor of Marine Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xinyang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the working principle of the marine beacon crane hanging disc mechanical anti-sway device, and establish mathematical model on the rope controlling hanging disc of mechanical anti-sway device; Through matlab simulation analysis, this article obtains the relation curve between the velocity of traction rope of hanging disc and output frequency of the crane motor, combining rotary crane scaled model, this article carries out anti-sway experiment for the rotary crane to examine the crane’s anti-sway effects.

  18. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  19. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

  20. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2012-10-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists.

  1. MPPT Algorithm for Small Wind Systems based on Speed Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian VLAD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of an autonomous low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS, based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG connected directly to the wind turbine. The purpose of this paper is to present an improving method for MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based shaft rotational speed optimal control. The proposed method concern the variable delay compensation between measured wind speed from anemometer and wind shaft rotational speed proportional signal. Experimental results aiming to prove the efficiency of the proposed method are presented.

  2. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu-Kai; Yang Li-Xing; Li Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H ∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (paper)

  3. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind......Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...

  4. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  5. Low Speed Longitudinal Control Algorithms for Automated Vehicles in Simulation and Real Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marcano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS acting over throttle and brake are already available in level 2 automated vehicles. In order to increase the level of automation new systems need to be tested in an extensive set of complex scenarios, ensuring safety under all circumstances. Validation of these systems using real vehicles presents important drawbacks: the time needed to drive millions of kilometers, the risk associated with some situations, and the high cost involved. Simulation platforms emerge as a feasible solution. Therefore, robust and reliable virtual environments to test automated driving maneuvers and control techniques are needed. In that sense, this paper presents a use case where three longitudinal low speed control techniques are designed, tuned, and validated using an in-house simulation framework and later applied in a real vehicle. Control algorithms include a classical PID, an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, and a Model Predictive Control (MPC. The simulated dynamics are calculated using a multibody vehicle model. In addition, longitudinal actuators of a Renault Twizy are characterized through empirical tests. A comparative analysis of results between simulated and real platform shows the effectiveness of the proposed framework for designing and validating longitudinal controllers for real automated vehicles.

  6. UDE-based control of variable-speed wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Beibei; Wang, Yeqin; Zhong, Qing-Chang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control of a PMSG (permanent magnet synchronous generator)-based variable-speed wind turbine system with a back-to-back converter is considered. The uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE)-based control approach is applied to the regulation of the DC-link voltage and the control of the RSC (rotor-side converter) and the GSC (grid-side converter). For the rotor-side controller, the UDE-based vector control is developed for the RSC with PMSG control to facilitate the application of the MPPT (maximum power point tracking) algorithm for the maximum wind energy capture. For the grid-side controller, the UDE-based vector control is developed to control the GSC with the power reference generated by a UDE-based DC-link voltage controller. Compared with the conventional vector control, the UDE-based vector control can achieve reliable current decoupling control with fast response. Moreover, the UDE-based DC-link voltage regulation can achieve stable DC-link voltage under model uncertainties and external disturbances, e.g. wind speed variations. The effectiveness of the proposed UDE-based control approach is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies in the presence of coupled dynamics, model uncertainties and external disturbances under varying wind speeds. The UDE-based control is able to generate more energy, e.g. by 5% for the wind profile tested.

  7. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyeen, S.M.; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Tamura, J.

    2011-01-01

    highlights: → Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. → Low voltage ride through of wind farm. → Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  8. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyeen, S.M., E-mail: muyeen0809@yahoo.co [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al-Durra, Ahmed [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, J. [Dept. of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    highlights: {yields} Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. {yields} Low voltage ride through of wind farm. {yields} Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  9. L1 Adaptive Manoeuvring Control of Unmanned High-speed Water Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper H.; Holck, Niels Ole; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of designing an adaptive robust control system to govern the steering of a high speed unmanned personal watercraft (PWC) maintaining equal performance across the craft’s envelope of operation. The maneuvering dynamics of a high speed PWC is presented and a strong var......-of-freedom surge-sway-yaw-roll model. An L1 adaptive autopilot is then designed, which allows to achieve fast adaption to system parameters’ changes and robustness of the closed loop system....

  10. Control of variable speed wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents an overall control method for variable speed pitch controlled wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG). Emphasis is on control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind turbine. The objectives of the control system are: 1) to control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine maximum power operation point, 2) to limit the power in case of large wind speeds, and 3) to control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The present control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The strongest feature of the implemented control method is that it allows the turbine to operate with the optimum power efficiency over a wide range of wind speeds. The model of the variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DlgSILENT PowerFactory which allows investigation of the dynamic performance of grid-connected wind turbines within realistic electrical grid models. Simulation results are presented and analysed in different normal operating conditions. (author)

  11. Speed Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors in Mine Electric Locomotive Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong LI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel sensorless control method of permanent magnet synchronous motors a low speed based on a high-frequency voltage signal injection. The approach superimposes a persistent HF voltage signal into the estimated d-axis to get the rotor position error angle-related signal by detecting the corresponding voltage response and current response. Then the rotor position and motor speed are obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the approach can achieve sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors at zero and low speed, ensure good dynamic and static performances, and achieve effective control when applied to servo system. Finally, a test prototype system which used a digital signal processor and space vector pulse width modulation technology has been developed. Experimental results show that the system has better static, the effectiveness and dynamic performance of the adaptive test signals in a sensorless controlled surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines.

  12. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  13. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

    2015-12-01

    A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.

  14. DAC with LQR Control Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) is used to model and simulate a system with known disturbance waveform. This paper presents a control scheme to mitigate the effect of disturbances by using collective pitch control for the aboverated wind speed (Region III) for a variable speed wind turbine....... We have used Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to obtain full state feedback gain, disturbance feedback gain is calculated independently and then estimator gain is achieved by poleplacement technique in the DAC augmented plant model. The reduced order model (two-mass model) of wind turbine is used...... and 5MW National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine is used in this research. We have shown comparison of results relating to pitch angle, drive train torsion and generator speed obtained by a PID controller and DAC. Simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results are compared...

  15. A space vector control stradegy for improvement of control speed and reduction of sensitivity of phase jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a full space vector control stradegy. The synchronisation used to improveboth the control speed of reactive power and reduce the sensitivity to large phase jumps in the grid caused by switching arge loads. The control stradegy is tested with a 5-level 10kvar laboratory model....

  16. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  17. Fuzzy Constrained Predictive Optimal Control of High Speed Train with Actuator Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem of fuzzy constrained predictive optimal control of high speed train considering the effect of actuator dynamics. The dynamics feature of the high speed train is modeled as a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, and the formulation is mathematically transformed into a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy model. The goal of this study is to design a state feedback control law at each decision step to enhance safety, comfort, and energy efficiency of high speed train subject to safety constraints on the control input. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the problem of optimizing an upper bound on the cruise control cost function subject to input constraints is reduced to a convex optimization problem involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Furthermore, we analyze the influences of second-order actuator dynamics on the fuzzy constrained predictive controller, which shows risk of potentially deteriorating the overall system. Employing backstepping method, an actuator compensator is proposed to accommodate for the influence of the actuator dynamics. The experimental results show that with the proposed approach high speed train can track the desired speed, the relative coupler displacement between the neighbouring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and the influence of actuator dynamics is reduced, which demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  18. Experimental Study of Low Speed Sensorless Control of PMSM Drive Using High Frequency Signal Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional techniques for sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive (PMSM, which requires information on rotor position, are reviewed, and recent developments in this area are introduced in this paper along with their inherent advantages and drawbacks. The paper presents an improved method for sensorless speed control of PMSM drive with emphasis placed on signal injection method. This signal injection method examines the control performance of sensorless PMSM drive by injecting signal externally and thereby sensing the rotor position. The main objective of this drive system is to have speed control at standstill and low speed regions. Several tests are carried out to demonstrate the ability of proposed models at different operating conditions with the help of simulation results in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results confirm that the proposed sensorless control approach of PMSM can achieve high performance at standstill and low speeds but not at very high speeds. An experimental setup is implemented using a 1HP surface mounted (SM PMSM and DsPICDEM^TM MCHV-2 development board, to check the validity of simulation results.

  19. Low speed hybrid generalized predictive control of a gasoline-propelled car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M; de Madrid, A P; Mañoso, C; Milanés, V

    2015-07-01

    Low-speed driving in traffic jams causes significant pollution and wasted time for commuters. Additionally, from the passengers׳ standpoint, this is an uncomfortable, stressful and tedious scene that is suitable to be automated. The highly nonlinear dynamics of car engines at low-speed turn its automation in a complex problem that still remains as unsolved. Considering the hybrid nature of the vehicle longitudinal control at low-speed, constantly switching between throttle and brake pedal actions, hybrid control is a good candidate to solve this problem. This work presents the analytical formulation of a hybrid predictive controller for automated low-speed driving. It takes advantage of valuable characteristics supplied by predictive control strategies both for compensating un-modeled dynamics and for keeping passengers security and comfort analytically by means of the treatment of constraints. The proposed controller was implemented in a gas-propelled vehicle to experimentally validate the adopted solution. To this end, different scenarios were analyzed varying road layouts and vehicle speeds within a private test track. The production vehicle is a commercial Citroën C3 Pluriel which has been modified to automatically act over its throttle and brake pedals. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Event-driven control of a speed varying digital displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2017-01-01

    . The controller synthesis is carried out as a discrete optimal deterministic problem with full state feedback. Based on a linear analysis of the feedback control system, stability is proven in a pre-specified operation region. Simulation of a non-linear evaluation model with the controller implemented shows great...... be treated as a Discrete Linear Time Invariant control problem with synchronous sampling rate. To make synchronous linear control theory applicable for a variable speed digital displacement machine, a method based on event-driven control is presented. Using this method, the time domain differential equations...... are converted into the spatial (position) domain to obtain a constant sampling rate and thus allowing for use of classical control theory. The method is applied to a down scaled digital fluid power motor, where the motor speed is controlled at varying references under varying pressure and load torque conditions...

  1. Unmanned Water Craft Identification and Adaptive Control in Low-Speed and Reversing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats L1 adaptive hovering control of an unmanned surface vehicle in a station-keeping mode where a region of zero control authority and under-actuation are main challenges. Low-speed and reversing dynamics are identied from full scale sea trials, and parameter uncertainty is estimate...

  2. Very-low speed control of PMSM based on EKF estimation with closed loop optimized parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shaoguang; Liu, Jingmeng

    2013-11-01

    When calculating the speed from the position of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the accuracy and real-time are limited by the precision of the sensor. This problem causes crawling and jitter at very-low speed. Using the angle from the position sensor, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) designed in dq-coordinate is presented to solve this problem. The usage of position sensor simplifies the model and improves the accuracy of speed estimation. Specially, a closed loop optimal (CLO) method is devised to overcome the difficulty to adjust the parameters of the EKF. The EKF is the feedback link of speed control, CLO method is derived from the perspective of the speed step response to optimize the measurement covariance matrix and the system covariance matrix of EKF. Simulation and experimental results, comparing the low-speed performance of the EKF and sensor feedback methods, prove the effectiveness of the method to adjust the parameters of EKF and the advantages in eliminating the low speed jitter. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Documentation Speed Using Web-Based Medical Speech Recognition Technology: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Markus; Kaisers, Wolfgang; Wassmuth, Ralf; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2015-11-03

    Clinical documentation has undergone a change due to the usage of electronic health records. The core element is to capture clinical findings and document therapy electronically. Health care personnel spend a significant portion of their time on the computer. Alternatives to self-typing, such as speech recognition, are currently believed to increase documentation efficiency and quality, as well as satisfaction of health professionals while accomplishing clinical documentation, but few studies in this area have been published to date. This study describes the effects of using a Web-based medical speech recognition system for clinical documentation in a university hospital on (1) documentation speed, (2) document length, and (3) physician satisfaction. Reports of 28 physicians were randomized to be created with (intervention) or without (control) the assistance of a Web-based system of medical automatic speech recognition (ASR) in the German language. The documentation was entered into a browser's text area and the time to complete the documentation including all necessary corrections, correction effort, number of characters, and mood of participant were stored in a database. The underlying time comprised text entering, text correction, and finalization of the documentation event. Participants self-assessed their moods on a scale of 1-3 (1=good, 2=moderate, 3=bad). Statistical analysis was done using permutation tests. The number of clinical reports eligible for further analysis stood at 1455. Out of 1455 reports, 718 (49.35%) were assisted by ASR and 737 (50.65%) were not assisted by ASR. Average documentation speed without ASR was 173 (SD 101) characters per minute, while it was 217 (SD 120) characters per minute using ASR. The overall increase in documentation speed through Web-based ASR assistance was 26% (P=.04). Participants documented an average of 356 (SD 388) characters per report when not assisted by ASR and 649 (SD 561) characters per report when assisted

  4. Rainfall Simulations of Typhoon Morakot with Controlled Translation Speed Based on EnKF Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsiung Yen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot produced record-breaking accumulated rainfall over southern Taiwan in August 2009. The combination of several factors resulted in this extreme weather event: the steep terrain in Taiwan, the prevailing south-westerly flow in the monsoon trough, Typhoon Goni over the northern South China Sea, and the slow translation speed of Morakot itself over Taiwan. In this study, the influence of the translation speed is particularly emphasized. Based on the EnKF data assimilation, an innovative method is applied to perform ensemble simulations with several designated translation speeds of Morakot using the WRF model. Thus the influence of the translation speed on the amount of accumulated rainfall over Taiwan can be quantitatively evaluated. In the control simulation with observed translation speed, the maximum amount and geographic pattern of accumulated rainfall during the landfall period of Morakot are generally consistent with the observations, though the detailed overall distributions of accumulated rainfall is mostly underestimated, resulting in the low bias of the frequency distribution of the accumulated rainfall. In a simulation with nearly-doubled translation speed of Morakot, the maximum accumulated rainfall is decreased by 33% than that in the control simulation, while the rainfall distribution over Taiwan remains similar. In addition, the 28 ensemble members can further provide additional information in terms of their spread and other statistics. The results from ensemble members reveal the usefulness of ensemble simulations for the quantitative precipitation forecast.

  5. Online Dynamic Balance Technology for High Speed Spindle Based on Gain Parameter Adaption and Scheduling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance vibration is one of the main vibration forms of a high speed machine tool spindle. The overlarge unbalance vibration will have some adverse effects on the working life of the spindle system and the surface quality of the work-piece. In order to reduce the unbalance of a high speed spindle system, a pneumatic online dynamic balance device and its control system are presented in the paper. To improve the balance accuracy and adaptation of the balance system, the gain parameter adaption and scheduling control method are proposed first, and then the different balance effects of the influence coefficient method and the gain scheduling control method are compared through many dynamic balance experiments of the high speed spindle. The experimental results indicate that the gain parameters can be changed timely according to the transformation of the speed and kinetic parameters of the spindle system. The balance accuracy can be improved for a high speed spindle with time-varying characteristics, based on the adaptive gain scheduling control method.

  6. Model reference adaptive vector control for induction motor without speed sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide applications of vector control improve the high-accuracy performance of alternating current (AC adjustable speed system. In order to obverse the full-order flux and calculate the real-time speed, this article introduces the motor T equivalent circuit to build a full-order flux observer model, where the current and flux variables of stator and rotor are adopted. Model reference adaptive control is introduced to build the AC motor flux observer. The current output is used as feedback to build the feedback matrix. The calculation method of motor speed, which is part of the inputs of flux observation, is applied to realize the adaptive control. The concept of characteristic function is introduced to calculate the flux, of which the foundation is the variables of composite form of voltage and current models. The characteristic function is deduced as a relative-state variable function. The feedback matrix is improved and designed to ensure the motor flux observer is a smooth switch between current and voltage model in low and high speeds, respectively. Experimental results show that the feedback and characteristic model are feasible, and the vector control with speed sensorless based on the full-order flux observer has better performance and anti-disturbance.

  7. Rotor Speed Estimation Method Used in Dynamic Control of the Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRĂCIUNAŞ Gabriela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed an algorithm for rotor speed estimation calculated directly from the rotor flux. The flux required for speed computation is estimated using Gopinath reduced order robust adaptive observer. In order to determine the structure of the observer we started from the state equations of the induction motor using spatial vectors written in fixed coordinates towards stator and considering the rotor speed constant. Quality of speed and rotor fluxestimation was evaluated from the results obtained during different operation regimes. The proposed algorithm was then tested for its usability in the case of indirect field oriented control based on the rotor flux of the induction motor by the simulation inMATLAB/Simulink.

  8. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  9. Neuron-Adaptive PID Based Speed Control of SCSG Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In searching for methods to increase the power capacity of wind power generation system, superconducting synchronous generator (SCSG has appeared to be an attractive candidate to develop large-scale wind turbine due to its high energy density and unprecedented advantages in weight and size. In this paper, a high-temperature superconducting technology based large-scale wind turbine is considered and its physical structure and characteristics are analyzed. A simple yet effective single neuron-adaptive PID control scheme with Delta learning mechanism is proposed for the speed control of SCSG based wind power system, in which the RBF neural network (NN is employed to estimate the uncertain but continuous functions. Compared with the conventional PID control method, the simulation results of the proposed approach show a better performance in tracking the wind speed and maintaining a stable tip-speed ratio, therefore, achieving the maximum wind energy utilization.

  10. Modeling and control of a variable-speed wind turbine equipped with permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliprantis, D.C.; Papathanassiou, S.A.; Papadopoulos, M.P.; Kladas, A.G. [Purdue University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2000-08-01

    In this paper the operation of a variable-speed, stall regulated wind turbine equipped with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is examined. The emphasis is placed on the analysis of the electric part of the system, i.e. the electrical generator, the power electronics converters and the control. The operational characteristics of the machine are investigated through a series of computer simulations and the speed control system is designed to maximize the power output and achieve a smooth torque and power profile. (orig.)

  11. A study on high speed wavefront control algorithm for an adaptive optics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Seo, Young Seok

    2000-01-01

    We developed a high speed control algorithm and system for measuring and correcting the wavefront distortions based on Windows operating system. To get quickly the information of wavefront distortion from the Hartman spot image, we preprocessed the image to remove background noises and extracted the centroid position by finding the center of weights. We moved finely the centroid position with sub-pixel resolution repeatedly to get the wavefront information with more enhanced resolution. We designed a differential data communication driver and an isolated analog driver to have robust system control. As the experimental results, the measurement resolution of the wavefront was 0.05 pixels and correction speed was 5Hz

  12. The development of an open architecture control system for CBN high speed grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, E. Jannone da; Biffi, M.; Oliveira, J. F. G. de

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of an open architecture controlling (OAC) system to be applied in the high speed grinding process using CBN tools. Besides other features, the system will allow a new monitoring and controlling strategy, by the adoption of open architecture CNC combined with multi-sensors, a PC and third-party software. The OAC system will be implemented in a high speed CBN grinding machine, which is being developed in a partnership between the University of São Paul...

  13. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  14. Speed control of switched reluctance motors taking into account mutual inductances and magnetic saturation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrifai, M., E-mail: alrifm@eng.kuniv.edu.k [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Zribi, M.; Rayan, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Krishnan, R. [Center for Rapid Transit Systems, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Tech University, 461 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-011 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the speed control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives taking into account the effects of the mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the effects of the magnetic saturation of the core. To overcome the problems commonly associated with single-phase excitation, a nonlinear SRM model, which is suitable for two-phase excitation and which takes into account the effects of mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the magnetic saturation effects, is considered in the design of the proposed controllers. A feedback linearization control scheme and a sliding mode control scheme are designed for this motor drive. The proposed controllers guarantee the convergence of the phase currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well and that they are robust to changes in the parameters of the system and to changes in the load torque.

  15. Speed control of switched reluctance motors taking into account mutual inductances and magnetic saturation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrifai, M.; Zribi, M.; Rayan, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the speed control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives taking into account the effects of the mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the effects of the magnetic saturation of the core. To overcome the problems commonly associated with single-phase excitation, a nonlinear SRM model, which is suitable for two-phase excitation and which takes into account the effects of mutual inductances between two adjacent phases and the magnetic saturation effects, is considered in the design of the proposed controllers. A feedback linearization control scheme and a sliding mode control scheme are designed for this motor drive. The proposed controllers guarantee the convergence of the phase currents and the rotor speed of the motor to their desired values. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controllers work well and that they are robust to changes in the parameters of the system and to changes in the load torque.

  16. Differential effects of absent visual feedback control on gait variability during different locomotion speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehr, M; Schniepp, R; Pradhan, C; Ilmberger, J; Strupp, M; Brandt, T; Jahn, K

    2013-01-01

    Healthy persons exhibit relatively small temporal and spatial gait variability when walking unimpeded. In contrast, patients with a sensory deficit (e.g., polyneuropathy) show an increased gait variability that depends on speed and is associated with an increased fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of vision in gait stabilization by determining the effects of withdrawing visual information (eyes closed) on gait variability at different locomotion speeds. Ten healthy subjects (32.2 ± 7.9 years, 5 women) walked on a treadmill for 5-min periods at their preferred walking speed and at 20, 40, 70, and 80 % of maximal walking speed during the conditions of walking with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC). The coefficient of variation (CV) and fractal dimension (α) of the fluctuations in stride time, stride length, and base width were computed and analyzed. Withdrawing visual information increased the base width CV for all walking velocities (p < 0.001). The effects of absent visual information on CV and α of stride time and stride length were most pronounced during slow locomotion (p < 0.001) and declined during fast walking speeds. The results indicate that visual feedback control is used to stabilize the medio-lateral (i.e., base width) gait parameters at all speed sections. In contrast, sensory feedback control in the fore-aft direction (i.e., stride time and stride length) depends on speed. Sensory feedback contributes most to fore-aft gait stabilization during slow locomotion, whereas passive biomechanical mechanisms and an automated central pattern generation appear to control fast locomotion.

  17. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensorless Speed/Torque Control of DC Machine Using Artificial Neural Network Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan Kh. Antar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique is implemented to improve speed and torque control of a separately excited DC machine drive. The speed and torque sensorless scheme based on ANN is estimated adaptively. The proposed controller is designed to estimate rotor speed and mechanical load torque as a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS method for DC machine. The DC drive system consists of four quadrant DC/DC chopper with MOSFET transistors, ANN, logic gates and routing circuits. The DC drive circuit is designed, evaluated and modeled by Matlab/Simulink in the forward and reverse operation modes as a motor and generator, respectively. The DC drive system is simulated at different speed values (±1200 rpm and mechanical torque (±7 N.m in steady state and dynamic conditions. The simulation results illustratethe effectiveness of the proposed controller without speed or torque sensors.

  19. An adaptive nonlinear internal-model control for the speed control of homopolar salient-pole BLDC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    CheshmehBeigi, Hassan Moradi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel speed control method for Homopolar Brushless DC (HBLDC) motor based on the adaptive nonlinear internal-model control (ANIMC) is presented. Rotor position information is obtained online by the Hall-Effect sensors placed on the motor's shaft, and is used to calculate the accurate model and accurate inverse model of the HBLDC motor. The online inverse model of the motor is used in the controller structure. To suppress the reference ? error, the negative feedback of difference between the motor speed and its model output ? is applied in the proposed controller. An appropriate signal is the output of the controller, which drives the power switches to converge the motor speed to the constant desired speed. Simulations and experiments are carried out on a ? three-phase HBLDC motor. The proposed drive system operates well in the speed response and has good robustness with respect to the disturbances. To validate the theoretical analysis, several experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF PID ON PIC24F SERIES MICROCONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR USING MPLAB AND PROTEUS

    OpenAIRE

    Sohaib Aslam; Sundas Hannan; Umar Sajjad; Waheed Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Speed control of DC motor is very critical in most of the industrial systems where accuracy and protection are of essence. This paper presents the simulations of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID) on a 16-bit PIC 24F series microcontroller for speed control of a DC motor in the presence of load torque. The PID gains have been tuned by Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) technique and then it is implemented on microcontroller using MPLAB and finally simulated for speed control of D...

  1. Feedback/feedforward control of hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuators for high-speed scanning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfang; Shan, Jinjun; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the control system design for a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) for a high-speed trajectory scanning application. First nonlinear hysteresis is compensated for by using the Maxwell resistive capacitor model. Then the linear dynamics of the hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuator are identified. A proportional plus integral (PI) controller is designed based on the linear system, enhanced by feedforward hysteresis compensation. It is found that the feedback controller does not always improve tracking accuracy. When the input frequency exceeds a certain value, feedforward control only may result in better control performance. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach. (paper)

  2. Modeling and Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jamuna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Speed control of induction motor drives using neural networks is presented. The mathematical model of single phase induction motor is developed. A new simulink model for a neural network-controlled bidirectional chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Under normal operation, the true drive parameters are real-time identified and they are converted into the controller parameters through multilayer forward computation by neural networks. Comparative study has been made between the conventional and neural network controllers. It is observed that the neural network controlled drive system has better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and faster transient response than the conventional controlled system.

  3. Speed Control Analysis of Brushless DC Motor Based on Maximum Amplitude DC Current Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.A.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to develop accurate and simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless DC (BLDC motor drive. The approach is applied to control phase current based on generation of quasi-square wave current by using only one current controller for the three phases. Unlike the vector control method which is complicated to be implemented, this simple current modulation technique presents advantages such as phase currents are kept in balance and the current is controlled through only one dc signal which represent maximum amplitude value of trapezoidal current (Imax. This technique is performed with Proportional Integral (PI control algorithm and triangular carrier comparison method to generate Pulse Width Modulation (PWM signal. In addition, the PI speed controller is incorporated with the current controller to perform desirable speed operation of non-overshoot response. The performance and functionality of the BLDC motor driver are verified via simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results show the developed control system performs desirable speed operation of non-overshoot and good current waveforms.

  4. Embedded system based on a real time fuzzy motor speed controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Ramadan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of a fuzzy logic control (FLC system and a/the conventional proportional-integral (PI controller for speed control of DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA circuit. The proposed scheme is aimed to improve the tracking performance and to eliminate the load disturbance in the speed control of DC motors. The proposed fuzzy system has been applied to a permanent magnet DC motor, via a configuration of H-bridge. The fuzzy control algorithm is designed and verified with a nonlinear model, using the MATLAB® tools. Both FLC and conventional PI controller hardware are synthesized, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE Version 11.1i. The real time implementation of these controllers is made on Spartan-3E FPGA starter kit (XC3S500E. The practical results showed that the proposed FLC scheme has better tracking performance than the conventional PI controller for the speed control of DC motors.

  5. Speed and Displacement Control System of Bearingless Brushless DC Motor Based on Improved Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the deficiencies of long optimization time and poor precision existing in conventional bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA in the process of parameter optimization, an improved bacterial foraging algorithm (IBFA is proposed and applied to speed and displacement control system of bearingless brushless DC (Bearingless BLDC motors. To begin with the fundamental principle of BFA, the proposed method is introduced and the individual intelligence is efficiently used in the process of parameter optimization, and then the working principle of bearingless BLDC motors is expounded. Finally, modeling and simulation of the speed and displacement control system of bearingless BLDC motors based on the IBFA are carried out by taking the software of MATLAB/Simulink as a platform. Simulation results show that, speed overshoot, torque ripple and rotor position oscillation are dramatically reduced, thus the proposed method has good application prospects in the field of bearingless motors.

  6. Sensorless Stator Field-Oriented Controlled IM Drive at Low Speed with Rr Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pertains to a technique of a sensorless indirect stator field-oriented induction motor control, which prevents the accumulative errors incurred by the integrator and the problem relating to the stability of the control system caused by the stator resistance susceptible to temperature variations while conducting the flux estimation directly and computing the synchronous rotary speed. The research adds an adaptive flux observer to estimate the speed of the rotor and uses the fixed trace algorithm (FTA to execute an online estimation of the slip difference, thereby improving the system of stability under the low rotary speed at regenerating mode and the influence of the rotor resistance on the slip angle. Finally, the paper conducts simulations by Simulink of MATLAB and practices to verify the correctness of the result the paper presents.

  7. A multiple-fan active control wind tunnel for outdoor wind speed and direction simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ying; Meng, Qing-Hao; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a new type of active controlled multiple-fan wind tunnel. The wind tunnel consists of swivel plates and arrays of direct current fans, and the rotation speed of each fan and the shaft angle of each swivel plate can be controlled independently for simulating different kinds of outdoor wind fields. To measure the similarity between the simulated wind field and the outdoor wind field, wind speed and direction time series of two kinds of wind fields are recorded by nine two-dimensional ultrasonic anemometers, and then statistical properties of the wind signals in different time scales are analyzed based on the empirical mode decomposition. In addition, the complexity of wind speed and direction time series is also investigated using multiscale entropy and multivariate multiscale entropy. Results suggest that the simulated wind field in the multiple-fan wind tunnel has a high degree of similarity with the outdoor wind field.

  8. Control design for a pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.H.; Hansen, A.; Larsen, T.J.; Oeye, S.; Soerensen, P.; Fuglsang, P.

    2005-01-01

    The three different controller designs presented herein are similar and all based on PI-regulation of rotor speed and power through the collective blade pitch angle and generator moment. The aeroelastic and electrical modelling used for the time-domain analysis of these controllers are however different, which makes a directly quantitative comparison difficult. But there are some observations of similar behaviours should be mentioned: 1) Very similar step responses in rotor speed, pitch angle, and power are seen for simulations with steps in wind speed. 2) All controllers show a peak in power for wind speed step-up over rated wind speed, which can be almost removed by changing the parameters of the frequency converter. 3) Responses of rotor speed, pitch angle, and power for different simulations with turbulent inflow are similar for all three controllers. Again, there seems to be an advantage of tuning the parameters of the frequency converter to obtain a more constant power output. The dynamic modelling of the power controller is an important result for the inclusion of generator dynamics in the aeroelastic modelling of wind turbines. A reduced dynamic model of the relation between generator torque and generator speed variations is presented; where the integral term of the inner PI-regulator of rotor current is removed be-cause the time constant is very small compared to the important aeroelastic frequencies. It is shown how the parameters of the transfer function for the remaining control system with the outer PI-regulator of power can be derived from the generator data sheet. The main results of the numerical optimisation of the control parameters in the pitch PI-regulator performed in Chapter 6 are the following: 1) Numerical optimization can be used to tune controller parameters, especially when the optimization is used as refinement of a qualified initial guess. 2) The design model used to calculate the initial value parameters, as described in Chapter 3

  9. Improved Fuzzy Logic based DTC of Induction machine for wide range of speed control using AI based controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sudheer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvements in Direct Torque control of induction motor using Fuzzy logic switching controller (FDTC. The conventional DTC (CDTC and FDTC drive performance is compared using Conventional PI, Fuzzy controller and Neural Network controllers. The major disadvantages of CDTC are high torque and flux ripples in steady state operation of the drive, inferior performance at low speed operation and variable switching frequency. The presence of hysteresis bands is the major reason for high torque and flux ripples in CDTC. In FDTC the hysteresis band and switching table are replaced by Fuzzy logic switching controller. Using fuzzy logic torque, stator flux space are divided into smaller subsections which results in precise and optimal selection of switching state to meet load torque. In high performance drives accurate tuning of PI speed controller is required. The conventional PI controller cannot adapt to the variation in model parameters. Artificial intelligence based fuzzy controller and neural network controller are compared with PI controller for both CDTC and FDTC of Induction machine. The proposed schemes are developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results shows reduction in torque and flux ripples in FDTC and dynamic performance of the drive at low speeds and sudden change in load torque can be improved using Fuzzy logic controller compared to PI and neural network controller.

  10. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fault Tolerant and Optimal Control of Wind Turbines with Distributed High-Speed Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Giger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control scheme of a distributed high-speed generator system with a total amount of 12 generators and nominal generator speed of 7000 min − 1 is studied. Specifically, a fault tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed to keep the turbine in operation in the presence of up to four simultaneous generator faults. The proposed controller structure consists of two layers: The upper layer is the baseline controller, which is separated into a partial load region with the generator torque as an actuating signal and the full-load operation region with the collective pitch angle as the other actuating signal. In addition, the lower layer is responsible for the fault diagnosis and FTC characteristics of the distributed generator drive train. The fault reconstruction and fault tolerant control strategy are tested in simulations with several actuator faults of different types.

  12. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchuan Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate the adhesion force or/and the resistance, based on which simple traction/braking control schemes are established under the consideration of actual wheel-rail adhesion condition. It is shown that the proposed controllers have simple structure and can be easily implemented from real applications. Numerical simulation also validates the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  13. Speed and surge control for a lower order centrifugal compressor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Gravdahl

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a variable speed centrifugal compression system is presented. The model is based on the work of Greitzer (1976, but the compressor characteristic is developed by modelling the losses in the compressor. For surge control, a close coupled valve is employed. This valve is placed immediately downstream of the compressor, and the pressure drop over the valve is used as the control variable. This makes it possible to manipulate the shape of the equivalent compressor, consisting of compressor and valve. The speed of the compressor is controlled with a PI-controller. Semi-global exponential stability of the model with the proposed controllers is proven by the use of Lyapunovs theorem.

  14. Model-free adaptive speed control on travelling wave ultrasonic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sisi; Li, Huafeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduced a new data-driven control (DDC) method for the speed control of ultrasonic motor (USM). The model-free adaptive control (MFAC) strategy was presented in terms of its principles, algorithms, and parameter selection. To verify the efficiency of the proposed method, a speed-frequency-time model, which contained all the measurable nonlinearity and uncertainties based on experimental data was established for simulation to mimic the USM operation system. Furthermore, the model was identified using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Then, the control of the simulated system using MFAC was evaluated under different expectations in terms of overshoot, rise time and steady-state error. Finally, the MFAC results were compared with that of proportion iteration differentiation (PID) to demonstrate its advantages in controlling general random system.

  15. A combined multibody and finite element approach for dynamic interaction analysis of high-speed train and railway structure including post-derailment behavior during an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, M; Wakui, H; Sogabe, M; Matsumoto, N; Tanabe, Y

    2010-01-01

    A combined multibody and finite element approach is given to solve the dynamic interaction of a Shinkansen train (high-speed train in Japan) and the railway structure including post-derailment during an earthquake effectively. The motion of the train is expressed in multibody dynamics. Efficient mechanical models to express interactions between wheel and track structure including post-derailment are given. Rail and track elements expressed in multibody dynamics and FEM are given to solve contact problems between wheel and long railway components effectively. The motion of a railway structure is modeled with various finite elements and rail and track elements. The computer program has been developed for the dynamic interaction analysis of a Shinkansen train and railway structure including post derailment during an earthquake. Numerical examples are demonstrated.

  16. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

    2016-10-01

    In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.

  17. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (Pcontrols controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  18. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  19. Electromagnetic phenomena analysis in brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurys, Marek Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Field-circuit model of a brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method was developed. Waveforms of electrical and mechanical quantities of the designed motor with a high pressure vane pump built in a rotor of the motor were computed. Analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the system: single phase AC network - converter - BLDC motor was carried out.

  20. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near

  1. On-Chip Enucleation of Bovine Oocytes using Microrobot-Assisted Flow-Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Ichikawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a microfluidic chip with a magnetically driven microrobot for oocyte enucleation. A microfluidic system was specially designed for enucleation, and the microrobot actively controls the local flow-speed distribution in the microfluidic chip. The microrobot can adjust fluid resistances in a channel and can open or close the channel to control the flow distribution. Analytical modeling was conducted to control the fluid speed distribution using the microrobot, and the model was experimentally validated. The novelties of the developed microfluidic system are as follows: (1 the cutting speed improved significantly owing to the local fluid flow control; (2 the cutting volume of the oocyte can be adjusted so that the oocyte undergoes less damage; and (3 the nucleus can be removed properly using the combination of a microrobot and hydrodynamic forces. Using this device, we achieved a minimally invasive enucleation process. The average enucleation time was 2.5 s and the average removal volume ratio was 20%. The proposed new system has the advantages of better operation speed, greater cutting precision, and potential for repeatable enucleation.

  2. Hardware detection and parameter tuning method for speed control system of PMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhengqiang; Yang, Huiling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the development of permanent magnet synchronous motor AC speed control system is taken as an example, aiming to expound the principle and parameter setting method of the system hardware, and puts forward the method of using software or hardware to eliminate the problem.

  3. Control over Coating Structure during Electromagnetic Welding and Application of HighSpeed Steel Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kozhuro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers peculiar features concerning coating formation in the process of electromagnetic welding of high-speed steel powder. The paper reveals how to control coating structure that ensures the required operational properties of working surfaces of machine parts. 

  4. Determination of acceleration for belt conveyor speed control in transient operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Speed control has been found a feasible mean to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. However, the current research has not taken the determination of the acceleration in transient operation into account sufficiently. With respect to the belt tension rating, demanded safety factor and the

  5. Speed control of induction motor using fuzzy recursive least squares technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple adaptive controller design is presented in this paper, the control system uses the adaptive fuzzy logic, sliding modes and is trained with the recursive least squares technique. The problem of parameter variation is solved with the adaptive controller; the use of an internal PI regulator produces that the speed control of the induction motor be achieved by the stator currents instead the input voltage. The rotor-flux oriented coordinated system model is used to develop and test the control system.

  6. IMITATION MODEL OF A HIGH-SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR WITH FREQUENCY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Pliugin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the imitation model of the frequency converter controlled high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor in order to determine reasons causes electric motor vibrations and noises in starting modes. Methodology. We have applied the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic field in transient mode and imported obtained field model as an independent object in frequency converter circuit. We have correlated the simulated result with the experimental data obtained by means of the PID regulator factors. Results. We have made the simulation model of the high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor speed control in AnsysRMxprt, Ansys Maxwell and Ansys Simplorer, approximated to their physical prototype. We have made models modifications allows to provide high-performance computing (HPC in dedicated server and computer cluster to reduce the simulation time. We have obtained motor characteristics in starting and rated modes. This allows to make recommendations on determination of high-speed electric motor optimal deign, having minimum indexes of vibrations and noises. Originality. For the first time, we have carried out the integrated research of induction motor using simultaneously simulation models both in Ansys Maxwell (2D field model and in Ansys Simplorer (transient circuit model with the control low realization for the motor soft start. For the first time the correlation between stator and rotor slots, allows to obtain minimal vibrations and noises, was defined. Practical value. We have tested manufactured high-speed motor based on the performed calculation. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the model, which allows designing such motors for new high-speed construction, and upgrade the existing ones.

  7. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N

    2011-02-06

    Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles.

  8. Performance analysis of PM synchronous motor using fuzzy logic and self tuning fuzzy PI speed controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakaya, A.; Karakas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors have nonlinear characteristics whose dynamics changes with time. In spite of this structure the permanent magnet synchronous motor has answered engineering problems in industry such as motion control which need high torque values. This paper obtains a nonlinear mathematical model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and realizes stimulation of the obtained model in the Matlab/Simulink program. Motor parameters are determined by an experimental set-up and they are used in the motor model. Speed control of motor model is made with Fuzzy Logic and Self Tuning logic PI controllers. Using the speed graphs obtained, rise time, overshoot, steady-state error and settling time are analyzed and controller performances are compared. (author)

  9. High speed reaction wheels for satellite attitude control and energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P.; Rodriguez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The combination of spacecraft attitude control and energy storage (ACES) functions in common hardware, to synergistically maintain three-axis attitude control while supplying electrical power during earth orbital eclipses, allows the generation of control torques by high rotating speed wheels that react against the spacecraft structure via a high efficiency bidirectional energy conversion motor/generator. An ACES system encompasses a minimum of four wheels, controlling power and the three torque vectors. Attention is given to the realization of such a system with composite flywheel rotors that yield high energy density, magnetic suspension technology yielding low losses at high rotational speeds, and an ironless armature permanent magnet motor/generator yielding high energy conversion efficiency.

  10. Speed and Torque Control Strategies for Loss Reduction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Michael; McDonald, Alasdair; Leithead, Bill; Giles, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    This paper builds on the work into modelling the generator losses for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines from their intrinsic torque cycling to investigate the effects of aerodynamic inefficiencies caused by the varying rotational speed resulting from different torque control strategies to the cyclic torque. This is achieved by modelling the wake that builds up from the rotation of the VAWT rotor to investigate how the wake responds to a changing rotor speed and how this in turn affects the torque produced by the blades as well as the corresponding change in generator losses and any changes to the energy extracted by the wind turbine rotor.

  11. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...... fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper...

  12. Chattering-free sliding mode observer for speed sensorless control of PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gaballah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new speed observer based on fuzzy logic for speed sensorless control applications of permanent magnet synchronous motor “PMSM”. The switch function in traditional Sliding Mode Observer “SMO” is replaced by a rule based fuzzy logic system. The proposed observer not only improves the system dynamic performance during disturbances or parameter variations, but also has a high accuracy tracking performance with sufficient chattering reduction. The validity of the new observer corroborated through experimental results using TMS320F28069M Digital Signal Processor “DSP”.

  13. Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja

    Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators (25 and 60 kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 (Re D = 5 x 105) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current

  14. Control of cooling of an oil-immersed power transformer by varying speed of fans

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević, Nikola Z.; Žakula, Dane M.; Jevtić, Milica M.; Tomašević, Radojica Ž.; Radaković, Zoran R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a prototype system for speed control of cooling fans for a small oil-immersed 6.6 kVA transformer, implemented on a standard PLC. Generally, the potential for optimization of the cooling process depends on the accessible cooling modes and construction of the transformer; basically the aim of the cooling system control is reduction in power consumption of the fans / pumps and keeping the top-oil temperature at constant value (to reduce transformer 'breathing' and infiltratio...

  15. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  16. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  17. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  18. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  19. On The Export Control Of High Speed Imaging For Nuclear Weapons Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott Avery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altherr, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Since the Manhattan Project, the use of high-speed photography, and its cousins flash radiography1 and schieleren photography have been a technological proliferation concern. Indeed, like the supercomputer, the development of high-speed photography as we now know it essentially grew out of the nuclear weapons program at Los Alamos2,3,4. Naturally, during the course of the last 75 years the technology associated with computers and cameras has been export controlled by the United States and others to prevent both proliferation among non-P5-nations and technological parity among potential adversaries among P5 nations. Here we revisit these issues as they relate to high-speed photographic technologies and make recommendations about how future restrictions, if any, should be guided.

  20. Predistortion control device and method, assembly including a predistortion control device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2003-01-01

    A predistortion control device (1). The device has a first predistortion control input connectable to a power amplifier output (21); a second predistortion control input (11) connectable to a signal contact of a predistortion device; and a predistortion control output (12) connectable to a control

  1. Low-Speed Cooperative Car-Following Fuzzy Controller for Cybernetic Transport Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés , Vicente; Marouf , Mohamed; Pérez Rastelli , Joshué; Gonzalez Bautista , David; Nashashibi , Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    International audience; — This paper describes the development of a Coop-erative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for the future urban transportation system at low-speed. The control algorithm was evaluated using two Cybecars as prototype vehicles. A longitu-dinal response model for the vehicles was developed to design the CACC system. The control algorithm was implemented on a fuzzy logic-based controller that has been tuned to minimize a cost function in order to get a trade-off between a pro...

  2. Speed control of induction motor using fuzzy recursive least squares technique

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Sánchez; Eduardo Giraldo

    2008-01-01

    A simple adaptive controller design is presented in this paper, the control system uses the adaptive fuzzy logic, sliding modes and is trained with the recursive least squares technique. The problem of parameter variation is solved with the adaptive controller; the use of an internal PI regulator produces that the speed control of the induction motor be achieved by the stator currents instead the input voltage. The rotor-flux oriented coordinated system model is used to develop and test the c...

  3. Design of a model predictive load-following controller by discrete optimization of control rod speed for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Soon Ho; Na, Man Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model predictive controller for load-following operation was developed. • Genetic algorithm optimizes the five nonlinear discrete control rod speeds. • The boron concentration is adjusted with automatic adjustment logic. • The proposed controller reflects the realistic control rod drive mechanism movement. • The performance was confirmed to be satisfactory by simulation from BOC to EOC. - Abstract: Currently, most existing nuclear power plants alter the reactor power by adjusting the boron concentration in the coolant because it has a smaller effect on the reactor power distribution. Frequent control rod movements for load-following operation induce xenon-oscillation. Therefore, a controller that can subdue this phenomenon effectively is needed. At an APR1400 nuclear power plant which is a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the reactor power is controlled automatically using a Reactor Regulating System (RRS) but the power distribution is controlled manually by operators. Therefore, for APR+ nuclear power plants which is an improved version of APR1400 nuclear reactor, a new concept of a reactor controller is needed to control both the reactor power and power distribution automatically. The model predictive control (MPC) method is applicable to multiple-input multiple-output control, and can be applied for complex and nonlinear systems, such as the nuclear power plants. In this study, an MPC controller was developed by applying a genetic algorithm to optimize the discrete control rod speeds and by reflecting the realistic movement of the control rod drive mechanism that moves at only five discrete speeds. The performance of the proposed controller was confirmed to be satisfactory by simulating the load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear power plant through interface with KISPAC-1D code

  4. Study on variation in ship's forward speed under regular waves depending on rudder controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Soo Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare and analyze the advanced speed of ships with different rudder controller in wavy condition by using a simulation. The commercial simulation tool named AQWA is used to develop the simulation of ship which has 3 degree of freedom. The nonlinear hydrodynamic force acting on hull, the propeller thrust and the rudder force are calculated by the additional subroutine which interlock with the commercial simulation tool, and the regular wave is used as the source of the external force for the simulation. Rudder rotational velocity and autopilot coefficients vary to make the different rudder controller. An advanced speed of ships depending on the rudder controller is analyzed after the autopilot simulations.

  5. Modelling and control algorithms of the cross conveyors line with multiengine variable speed drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremushkina, M. S.; Baburin, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of developing the control algorithm that meets the technical requirements of the mine belt conveyors, and enables energy and resource savings taking into account a random sort of traffic. The most effective method of solution of these tasks is the construction of control systems with the use of variable speed drives for asynchronous motors. The authors designed the mathematical model of the system ‘variable speed multiengine drive - conveyor - control system of conveyors’ that takes into account the dynamic processes occurring in the elements of the transport system, provides an assessment of the energy efficiency of application the developed algorithms, which allows one to reduce the dynamic overload in the belt to 15-20%.

  6. Variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchani, Borhen; Sellami, Anis; Garcia, Germain

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new design variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach. This methodology is designed for linear saturated system. The saturation constraint is reported on inputs vector. To this end, the back stepping design procedure is followed to construct a suitable sliding manifold that guarantees the attainment of a stabilization control objective. It is well known that the mechanisms are investigated in term of the most proposed assumptions to deal with the damping, shaft stiffness and inertia effect of the gear. The objectives are to synthesize robust controllers that maximize the energy extracted from wind, while reducing mechanical loads and rotor speed tracking combined with an electromagnetic torque. Simulation results of the proposed scheme are presented. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-10-23

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude.

  8. Modeling and control of PMSG-based variable-speed wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Woo; Ko, Hee-Sang [Wind Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu Jang-Dong 71-2,305-343 Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Sung-Soo [Chungbuk National University (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents a control scheme of a variable-speed wind turbine with a permanent-magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG) and full-scale back-to-back voltage source converter. A comprehensive dynamical model of the PMSG wind turbine and its control scheme is presented. The control scheme comprises both the wind-turbine control itself and the power-converter control. In addition, since the PMSG wind turbine is able to support actively the grid due to its capability to control independently active and reactive power production to the imposed set-values with taking into account its operating state and limits, this paper presents the supervisory reactive power control scheme in order to regulate/contribute the voltage at a remote location. The ability of the control scheme is assessed and discussed by means of simulations, based on a candidate site of the offshore wind farm in Jeju, Korea. (author)

  9. Speed Control of Matrix Converter-Fed Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors under Unbalanced Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzou Yousefi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM have special applications in which highly accurate speed and torque control of the motor are a strong requirement. Direct Torque Control (DTC is a suitable method for the driver structure of these motors. If in this method, instead of using a common five-phase voltage source inverter, a three-phase to five-phase matrix converter is used, the low-frequency current harmonics and the high torque ripple are limited, and an improved input power factor is obtained. Because the input voltages of such converters are directly supplied by input three-phase supply voltages, an imbalance in the voltages will cause problems such as unbalanced stator currents and electromagnetic torque fluctuations. In this paper, a new method is introduced to remove speed and torque oscillator factors. For this purpose, motor torque equations were developed and the oscillation components created by the unbalanced source voltage, determined. Then, using the active and reactive power reference generator, the controller power reference was adjusted in such a way that the electromagnetic torque of the motor did not change. By this means, a number of features including speed, torque, and flux of the motor were improved in terms of the above-mentioned conditions. Simulations were analyzed using Matlab/Simulink software.

  10. Neural control and modulation of swimming speed in the larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Kristen E; Portugues, Ruben; Marques, João C; O'Malley, Donald M; Orger, Michael B; Engert, Florian

    2014-08-06

    Vertebrate locomotion at different speeds is driven by descending excitatory connections to central pattern generators in the spinal cord. To investigate how these inputs determine locomotor kinematics, we used whole-field visual motion to drive zebrafish to swim at different speeds. Larvae match the stimulus speed by utilizing more locomotor events, or modifying kinematic parameters such as the duration and speed of swimming bouts, the tail-beat frequency, and the choice of gait. We used laser ablations, electrical stimulation, and activity recordings in descending neurons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) to dissect their contribution to controlling forward movement. We found that the activity of single identified neurons within the nMLF is correlated with locomotor kinematics, and modulates both the duration and oscillation frequency of tail movements. By identifying the contribution of individual supraspinal circuit elements to locomotion kinematics, we build a better understanding of how the brain controls movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cutting-in control of the variable speed constant frequency wind power generator based on internal model controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua; Zhao Dongli [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The no-impact-current cutting-in-network control is the key of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power control system. Based on the stator flux linkage oriented control theory of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the field-oriented vector control technique and the internal model controller (IMC) are transplanted into the voltage control of DFIG and a novel cutting-in control strategy is obtained. The strategy does not need the exact inductor generator model, and has perfect performance without overshoot. The structure of the controller is simple, and the only parameter to be adjusted is directly related to system performance, so the strategy is easy to realize. Finally the strategy is studied by simulation using Matlab, the results of the simulation show that the control strategy can effectively control the stator voltage. (orig.)

  12. Quantum speed limits: from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle to optimal quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Campbell, Steve

    2017-11-01

    One of the most widely known building blocks of modern physics is Heisenberg’s indeterminacy principle. Among the different statements of this fundamental property of the full quantum mechanical nature of physical reality, the uncertainty relation for energy and time has a special place. Its interpretation and its consequences have inspired continued research efforts for almost a century. In its modern formulation, the uncertainty relation is understood as setting a fundamental bound on how fast any quantum system can evolve. In this topical review we describe important milestones, such as the Mandelstam-Tamm and the Margolus-Levitin bounds on the quantum speed limit, and summarise recent applications in a variety of current research fields—including quantum information theory, quantum computing, and quantum thermodynamics amongst several others. To bring order and to provide an access point into the many different notions and concepts, we have grouped the various approaches into the minimal time approach and the geometric approach, where the former relies on quantum control theory, and the latter arises from measuring the distinguishability of quantum states. Due to the volume of the literature, this topical review can only present a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art and can never be fully comprehensive. Therefore, we highlight but a few works hoping that our selection can serve as a representative starting point for the interested reader.

  13. Quantum speed limits: from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle to optimal quantum control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Campbell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    One of the most widely known building blocks of modern physics is Heisenberg’s indeterminacy principle. Among the different statements of this fundamental property of the full quantum mechanical nature of physical reality, the uncertainty relation for energy and time has a special place. Its interpretation and its consequences have inspired continued research efforts for almost a century. In its modern formulation, the uncertainty relation is understood as setting a fundamental bound on how fast any quantum system can evolve. In this topical review we describe important milestones, such as the Mandelstam–Tamm and the Margolus–Levitin bounds on the quantum speed limit , and summarise recent applications in a variety of current research fields—including quantum information theory, quantum computing, and quantum thermodynamics amongst several others. To bring order and to provide an access point into the many different notions and concepts, we have grouped the various approaches into the minimal time approach and the geometric approach , where the former relies on quantum control theory, and the latter arises from measuring the distinguishability of quantum states. Due to the volume of the literature, this topical review can only present a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art and can never be fully comprehensive. Therefore, we highlight but a few works hoping that our selection can serve as a representative starting point for the interested reader. (topical review)

  14. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

  15. Implementation of MRAC controller of a DFIG based variable speed grid connected wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeddaim, Sabrina; Betka, Achour; Drid, Said; Becherif, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Set-up of an experimental test emulating a wind turbine, driving a grid-connected conventional DFIG. • An optimal operation below rated speed is achieved by means of an appropriate maximum power-point tracking algorithm. • Design and implementation of an adaptive model reference controller (MRAC) of the active and reactive power regulation. - Abstract: This paper presents the design and the implementation of a model reference adaptive control of the active and reactive power regulation of a grid connected wind turbine based on a doubly fed induction generator. This regulation is achieved below the synchronous speed, by means of a maximum power-point tracking algorithm. The experiment was conducted on a 1 kW didactic wound rotor induction machine in association with a wind turbine emulator. This implementation is realized using a dSPACE 1104 single-board control and acquisition interface. The obtained results show a permanent track of the available maximum wind power, under a chosen wind speed profile. Furthermore the proposed controller exhibits a smooth regulation of the stator active and reactive power amounts exchanged between the machine and the grid

  16. The development of a control system for a small high speed steam microturbine generator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, A.; Nichol, P.; Saunders, M.; Frisby, B.

    2015-08-01

    Steam is a widely used energy source. In many situations steam is generated at high pressures and then reduced in pressure through control valves before reaching point of use. An opportunity was identified to convert some of the energy at the point of pressure reduction into electricity. To take advantage of a market identified for small scale systems, a microturbine generator was designed based on a small high speed turbo machine. This machine was packaged with the necessary control valves and systems to allow connection of the machine to the grid. Traditional machines vary the speed of the generator to match the grid frequency. This was not possible due to the high speed of this machine. The characteristics of the rotating unit had to be understood to allow a control that allowed export of energy at the right frequency to the grid under the widest possible range of steam conditions. A further goal of the control system was to maximise the efficiency of generation under all conditions. A further complication was to provide adequate protection for the rotating unit in the event of the loss of connection to the grid. The system to meet these challenges is outlined with the solutions employed and tested for this application.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF PID ON PIC24F SERIES MICROCONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR USING MPLAB AND PROTEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Aslam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed control of DC motor is very critical in most of the industrial systems where accuracy and protection are of essence. This paper presents the simulations of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID on a 16-bit PIC 24F series microcontroller for speed control of a DC motor in the presence of load torque. The PID gains have been tuned by Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR technique and then it is implemented on microcontroller using MPLAB and finally simulated for speed control of DC motor in Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM software.Proteus has built in feature to add load torque to DC motor so simulation results have been presented in three cases speed of DC motor is controlled without load torque, with 25% load torque and with 50% load torque. In all three cases PID effectively controls the speed of DC motor with minimum steady state error.

  18. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanien, Hany M., E-mail: Hanyhasanien@ieee.or [Dept. of Elec. Power and Machines, Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanien, Hany M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  20. Nonlinear Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Salient Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kyslan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor with salient poles based on two-step linearization method. In the first step, the direct compensation of the nonlinearities in the equations of current is used. In the second step, the input-output linearization in the state space is used for the decoupling of flux and torque axis. Simulated results are compared to the field oriented vector control structure with PI controllers in order to show differences in the performance of both approaches.

  1. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

    2002-01-01

    Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

  2. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 μm in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be

  3. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

  4. Development of autonomous controller system of high speed UAV from simulation to ready to fly condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-02-01

    The development of autonomous controller system that is specially used in our high speed UAV, it’s call RKX-200EDF/TJ controlled vehicle needs to be continued as a step to mastery and to developt control system of LAPAN’s satellite launching rocket. The weakness of the existing control system in this high speed UAV needs to be repaired and replaced using the autonomous controller system. Conversion steps for ready-to-fly system involved controlling X tail fin, adjusting auto take off procedure by adding X axis sensor, procedure of way points reading and process of measuring distance and heading to the nearest way point, developing user-friendly ground station, and adding tools for safety landing. The development of this autonomous controller system also covered a real flying test in Pandanwangi, Lumajang in November 2016. Unfortunately, the flying test was not successful because the booster rocket was blown right after burning. However, the system could record the event and demonstrated that the controller system had worked according to plan.

  5. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently...., Automation and Control Solutions Division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Spherion...

  6. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  7. Control of cooling of an oil-immersed power transformer by varying speed of fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Nikola Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a prototype system for speed control of cooling fans for a small oil-immersed 6.6 kVA transformer, implemented on a standard PLC. Generally, the potential for optimization of the cooling process depends on the accessible cooling modes and construction of the transformer; basically the aim of the cooling system control is reduction in power consumption of the fans / pumps and keeping the top-oil temperature at constant value (to reduce transformer 'breathing' and infiltration of moisture. The following constraints should be taken into account: hot-spot temperature, its current value and the one which would appear for planned overloads must not exceed the allowed limit. Based on the results in steady state, the paper offers the quantitative determination of transformer thermal characteristics depending on the fan speed.

  8. Modeling And Simulation Of Highly Advanced Multilevel Inverter For Speed Control Of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Raj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper the problem of removing Power dissipation from single phase Induction Motor with DC sources is considered by the speed control of Induction Motor with highly advanced 9-Level multi-level Inverter which having approximate zero Harmonics. As the demand of power is increasing day by day. So that we must introduced very advanced Electrical Instruments which having high efficiency and less dissipation of power. The requirement of very advanced Inverter is necessary. Here we are designing a Multi-level Inverter up to the 9-level using IGBT Insulated-gate bipolar transistor by Mat lab which having negligible total harmonic distortion THD thats why it will control the speed of single phase Induction motor which is presently widely used in our daily needs. Also several informative Simulation results verify the authority and truthiness of the proposed Model.

  9. Informal methods of social control: managing speed behaviour on SA roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available . These normally stems from a soar in prices related to transport services. The fluctuating fuel price influenced South Africans one way or another. The theory put forward in the first part of the paper considered the possibility of whether or not the escalation... crisis) and in 1979 (Iranian fuel crisis), driver behaviour were adapted accordingly. Along with the lowering of speed limits (Fieldwick and Fernie: 1980) the South African government at the time also introduced another type of social control...

  10. Dynamic Protective Control Strategy for Distributed Generation System with Fixed-speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of induction generator based fixed-speed wind turbines (FSWT) are investigated. The impacts of different execution time in protective operations are studied under different fauit duration and various wind velocity situations, e.g. , FSWT stabilities of load shedding in distribution systems. Based on this research, a dynamic protective control strategy for a distributed generation system (DGS) with FSWT is proposed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  11. Analysis of Wind Speed Forecasting Error Effects on Automatic Generation Control Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rajabi Mashhadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study statistical indices and evaluate AGC indices in power system which has large penetration of the WTGs. Increasing penetration of wind turbine generations, needs to study more about impacts of it on power system frequency control. Frequency control is changed with unbalancing real-time system generation and load . Also wind turbine generations have more fluctuations and make system more unbalance. Then AGC loop helps to adjust system frequency and the scheduled tie-line powers. The quality of AGC loop is measured by some indices. A good index is a proper measure shows the AGC performance just as the power system operates. One of well-known measures in literature which was introduced by NERC is Control Performance Standards(CPS. Previously it is claimed that a key factor in CPS index is related to standard deviation of generation error, installed power and frequency response. This paper focuses on impact of a several hours-ahead wind speed forecast error on this factor. Furthermore evaluation of conventional control performances in the power systems with large-scale wind turbine penetration is studied. Effects of wind speed standard deviation and also degree of wind farm penetration are analyzed and importance of mentioned factor are criticized. In addition, influence of mean wind speed forecast error on this factor is investigated. The study system is a two area system which there is significant wind farm in one of those. The results show that mean wind speed forecast error has considerable effect on AGC performance while the mentioned key factor is insensitive to this mean error.

  12. Transient and dynamic control of a variable speed wind turbine with synchronous generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens [Riso National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, PO Box 49, DK 4000 Roskilde, (Denmark)

    2007-02-14

    In this article, a controller for dynamic and transient control of a variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale converter-connected high-speed synchronous generator is presented. First, the phenomenon of drive train oscillations in wind turbines with full-scale converter-connected generators is discussed. Based on this discussion, a controller is presented that dampens these oscillations without impacting on the power that the wind turbine injects into the grid. Since wind turbines are increasingly demanded to take over power system stabilizing and control tasks, the presented wind turbine design is further enhanced to support the grid in transient grid events. A controller is designed that allows the wind turbine to ride through transient grid faults. Since such faults often cause power system oscillations, another controller is added that enables the turbine to participate in the damping of such oscillations. It is concluded that the controllers presented keep the wind turbine stable under any operating conditions, and that they are capable of adding substantial damping to the power system. (Author).

  13. Speed response of brushless DC motor using fuzzy PID controller under varying load condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Varshney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend towards usage of precisely controlled, high torque, efficient and low noise motors for dedicated applications has attracted the attention of researcher in Brushless DC (BLDC motors. BLDC motors can act as an acceptable alternative to the conventional motors like Induction Motors, Switched Reluctance Motors etc. This paper presents a detailed study on the performance of a BLDC motor supplying different types of loads, and at the same time, deploying different control techniques. An advance Fuzzy PID controller is compared with the commonly used PID controller. The load variations considered are of the most common types, generally encountered in practice. A comparison has been carried out in this paper by observing the dynamic speed response of motor at the time of application as well as at the time of removal of the load. The BLDC motors suffer from a major drawback of having jerky behaviour at the time of load removal. The study reveals that irrespective of the type of controller used, the gradual load variation produces better results as against sudden load variations. It is further observed that in addition to other dynamic features, the jerks produced at the time of load removal also get improved to a large extent with Fuzzy PID controller.The speed torque characteristics unraveled the fact that the jerks are minimum at the time of gradual load removal with Fuzzy PID controller in place. An attempt has been made to define these jerks by ‘Perturbation Window’.

  14. High speed and high functional inverter power supplies for plasma generation and control, and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Razzak, Mohammad A.; Kondo, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi; Imai, Takahiro; Toyoda, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The Rapid development of high power and high speed semiconductor switching devices has led to their various applications in related plasma fields. Especially, a high speed inverter power supply can be used as an RF power source instead of conventional linear amplifiers and a power supply to control the magnetic field in a fusion plasma device. In this paper, RF thermal plasma production and plasma heating experiments are described emphasis placed on using a static induction transistor inverter at a frequency range between 200 kHz and 2.5 MHz as an RF power supply. Efficient thermal plasma production is achieved experimentally by using a flexible and easily operated high power semiconductor inverter power supply. Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power supplies driven by a high speed digital signal processor are applied as tokamak joule coil and vertical coil power supplies to control plasma current waveform and plasma equilibrium. Output characteristics, such as the arbitrary bipolar waveform generation of a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter using digital signal processor (DSP) can be successfully applied to tokamak power supplies for flexible plasma current operation and fast position control of a small tokamak. (author)

  15. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. METHODS:Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. RESULTS:In general, no differences were found between speed......-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant...... correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest...

  16. Power maximization of variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines using passive adaptive neural fault tolerant control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Hamed; Rahimi Nohooji, Hamed; Howard, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Power maximization has always been a practical consideration in wind turbines. The question of how to address optimal power capture, especially when the system dynamics are nonlinear and the actuators are subject to unknown faults, is significant. This paper studies the control methodology for variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines including the effects of uncertain nonlinear dynamics, system fault uncertainties, and unknown external disturbances. The nonlinear model of the wind turbine is presented, and the problem of maximizing extracted energy is formulated by designing the optimal desired states. With the known system, a model-based nonlinear controller is designed; then, to handle uncertainties, the unknown nonlinearities of the wind turbine are estimated by utilizing radial basis function neural networks. The adaptive neural fault tolerant control is designed passively to be robust on model uncertainties, disturbances including wind speed and model noises, and completely unknown actuator faults including generator torque and pitch actuator torque. The Lyapunov direct method is employed to prove that the closed-loop system is uniformly bounded. Simulation studies are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Off-line tuning of a PI speed controller for a permanent magnet brushless DC motor using DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirtas, Metin, E-mail: mdtas@balikesir.edu.t [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Balikesir University, Balikesir (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a new method of tuning Proportional Integral (PI) coefficients for a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor drives is proposed. Artificial neural network is used to identify the whole system using maximum overshoot and settling time obtained from the application circuit for different K{sub p}-K{sub i} pairs. Optimal values of PI controller coefficients are obtained using genetic algorithm. Motion Control Kit (MCK243) is used to carry out digital motion control applications. The MCK243 kit includes a power module and a three-phase brushless motor. TMS320F243 programs are used for PMBLDC motor speed control. Experimental results are given to show the validity of this method.

  18. Speed tracking control of pneumatic motor servo systems using observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Syuan-Yi; Gong, Sheng-Sian

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop an adaptive high-precision control system for controlling the speed of a vane-type air motor (VAM) pneumatic servo system. In practice, the rotor speed of a VAM depends on the input mass air flow, which can be controlled by the effective orifice area (EOA) of an electronic throttle valve (ETV). As the control variable of a second-order pneumatic system is the integral of the EOA, an observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control (ADSMC) system is proposed to derive the differential of the control variable, namely, the EOA control signal. In the ADSMC system, a proportional-integral-derivative fuzzy neural network (PIDFNN) observer is used to achieve an ideal dynamic sliding-mode control (DSMC), and a supervisor compensator is designed to eliminate the approximation error. As a result, the ADSMC incorporates the robustness of a DSMC and the online learning ability of a PIDFNN. To ensure the convergence of the tracking error, a Lyapunov-based analytical method is employed to obtain the adaptive algorithms required to tune the control parameters of the online ADSMC system. Finally, our experimental results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the ADSMC system for highly nonlinear and time-varying VAM pneumatic servo systems.

  19. Control of a Stand-Alone Variable Speed Wind Energy Supply System †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Hamada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple control strategy for the operation of a variable speed stand-alone wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The PMSG is connected to a three phase resistive load through a switch mode rectifier and a voltage source inverter. Control of the generator side converter is used to achieve maximum power extraction from the available wind power. Control of the DC-DC bidirectional buck-boost converter, which is connected between batteries bank and DC-link voltage, is used to maintain the DC-link voltage at a constant value. It is also used to make the batteries bank stores the surplus of wind energy and supplies this energy to the load during a wind power shortage. The load side voltage source inverter uses a relatively complex vector control scheme to control the output load voltage in terms of amplitude and frequency. The control strategy works under wind speed variation as well as with variable load. Extensive simulation results have been performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  20. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  1. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  2. Wavelet-Fuzzy Speed Indirect Field Oriented Controller for Three-Phase AC Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Daya, Febin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Three-phase voltage source inverter driven induction motor are used in many medium- and high-power applications. Precision in speed of the motor play vital role, i.e. popular methods of direct/indirect field-oriented control (FOC) are applied. FOC is employed with proportional-integral (P...... wavelet transform and the fuzzy logic controller, to generate the scaled gains for the indirect FOC induction motor. Complete model of the proposed ac motor drive is developed with numerical simulation Matlab/Simulink software and tested under different working conditions. For experimental verification...

  3. Improving the speed of AFM by mechatronic design and modern control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schitter, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) high-performance and high-precision control of the AFM scanner and of the imaging forces is crucial. Particularly at high imaging speeds the dynamic behaviour of the scanner may cause imaging artifacts and limit the maximum imaging rate. This contribution discusses and presents recent improvements in AFM instrumentation for faster imaging by means of mechatronic design and utilizing modern control engineering methods. Combining these improvements enables AFM imaging at more than two orders of magnitudes faster than conventional AFMs. (orig.)

  4. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...... and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines...

  5. Minimum-Voltage Vector Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM for Low-Speed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...... may also be further developed to inject two opposite voltage vectors to reduce the effects of inverter voltage error on the position estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other sensorless control method. Theoretical analysis and experimental...

  6. Intrinsic Hardware Evolution for the Design and Reconfiguration of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a second generation Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA2). The performance of an evolved controller is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. It is shown that hardware evolution is able to create a compact design that provides good performance, while using considerably less functional electronic components than the conventional design. Additionally, the use of hardware evolution to provide fault tolerance by reconfiguring the design is explored. Experimental results are presented showing that significant recovery of capability can be made in the face of damaging induced faults.

  7. Sistema de controle de velocidade sincronizada entre dois veículos agrícolas Synchronized speed control system between two agricultural vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando Galzerano Baldo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta para o controle automático de velocidade entre dois veículos que necessitam trafegar em paralelo durante operações agrícolas. É descrito o desenvolvimento e os testes de campo de um sistema de controle de velocidade para um trator escravo baseado na velocidade de um trator mestre, utilizando um controlador desenvolvido em lógica fuzzy. Para esses testes, os tratores foram instrumentados com GPS, encoder, computador e transmissor de radiofrequência, sendo instalado ainda no trator escravo um motor de passo para o controle da velocidade de deslocamento. Para avaliar o sistema, realizaram-se dois testes: no primeiro, a resposta do trator escravo à variação de velocidade foi avaliada a partir de simulações de variação na velocidade de entrada; no segundo, foram utilizados dois tratores variando a velocidade do trator mestre e observando a resposta do trator escravo. No primeiro teste, o trator escravo acompanhou a simulação da variação da velocidade com um erro quadrático médio (EQM não significativo e erro médio percentual (EMP máximo de 1,3%. No segundo teste, o trator escravo acompanhou a variação de velocidade do trator mestre com o (EMP de deslocamento variando em módulo de 0,2% a 2,9%.This paper presents a proposal for automatic speed control of vehicles that requires working in synchronism with each other during agricultural operations. It describes the development and field tests of a control system for a slave tractor based on the master tractor speed, using a fuzzy controller. For the tests the master tractor was instrumented with GPS, encoders, computer and radio transmitter. The slave tractor was instrumented in the same way, and included also a stepper motor to act on the tractor throttle. To evaluate the system two tests were conducted. In the first, the master tractor speed was simulated using only the slave tractor. In the second test, two tractors were used varying the

  8. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  9. Second-order Sliding Mode Control of DFIG Based Variable Speed Wind Turbine for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjie Liu; Chengcheng Wang; Yaozhen Han

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a super-twisting second order sliding mode control scheme to maximize the wind energy capture of a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) system, and minimize the reactive power simultaneously. Two second order sliding mode controllers are designed to achieve the control objectives, reduce mechanical stress and improve control accuracy. By regulating the generator rotor voltage, one controller makes the wind turbine rotor speed track the optimal speed, which can maximize power generation. The other maintains the rotor current at rated value to minimize the reactive power. A quadratic form Lyapunov function is adopted to determine the range of controller parameters and guarantee the finite time stability. Simulation results on a 1.5 MW doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based variable speed wind turbine demonstrate the validity of the proposed control strategy.

  10. An analytical investigation on the valve and centrifugal pump speed control with a constant differential pressure across the valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B. R.; Joo, K. I.; Lee, B. J.; Baek, S. J.; Noh, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    A valve opening and centrifugal pump speed control was investigated analytically in a simple pumping system where the differential pressure across the control valve is maintained constant over the required flow range. The valve control program was derived analytically only as a function of the required flow rate to maintain the constant differential pressure across the valve. The centrifugal pump speed control program was also derived analytically for the required flow rate for the constant differential pressure across the control valve. These derivations theoretically show that the independent control is possible between the valve and pump speed in a system with a constant valve pressure drop. In addition, it was shown that a linear pump speed control is impossible in maintaining the constant valve pressure drop

  11. Comparison of Sliding Mode Control and Fuzzy Logic control applied to Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhila Rached Zine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available wind energy features prominently as a supplementary energy booster. It does not pollute and is inexhaustible. However, its high cost is a major constraint, especially on the less windy sites. The purpose of wind energy systems is to maximize energy efficiency, and extract maximum power from the wind speed. In This case, the MPPT control becomes important. To realize this control, strategy conventional Proportional and Integral (PI controller is usually used. However, this strategy cannot achieve better performance. This paper proposes other control methods of a turbine which optimizes its production such as fuzzy logic, sliding mode control. These methods improve the quality and energy efficiency. The proposed Sliding Mode Control (SMC strategy and the fuzzy controllers have presented attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine, simplicity of its design and good performances. The simulation result under Matlab\\Simulink has validated the performance of the proposed MPPT strategies.

  12. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Su Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI controller parameters. The parameters to be tuned are chosen by investigating participation factors of state variables, which simplifies the problem by reducing the number of parameters to be tuned. The process of adjusting these PI controller parameters is carried out using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To characterize the improvements in the control method due to the PSO method of tuning the PI controller parameters, the PMSG WT is modeled using the MATLAB/SimPowerSystems libraries with the obtained PI controller parameters.

  13. High-speed monodisperse droplet generation by ultrasonically controlled micro-jet breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhold, Philipp Erhard; Lippert, Alexander; Holsteyns, Frank Ludwig; Mettin, Robert

    2014-04-01

    A liquid jet that is ejected from a nozzle into air will disintegrate into drops via the well-known Plateau-Rayleigh instability within a certain range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. With the focus on the micrometer scale, we investigate the control of this process by superimposing a suitable ultrasonic signal, which causes the jet to break up into a very precise train of monodisperse droplets. The jet leaves a pressurized container of liquid via a small orifice of about 20 μm diameter. The break-up process and the emerging droplets are recorded via high-speed imaging. An extended parameter study of exit speed and ultrasonic frequency is carried out for deionized water to evaluate the jet's state and the subsequent generation of monodisperse droplets. Maximum exit velocities obtained reach almost 120 m s-1, and frequencies have been applied up to 1.8 MHz. Functionality of the method is confirmed for five additional liquids for moderate jet velocities 38 m s-1. For the uncontrolled jet disintegration, the drop size spectra revealed broad distributions and downstream drop growth by collision, while the acoustic control generated monodisperse droplets with a standard deviation less than 0.5 %. By adjustment of the acoustic excitation frequency, drop diameters could be tuned continuously from about 30 to 50 μm for all exit speeds. Good agreement to former experiments and theoretical approaches is found for the relation of overpressure and jet exit speed, and for the observed stability regions of monodisperse droplet generation in the parameter plane of jet speed and acoustic excitation frequency. Fitting of two free parameters of the general theory to the liquids and nozzles used is found to yield an even higher precision. Furthermore, the high-velocity instability limit of regular jet breakup described by von Ohnesorge has been superseded by more than a factor of two without entering the wind-induced instability regime, and monodisperse droplet generation was

  14. A novel walking speed estimation scheme and its application to treadmill control for gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jungwon; Park, Hyung-Soon; Damiano, Diane Louise

    2012-08-28

    Virtual reality (VR) technology along with treadmill training (TT) can effectively provide goal-oriented practice and promote improved motor learning in patients with neurological disorders. Moreover, the VR + TT scheme may enhance cognitive engagement for more effective gait rehabilitation and greater transfer to over ground walking. For this purpose, we developed an individualized treadmill controller with a novel speed estimation scheme using swing foot velocity, which can enable user-driven treadmill walking (UDW) to more closely simulate over ground walking (OGW) during treadmill training. OGW involves a cyclic acceleration-deceleration profile of pelvic velocity that contrasts with typical treadmill-driven walking (TDW), which constrains a person to walk at a preset constant speed. In this study, we investigated the effects of the proposed speed adaptation controller by analyzing the gait kinematics of UDW and TDW, which were compared to those of OGW at three pre-determined velocities. Ten healthy subjects were asked to walk in each mode (TDW, UDW, and OGW) at three pre-determined speeds (0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s, and 1.5 m/s) with real time feedback provided through visual displays. Temporal-spatial gait data and 3D pelvic kinematics were analyzed and comparisons were made between UDW on a treadmill, TDW, and OGW. The observed step length, cadence, and walk ratio defined as the ratio of stride length to cadence were not significantly different between UDW and TDW. Additionally, the average magnitude of pelvic acceleration peak values along the anterior-posterior direction for each step and the associated standard deviations (variability) were not significantly different between the two modalities. The differences between OGW and UDW and TDW were mainly in swing time and cadence, as have been reported previously. Also, step lengths between OGW and TDW were different for 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s gait velocities, and walk ratio between OGS and UDW was

  15. A novel walking speed estimation scheme and its application to treadmill control for gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jungwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR technology along with treadmill training (TT can effectively provide goal-oriented practice and promote improved motor learning in patients with neurological disorders. Moreover, the VR + TT scheme may enhance cognitive engagement for more effective gait rehabilitation and greater transfer to over ground walking. For this purpose, we developed an individualized treadmill controller with a novel speed estimation scheme using swing foot velocity, which can enable user-driven treadmill walking (UDW to more closely simulate over ground walking (OGW during treadmill training. OGW involves a cyclic acceleration-deceleration profile of pelvic velocity that contrasts with typical treadmill-driven walking (TDW, which constrains a person to walk at a preset constant speed. In this study, we investigated the effects of the proposed speed adaptation controller by analyzing the gait kinematics of UDW and TDW, which were compared to those of OGW at three pre-determined velocities. Methods Ten healthy subjects were asked to walk in each mode (TDW, UDW, and OGW at three pre-determined speeds (0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s, and 1.5 m/s with real time feedback provided through visual displays. Temporal-spatial gait data and 3D pelvic kinematics were analyzed and comparisons were made between UDW on a treadmill, TDW, and OGW. Results The observed step length, cadence, and walk ratio defined as the ratio of stride length to cadence were not significantly different between UDW and TDW. Additionally, the average magnitude of pelvic acceleration peak values along the anterior-posterior direction for each step and the associated standard deviations (variability were not significantly different between the two modalities. The differences between OGW and UDW and TDW were mainly in swing time and cadence, as have been reported previously. Also, step lengths between OGW and TDW were different for 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s gait velocities

  16. Maximum Power Point Tracking in Variable Speed Wind Turbine Based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Using Maximum Torque Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Ghaderi; Hossein Tohidi; Behnam Khosrozadeh

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to track the maximum power point in a variable speed turbine by minimizing electromechanical torque changes using a sliding mode control strategy.In this strategy,fhst,the rotor speed is set at an optimal point for different wind speeds.As a result of which,the tip speed ratio reaches an optimal point,mechanical power coefficient is maximized,and wind turbine produces its maximum power and mechanical torque.Then,the maximum mechanical torque is tracked using electromechanical torque.In this technique,tracking error integral of maximum mechanical torque,the error,and the derivative of error are used as state variables.During changes in wind speed,sliding mode control is designed to absorb the maximum energy from the wind and minimize the response time of maximum power point tracking (MPPT).In this method,the actual control input signal is formed from a second order integral operation of the original sliding mode control input signal.The result of the second order integral in this model includes control signal integrity,full chattering attenuation,and prevention from large fluctuations in the power generator output.The simulation results,calculated by using MATLAB/m-file software,have shown the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for wind energy systems based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG).

  17. Assessment of wind speed and wind power through three stations in Egypt, including air density variation and analysis results with rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Marrouf, A.A.; Koza, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the wind energy potential is proportional to both air density and the third power of the wind speed average over a suitable time period. The wind speed and air density have random variables depending on both time and location. The main objective of this work is to derive the most general wind energy potential of the wind formulation putting into consideration the time variable in both wind speed and air density. The correction factor is derived explicitly in terms of the cross-correlation and the coefficients of variation.The application is performed for environmental and wind speed measurements at the Cairo Airport, Kosseir and Hurguada, Egypt. Comparisons are made between Weibull, Rayleigh, and actual data distributions of wind speed and wind power of one year 2005. A Weibull distribution is the best match to the actual probability distribution of wind speed data for most stations. The maximum wind energy potential was 373 W/m 2 in June at Hurguada (Red Sea coast) where the annual mean value was 207 W/m 2 . By Using Rough Set Theory, We Find That the Wind Power Depends on the Wind Speed with greater than air density

  18. 77 FR 59986 - Johnson Controls Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under IMECO LLC; North American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable to workers and former workers of Johnson Controls, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois... to TA-W-71,663 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Johnson Controls, including workers whose... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,663] Johnson Controls...

  19. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower... Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division to be considered leased workers...

  20. Fractional-Order Generalized Predictive Control: Application for Low-Speed Control of Gasoline-Propelled Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in using fractional calculus applied to control theory generalizing classical control strategies as the PID controller and developing new ones with the intention of taking advantage of characteristics supplied by this mathematical tool for the controller definition. In this work, the fractional generalization of the successful and spread control strategy known as model predictive control is applied to drive autonomously a gasoline-propelled vehicle at low speeds. The vehicle is a Citroën C3 Pluriel that was modified to act over the throttle and brake pedals. Its highly nonlinear dynamics are an excellent test bed for applying beneficial characteristics of fractional predictive formulation to compensate unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances.

  1. Control design for axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor which operates above the nominal speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Minh Tran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor (AFPM motor using magnet bearings instead of ball-bearings at both two shaft ends could allow rotational speed of shaft much greater than nominal speed. One of the solutions to increase motor speed higher than its nameplate speed is reducing rotor’s pole magnetic flux of rotor (Yp. This paper proposes a method to boost the speed of AFPM motor above nominal speed by adding a reversed current isd of (Yp.

  2. Study and experimental verification of control tuning strategies in a variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza, Jordi; Pou, Josep; Arias, Antoni [Electronic Engineering Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Campus Terrassa, C. Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Spiteri, Cyril [Department of Industrial Electrical Power Conversion, University of Malta, Faculty of Engineering, Msida (Malta); Robles, Eider; Ceballos, Salvador [Energy Unit, Robotiker-Tecnalia Technology Corporation, Zamudio, Basque Country (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    This paper analyzes and compares different control tuning strategies for a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The aerodynamics of the wind turbine (WT) and a PMSG have been modeled. The control strategy used in this research is composed of three regulators, which may be based on either linear or nonlinear controllers. In this analysis, proportional-integral (PI) linear controllers have been used. Two different tuning strategies are analyzed and compared. The main goal is to enhance the overall performance by achieving a low sensitivity to disturbances and minimal overshoot under variable operating conditions. Finally, the results have been verified by an experimental WECS laboratory prototype. (author)

  3. Speed-sensorless control strategy for multi-phase induction generator in wind energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Boris P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources, especially wind energy conversion systems (WECS, exhibit constant growth. Increase in power and installed capacity led to advances in WECS topologies. Multi-phase approach presents a new development direction, with several key advantages over three-phase systems. Paired with a sensorless control strategy, multi-phase machines are expected to take primacy over standard solutions. This paper presents speed sensorless vector control of an asymmetrical six-phase induction generator based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS. Suggested topology and developed control algorithm show that sensorless control can yield appropriate dynamic characteristics for the use in WECS with increase in reliability and robustness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 042004: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation

  4. Sensorless SPMSM Position Estimation Using Position Estimation Error Suppression Control and EKF in Wide Speed Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanshan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of a high performance alternative current (AC motor drive under sensorless operation needs the accurate estimation of rotor position. In this paper, one method of accurately estimating rotor position by using both motor complex number model based position estimation and position estimation error suppression proportion integral (PI controller is proposed for the sensorless control of the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM. In order to guarantee the accuracy of rotor position estimation in the flux-weakening region, one scheme of identifying the permanent magnet flux of SPMSM by extended Kalman filter (EKF is also proposed, which formed the effective combination method to realize the sensorless control of SPMSM with high accuracy. The simulation results demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the proposed position/speed estimation system.

  5. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  6. Torque-Controlled Adaptive Speed Control on a CNC Marble Saw Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Simsir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although CNC marble saw machines can automatically cut marble slabs to desired dimensions, saw speed and feed rate are selected by operator according to stone parameters, features of the saw, and its immersion depth. If the feed rate is selected lower than the optimal value, there will be time-loss and capacity deficiencies or if it is selected faster, cutting quality will decrease, spindle motor will draw more current, and saw blade will corrode faster. While cutting especially thick materials, saw may be stacked in the stone, cutting quality may be impaired, saw blade may be abraded earlier, precision quality may go down because of increase in measurement errors, and machine may be damaged with the increase in vibrations when improper feed rates are selected. Because of nonhomogeneity of the slabs and deterioration of the saw blade, operator cannot determine a persistent feed rate. This study is targeted to find saw speeds according to saw diameter and optimum feed rate by means of limiting vibrations and current drawn from saw motor and torque accordingly in order to increase working performance of CNC marble saw machines. Thanks to adaptive adjustment of feed rate, one can save on material as well as time, labour, and cost by making use of optimum energy.

  7. Research on the Robustness of the Constant Speed Control of Hydraulic Energy Storage Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengguang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage plays a major role in solving the fluctuation and intermittence problem of wind and the effective use of wind power. The application of the hydraulic accumulator is the most efficient and convenient way to store wind energy in hydraulic wind turbines. A hydraulic energy storage generation system (HESGS can transform hydraulic energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator into stable and constant electrical energy by controlling the variable motor, regardless of wind changes. The aim of the present study is to design a constant speed control method for the variable motor in the HESGS and investigate the influence of the controller’s main parameters on the resistance of the HESGS to external load power disturbances. Mathematical equations of all components in this system are introduced and an entire system simulation model is built. A double closed-loop control method of the variable motor is presented within this paper, which keeps the motor speed constant for the fixed frequency of electrical power generated by the HESGS. Ultimately, a series of simulations with different proportional gains and integral gains under the environment of changeless load power step are conducted. At the same time, comparison analyses of the experiment and simulation under variable load power step are performed. The results verify the correctness and the usability of the simulation model, and also indicate that the proposed control method is robust to the disturbances of changing load power.

  8. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Ao

    Full Text Available There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s. The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE, normalized integrated jerk (NIJ and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS, were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01, and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging.

  9. Sliding-Mode Observer for Speed and Position Sensorless Control of Linear-PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazraji Saeed Masoumi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sliding-mode observer that utilizes sigmoid function for speed and position sensorless control of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM. In conventional sliding mode observer method there are the chattering phenomenon and the phase lag. Thus, in order to avoid the usage of the low pass filter and the phase compensator based on back EMF, in this paper a sliding mode observer with sigmoid function for detecting the back EMF in a PMLSM is designed to estimate the speed and the position of the rotor. Most of conventional sliding mode observers use sign or saturation functions which need low pass filter in order to detect back electromotive force (back EMF. In this paper a sigmoid function is used instead of discontinuous sign function to decrease undesirable chattering phenomenon. By reducing the chattering, detecting of the back EMF can be made directly from switching signal without any low pass filter. Thus the delay time in the proposed observer is eliminated because of the low pass filter. Furthermore, there is no need to compensate phase fault in position and speed estimating of linear-PMSM. Advantages of the proposed observer have been shown by simulation with MATLAB software.

  10. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jeferson J. de, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Tusset, Angelo M., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Janzen, Frederic C., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Piccirillo, Vinicius, E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br; Nascimento, Claudinor B., E-mail: jefersonjl82@gmail.com, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: claudinor@utfpr.edu.br [UTFPR-PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José M., E-mail: jmbaltha@rc.unesp.br [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca, E-mail: reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  11. Speed control of SR motor by self-tuning fuzzy PI controller with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    traditional controllers PI (Proportional Integral), PD (Proportional Derivative), ... In SRM control, non-linear techniques such as sliding mode, artificial neural network ..... Proc. of the 1st Int. Confer. on Machine Learning and Cybernetic, Beijing, ...

  12. Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt......Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants...... of an adaptive backstepping tracking controller with earlier results. The new control architecture is analysed and enhanced tracking performance is demonstrated when including the extended friction model. The complexity of the backstepping procedure is significantly reduced due to the cascade structure. Hence...

  13. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  14. Speed control of permanent magnet excitation transverse flux linear motor by using adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanien, Hany M., E-mail: Hanyhasanien@ieee.or [Dept. of Elec. Power and Machines, Faculty of Eng., Ain-shams Univ. Cairo (Egypt); Muyeen, S.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, Junji [Department of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen Cho, Kitami 090-8507, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller applies on transverse flux linear motor for controlling its speed. The proposed controller presents fuzzy logic controller with self tuning scaling factors based on artificial neural network structure. It has two input variables and one control output variable. Firstly the fuzzy logic control rules are described then NN architecture is represented to self tune the output scaling factors of the controller. The application of this control technique represents the novelty of work, where this algorithm has so far not been stated before for this type of drives. This methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of TFLM drives. The dynamic response of the motor is studied under the rated load condition as well as load disturbances. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. The dynamic response of the motor with the proposed controller is compared with PI and adaptive NN controllers. It is found that the proposed controller gives better and faster response from the viewpoint of overshoot and settling time. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study.

  15. Feedforward compensation control of rotor imbalance for high-speed magnetically suspended centrifugal compressors using a novel adaptive notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiqiang; Feng, Rui

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a feedforward control strategy combined with a novel adaptive notch filter to solve the problem of rotor imbalance in high-speed Magnetically Suspended Centrifugal Compressors (MSCCs). Unbalance vibration force of rotor in MSCC is mainly composed of current stiffness force and displacement stiffness force. In this paper, the mathematical model of the unbalance vibration with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control laws is presented. In order to reduce the unbalance vibration, a novel adaptive notch filter is proposed to identify the synchronous frequency displacement of the rotor as a compensation signal to eliminate the current stiffness force. In addition, a feedforward channel from position component to control output is introduced to compensate displacement stiffness force to achieve a better performance. A simplified inverse model of power amplifier is included in the feedforward channel to reject the degrade performance caused by its low-pass characteristic. Simulation and experimental results on a MSCC demonstrate a significant effect on the synchronous vibration suppression of the magnetically suspended rotor at a high speed.

  16. Integration of Variable Speed Pumped Hydro Storage in Automatic Generation Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgêncio, N.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pumped storage power (PSP) plants are expected to be an important player in modern electrical power systems when dealing with increasing shares of new renewable energies (NRE) such as solar or wind power. The massive penetration of NRE and consequent replacement of conventional synchronous units will significantly affect the controllability of the system. In order to evaluate the capability of variable speed PSP plants participation in the frequency restoration reserve (FRR) provision, taking into account the expected performance in terms of improved ramp response capability, a comparison with conventional hydro units is presented. In order to address this issue, a three area test network was considered, as well as the corresponding automatic generation control (AGC) systems, being responsible for re-dispatching the generation units to re-establish power interchange between areas as well as the system nominal frequency. The main issue under analysis in this paper is related to the benefits of the fast response of variable speed PSP with respect to its capability of providing fast power balancing in a control area.

  17. Quantitative measurement of vocal fold vibration in male radio performers and healthy controls using high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Warhurst

    Full Text Available Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls.Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25-52 years and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25-52 years were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0, open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL were also performed (n = 19. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients.Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005. No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL.A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers.

  18. Smoothing Control of Wind Farm Output by Using Kinetic Energy of Variable Speed Wind Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a new control method for reducing fluctuation of power system frequency through smoothing active power output of wind farm. The proposal is based on the modulation of rotaional kinetic energy of variable speed wind power generators through power converters between permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) and transmission lines. In this paper, the proposed control is called Fluctuation Absorption by Flywheel Characteristics control (FAFC). The FAFC can be easily implemented by adding wind farm output signal to Maximum Power Point Tracking control signal through a feedback control loop. In order to verify the effectiveness of the FAFC control, a simulation study was carried out. In the study, it was assumed that the wind farm consisting of PMSG type wind power generator and induction machine type wind power generaotors is connected with a power sysem. The results of the study show that the FAFC control is a useful method for reducing the impacts of wind farm output fluctuation on system frequency without additional devices such as secondary battery.

  19. speed control of dc motor on load using fuzzy logic controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    STUDY OF EMERGENCY LUBE OIL PUMP MOTOR OF H25 HITACHI. TURBINE GENERATOR ... with a reference, and if there is an offset, the controller takes action to ... magnetic flux of the air-gap that exists in the motor provided the field is ... Figure 3: Block Diagram of Field-Controlled DC Motor for Driving Lube Oil Pump.

  20. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  1. The design of a turboshaft speed governor using modern control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delosreyes, G.; Gouchoe, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this program were: to verify the model of off schedule compressor variable geometry in the T700 turboshaft engine nonlinear model; to evaluate the use of the pseudo-random binary noise (PRBN) technique for obtaining engine frequency response data; and to design a high performance power turbine speed governor using modern control methods. Reduction of T700 engine test data generated at NASA-Lewis indicated that the off schedule variable geometry effects were accurate as modeled. Analysis also showed that the PRBN technique combined with the maximum likelihood model identification method produced a Bode frequency response that was as accurate as the response obtained from standard sinewave testing methods. The frequency response verified the accuracy of linear models consisting of engine partial derivatives and used for design. A power turbine governor was designed using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method of full state feedback control. A Kalman filter observer was used to estimate helicopter main rotor blade velocity. Compared to the baseline T700 power turbine speed governor, the LQR governor reduced droop up to 25 percent for a 490 shaft horsepower transient in 0.1 sec simulating a wind gust, and up to 85 percent for a 700 shaft horsepower transient in 0.5 sec simulating a large collective pitch angle transient.

  2. Power Extraction Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbine Systems Based on Direct Drive Synchronous Generator in All Operating Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Errami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increased penetration of wind energy into the electrical power systems in recent years, the turbine controls are actively occupied in the research. This paper presents a nonlinear backstepping strategy to control the generators and the grid sides of a Wind Farm System (WFS based Direct Drive Synchronous Generator (DDSG. The control objectives such as Tracking the Maximum Power (TMP from the WFS, pitch control, regulation of dc-link voltage, and reactive and active power generation at varying wind velocity are included. To validate the proposed control strategy, simulation results for 6-MW-DDSG based Wind Farm System are carried out by MATLAB-Simulink. Performance comparison and evaluation with Vector Oriented Control (VOC are provided under a wide range of functioning conditions, three-phase voltage dips, and the probable occurrence of uncertainties. The proposed control strategy offers remarkable characteristics such as excellent dynamic and steady state performance under varying wind speed and robustness to parametric variations in the WFS and under severe faults of grid voltage.

  3. 76 FR 175 - Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Servcies and Emcon Technologies, Troy, MI..., applicable to workers of Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies, Troy, Michigan, including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services, Troy, Michigan. The Department's notice of determination was...

  4. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  5. Energy-Based Adaptive Sliding Mode Speed Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Namazi Isfahani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motor drives is a major subject based on these drives’ extensive use in the industry. In this paper, by using a well-known cascaded torque control structure and taking the machine physical structure characteristics into account, the proposed energy-based (passivity-based adaptive sliding algorithm derived from the view point of energy dissipation, control stability and algorithm robustness. First, a nonlinear dynamic model is developed and decomposed into separate slow and fast passive subsystems which are interconnected by negative feedbacks. Then, an outer loop speed control is employed by adaptive sliding controller to determine the appropriate torque command. Finally, to reduce torque ripple in switched reluctance motor a high-performance passivity-based current controller is proposed. It can overcome the inherent nonlinear characteristics of the system and make the whole system robust to uncertainties and bounded disturbances. The performance of the proposed controller algorithm has been demonstrated in simulation, and experimental using a 4KW, four-phase, 8/6 pole SRM DSP-based drive system.

  6. Fuzzy Control of Yaw and Roll Angles of a Simulated Helicopter Model Includes Articulated Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic controller (FLC is a heuristic method by If-Then Rules which resembles human intelligence and it is a good method for designing Non-linear control systems. In this paper, an arbitrary helicopter model includes articulated manipulators has been simulated with Matlab SimMechanics toolbox. Due to the difficulties of modeling this complex system, a fuzzy controller with simple fuzzy rules has been designed for its yaw and roll angles in order to stabilize the helicopter while it is in the presence of disturbances or its manipulators are moving for a task. Results reveal that a simple FLC can appropriately control this system.

  7. Study on Application of T-S Fuzzy Observer in Speed Switching Control of AUVs Driven by States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent strongly nonlinear and coupling performance of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs, the speed switching control method for AUV driven by states is presented. By using T-S fuzzy observer to estimate the states of AUV, the speed control strategies in lever plane, vertical plane, and speed kept are established, respectively. Then the adaptive switching law is introduced to switch the speed control strategies designed in real time. In the simulation, acoustic Doppler current profile/side scan sonar (ADCP/SSS observation case is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the efficiency of AUV was improved, the trajectory tracking error was reduced, and the steady-state ability was enhanced.

  8. Speed Sensorless vector control of parallel-connected three-phase two-motor single-inverter drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunabalan, Ramachandiran; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    to noise and parameter uncertainty. The gain matrix is absent in the natural observer. The rotor speed is estimated from the load torque, stator current, and rotor flux. Under symmetrical load conditions, the difference in speed between two induction motors is reduced by considering the motor parameters......This paper presents the characteristic behavior of direct vector control of two induction motors with sensorless speed feedback having the same rating parameters, paralleled combination, and supplied from a single current-controlled pulse-width-modulated voltage-source inverter drive. Natural...... observer design technique is known for its simple construction, which estimates the speed and rotor fluxes. Load torque is estimated by load torque adaptation and the average rotor flux was maintained constant by rotor flux feedback control. The technique’s convergence rate is very fast and is robust...

  9. Optimal fuzzy logic-based PID controller for load-frequency control including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new optimal fuzzy logic-based-proportional-integral-derivative (FLPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC) including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. Conventionally, the membership functions and control rules of fuzzy logic control are obtained by trial and error method or experiences of designers. To overcome this problem, the multiple tabu search (MTS) algorithm is applied to simultaneously tune PID gains, membership functions and control rules of FLPID controller to minimize frequency deviations of the system against load disturbances. The MTS algorithm introduces additional techniques for improvement of search process such as initialization, adaptive search, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. Simulation results explicitly show that the performance of the optimum FLPID controller is superior to the conventional PID controller and the non-optimum FLPID controller in terms of the overshoot, settling time and robustness against variations of system parameters

  10. Optimal control of a variable spin speed CMG system for space vehicles. [Control Moment Gyros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Chubb, W. B.; Seltzer, S. M.; Thompson, Z.

    1973-01-01

    Many future NASA programs require very high accurate pointing stability. These pointing requirements are well beyond anything attempted to date. This paper suggests a control system which has the capability of meeting these requirements. An optimal control law for the suggested system is specified. However, since no direct method of solution is known for this complicated system, a computation technique using successive approximations is used to develop the required solution. The method of calculus of variations is applied for estimating the changes of index of performance as well as those constraints of inequality of state variables and terminal conditions. Thus, an algorithm is obtained by the steepest descent method and/or conjugate gradient method. Numerical examples are given to show the optimal controls.

  11. Low-Speed Control of Heavy-Load Transfer Robot with Long Telescopic Boom Based on Stribeck Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo You

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The severe low-speed creep phenomenon occurs in the telescopic boom system of a heavy-load transfer robot with a long telescopic boom as a result of nonlinear friction. In order to improve control precision and operation performance at low speeds, we built a three-loop control nonlinear model of an AC servo motor with Stribeck friction disturbance. Traditional proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID and fuzzy PID controls were, respectively, adopted in the position loop, and the control performance was simulated. The results showed that a system with fuzzy PID control eliminates “flat top” position tracking and “dead zone” speed tracking, which are generated by traditional PID, and thereby decreases the effect of friction on the performance of the servo system. This elimination also improved the tracking accuracy and robustness of the system.

  12. Novel Observer Scheme of Fuzzy-MRAS Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekroun, S.; Zerikat, M.; Mechernene, A.; Benharir, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach Fuzzy-MRAS conception for robust accurate tracking of induction motor drive operating in a high-performance drives environment. Of the different methods for sensorless control of induction motor drive the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) finds lot of attention due to its good performance. The analysis of the sensorless vector control system using MRAS is presented and the resistance parameters variations and speed observer using new Fuzzy Self-Tuning adaptive IP Controller is proposed. In fact, fuzzy logic is reminiscent of human thinking processes and natural language enabling decisions to be made based on vague information. The present approach helps to achieve a good dynamic response, disturbance rejection and low to plant parameter variations of the induction motor. In order to verify the performances of the proposed observer and control algorithms and to test behaviour of the controlled system, numerical simulation is achieved. Simulation results are presented and discussed to shown the validity and the performance of the proposed observer.

  13. Sliding mode direct power control of RSC for DFIGs driven by variable speed wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Shehata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its several advantages, a classic direct power control (DPC of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs driven by variable speed wind turbines has some drawbacks. In this paper, a simple and robust total sliding mode controller (TSMC is designed to improve the classical DPC performance without complicating the overall scheme. The TSMC is designed to regulate the DFIG stator active and reactive powers. Two integral switching functions are selected for describing the switching surfaces of the active and reactive powers. Reaching phase stability problem of the classical sliding mode controller is avoided in the proposed TSMC. Neither current control loops nor accurate values of machine parameters are required in the proposed scheme. In addition, axes transformation of the stator voltage and current are eliminated. The grid side converter is controlled based on DPC principle to regulate both DC-link voltage and total reactive power. The feasibility of the proposed DPC scheme is validated through simulation studies on a 1.5 MW wind power generation system. The performance of the proposed and conventional DPC schemes is compared under different operating conditions.

  14. Neuron network application for speed control and fault detection of asynchronous machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheira MENDAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The induction machine will play a role very important in the industry, but the existence of a certain defect returns their use limited as the defects rotor (broken bar. This article presents a study of Controller neuronal with the existence of a rotor defect on the one hand and another hand of a defect of switch of the five levels inverter to see the influence of these two defects on the physical parameters of the machine. The application of neural control with the existence of a broken bar in the motor allows us to see the effect of this fault on the motor parameters (speed, electromagnetic torque and current, to control itself is also used in existence of five-level inverter fault (delay of blocking the switch to give the results shown the swelling of this fault on the engine. With this controller, each fault influenced the parameters of Engine and can notice it from the simulation results. The results, simulations are done using Matlab/Simulink. Simulation results show clearly and robustness of neural controller.

  15. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eSoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms. Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs. Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS. Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but post-error slowing did not take place immediately. Delayed post-error slowing was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to post-error slowing. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with post-error slowing and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater post-error slowing and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and post-error slowing did not occur quickly. Furthermore, post-error slowing and its neural correlate (N2 were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke

  16. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors.

  17. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  18. Automatic Speed Control and Turning ON/OFF for Smart Fan by Temperature and Ultrasonic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanasatian, Keeratiburt

    2018-03-01

    When it is hot, using a fan is an inexpensive choice compared to spending more on using an air conditioner especially in some areas where high temperature is naturally normal. Some problems, nonetheless, arisen such as users forget to turn off when being away, some people might get a feeling of annoyance and perhaps frustration when getting up from the seat in order to adjust the speed. These result in a rise of electricity bill from leaving the fan on when it is not in use and it may cause disasters, fire for example, when the motor get heated up. A prototype of smart fan was built in this research using ESP8266 as a microcontroller, DHT22 and HC-SR04 are used to measure temperature for speed control and detect the user for automatic on/off respectively. A group of participants used the prototype and they were interviewed to give some feedbacks, comments, and suggestions from the experiences after using it. The results show that they were satisfied from the automation; it gave the sense of staying in a modern house with an automatic wind blower. It also assisted to reduce energy consumption according to target group. Some users stated that the environment and atmosphere in the room was not too hot because the fan was working in the background. This has shown that the prototype significantly gave the participants a feeling of relaxation and comfortability and also was a part of energy and cost reduction.

  19. A data acquisition and control system for high-speed gamma-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertaker, B. T.; Maad, R.; Schuster, E.; Almås, O. A.; Johansen, G. A.

    2008-09-01

    A data acquisition and control system (DACS) for high-speed gamma-ray tomography based on the USB (Universal Serial Bus) and Ethernet communication protocols has been designed and implemented. The high-speed gamma-ray tomograph comprises five 500 mCi 241Am gamma-ray sources, each at a principal energy of 59.5 keV, which corresponds to five detector modules, each consisting of 17 CdZnTe detectors. The DACS design is based on Microchip's PIC18F4550 and PIC18F4620 microcontrollers, which facilitates an USB 2.0 interface protocol and an Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) interface protocol, respectively. By implementing the USB- and Ethernet-based DACS, a sufficiently high data acquisition rate is obtained and no dedicated hardware installation is required for the data acquisition computer, assuming that it is already equipped with a standard USB and/or Ethernet port. The API (Application Programming Interface) for the DACS is founded on the National Instrument's LabVIEW® graphical development tool, which provides a simple and robust foundation for further application software developments for the tomograph. The data acquisition interval, i.e. the integration time, of the high-speed gamma-ray tomograph is user selectable and is a function of the statistical measurement accuracy required for the specific application. The bandwidth of the DACS is 85 kBytes s-1 for the USB communication protocol and 28 kBytes s-1 for the Ethernet protocol. When using the iterative least square technique reconstruction algorithm with a 1 ms integration time, the USB-based DACS provides an online image update rate of 38 Hz, i.e. 38 frames per second, whereas 31 Hz for the Ethernet-based DACS. The off-line image update rate (storage to disk) for the USB-based DACS is 278 Hz using a 1 ms integration time. Initial characterization of the high-speed gamma-ray tomograph using the DACS on polypropylene phantoms is presented in the paper.

  20. A data acquisition and control system for high-speed gamma-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjertaker, B T; Maad, R; Schuster, E; Almås, O A; Johansen, G A

    2008-01-01

    A data acquisition and control system (DACS) for high-speed gamma-ray tomography based on the USB (Universal Serial Bus) and Ethernet communication protocols has been designed and implemented. The high-speed gamma-ray tomograph comprises five 500 mCi 241 Am gamma-ray sources, each at a principal energy of 59.5 keV, which corresponds to five detector modules, each consisting of 17 CdZnTe detectors. The DACS design is based on Microchip's PIC18F4550 and PIC18F4620 microcontrollers, which facilitates an USB 2.0 interface protocol and an Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) interface protocol, respectively. By implementing the USB- and Ethernet-based DACS, a sufficiently high data acquisition rate is obtained and no dedicated hardware installation is required for the data acquisition computer, assuming that it is already equipped with a standard USB and/or Ethernet port. The API (Application Programming Interface) for the DACS is founded on the National Instrument's LabVIEW® graphical development tool, which provides a simple and robust foundation for further application software developments for the tomograph. The data acquisition interval, i.e. the integration time, of the high-speed gamma-ray tomograph is user selectable and is a function of the statistical measurement accuracy required for the specific application. The bandwidth of the DACS is 85 kBytes s −1 for the USB communication protocol and 28 kBytes s −1 for the Ethernet protocol. When using the iterative least square technique reconstruction algorithm with a 1 ms integration time, the USB-based DACS provides an online image update rate of 38 Hz, i.e. 38 frames per second, whereas 31 Hz for the Ethernet-based DACS. The off-line image update rate (storage to disk) for the USB-based DACS is 278 Hz using a 1 ms integration time. Initial characterization of the high-speed gamma-ray tomograph using the DACS on polypropylene phantoms is presented in the paper

  1. Evaluation of SIPIC01 and SIPIC02 on Motor Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kah Kit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its simplicity, Proportional-Integral (PI controller still remains as the widely used controller for motor speed control system. However, PI controller exhibits windup phenomenon when the motor operates in a saturated state, which may cause degradation to the control system. In order to overcome the windup phenomenon, many researches have introduced various types of anti-windup methods such as the Conditioning Technique (CI, Tracking Back Calculation (TBC, Integral State Prediction (ISP, Steady-state Integral Proportional Integral Controller-01 (SIPIC01 and Steady-state Integral Proportional Integral Controller-02 (SIPIC02. These are anti-windup techniques with integral control switching mechanism, coupling of proportional gain, kp, and integral gain, ki. Due to the coupled kp and ki, tuning motor performance is a difficult task with short settling time without experiencing overshoot. SIPIC01 and SIPIC02 are robust anti-windup methods without a switching mechanism and exhibit decoupling feature. SIPIC01 and SIPIC02 have shown better dynamic performance compared to CI, TBC and ISP. However, SIPIC01 has not been compared to SIPIC02 in terms of their decoupling effect flexibility and dynamic performance. The decoupling effect was verified using MATLAB simulation, while the performance analysis was verified through hardware simulation and testing by using Scilab. The results obtained from the simulation showed that both SIPIC01 and SIPIC02 consist of decoupling features that allow a performance with coexistence of zero or minimum overshoot with short settling time. However, SIPIC02 consists of longer rise and settling time as compared to SIPIC01. Therefore, it can be concluded that SIPIC01 is better than SIPIC02 in term of dynamic performance.

  2. Intelligent Multiobjective Slip and Speed Ratio Control of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission for Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Van Doorne’s continuously variable transmission (CVT is the most popular CVT design for automotive transmission, but it is only applicable to low-power passenger cars because of its low torque capacity. To overcome this limitation of traditional single-belt CVT, a novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s CVT (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors. This paper, based on the published analytical model and test rig of DBVCVT, further proposes an intelligent multiobjective fuzzy controller for slip and speed ratio control of DBVCVT. The controller aims to safely control the clamping forces of both the primary and the secondary pulleys in order to improve the transmission efficiency, achieve the accurate speed ratio, and avoid the belt slip under different engine loads and vehicle speeds. The slip, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency dynamics of DBVCVT are firstly analyzed and modeled in this paper. With the aid of a flexible objective function, the analytical model, and fuzzy logic, a Pareto rule base for fuzzy controller is developed for multiobjective DBVCVT control. Experimental results show that the proposed controller for slip and speed ratio regulation of DBVCVT is effective and performs well under different user-defined weights.

  3. Sliding Mode Control of a Variable- Speed Wind Energy Conversion System Using a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zribi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of a variable-speed wind energy conversion (WEC system using a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG connected to the grid through a back-to-back three phase (AC-DC-AC power converter. The sliding mode control technique is used to control the WEC system. The objective of the controllers is to force the states of the system to track their desired states. One controller is used to regulate the generator speed and the flux so that maximum power is extracted from the wind. Another controller is used to control the grid side converter, which controls the DC bus voltage and the active and reactive powers injected into the grid. The performance of the controlled wind energy conversion system is verified through MATLAB simulations, which show that the controlled system performs well.

  4. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  5. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... coils, receiving coils and compensation capacitors, the wireless power transmission system is designed to be resonant when it is operating at the rated power, with the aim to achieve the optimum transmission system efficiency. Simulation and experimental results of the hierarchical control...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  6. Nonlinear Adaptive Rotational Speed Control Design and Experiment of the Propeller of an Electric Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.

  7. Speed Synchronization Control of Integrated Motor–Transmission Powertrain over CAN through Active Period-Scheduling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the speed synchronization control of integrated motor–transmission (IMT powertrain systems in pure electric vehicles (EVs over a controller area network (CAN subject to both network-induced delays and network congestion. A CAN has advantages over point-to-point communication; however, it imposes network-induced delays and network congestion into the control system, which can deteriorate the shifting quality and make system integration difficult. This paper presents a co-design scheme combining active period scheduling and discrete-time slip mode control (SMC to deal with both network-induced delays and network congestion of the CAN, which improves the speed synchronization control for high shifting quality and prevents network congestion for the system’s integration. The results of simulations and hardware-in-loop experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, which can ensure satisfactory speed synchronization performance while significantly reducing the network’s utilization.

  8. Voltage control of a variable speed wind turbine connected to an isolated load: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masmoudi, Abdelkarim; Krichen, Lotfi; Ouali, Abderrazak

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop an experimental test bench of a wind energy conversion system. ► A DC motor is emulating a variable speed wind turbine using a DS1104 card. ► The production unit is supplying a three-phase load. ► A voltage control is established in order to regulate the DC bus voltage and the line-to-line voltages. - Abstract: This study is interested in the development of an experimental test bench of an autonomous wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). After the description of the test bench, the elements constituting the WECS are presented. Then, a real time model implemented under a digital signal processor (DSP) system is established. The first objective of this work is to validate the functionality of the test bench leading to experiment some principles developed in theory. The second objective is to control the load connection voltages and the DC bus voltage. For the first control, two resonant controllers are used and for the second one, a dump load, connected to the DC bus, offers the possibility to maintain a balance between production and consumption in spite of wind fluctuations and load variations. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the test bench trying out in real time the behavior of a WECS supplying an isolated load.

  9. Energy efficiency in speed control system for induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em sistema de controle de velocidade em motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Arlete Vieira da; Ribeiro, Elisangela do Nascimento; Tenorio, Iana Cavalcanti; Horta, Mario Marcos Brito [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UnBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: arlete.silva@prof.unibh.br, nr.elisangela@gmail.com, ianactenorio@gmail.com, mario_bhorta@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of energy efficiency of induction motors fed by frequency inverters, since this is a practical resource that has progressively allowed the replacement of mechanical speed reducers. In this work the speed control of induction motors of the squirrel cage has steeped through the frequency inverters using scalar control. Induction motors are frequently used in industrial applications due to its simple construction, its low maintenance and reduced in size. It was possible through tests made at UNI-BH Electrical Engineering laboratory to obtain satisfactory results regarding the performance of the inverter CFW08 (WEG), speed control of induction motor. (author)

  10. Design and operation of the LAMPF Auxiliary Controller. High-speed remote processing on the CAMAC dataway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    A CAMAC Auxiliary Controller has been developed to further the concepts of distributed processing in both process control and experiment data-acquisition systems. The Auxiliary Controller is built around a commercially available 16-bit microcomputer and a high-speed bit-sliced microprocessor capable of instruction execution times of 140 ns. The modular nature of the controller allows the user to tailor the controller capabilities to the system problem, while maintaining the interface techniques of the CAMAC Standard

  11. Adaptive Voltage Control Strategy for Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Connected to a Weak Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    and smoothness at the point of connection (POC) in order to maximise the wind power penetration into such networks. Intensive simulation case studies under different network topology and wind speed ranges reveal the effectiveness of the AVC scheme to effectively suppress the POC voltage variations particularly......Significant voltage fluctuations and power quality issues pose considerable constraints on the efficient integration of remotely located wind turbines into weak networks. Besides, 3p oscillations arising from the wind shear and tower shadow effects induce further voltage perturbations during...... continuous operation. This study investigates and analyses the repercussions raised by integrating a doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine into an ac network of different parameters and very weak conditions. An adaptive voltage control (AVC) strategy is proposed to retain voltage constancy...

  12. An empirical model for independent control of variable speed refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hua; Jeong, Seok-Kwon; Yoon, Jung-In; You, Sam-Sang

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with an empirical dynamic model for decoupling control of the variable speed refrigeration system (VSRS). To cope with inherent complexity and nonlinearity in system dynamics, the model parameters are first obtained based on experimental data. In the study, the dynamic characteristics of indoor temperature and superheat are assumed to be first-order model with time delay. While the compressor frequency and opening angle of electronic expansion valve are varying, the indoor temperature and the superheat exhibit interfering characteristics each other in the VSRS. Thus, each decoupling model has been proposed to eliminate such interference. Finally, the experiment and simulation results indicate that the proposed model offers more tractable means for describing the actual VSRS comparing to other models currently available

  13. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a visual speed of processing intervention in middle aged and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric D Wolinsky

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is common and may lead to substantial difficulties and disabilities in everyday life. We hypothesized that 10 hours of visual speed of processing training would prevent age-related declines and potentially improve cognitive processing speed.Within two age bands (50-64 and ≥ 65 681 patients were randomized to (a three computerized visual speed of processing training arms (10 hours on-site, 14 hours on-site, or 10 hours at-home or (b an on-site attention control group using computerized crossword puzzles for 10 hours. The primary outcome was the Useful Field of View (UFOV test, and the secondary outcomes were the Trail Making (Trails A and B Tests, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Stroop Color and Word Tests, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT, and the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT, which were assessed at baseline and at one year. 620 participants (91% completed the study and were included in the analyses. Linear mixed models were used with Blom rank transformations within age bands.All intervention groups had (p<0.05 small to medium standardized effect size improvements on UFOV (Cohen's d = -0.322 to -0.579, depending on intervention arm, Trails A (d = -0.204 to -0.265, Trails B (d = -0.225 to -0.320, SDMT (d = 0.263 to 0.351, and Stroop Word (d = 0.240 to 0.271. Converted to years of protection against age-related cognitive declines, these effects reflect 3.0 to 4.1 years on UFOV, 2.2 to 3.5 years on Trails A, 1.5 to 2.0 years on Trails B, 5.4 to 6.6 years on SDMT, and 2.3 to 2.7 years on Stroop Word.Visual speed of processing training delivered on-site or at-home to middle-aged or older adults using standard home computers resulted in stabilization or improvement in several cognitive function tests. Widespread implementation of this intervention is feasible.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT-01165463.

  14. Development of super-synchronization speed control assembly for 2500 kW double-fed motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huajun; Xuan Weimin; Peng Jianfei; Hu Haotian; Wang Shujing; Kang Li; Xu Lirong; Huang Zhaorong; Wang Xiaoping; Du Cang; Liu Ling

    2007-01-01

    The super-synchronization speed control assemblies for the two 2500 kW induction motors have been developed successfully in order to meet the need for toroidal field increasing in HL-2A tokamak. Based on the a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speed of each 2500 kW motor has been regulated by means of vector control technology for double-fed motor. The highest rotate speed of the two 80 MVA generator sets have been increased from 1488 rpm rated speed to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each generator set in one pulse discharge can reach 500 MJ. Therefore the toroidal field system is able to reach 2.8T for experiment. (authors)

  15. A two-phase control algorithm for gear-shifting in a novel multi-speed transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozegar, M.; Angeles, J.

    2018-05-01

    In light of the current low energy-storage capacity of electric batteries, multi-speed transmissions (MSTs) are being considered for applications in electric vehicles (EVs), since MSTs decrease the energy consumption of the EV via gear-shifting. Nonetheless, swiftness and seamlessness are the major concerns in gear-shifting. This study focuses on developing a gear-shifting control scheme for a novel MST designed for EVs. The main advantages of the proposed MST are simplicity and modularity. Firstly, the dynamics model of the transmission is formulated. Then, a two-phase algorithm is proposed for shifting between each two gear ratios, which guarantees a smooth and swift shift. In other words, a separate control set is applied for shifting between each gear pair, which includes two independent PID controllers, tuned using trial-and-error and a genetic algorithm (GA), for the two steps of the algorithm and a switch. A supervisory controller is also employed to choose the proper PID gains, called PID gain-scheduling. Simulation results for various controllers and conditions are reported and compared, indicating that the proposed scheme is highly promising for a desired gear-shifting even in the presence of an unknown external disturbance.

  16. Speed sensorless direct torque control of IMs with rotor resistance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta; Gokasan, Metin

    2005-01-01

    Direct torque control (DTC) of induction motors (IMs) requires an accurate knowledge on the amplitude and angular position of the controlled flux in addition to the information related to angular velocity for velocity control applications. However, unknown load torque and uncertainties related to stator/rotor resistances due to operating conditions constitute major challenges for the performance of such systems. The determination of stator resistance can be performed by measurements, but methods must be developed for estimation and identification of rotor resistance and load torque. In this study, an EKF based solution is sought for determination of the rotor resistance and load torque as well as the above mentioned states required for DTC. The EKF algorithm used in conjunction with the speed sensorless DTC is tested under eleven scenarios comprised of various changes made in the velocity reference beside the load torque and rotor resistance values assigned in the model. With no a priori information in the estimated states and parameters, it has been demonstrated that the EKF estimation and sensorless DTC perform quite well in spite of the uncertainties and variations imposed on the system

  17. Control de velocidad de una estera transportadora de caña con un controlador difuso; Speed Control of Sugar Cane Belt Conveyer with Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Domínguez Cardosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las experiencias de los autores en el diseño de un controlador difuso para el control de velocidad deun motor de inducción en coordenadas de campo, que acciona una estera transportadora de caña, sin la necesidadde realizar las compensaciones en los ejes d-q, lo que simplifica sustancialmente el control. El controladordifuso implementado es del tipo Mamdani y utiliza como variables de entrada el error de la velocidad y el cambiodel error de la velocidad, y como variable de salida la corriente de mando del eje q. Para el desemborronado seempleó el método del centro de gravedad. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que el comportamiento delsistema de control sometido a cambios bruscos de carga y referencia son superiores a los obtenidos con un PIDclásico.  This paper describes the experience obtained by the authors in the design of a fuzzy controller for speed controlof an induction motor in field oriented, that drives a sugar cane belt conveyor, without carrying out the compensationsin the d-q axes. The Mamdani type fuzzy controller was implemented using speed error and the rate ofchange of the speed error as input variables and the current component in the q-axis as output variable. Thesimulation results reached show that the behaviour of the control system under suddenly load and referencechanges are better than those results obtained using PID classic.

  18. Control for small-speed lateral flight in a model insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanlai; Sun Mao

    2011-01-01

    Controls required for small-speed lateral flight of a model insect were studied using techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control (the stability and control derivatives were computed by the method of computational fluid dynamics). The main results are as follows. (1) Two steady-state lateral motions can exist: one is a horizontal side translation with the body rolling to the same side of the translation by a small angle, and the other is a constant-rate yaw rotation (rotation about the vertical axis). (2) The side translation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the stroke amplitudes of the contralateral wings, and/or an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having equal change. The constant-rate yaw rotation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having differential change. (3) For the control of the horizontal side translation, control input required for the steady-state motion has an opposite sign to that needed for initiating the motion. For example, to have a steady-state left side-translation, the insect needs to increase the stroke amplitude of the left wing and decrease that of the right wing to maintain the steady-state flight, but it needs an opposite change in stroke amplitude (decreasing the stroke amplitude of the left wing and increasing that of the right wing) to enter the flight.

  19. Control for small-speed lateral flight in a model insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Controls required for small-speed lateral flight of a model insect were studied using techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control (the stability and control derivatives were computed by the method of computational fluid dynamics). The main results are as follows. (1) Two steady-state lateral motions can exist: one is a horizontal side translation with the body rolling to the same side of the translation by a small angle, and the other is a constant-rate yaw rotation (rotation about the vertical axis). (2) The side translation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the stroke amplitudes of the contralateral wings, and/or an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having equal change. The constant-rate yaw rotation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having differential change. (3) For the control of the horizontal side translation, control input required for the steady-state motion has an opposite sign to that needed for initiating the motion. For example, to have a steady-state left side-translation, the insect needs to increase the stroke amplitude of the left wing and decrease that of the right wing to maintain the steady-state flight, but it needs an opposite change in stroke amplitude (decreasing the stroke amplitude of the left wing and increasing that of the right wing) to enter the flight.

  20. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I., E-mail: isoltani@mit.edu; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-11-15

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube.

  1. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-01-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube

  2. The effect of fan speed control system on the inlet air temperature uniformity in a solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drying process of agricultural products, fruits and vegetables are highly energy demanding and hence are the most expensive postharvest operation. Nowadays, the application of control systems in different area of science and engineering plays a key role and is considered as the important and inseparable parts of any industrial process. The review of literature indicates that enormous efforts have been donefor the intelligent control of solar driers and in this regard some simulation models are used through computer programming. However, because of the effect of air velocity on the inlet air temperature in dryers, efforts have been made to control the fan speed based ont he temperature of the absorber plate in this study, and the behavior of this system was compared with an ordinary dryer without such a control system. Materials and methods: In this study, acabinet type solar dryer with forced convection and 5kg capacity of fresh herbs was used. The dryer was equipped with a fan in the outlet chamber (the chimney for creating air flow through the dryer. For the purpose of research methods and automatic control of fan speed and for adjusting the temperature of the drying inlet air, a control system consisting of a series of temperature and humidity sensors and a microcontroller was designed. To evaluatethe effect of the system with fan speed control on the uniformity of air temperature in the drying chamber and hence the trend of drying process in the solar dryer, the dryer has been used with two different modes: with and without the control of fan speed, each in twodays (to minimize the errors of almost the same ambient temperature. The ambient air temperature during the four days of experiments was obtained from the regional Meteorological Office. Some fresh mint plants (Mentha longifolia directly harvested from the farm in the morning of the experiment days were used as the drying materials. Each experimental run continued for 9

  3. Speed Controls in Translating Secretory Proteins in Eukaryotes - an Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlab, Shelly; Linial, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Protein translation is the most expensive operation in dividing cells from bacteria to humans. Therefore, managing the speed and allocation of resources is subject to tight control. From bacteria to humans, clusters of relatively rare tRNA codons at the N′-terminal of mRNAs have been implicated in attenuating the process of ribosome allocation, and consequently the translation rate in a broad range of organisms. The current interpretation of “slow” tRNA codons does not distinguish between protein translations mediated by free- or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes. We demonstrate that proteins translated by free- or ER-bound ribosomes exhibit different overall properties in terms of their translation efficiency and speed in yeast, fly, plant, worm, bovine and human. We note that only secreted or membranous proteins with a Signal peptide (SP) are specified by segments of “slow” tRNA at the N′-terminal, followed by abundant codons that are considered “fast.” Such profiles apply to 3100 proteins of the human proteome that are composed of secreted and signal peptide (SP)-assisted membranous proteins. Remarkably, the bulks of the proteins (12,000), or membranous proteins lacking SP (3400), do not have such a pattern. Alternation of “fast” and “slow” codons was found also in proteins that translocate to mitochondria through transit peptides (TP). The differential clusters of tRNA adapted codons is not restricted to the N′-terminal of transcripts. Specifically, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are unified by clusters of low adapted tRNAs codons at the C′-termini. Furthermore, selection of amino acids types and specific codons was shown as the driving force which establishes the translation demands for the secretory proteome. We postulate that “hard-coded” signals within the secretory proteome assist the steps of protein maturation and folding. Specifically, “speed control” signals for delaying the translation

  4. Wavelet transform with fuzzy tuning based indirect field oriented speed control of three-phase induction motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, P.; Daya, J.L. Febin; Wheeler, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    by the proposed controller for an improved transient and steady state performances. The discrete wavelet transform has been used to decompose the error speed into different frequency components and the fuzzy logic is used to generate the scaling gains of the wavelet controller. The complete model of the proposed...

  5. Wavelet-fuzzy speed indirect field oriented controller for three-phase AC motor drive – Investigation and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-phase voltage source inverter driven induction motor is used in many medium- and high-power applications. Precision in speed of the motor play vital role, i.e. popular methods of direct/indirect field-oriented control (FOC are applied. FOC is employed with proportional–integral (P-I or proportional–integral–derivative (P-I-D controllers and they are not adaptive, since gains are fixed at all operating conditions. Therefore, it needs a robust speed controlling in precision for induction motor drive application. This research paper articulates a novel speed control for FOC induction motor drive based on wavelet-fuzzy logic interface system. In specific, the P-I-D controller of IFOC which is actually replaced by the wavelet-fuzzy controller. The speed feedback (error signal is composed of multiple low and high frequency components. Further, these components are decomposed by the discrete wavelet transform and the fuzzy logic controller to generate the scaled gains for the indirect FOC induction motor. Complete model of the proposed ac motor drive is developed with numerical simulation Matlab/Simulink software and tested under different working conditions. For experimental verification, a hardware prototype was implemented and the control algorithm is framed using TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (dsp. Both simulation and hardware results presented in this paper are shown in close agreement and conformity about the suitability for industrial applications.

  6. Adaptive two-degree-of-freedom PI for speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on fractional order GPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wenjun; Tang, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Shiqi; Xie, Yuanlong; Song, Bao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive two-degree-of-freedom (2Dof) proportional-integral (PI) controller is proposed for the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Firstly, an enhanced just-in-time learning technique consisting of two novel searching engines is presented to identify the model of the speed control system in a real-time manner. Secondly, a general formula is given to predict the future speed reference which is unavailable at the interval of two bus-communication cycles. Thirdly, the fractional order generalized predictive control (FOGPC) is introduced to improve the control performance of the servo drive system. Based on the identified model parameters and predicted speed reference, the optimal control law of FOGPC is derived. Finally, the designed 2Dof PI controller is auto-tuned by matching with the optimal control law. Simulations and real-time experimental results on the servo drive system of PMSM are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising...

  8. Distinct sets of locomotor modules control the speed and modes of human locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Noritaka; Shinya, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    Although recent vertebrate studies have revealed that different spinal networks are recruited in locomotor mode- and speed-dependent manners, it is unknown whether humans share similar neural mechanisms. Here, we tested whether speed- and mode-dependence in the recruitment of human locomotor networks exists or not by statistically extracting locomotor networks. From electromyographic activity during walking and running over a wide speed range, locomotor modules generating basic patterns of muscle activities were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization. The results showed that the number of modules changed depending on the modes and speeds. Different combinations of modules were extracted during walking and running, and at different speeds even during the same locomotor mode. These results strongly suggest that, in humans, different spinal locomotor networks are recruited while walking and running, and even in the same locomotor mode different networks are probably recruited at different speeds. PMID:27805015

  9. A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

  10. Four-quadrant speed control circuit of DC servo motor using integrated voltage control method; Den`atsu sekibunchi seigyo wo mochoiita chokuryu dendoki no shishogen sokudo seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okui, H. [Osaka polytechnic College, Osaka (Japan); Irie, H. [Osaka Electro-Communication Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    The Two-Quadrant chopper is constructed by using smoothing reactor in common of the step-down chopper and step-up chopper of the DC chopper. Furthermore, since the circuit connected in bridge type by using these two groups has both of positive and negative voltage from DC source and can supplies the current from positive and negative directions for load, it is called in general as the Four-Quadrant chopper. As the Four-Quadrant chopper may supply and regenerate power, it works as power amplifier with high efficiency. In this paper, the speed control circuit of DC servo motor using Four-Quadrant integrated voltage control circuit is described. The speed control circuit is composed of simple circuits of one adder integrator and four hysteresis comparators. The Four-Quadrant speed control circuit has a DC motor speed feedback loop and a voltage feedback loop which connects with AC, it plays the Four-Quadrant speed control without current inspection. The speed control characteristics with no steady state error over four quadrants may be obtained, changing of the quadrant is smooth and transition response is rapid. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-01-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  12. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-02-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 × 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout.

  13. Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalin; Kim, Min Soo; Jia, Baosen; Yan, Jingqi; Zuniga-Hertz, Juan Pablo; Han, Cheng; Cai, Dongsheng

    2017-08-03

    It has been proposed that the hypothalamus helps to control ageing, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here we develop several mouse models in which hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that co-express Sox2 and Bmi1 are ablated, as we observed that ageing in mice started with a substantial loss of these hypothalamic cells. Each mouse model consistently displayed acceleration of ageing-like physiological changes or a shortened lifespan. Conversely, ageing retardation and lifespan extension were achieved in mid-aged mice that were locally implanted with healthy hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that had been genetically engineered to survive in the ageing-related hypothalamic inflammatory microenvironment. Mechanistically, hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells contributed greatly to exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, and these exosomal miRNAs declined during ageing, whereas central treatment with healthy hypothalamic stem/progenitor cell-secreted exosomes led to the slowing of ageing. In conclusion, ageing speed is substantially controlled by hypothalamic stem cells, partially through the release of exosomal miRNAs.

  14. Online readout and control unit for high-speed / high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1996-09-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  15. L1 Adaptive Speed Control of a Small Wind Energy Conversion System for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wi......) is used to carry out case studies using Matlab/Simulink. The case study results show that the designed L1 adaptive controller has good tracking performance even with unmodeled dynamics and in the presence of parameter uncertainties and unknown disturbances.......This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wind...

  16. Intelligent approach to maximum power point tracking control strategy for variable-speed wind turbine generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Hong, Chih-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424 (China)

    2010-06-15

    To achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for wind power generation systems, the rotational speed of wind turbines should be adjusted in real time according to wind speed. In this paper, a Wilcoxon radial basis function network (WRBFN) with hill-climb searching (HCS) MPPT strategy is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a variable-speed wind turbine. A high-performance online training WRBFN using a back-propagation learning algorithm with modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) regulating controller is designed for a PMSG. The MPSO is adopted in this study to adapt to the learning rates in the back-propagation process of the WRBFN to improve the learning capability. The MPPT strategy locates the system operation points along the maximum power curves based on the dc-link voltage of the inverter, thus avoiding the generator speed detection. (author)

  17. High-speed dynamic atomic force microscopy by using a Q-controlled cantilever eigenmode as an actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balantekin, M., E-mail: mujdatbalantekin@iyte.edu.tr

    2015-02-15

    We present a high-speed operating method with feedback to be used in dynamic atomic force microscope (AFM) systems. In this method we do not use an actuator that has to be employed to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM setups. Instead, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of an AFM cantilever to perform the function of the actuator. Simulations show that even with an ordinary tapping-mode cantilever, imaging speed can be increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to conventional dynamic AFM imaging. - Highlights: • A high-speed imaging method is developed for dynamic-AFM systems. • An eigenmode of an AFM cantilever is utilized to perform fast actuation. • Simulations show 2 orders of magnitude increase in scan speed. • The time spent for dynamic-AFM imaging experiments will be minimized.

  18. Separation of three anthraquinone glycosides including two isomers by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Denglang; Liu, Yongling; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Guoying; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Design and control of multi-actuated atomic force microscope for large-range and high-speed imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Careaga Houck, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); AlGhamdi, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Dammam, Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Youcef-Toumi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents the design and control of a high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy (AFM). A multi-actuation scheme is proposed where several nano-positioners cooperate to achieve the range and speed requirements. A simple data-based control design methodology is presented to effectively operate the AFM scanner components. The proposed controllers compensate for the coupled dynamics and divide the positioning responsibilities between the scanner components. As a result, the multi-actuated scanner behavior is equivalent to that of a single X–Y–Z positioner with large range and high speed. The scanner of the designed AFM is composed of five nano-positioners, features 6 μm out-of-plane and 120 μm lateral ranges and is capable of high-speed operation. The presented AFM has a modular design with laser spot size of 3.5 μm suitable for small cantilever, an optical view of the sample and probe, a conveniently large waterproof sample stage and a 20 MHz data throughput for high resolution image acquisition at high imaging speeds. This AFM is used to visualize etching of calcite in a solution of sulfuric acid. Layer-by-layer dissolution and pit formation along the crystalline lines in a low pH environment is observed in real time. - Highlights: • High-speed AFM imaging is extended to large lateral and vertical scan ranges. • A general multi-actuation approach to atomic force microscopy is presented. • A high-speed AFM is designed and implemented based on the proposed method. • Multi-actuator control is designed auxiliary to a PID unit to maintain flexibility. • Influence of calcite crystal structure on dissolution is visualized in video form.

  20. Coordinated frequency control from offshore wind power plants connected to multi terminal DC system considering wind speed variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated fast primary frequency control scheme from offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) integrated to a three terminal high voltage DC (HVDC) system is proposed in this study. The impact of wind speed variation on the OWPP active power output and thus on the AC grid frequency and DC grid...... the active power support from OWPP with a ramp rate limiter and (iii) An alternative method for the wind turbine overloading considering rotor speed. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated on a wind power plant integrated into a three terminal HVDC system developed in DIg......SILIENT PowerFactory. The results show that the proposed coordinated frequency control method performs effectively at different wind speeds and minimises the secondary effects on frequency and DC voltage....

  1. Modeling and Control of Risley Prism Beam Steering Including BLDC Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Saab AB Training & Simulation is specialized on military training, including laserbased training. To continue being the world leader in this area, a new generationof laser simulators needs to be developed. To simplify the development of thishighly complex system, this master thesis have resulted in a MATLAB/Simulinkmodel which simulates the electro-opto/mechanical system representing theirlaser based simulation platform. The focus of this master thesis has been to simulateand control the ...

  2. On the Necessity of Including Joint Passive Dynamics in the Impedance Control of Robotic Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Arevalo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired quadruped robots are among the best robot designs for field missions over the complex terrain encountered in extraterrestrial landscapes and disaster scenarios caused by natural and human-made catastrophes, such as those caused by nuclear power plant accidents and radiological emergencies. For such applications, the performance characteristics of the robots should include high mobility, adaptability to the terrain, the ability to handle a large payload and good endurance. Nature can provide inspiration for quadruped designs that are well suited for traversing complex terrain. Horse legs are an example of a structure that has evolved to exhibit good performance characteristics. In this paper, a leg design exhibiting the key features of horse legs is briefly described. This leg is an underactuated mechanism because it has two actively driven degrees of freedom (DOFs and one passively driven DOF. In this work, two control laws intended to be use in the stan ce phase are described: a control law that considers passive mechanism dynamics and a second law that neglects these dynamics. The performance of the two control laws is experimentally evaluated and compared. The results indicate that the first control law better achieves the control goal; however, the use of the second is not completely unjustified.

  3. Feedforward Synchronised PWM for Adjustable Speed AC Drives with Different Control Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jensen, Flemming Buus

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of direct synchronised pulswidth modulation (PWM) for three-phase voltage source inverters, feeding induction motors with different control regimes. It is based on the universal algorithm with either simplified algebraic or accurate trigonometric control functions......, with vector approached for determination of the pulse patterns, with vector approach for determination of the pulse patterns. Different control modes of the drive system with synchronised PWM, including standard scalar V/F control, and also V2/F = constant and V/F2 = constant control regimes, have been...... analysed in the paper. Simulations give the behaviour of the PWM techniques proposed. Both continuous and discontinuous schemes of synchronised PWM, applied for the corresponding control regime, have been analysed and compared....

  4. Very low speed performance of active flux based sensorless control: interior permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control versus direct torque and flux control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paicu, M. C.; Boldea, I.; Andreescu, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on very low speed performance comparison between two sensorless control systems based on the novel ‘active flux' concept, that is, the current/voltage vector control versus direct torque and flux control (DTFC) for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives...... with space vector modulation (SVM), without signal injection. The active flux, defined as the flux that multiplies iq current in the dq-model torque expression of all ac machines, is easily obtained from the stator-flux vector and has the rotor position orientation. Therefore notable simplification...

  5. Analytical study of interior noise control by fuselage design techniques on high-speed, propeller-driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, J. D.; Balena, F. J.; Koval, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical treatment mass penalties required to achieve an interior noise level of 80 dBA for high speed, fuel efficient propfan-powered aircraft are determined. The prediction method used is based on theory developed for the outer shell dynamics, and a modified approach for add-on noise control element performance. The present synthesis of these methods is supported by experimental data. Three different sized aircraft are studied, including a widebody, a narrowbody and a business sized aircraft. Noise control penalties are calculated for each aircraft for two kinds of noise control designs: add-on designs, where the outer wall structure cannot be changed, and advanced designs where the outer wall stiffness level and the materials usage can be altered. For the add-on designs, the mass penalties range from 1.7 to 2.4 percent of the takeoff gross weight (TOGW) of the various aircraft, similar to preliminary estimates. Results for advanced designs show significant reductions of the mass penalties. For the advanced aluminum designs the penalties are 1.5% of TOGW, and for an all composite aircraft the penalties range from 0.74 to 1.4% of TOGW.

  6. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Conceptual Design Study: Advanced Independent Pitch Control; July 30, 2002--July 31, 2004 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.; Lang, E.; Hansen, A.C.; Cheney, M. C.; Quandt, G.; VandenBosche, J.; Meyer, T.

    2004-12-01

    AES conducted a conceptual study of independent pitch control using inflow angle sensors. The control strategy combined input from turbine states (rotor speed, rotor azimuth, each blade pitch) with inflow angle measurements (each blade angle of attack at station 11 of 15) to derive blade pitch demand signals. The controller reduced loads sufficiently to allow a 10% rotor extension and reduce COE by 6.3%.

  7. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  8. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  10. Sensorless Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Low-Speed Region Using Novel Adaptive Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel position and speed estimation method for low-speed sensorless control of interior permanent-magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs. The parameter design of the position and speed estimator is based on the sampled current rather than the motor electrical parameters. The proposed method not only simplifies the parameter design, it enables the estimator to work normally even in the condition that the electrical parameters are uncertain or varied. The adaptive filters are adopted to extract the desired high frequency current. The structure and corresponding transfer function are analyzed. To address the shortage of insufficient stop-band attenuation, the structure of the adaptive filter is modified to provide suitable bandwidth and stop-band attenuation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control strategy has been verified by simulations and experiments.

  11. Advanced fault ride-through control of DFIG based wind turbines including grid connection via VSC-HVDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltes, Christian

    2012-07-01

    With the growing renewable energy share in the power generation mix it becomes inevitable that also these new generation technologies participate on the provision of grid services to guarantee stable operation of the grid, especially when one considers the decreasing number of conventional power plants in operation as a result of the expansion of wind based generation plants. These so-called ancillary services include frequency / active power control, voltage / reactive power control and fault ride-through (FRT) with fast voltage control and are stipulated in modern grid codes. In the context of this thesis advanced control algorithms have been developed for wind turbines based on doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) to allow safe FRT during symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. This covers the control for conventional AC grid connection as well as for the connection through voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current transmission (HVDC). Currently, the DFIG is the most used generator technology in modem wind turbines, since it combines a relatively simple slip-ring induction machine with a frequency converter rated to only approx. 30% of the total power. This makes the DFIG a cost-effective concept, which offers a variable speed range and a high degree of flexibility in control. However, due to the direct coupling of the generator stator circuit to the grid, grid faults are a special challenge for the frequency converter, its protection circuits and control algorithms. As base for the detailed evaluation of the impact of grid faults to the DFIG, this thesis contains the analytical derivation of the DFIG short circuit currents under consideration of frequency converter control. The DFIG concept presented in this thesis makes use of a DC chopper in the frequency converter, which allows safe FRT with grid voltage support through both converter sides. The developed control contains a new algorithm for a clear separation and control of positive

  12. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  13. Active Power and Flux Control of a Self-Excited Induction Generator for a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Woonki; Muljadi, Eduard; Leighty, Bill; Kim, Jonghoon

    2017-05-11

    A Self-Excited Induction Generation (SEIG) for a variable speed wind turbine generation(VS-WG) is normally considered to be a good candidate for implementation in stand-alone applications such as battery charging, hydrogenation, water pumping, water purification, water desalination, and etc. In this study, we have examined a study on active power and flux control strategies for a SEIG for a variable speed wind turbine generation. The control analysis for the proposed system is carried out by using PSCAD software. In the process, we can optimize the control design of the system, thereby enhancing and expediting the control design procedure for this application. With this study, this control design for a SEIG for VS-WG can become the industry standard for analysis and development in terms of SEIG.

  14. Novel high efficient speed sensorless controller for maximum power extraction from wind energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel sensorless MPPT technique without drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless methods. • Tracking the actual MPP of WECSs, no tracking the MPP of their wind turbines. • Actually extracting the highest output power from WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having the MPPT efficiency more than 98.5% for WECSs. • Novel MPPT technique having short convergence time for WECSs. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is proposed. The technique tracks the actual maximum power point of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) at which maximum output power is extracted from the system, not the maximum power point of its wind turbine at which maximum mechanical power is obtained from the turbine, so it actually extracts the highest output power from the system. The technique only uses input voltage and current of the converter used in the system, and neither needs any speed sensors (anemometer and tachometer) nor has the drawbacks of other sensor/sensorless based MPPT methods. The technique has been implemented as a MPPT controller by constructing a WECS. Theoretical results, the technique performance, and its advantages are validated by presenting real experimental results. The real static-dynamic response of the MPPT controller is experimentally obtained that verifies the proposed MPPT technique high accurately extracts the highest instant power from wind energy conversion systems with the MPPT efficiency of more than 98.5% and a short convergence time that is only 25 s for the constructed system having a total inertia and friction coefficient of 3.93 kg m 2 and 0.014 N m s, respectively.

  15. Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-11-01

    With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  17. State-Space Modeling and Performance Analysis of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Based on a Model Predictive Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bassi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in wind energy technologies have led wind turbines from fixed speed to variable speed operation. This paper introduces an innovative version of a variable-speed wind turbine based on a model predictive control (MPC approach. The proposed approach provides maximum power point tracking (MPPT, whose main objective is to capture the maximum wind energy in spite of the variable nature of the wind’s speed. The proposed MPC approach also reduces the constraints of the two main functional parts of the wind turbine: the full load and partial load segments. The pitch angle for full load and the rotating force for the partial load have been fixed concurrently in order to balance power generation as well as to reduce the operations of the pitch angle. A mathematical analysis of the proposed system using state-space approach is introduced. The simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that the performance of the wind turbine with the MPC approach is improved compared to the traditional PID controller in both low and high wind speeds.

  18. Finding NEMO (novel electromaterial muscle oscillator): a polypyrrole powered robotic fish with real-time wireless speed and directional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, Scott; Alici, Gursel; Spinks, Geoffrey; Truong, Van-Tan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an autonomously powered and controlled robotic fish that incorporates an active flexural joint tail fin, activated through conducting polymer actuators based on polypyrrole (PPy). The novel electromaterial muscle oscillator (NEMO) tail fin assembly on the fish could be controlled wirelessly in real time by varying the frequency and duty cycle of the voltage signal supplied to the PPy bending-type actuators. Directional control was achieved by altering the duty cycle of the voltage input to the NEMO tail fin, which shifted the axis of oscillation and enabled turning of the robotic fish. At low speeds, the robotic fish had a turning circle as small as 15 cm (or 1.1 body lengths) in radius. The highest speed of the fish robot was estimated to be approximately 33 mm s −1 (or 0.25 body lengths s −1 ) and was achieved with a flapping frequency of 0.6–0.8 Hz which also corresponded with the most hydrodynamically efficient mode for tail fin operation. This speed is approximately ten times faster than those for any previously reported artificial muscle based device that also offers real-time speed and directional control. This study contributes to previously published studies on bio-inspired functional devices, demonstrating that electroactive polymer actuators can be real alternatives to conventional means of actuation such as electric motors

  19. Finding NEMO (novel electromaterial muscle oscillator): a polypyrrole powered robotic fish with real-time wireless speed and directional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Scott; Alici, Gursel; Truong, Van-Tan; Spinks, Geoffrey

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the development of an autonomously powered and controlled robotic fish that incorporates an active flexural joint tail fin, activated through conducting polymer actuators based on polypyrrole (PPy). The novel electromaterial muscle oscillator (NEMO) tail fin assembly on the fish could be controlled wirelessly in real time by varying the frequency and duty cycle of the voltage signal supplied to the PPy bending-type actuators. Directional control was achieved by altering the duty cycle of the voltage input to the NEMO tail fin, which shifted the axis of oscillation and enabled turning of the robotic fish. At low speeds, the robotic fish had a turning circle as small as 15 cm (or 1.1 body lengths) in radius. The highest speed of the fish robot was estimated to be approximately 33 mm s-1 (or 0.25 body lengths s-1) and was achieved with a flapping frequency of 0.6-0.8 Hz which also corresponded with the most hydrodynamically efficient mode for tail fin operation. This speed is approximately ten times faster than those for any previously reported artificial muscle based device that also offers real-time speed and directional control. This study contributes to previously published studies on bio-inspired functional devices, demonstrating that electroactive polymer actuators can be real alternatives to conventional means of actuation such as electric motors.

  20. Fast control strategy for stabilising fixed-speed induction-generator-based wind turbines in an islanded distributed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Distributed generation systems (DGS) with fixed-speed induction-generator-based wind turbines (FSWT) are sensitive and vulnerable to voltage disturbances and reactive power deficiency. Consequently, the control and protection strategies for such a DGS should be prompt and precise to avoid undesired...