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Sample records for spectroscopic quantitative analysis

  1. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of

  2. Multicomponent quantitative spectroscopic analysis without reference substances based on ICA modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

    2017-05-01

    A fast and reliable spectroscopic method for multicomponent quantitative analysis of targeted compounds with overlapping signals in complex mixtures has been established. The innovative analytical approach is based on the preliminary chemometric extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from UV-vis and IR spectral profiles of a calibration system using independent component analysis (ICA). Using this quantitative model and ICA resolution results of spectral profiling of "unknown" model mixtures, the absolute analyte concentrations in multicomponent mixtures and authentic samples were then calculated without reference solutions. Good recoveries generally between 95% and 105% were obtained. The method can be applied to any spectroscopic data that obey the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. The proposed method was tested on analysis of vitamins and caffeine in energy drinks and aromatic hydrocarbons in motor fuel with 10% error. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a promising tool for rapid simultaneous multicomponent analysis in the case of spectral overlap and the absence/inaccessibility of reference materials.

  3. Theory of stellar atmospheres an introduction to astrophysical non-equilibrium quantitative spectroscopic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth and self-contained treatment of the latest advances achieved in quantitative spectroscopic analyses of the observable outer layers of stars and similar objects. Written by two leading researchers in the field, it presents a comprehensive account of both the physical foundations and numerical methods of such analyses. The book is ideal for astronomers who want to acquire deeper insight into the physical foundations of the theory of stellar atmospheres, or who want to learn about modern computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in non-equilibrium situations. It can also serve as a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the discipline for graduate students.

  4. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil.

  5. Problems with the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of oxygen rich Czech coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, H.; Machovic, V.; Cerny, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sebestova, E. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies are two main methods used for the structural analysis of coals and their various products. Obtaining quantitative parameters from coals, such as arornaticity (f{sub a}) by the above mentioned methods can be a rather difficult task. Coal samples of various rank were chosen for the quantitative NMR, FTIR and EPR analyses. The aromaticity was obtained by the FTIR, {sup 13}C CP/MAS and SP/MAS NMR experiments. The content of radicals and saturation characteristics of coals were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The following problems have been discussed: 1. The relationship between the amount of free radicals (N{sub g}) and f{sub a} by NMR. 2. The f{sub a} obtained by solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. 3. The differences between the f{sub a} measured by CP and SP/NMR experiments. 4. The relationship between the content of oxygen groups and the saturation responses of coals. The reliability of our results was checked by measuring the structural parameters of Argonne premium coals.

  6. Oxidation state of uranium in metamict and annealed zircon: near-infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ming; Ewing, R C

    2003-01-01

    Radiation and thermally induced changes in the oxidation state of uranium in metamict zircon have been systematically analysed, for the first time, using polarized near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that in damaged zircon U ions in crystalline domains exhibited relatively sharp, anisotropic signals from tetravalent and pentavalent U ions in crystalline domains (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + and U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 5 sup +). The linewidths and peak positions of the 4834 cm sup - sup 1 band (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + , E || c) and the 6668 cm sup - sup 1 band (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 5 sup + , E perp. c) are a non-linear function of the self-radiation dose. They reach nearly constant values at doses greater than approx 3.5 x 10 sup 1 sup 8 alpha-events g sup - sup 1. Quantitative analysis of U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + and U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l...

  7. Temperature and Salinity Effects on Quantitative Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Dissolved Volatiles Concentration in Geofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Lu, W.

    2017-12-01

    The concentration detection of the volatiles such as CH4 and CO2 in the hydrothermal systems and fluid inclusions is critical for understanding the fluxes of volatiles from mantle to crust and atmosphere. In-situ Raman spectroscopy has been developed successfully in laboratory, fluid inclusions and submarine environment because of its non-destructive and non-contact advantages. For improving the ability of detecting different species quantitatively by in-situ Raman spectroscopy in the extreme environment, such as the hydrothermal system and fluid inclusion, we studied the temperature- and salinity-dependence of Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of the water OH stretching band at temperatures from 20 to 300 oC under 30 MPa. This is important because the water is often used as internal standard in the Raman quantitative application. Based on our previous study of NaCl-H2O system, we made further investigation on the CaCl2-H2O system. Our results revealed that the cation shows negligible effect on the RSCS of water OH stretching band, while the cations seems to have more obvious different effect on the structure of water within high temperatures. Besides the NaCl-CH4-H2O system, we also take the CO2-H2O system into account. Further conclusion can be made that the variation of the Raman quantitative factor (QF) (both PAR/mCH4 and PAR/mCO2) with the temperature and salinity is mainly caused by the temperature- and Cl- concentration-dependence of the relative RSCS of the water OH stretching band. If the Raman quantitative factor at ambient condition still being used, the RSCS of the water OH stretching band would induce about 47%, 34% and 29% error for the determined concentration of dissolved CH4 or CO2 (in mol/kg·H2O) by in-situ Raman spectroscopy for 0 m Cl-, 3 m Cl- and 5 m Cl- aqueous system when the temperature increases from 20 to 300 oC, respectively. Considering the wide range of the temperature and salinity in hydrothermal systems and fluid inclusions, the

  8. Evaluation of PLS, LS-SVM, and LWR for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil testing requires the analysis of large numbers of samples in laboratory that are often time consuming and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (mid-IR) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are fast, non-destructive, and inexpensive analytical methods that have been used for soil analysis, in l...

  9. Spectroscopic Tools for Quantitative Studies of DNA Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preus, Søren

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop quantitative fluorescence-based, spectroscopic tools for probing the 3D structure and dynamics of DNA and RNA. The thesis is founded on six peer-reviewed papers covering mainly the development, characterization and use of fluorescent nucleobase...... analogues. In addition, four software packages is presented for the simulation and quantitative analysis of time-resolved and steady-state UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence experiments....

  10. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  11. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  13. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  14. Quantitative Moessbauer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of Moessbauer data, as in the measurement of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ concentration, has not been possible because of the different mean square velocities (x 2 ) of Moessbauer nuclei at chemically different sites. A method is now described which, based on Moessbauer data at several temperatures, permits the comparison of absorption areas at (x 2 )=0. (Auth.)

  15. Emission spectroscopic 15N analysis 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art of emission spectroscopic 15 N analysis is demonstrated taking the NOI-6e 15 N analyzer as an example. The analyzer is equipped with a microcomputer to ensure a high operational comfort, computer control, and both data acquisition and data processing. In small amounts of nitrogen-containing substances (10 to 50 μg N 2 ) the 15 N abundance can be very quickly determined in standard discharge tubes or in aqueous ammonium salt solutions with a standard deviation less than 0.6 percent

  16. Micron scale spectroscopic analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, David; Finlayson, Trevor; Prawer, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this proposal is the establishment of a facility which will enable complete micron scale spectroscopic analysis of any sample which can be imaged in the optical microscope. Current applications include studies of carbon fibres, diamond thin films, ceramics (zirconia and high T c superconductors), semiconductors, wood pulp, wool fibres, mineral inclusions, proteins, plant cells, polymers, fluoride glasses, and optical fibres. The range of interests crosses traditional discipline boundaries and augurs well for a truly interdisciplinary collaboration. Developments in instrumentation such as confocal imaging are planned to achieve sub-micron resolution, and advances in computer software and hardware will enable the aforementioned spectroscopies to be used to map molecular and crystalline phases on the surfaces of materials. Coupled with existing compositional microprobes (e.g. the proton microprobe) the possibilities for the development of new, powerful, hybrid imaging technologies appear to be excellent

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Renogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Keun Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-03-15

    value are useful for the differentiation of various renal diseases, however, qualitative analysis of the renogram with one or two parameters is not accurate. 3) In bilateral non-functioning kidney groups, a positive correlation between anemia and nitrogen retention was observed, although the quantitative assessment of the degree of non-functioning was impossible.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Keun Chul

    1969-01-01

    are useful for the differentiation of various renal diseases, however, qualitative analysis of the renogram with one or two parameters is not accurate. 3) In bilateral non-functioning kidney groups, a positive correlation between anemia and nitrogen retention was observed, although the quantitative assessment of the degree of non-functioning was impossible.

  19. Quantitative analysis of receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhanli; Wang Rongfu

    2004-01-01

    Model-based methods for quantitative analysis of receptor imaging, including kinetic, graphical and equilibrium methods, are introduced in detail. Some technical problem facing quantitative analysis of receptor imaging, such as the correction for in vivo metabolism of the tracer and the radioactivity contribution from blood volume within ROI, and the estimation of the nondisplaceable ligand concentration, is also reviewed briefly

  20. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1-200 bar and temperature range 300-1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients...... of a CO2-N2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated...

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofanelli, Mirko [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Pardini, Lorenzo [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Borrini, Matteo [Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra [Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Via A. Volta, 4, 56126 Pisa (Italy); D’Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo de [Instituto de Fìsica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no Campus da Praia Vermelha, CEP 24210-346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lezzerini, Marco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Santa Maria, 53, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied. - Highlights: • The LIBS analysis of (animal) bones is presented, to establish its feasibility for forensic studies. • Untreated bones and bones subjected to high temperatures (boiled, burned) were analyzed. • A simple calibration, using a single reference sample, gave reasonable quantitative results. • The comparison of the results demonstrates that LIBS analysis can provide nutritional information. • The nutritional information obtained are the same on untreated, boiled and burned bones.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofanelli, Mirko; Pardini, Lorenzo; Borrini, Matteo; Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra; D’Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano; Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo de; Lezzerini, Marco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied. - Highlights: • The LIBS analysis of (animal) bones is presented, to establish its feasibility for forensic studies. • Untreated bones and bones subjected to high temperatures (boiled, burned) were analyzed. • A simple calibration, using a single reference sample, gave reasonable quantitative results. • The comparison of the results demonstrates that LIBS analysis can provide nutritional information. • The nutritional information obtained are the same on untreated, boiled and burned bones

  3. Monotowns: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastitko Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an empirical analysis of the current situation in monotowns. The study questions the perceived seriousness of the ‘monotown problem’ as well as the actual challenges it presents. The authors use a cluster analysis to divide monotowns into groups for further structural comparison. The structural differences in the available databases limit the possibilities of empirical analysis. Hence, alternative approaches are required. The authors consider possible reasons for the limitations identified. Special attention is paid to the monotowns that were granted the status of advanced development territories. A comparative analysis makes it possible to study their general characteristics and socioeconomic indicators. The authors apply the theory of opportunistic behaviour to describe potential problems caused by the lack of unified criteria for granting monotowns the status of advanced development territories. The article identifies the main stakeholders and the character of their interaction; it desc ribes a conceptual model built on the principal/agent interactions, and identifies the parametric space of mutually beneficial cooperation. The solution to the principal/agent problem suggested in the article contributes to the development of an alternative approach to the current situation and a rational approach to overcoming the ‘monotown problem’.

  4. Quantitative Concept Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Domenach, Florent; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Poelmans, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) begins from a context, given as a binary relation between some objects and some attributes, and derives a lattice of concepts, where each concept is given as a set of objects and a set of attributes, such that the first set consists of all objects that satisfy all

  5. Laser spectroscopic analysis in atmospheric pollution research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3174 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Laser spectroscopic... Department and a CSIR National Laser Centre rental pool programme grant-holder, is involved in research into a novel method of monitoring atmospheric PAHs. The rental pool programme gives South African tertiary education institutions access to an array...

  6. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1–200 bar and temperature range 300–1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients of a CO_2–N_2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated spectra, as well as published experimental data. - Highlights: • A ceramic gas cell designed for gas measurements up to 1300 K and 200 bar. • The first recorded absorption spectrum of CO_2 at 1000 K and 101 bar is presented. • Voigt profiles might suffice in the modeling of radiation from CO_2 in combustion.

  7. Role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer: Quantitative analysis of imaging contour compared to whole-mount histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Mekhail; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Jung, Adam J.; Noworolski, Susan M.; Simko, Jeffry P.; Kurhanewicz, John; Roach, Mack; Carroll, Peter R.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining the contour of treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer, since targeted therapy requires accurate target volume definition. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified 20 patients with prostate cancer who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging prior to radical prostatectomy and subsequent creation of detailed histopathological tumor maps from whole-mount step sections. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed all MR images and electronically contoured all suspected treatable (⩾0.5 cm 3 ) tumor foci. Deformable co-registration in MATLAB was used to calculate the margin of error between imaging and histopathological contours at both capsular and non-capsular surfaces and the treatment margin required to ensure at least 95% tumor coverage. Results: Histopathology showed 17 treatable tumor foci in 16 patients, of which 8 were correctly identified by both readers and an additional 2 were correctly identified by reader 2. For all correctly identified lesions, both readers accurately identified that tumor contacted the prostatic capsule, with no error in contour identification. On the non-capsular border, the median distance between the imaging and histopathological contour was 1.4 mm (range, 0–12). Expanding the contour by 5 mm at the non-capsular margin included 95% of tumor volume not initially covered within the MR contour. Conclusions: Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging can be used to accurately contour treatable intraprostatic tumor foci; adequate tumor coverage is achieved by expanding the treatment contour at the non-capsular margin by 5 mm

  8. Quantitative Analysis of cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.; Bengel, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of myocardial SPECT images is a powerful tool to extract the highly specific radio tracer uptake in these studies. If compared to normal data bases, the uptake values can be calibrated on an individual basis. Doing so increases the reproducibility of the analysis substantially. Based on the development over the last three decades starting from planar scinitigraphy, this paper discusses the methods used today incorporating the changes due to tomographic image acquisitions. Finally, the limitations of these approaches as well as consequences from most recent hardware developments, commercial analysis packages and a wider view of the description of the left ventricle are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of transfer reactions: determination of spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); The Andrzej So an Institute for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Nuclear Reactions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    An overview of the most popular models used for the analysis of direct reaction data is given, concentrating on practical aspects. The 4 following models (in order of increasing sophistication): the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA), the adiabatic model, the coupled channels born approximation, and the coupled reaction channels are briefly described. As a concrete example, the C{sup 12}(d,p)C{sup 13} reaction at an incident deuteron energy of 30 MeV is analysed with progressively more physically sophisticated models. The effect of the choice of the reaction model on the spectroscopic information extracted from the data is investigated and other sources of uncertainty in the derived spectroscopic factors are discussed. We have showed that the choice of the reaction model can significantly influence the nuclear structure information, particularly the spectroscopic factors or amplitudes but occasionally also the spin-parity, that we wish to extract from direct reaction data. We have also demonstrated that the DWBA can fail to give a satisfactory description of transfer data but when the tenets of the theory are fulfilled DWBA can work very well and will yield the same results as most sophisticated models. The use of global rather than fitted optical potentials can also lead to important differences in the extracted spectroscopic factors.

  10. Quantitative aspects of recognition of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline by bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Kishore, Nand [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamics of oxytetracycline (OTC)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding addressed. ► ITC and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis provide values of binding constant. ► Binding is mainly ionic, hydrophobic with minor hydrogen bonding contribution. ► Quantitative effects of OTC on BSA stability provided by DSC. ► Preferential complexation of one domain of BSA by OTC at site II is suggested. -- Abstract: A quantitative understanding of the mode of interaction of drugs with target proteins provides a guide for the synthesis of new drug molecules. The binding of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline with serum albumin has been studied by a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The values of the binding constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and stoichiometry of binding have been determined along with the associated conformational changes in the protein. Oxytetracycline binds to bovine serum albumin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with a weakly temperature dependent association constant of 1.8 · 10{sup 4} at T = 298.15 K. The effect of ionic strength, tetrabutylammonium bromide, and sucrose on the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC and DSC measurements indicate involvement of predominantly ionic and hydrophobic interactions with a minor hydrogen bonding contribution in the drug-protein complexation. The DSC results on the binding of oxytetracycline with bovine serum albumin in the absence and presence of these additives provide quantitative information on the effect of drugs on the stability of bovine serum albumin, and suggest preferential complexation of one of the domains of the protein. The results further indicate that the drug occupies binding site II on bovine serum albumin.

  11. Quantitative aspects of recognition of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline by bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric and spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamics of oxytetracycline (OTC)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding addressed. ► ITC and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis provide values of binding constant. ► Binding is mainly ionic, hydrophobic with minor hydrogen bonding contribution. ► Quantitative effects of OTC on BSA stability provided by DSC. ► Preferential complexation of one domain of BSA by OTC at site II is suggested. -- Abstract: A quantitative understanding of the mode of interaction of drugs with target proteins provides a guide for the synthesis of new drug molecules. The binding of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline with serum albumin has been studied by a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The values of the binding constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and stoichiometry of binding have been determined along with the associated conformational changes in the protein. Oxytetracycline binds to bovine serum albumin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with a weakly temperature dependent association constant of 1.8 · 10 4 at T = 298.15 K. The effect of ionic strength, tetrabutylammonium bromide, and sucrose on the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC and DSC measurements indicate involvement of predominantly ionic and hydrophobic interactions with a minor hydrogen bonding contribution in the drug-protein complexation. The DSC results on the binding of oxytetracycline with bovine serum albumin in the absence and presence of these additives provide quantitative information on the effect of drugs on the stability of bovine serum albumin, and suggest preferential complexation of one of the domains of the protein. The results further indicate that the drug occupies binding site II on bovine serum albumin

  12. Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, K S; Kim, D H; Yang, K H; Jung, E C; Jeong, D Y; Yi, Y J; Lee, S M; Hong, K H; Han, J M; Yoo, B D; Rho, S P; Yi, J H; Park, H M; Cha, B H; Nam, S M; Lee, J M

    1997-09-01

    For the development of the laser initiated high resolution, ultra sensitive analysis technology following field of researches have been performed. (1) Laser resonance ionization technology, (2) Laser-induced rare isotope detection technology, (3) Laser-induced plasma analysis technology, (4) Microparticle analysis technology by using ion trap, (5) Laser induced remote sensing technique. As a result a monitoring system for photoionized product is developed and the test of system is performed with Sm sample. The rare isotope detection system is designed and a few key elements of the system are developed. In addition a laser-induced plasma analysis system is developed and samples such as Zircaloy, Zinc-base alloy, rock samples are reasonably analyzed. The detection sensitivity is identified as good as a few ppm order. An ion trap is developed and microparticles such as SiC are trapped inside the trap by ac and dc fields. The fluorescence signals from the organic dyes as well as rare earth element which are absorbed on the microparticles are detected. Several calibration curves are also obtained. In the field of laser remote sensing a mobile Lidar system is designed and several key elements are developed. In addition the developed system is used for the detection of Ozone, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, etc. (author). 57 refs., 42 figs.

  13. Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, K. S.; Kim, D. H.; Yang, K. H.; Jung, E. C.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yi, Y. J.; Lee, S. M.; Hong, K. H.; Han, J. M.; Yoo, B. D.; Rho, S. P.; Yi, J. H.; Park, H. M.; Cha, B. H.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    For the development of the laser initiated high resolution, ultra sensitive analysis technology following field of researches have been performed. 1) Laser resonance ionization technology, 2) Laser-induced rare isotope detection technology, 3) Laser-induced plasma analysis technology, 4) Microparticle analysis technology by using ion trap, 5) Laser induced remote sensing technique. As a result a monitoring system for photoionized product is developed and the test of system is performed with Sm sample. The rare isotope detection system is designed and a few key elements of the system are developed. In addition a laser-induced plasma analysis system is developed and samples such as Zircaloy, Zinc-base alloy, rock samples are reasonably analyzed. The detection sensitivity is identified as good as a few ppm order. An ion trap is developed and microparticles such as SiC are trapped inside the trap by ac and dc fields. The fluorescence signals from the organic dyes as well as rare earth element which are absorbed on the microparticles are detected. Several calibration curves are also obtained. In the field of laser remote sensing a mobile Lidar system is designed and several key elements are developed. In addition the developed system is used for the detection of Ozone, NO 2 , SO 2 , etc. (author). 57 refs., 42 figs

  14. Internal reflection spectroscopic analysis of sulphide mineral surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.

    1989-01-01

    To establish the reason for flotation of sulfide minerals in the absence of any conventional collector, internal reflection spectroscopic analysis (IRS) of their surfaces was conducted. sulfur, sulfates, thiosulfates, and hydrocarbonates have been detected on the surface of as-grand sulfide minerals. On sodium sulfide-treated surfaces, both sulfur and polysulfide have also been found to be present. From these findings, the flotation of sulfide minerals without collectors is discussed. (author). 26 refs

  15. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution.

  16. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S.

    2007-04-01

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution

  17. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxyformic acid prepared in-situ was employed for epoxidation of canola oil in the presence of toluene. Gas chromatographic analysis of the product revealed the following species: C16:0; C18:0; C18:1; C18:2; C18:3; monoepoxy C18:0; monoepoxy C18:1; monoepoxy C18:2; diepoxy C18:0; diepoxy C18:1 and triepoxy ...

  18. Spectroscopic Doppler analysis for visible-light optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-12-01

    Retinal oxygen metabolic rate can be effectively measured by visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), which simultaneously quantifies oxygen saturation and blood flow rate in retinal vessels through spectroscopic analysis and Doppler measurement, respectively. Doppler OCT relates phase variation between sequential A-lines to the axial flow velocity of the scattering medium. The detectable phase shift is between -π and π due to its periodicity, which limits the maximum measurable unambiguous velocity without phase unwrapping. Using shorter wavelengths, vis-OCT is more vulnerable to phase ambiguity since flow induced phase variation is linearly related to the center wavenumber of the probing light. We eliminated the need for phase unwrapping using spectroscopic Doppler analysis. We split the whole vis-OCT spectrum into a series of narrow subbands and reconstructed vis-OCT images to extract corresponding Doppler phase shifts in all the subbands. Then, we quantified flow velocity by analyzing subband-dependent phase shift using linear regression. In the phantom experiment, we showed that spectroscopic Doppler analysis extended the measurable absolute phase shift range without conducting phase unwrapping. We also tested this method to quantify retinal blood flow in rodents in vivo.

  19. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  20. Convolutional neural networks for vibrational spectroscopic data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquarelli, Jacopo; van Laarhoven, Twan; Gerretzen, Jan; Tran, Thanh N; Buydens, Lutgarde M C; Marchiori, Elena

    2017-02-15

    In this work we show that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can be efficiently used to classify vibrational spectroscopic data and identify important spectral regions. CNNs are the current state-of-the-art in image classification and speech recognition and can learn interpretable representations of the data. These characteristics make CNNs a good candidate for reducing the need for preprocessing and for highlighting important spectral regions, both of which are crucial steps in the analysis of vibrational spectroscopic data. Chemometric analysis of vibrational spectroscopic data often relies on preprocessing methods involving baseline correction, scatter correction and noise removal, which are applied to the spectra prior to model building. Preprocessing is a critical step because even in simple problems using 'reasonable' preprocessing methods may decrease the performance of the final model. We develop a new CNN based method and provide an accompanying publicly available software. It is based on a simple CNN architecture with a single convolutional layer (a so-called shallow CNN). Our method outperforms standard classification algorithms used in chemometrics (e.g. PLS) in terms of accuracy when applied to non-preprocessed test data (86% average accuracy compared to the 62% achieved by PLS), and it achieves better performance even on preprocessed test data (96% average accuracy compared to the 89% achieved by PLS). For interpretability purposes, our method includes a procedure for finding important spectral regions, thereby facilitating qualitative interpretation of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative pulsed eddy current analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The potential of pulsed eddy current testing for furnishing more information than conventional single-frequency eddy current methods has been known for some time. However, a fundamental problem has been analyzing the pulse shape with sufficient precision to produce accurate quantitative results. Accordingly, the primary goal of this investigation was to: demonstrate ways of digitizing the short pulses encountered in PEC testing, and to develop empirical analysis techniques that would predict some of the parameters (e.g., depth) of simple types of defect. This report describes a digitizing technique using a computer and either a conventional nuclear ADC or a fast transient analyzer; the computer software used to collect and analyze pulses; and some of the results obtained. (U.S.)

  2. EEL spectroscopic tomography: towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedra, Lluís; Eljarrat, Alberto; Arenal, Raúl; Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moisés; López-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca

    2012-11-01

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe(x)Co((3-x))O(4)@Co(3)O(4) mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Lluis, E-mail: llyedra@el.ub.es [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Alberto [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arenal, Raul [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moises [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lopez-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta [CIN2(CIN-CSIC) and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, Jordi [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Baro, Maria Dolors [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); and others

    2012-11-15

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe{sub x}Co{sub (3-x)}O{sub 4}@Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS-SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  4. Radiometric dating and quantitative analysis of elements in depth profiles of sediments by means of nuclear physical as well as X-ray fluorescence and atomic emission spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenburg, M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of heavy metal concentration in sediments is of great importance for the assessment of water quality. If dating of the different layers of sediment cores is possible, informations about the history of pollution can be inferred. This paper describes the development and practical test of a procedure suitable for the investigation of sediment cores. Both the element analysis and the dating are based on physical methods. For element concentration determination inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) are used. The techniques are described and compared. For dating radiometric measurements of 210 Pb and 137 Cs are carried out with a coaxial well-type germanium γ-ray detector in a special low-level arrangement. Results of the systematic investigations are presented and a few individual depth profiles are discussed. (orig.) With 34 figs., 20 tabs [de

  5. Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology -Development of atomic spectroscopy technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Baik, Dae Hyun; Shin, Jang Soo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Yi, Jong Hoon

    1994-07-01

    In this project, three principal techniques are developed. The laser photoionization spectrometry (LAPIS) is used for the ultrasensitive detection for heavy metals such as Pb and Cd. The Laser atomic fluorescence spectrometry is applied to the quantitative analysis of the lanthanide and actinide elements. And the DIAL remote sensing system is used for monitoring the ozone concentration and the atmospheric pollution. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a high efficient atomic beam generator were designed and manufactured. Various spectroscopic parameters and optimum analytical condition were investigated. By using the laser fluorescence technique, U, Eu and Sm in solution were quantitatively analyzed. The basic researches for the direct analytical method of solid samples were also carried out. The DIAL system for ozone remote sensing was developed and ozone concentration above Taejon were obtained. (Author)

  6. Spectroscopic analysis technique for arc-welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, Jesús; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Quintela, María Ángeles; López-Higuera, José-Miguel

    2005-09-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by thermal plasmas has found many applications, from chemical analysis to monitoring and control of industrial processes. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that the analysis of the thermal plasma generated during arc or laser welding can supply information about the process and, thus, about the quality of the weld. In some critical applications (e.g. the aerospace sector), an early, real-time detection of defects in the weld seam (oxidation, porosity, lack of penetration, ...) is highly desirable as it can reduce expensive non-destructive testing (NDT). Among others techniques, full spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission is known to offer rich information about the process itself, but it is also very demanding in terms of real-time implementations. In this paper, we proposed a technique for the analysis of the plasma emission spectrum that is able to detect, in real-time, changes in the process parameters that could lead to the formation of defects in the weld seam. It is based on the estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma through the analysis of the emission peaks from multiple atomic species. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, we employ the LPO (Linear Phase Operator) sub-pixel algorithm to accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks (allowing an automatic identification of each atomic species) and cubic-spline interpolation of the noisy data to obtain the intensity and width of the peaks. Experimental tests on TIG-welding using fiber-optic capture of light and a low-cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects can be easily detected and identified with this technique, whose typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20msec. running in a conventional PC.

  7. Temperature analysis of laser ignited metalized material using spectroscopic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Ishaan; Sharma, Pallavi; Daipuriya, Ritu; Singh, Manpreet

    2018-05-01

    The temperature measurement of the laser ignited aluminized Nano energetic mixture using spectroscopy has a great scope in in analysing the material characteristic and combustion analysis. The spectroscopic analysis helps to do in depth study of combustion of materials which is difficult to do using standard pyrometric methods. Laser ignition was used because it consumes less energy as compared to electric ignition but ignited material dissipate the same energy as dissipated by electric ignition and also with the same impact. Here, the presented research is primarily focused on the temperature analysis of energetic material which comprises of explosive material mixed with nano-material and is ignited with the help of laser. Spectroscopy technique is used here to estimate the temperature during the ignition process. The Nano energetic mixture used in the research does not comprise of any material that is sensitive to high impact.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  9. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications

  10. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a `noli me tangere' painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a `noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  11. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a 'noli me tangere' painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G M; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a 'noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Quantitative analysis of coupler tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shuxin; Cui Yupeng; Chen Huaibi; Xiao Liling

    2001-01-01

    The author deduces the equation of coupler frequency deviation Δf and coupling coefficient β instead of only giving the adjusting direction in the process of matching coupler, on the basis of coupling-cavity chain equivalent circuits model. According to this equation, automatic measurement and quantitative display are realized on a measuring system. It contributes to industrialization of traveling-wave accelerators for large container inspection systems

  13. Spectroscopic vector analysis for fast pattern quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Younghoon; Ryu, Sungyoon; Lee, Chihoon; Yang, Yusin

    2018-03-01

    In semiconductor industry, fast and effective measurement of pattern variation has been key challenge for assuring massproduct quality. Pattern measurement techniques such as conventional CD-SEMs or Optical CDs have been extensively used, but these techniques are increasingly limited in terms of measurement throughput and time spent in modeling. In this paper we propose time effective pattern monitoring method through the direct spectrum-based approach. In this technique, a wavelength band sensitive to a specific pattern change is selected from spectroscopic ellipsometry signal scattered by pattern to be measured, and the amplitude and phase variation in the wavelength band are analyzed as a measurement index of the pattern change. This pattern change measurement technique is applied to several process steps and verified its applicability. Due to its fast and simple analysis, the methods can be adapted to the massive process variation monitoring maximizing measurement throughput.

  14. Tissue preservation with mass spectroscopic analysis: Implications for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, O Morgan; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D

    2018-05-17

    Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins. Their nondestructive in vivo tissue sampling leads to a highly accurate and rapid cancer diagnosis with great precision between healthy and malignant tissue. This new tool has the potential to improve surgical margins and accelerate cancer diagnostics by analyzing biomolecular signatures of various tissues and diseases.

  15. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS AND PLANT TISSUE FOR PERCHLORATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy, without the need for prior chromatographic separation, was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 59 samples of fertilizers for perchlorate (ClO4-). These primarily lawn and garden products had no known link to Chile saltpeter, which is known to con...

  16. Raman spectroscopic identification of size-selected airborne particles for quantitative exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Price, Mark C; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the quantification of chemically distinguished airborne particulate matter, required for health risk assessment. Rather than simply detecting chemical compounds in a sample, we demonstrate an approach for the quantification of exposure to airborne particles and nanomaterials. In line with increasing concerns over the proliferation of engineered particles we consider detection of synthetically produced ZnO crystals. A multi-stage approach is presented whereby the particles are first aerodynamically size segregated from a lab-generated single component aerosol in an impaction sampler. These size fractionated samples are subsequently analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Imaging analysis is applied to Raman spatial maps to provide chemically specific quantification of airborne exposure against background which is critical for health risk evaluation of exposure to airborne particles. Here we present a first proof-of-concept study of the methodology utilising particles in the 2–4 μm aerodynamic diameter range to allow for validation of the approach by comparison to optical microscopy. The results show that the combination of these techniques provides independent size and chemical discrimination of particles. Thereby a method is provided to allow quantitative and chemically distinguished measurements of aerosol concentrations separated into exposure relevant size fractions. (paper)

  17. Quantitative analysis of boron by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayuelken, A.; Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Buchberger, T.

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative determination of boron in ores is a long process with chemical analysis techniques. As nuclear techniques like X-ray fluorescence and activation analysis are not applicable for boron, only the neutron radiography technique, using the high neutron absorption cross section of this element, can be applied for quantitative determinations. This paper describes preliminary tests and calibration experiments carried out at a 250 kW TRIGA reactor. (orig.) [de

  18. Continuous spectroscopic analysis of vanadous and vanadic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.V.; Dutcher, R.A.; Fisher, M.S.; Kottle, S.; Stowe, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    Spectroscopic methods were investigated for the determination of vanadium ions in aqueous solutions arising in the production of vanadium (11) formate and its use in the LOMI (Low Oxidation-state Metal Ion) process for the chemical decontamination of systems in nuclear power plants. In the LOMI process, a dilute solution of vanadous formate and picolinic acid is used. The vanadous formate n reduces metal oxides in the scale on the equipment, causing the scale to break up and become suspended. The picolinic acid chelates these materials and makes them soluble. During the decontamination the progress is followed by analyses of the metal ions and of the radioactivity. When the values stop increasing, the decontamination is terminated. At present, it cannot be determined if the values are no longer changing due to all the scale being removed or due to the vanadous ion being spent. Infrared and ultraviolet-visible analysis were investigated as the means of analyzing for vanadium species. It was found that the complex formed by V(II) with picolinic acid could be used for colorimetric analysis for V(II) in the range of 0 - 0.011 moles/liter, which encompasses the concentration range used in the LOMI process. The findings will be used to develop an on-line instrument for continuously monitoring V(II) during decontamination

  19. Evolution of containment facilities for spectroscopic analysis at Rockwell Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of radioactive material requires much thought concerning getting the job done while still maintaining a safe working environment. A Rockwell Hanford Operations, several stages of evolution in instrumentation for spectroscopic elemental analysis have evolved, reflecting different philosophies respect to shielding and contamination control. Atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopic systems have been used for analyzing samples in support of a fission product recovery plant, nuclear waste processing and characterization programs, and U and Pu separation plants. Design thoughts, criticisms, and lessons learned in 20 years of containment for spectroscopic analysis are presented

  20. Evolution of containment facilities for spectroscopic analysis at Rockwell Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of radioactive material requires much thought concerning getting the job done while still maintaining a safe working environment. At Rockwell Hanford Operations, we have gone through several stages of evolution in instrumentation for spectroscopic elemental analysis, reflecting different philosophies with respect to shielding and contamination control. Atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopic systems have been used for analyzing samples in support of a fission product recovery plant, nuclear waste processing and characterization programs, and U and Pu separation plants. Design thoughts, criticisms, and lessons learned in 20 years of containment for spectroscopic analysis are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Reactor applications of quantitative diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feguson, I.F.

    1976-09-01

    Current work in quantitative diffraction analysis was presented under the main headings of: thermal systems, fast reactor systems, SGHWR applications and irradiation damage. Preliminary results are included on a comparison of various new instrumental methods of boron analysis as well as preliminary new results on Zircaloy corrosion, and materials transfer in liquid sodium. (author)

  2. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  3. The role of gray and white matter segmentation in quantitative proton MR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Assaf; Kirov, Ivan I; Grossman, Robert I; Gonen, Oded

    2012-12-01

    Since the brain's gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) metabolite concentrations differ, their partial volumes can vary the voxel's ¹H MR spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) signal, reducing sensitivity to changes. While single-voxel ¹H-MRS cannot differentiate between WM and GM signals, partial volume correction is feasible by MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) using segmentation of the MRI acquired for VOI placement. To determine the magnitude of this effect on metabolic quantification, we segmented a 1-mm³ resolution MRI into GM, WM and CSF masks that were co-registered with the MRSI grid to yield their partial volumes in approximately every 1 cm³ spectroscopic voxel. Each voxel then provided one equation with two unknowns: its i- metabolite's GM and WM concentrations C(i) (GM) , C(i) (WM) . With the voxels' GM and WM volumes as independent coefficients, the over-determined system of equations was solved for the global averaged C(i) (GM) and C(i) (WM) . Trading off local concentration differences offers three advantages: (i) higher sensitivity due to combined data from many voxels; (ii) improved specificity to WM versus GM changes; and (iii) reduced susceptibility to partial volume effects. These improvements made no additional demands on the protocol, measurement time or hardware. Applying this approach to 18 volunteered 3D MRSI sets of 480 voxels each yielded N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline and myo-inositol C(i) (GM) concentrations of 8.5 ± 0.7, 6.9 ± 0.6, 1.2 ± 0.2, 5.3 ± 0.6 mM, respectively, and C(i) (WM) concentrations of 7.7 ± 0.6, 4.9 ± 0.5, 1.4 ± 0.1 and 4.4 ± 0.6mM, respectively. We showed that unaccounted voxel WM or GM partial volume can vary absolute quantification by 5-10% (more for ratios), which can often double the sample size required to establish statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Methods in quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M

    1996-05-01

    The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value

  5. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in animal depression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J.; Sowa-Kucma, M.; Nowak, G.; Papp, M.; Gruca, P.; Misztak, P.; Parlinska-Wojtan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the major causes being chronic stress. Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of rats subjected to chronic mild stress, which is a common animal depression model. Moreover, the efficiency of the imipramine treatment was evaluated. It was found that chronic mild stress not only damages the structure of the phospholipids and proteins, but also decreases their level in the blood serum. A 5 weeks imipramine treatment did increase slightly the quantity of proteins, leaving the damaged phospholipids unchanged. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained by UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of stressed rats was normalized after imipramine therapy, while the impaired structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that the depression factor, which is chronic mild stress, may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression.

  6. Short- and long-term quantitation reproducibility of brain metabolites in the medial wall using proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Ru; Wang, Woan-Chyi; Niddam, David M

    2012-11-15

    Proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) is a fast magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique that allows mapping spatial metabolite distributions in the brain. Although the medial wall of the cortex is involved in a wide range of pathological conditions, previous MRSI studies have not focused on this region. To decide the magnitude of metabolic changes to be considered significant in this region, the reproducibility of the method needs to be established. The study aims were to establish the short- and long-term reproducibility of metabolites in the right medial wall and to compare regional differences using a constant short-echo time (TE30) and TE averaging (TEavg) optimized to yield glutamatergic information. 2D sagittal PEPSI was implemented at 3T using a 32 channel head coil. Acquisitions were repeated immediately and after approximately 2 weeks to assess the coefficients of variation (COV). COVs were obtained from eight regions-of-interest (ROIs) of varying size and location. TE30 resulted in better spectral quality and similar or lower quantitation uncertainty for all metabolites except glutamate (Glu). When Glu and glutamine (Gln) were quantified together (Glx) reduced quantitation uncertainty and increased reproducibility was observed for TE30. TEavg resulted in lowered quantitation uncertainty for Glu but in less reliable quantification of several other metabolites. TEavg did not result in a systematically improved short- or long-term reproducibility for Glu. The ROI volume was a major factor influencing reproducibility. For both short- and long-term repetitions, the Glu COVs obtained with TEavg were 5-8% for the large ROIs, 12-17% for the medium sized ROIs and 16-26% for the smaller cingulate ROIs. COVs obtained with TE30 for the less specific Glx were 3-5%, 8-10% and 10-15%. COVs for N-acetyl aspartate, creatine and choline using TE30 with long-term repetition were between 2-10%. Our results show that the cost of more specific

  7. Scientific aspects of urolithiasis: quantitative stone analysis and crystallization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandt, M.A.E.

    1986-03-01

    The theory, development and results of three quantitative analytical procedures are described and the crystallization experiments in a rotary evaporator are presented. Of the different methods of quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses, the 'internal standard method' and a microanalytical technique were identified as the two most useful procedures for the quantitative analysis of urinary calculi. 'Reference intensity ratios' for 6 major stone phases were determined and were used in the analysis of 20 calculi by the 'internal standard method'. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) methods were also investigated, developed and used in this study. Various procedures for the digestion of calculi were tested and a mixture of HNO 3 and HC1O 4 was eventually found to be the most successful. The major elements Ca, Mg, and P in 41 calculi were determined. For the determination of trace elements, a new microwave-assisted digestion procedure was developed and used for the digestion of 100 calculi. Fluoride concentrations in two stone collections were determined using a fluoride-ion sensitive electrode and the HNO 3 /HC1O 4 digestion prodecure used for the ICP study. A series of crystallization experiments involving a standard reference artificial urine was carried out in a rotary evaporator. The effect of pH and urine composition was studied by varying the former and by including uric acid, urea, creatinine, MgO, methylene blue, chondroitin sulphate A, and fluoride in the reference solution. Crystals formed in these experiments were subjected to qualitative and semi-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Scanning electron microscopy of several deposits was also carried out. Similar deposits to those observed in calculi were obtained with the fast evaporator. The results presented suggest that this system provides a simple, yet very useful means for studying the crystallization characteristics of urine solutions

  8. Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin

    2011-08-01

    In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

  9. Quantitative mapping of total choline in healthy human breast using proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenguang; Bolan, Patrick J; Royce, Melanie; Lakkadi, Navneeth; Eberhardt, Steven; Sillerud, Laurel; Lee, Sang-Joon; Posse, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    To quantitatively measure tCho levels in healthy breasts using Proton-Echo-Planar-Spectroscopic-Imaging (PEPSI). The two-dimensional mapping of tCho at 3 Tesla across an entire breast slice using PEPSI and a hybrid spectral quantification method based on LCModel fitting and integration of tCho using the fitted spectrum were developed. This method was validated in 19 healthy females and compared with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and with PRESS prelocalized conventional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) using identical voxel size (8 cc) and similar scan times (∼7 min). A tCho peak with a signal to noise ratio larger than 2 was detected in 10 subjects using both PEPSI and SVS. The average tCho concentration in these subjects was 0.45 ± 0.2 mmol/kg using PEPSI and 0.48 ± 0.3 mmol/kg using SVS. Comparable results were obtained in two subjects using conventional MRSI. High lipid content in the spectra of nine tCho negative subjects was associated with spectral line broadening of more than 26 Hz, which made tCho detection impossible. Conventional MRSI with PRESS prelocalization in glandular tissue in two of these subjects yielded tCho concentrations comparable to PEPSI. The detection sensitivity of PEPSI is comparable to SVS and conventional PRESS-MRSI. PEPSI can be potentially used in the evaluation of tCho in breast cancer. A tCho threshold concentration value of ∼0.7 mmol/kg might be used to differentiate between cancerous and healthy (or benign) breast tissues based on this work and previous studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Arroyo, R.

    1999-01-01

    This work is focused about the spectroscopic properties of a polymer material which consists of Polyacrylic acid (Paa) doped at different concentrations of Europium ions (Eu 3+ ). They show that to stay chemically joined with the polymer by a study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of 1 H, 13 C and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Ft-IR) they present changes in the intensity of signals, just as too when this material is irradiated at λ = 394 nm. In according with the results obtained experimentally in this type of materials it can say that is possible to unify chemically the polymer with this type of cations, as well as, varying the concentration of them, since that these are distributed homogeneously inside the matrix maintaining its optical properties. These materials can be obtained more quickly and easy in solid or liquid phase and they have the best conditions for to make a quantitative analysis. (Author)

  11. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  12. Uncertainties in elemental quantitative analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the degree of non-uniformity of the particle beam, matrix composition and matrix thickness in a quantitative elemental analysis by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed and a criterion to evaluate the resulting degree of uncertainty in the mass determination by this method is established. (Auth.)

  13. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are in good agreement with those obtained using the method of Lehmann-. Filhés. Key words. ... use their method to obtain the orbital elements of the four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems PV Pup, HD ... Observation shows that the photometric phase, φ, which is measured from the pho- tometric reference point ...

  14. Spectroscopic analysis applied to temperature measurement in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieffe-Prevost, P.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma temperature is defined only if the plasma is in a state near thermodynamic equilibrium. This plasma state is analysed in detail and spectroscopic methods for measuring the temperature are discussed. As an application the hydrogen arc of the National Institute of Metrology of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (Paris) is briefly described [fr

  15. Quantitative possibility analysis. Present status in ESCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, D.

    1981-01-01

    A short review of the recent developments in quantification of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or ESCA is presented. The basic equations are reminded. Each involved parameter (photoionisation, inelastic mean free paths, 'response function' of the instruments, intensity measurement) is separately discussed in relation with the accuracy and the precision of the method. Other topics are considered such as roughness, surface contamination, matrix effect and inhomogeneous composition. Some aspects of the quantitative ESCA analysis and AES analysis are compared [fr

  16. Quantitative phase analysis in industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Monshi

    1996-01-01

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the only technique able to identify phase and all the other analytical techniques give information about the elements. Quantitative phase analysis of minerals and industrial products is logically the next step after a qualitative examination and is of great importance in industrial research. Since the application of XRD in industry, early in this century, workers were trying to develop quantitative XRD methods. In this paper some of the important methods are briefly discussed and partly compared. These methods are Internal Standard, Known Additions, Double Dilution, External Standard, Direct Comparison, Diffraction Absorption and Ratio of Slopes

  17. Quantitative spectroscopic J-band study of red supergiants in Perseus OB-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Davies, Ben; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of red supergiant (RSG) stars can be measured from quantitative spectroscopy down to resolutions of ≈3000 in the J-band. We have obtained high resolution spectra on a sample of the RSG population of h and χ Persei, a double cluster in the solar neighborhood. We show that careful application of the MARCS model atmospheres returns measurements of Z consistent with solar metallicity. Using two grids of synthetic spectra–one in pure LTE and one with non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for the most important diagnostic lines–we measure Z = +0.04 ± 0.10 (LTE) and Z = –0.04 ± 0.08 (NLTE) for the sample of eleven RSGs in the cluster. We degrade the spectral resolution of our observations and find that those values remain consistent down to resolutions of less than λ/δλ of 3000. Using measurements of effective temperatures we compare our results with stellar evolution theory and find good agreement. We construct a synthetic cluster spectrum and find that analyzing this composite spectrum with single-star RSG models returns an accurate metallicity. We conclude that the RSGs make ideal targets in the near infrared for measuring the metallicities of star forming galaxies out to 7-10 Mpc and up to 10 times farther by observing the integrated light of unresolved super star clusters.

  18. Comparison of different surface quantitative analysis methods. Application to corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, N.; Blin, D.; Perodeaud, Ph.; Dugne, O.; Gueneau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    In case of a severe hypothetical accident in a pressurized water reactor, the reactor assembly melts partially or completely. The material formed, called corium, flows out and spreads at the bottom of the reactor. To limit and control the consequences of such an accident, the specifications of the O-U-Zr basic system must be known accurately. To achieve this goal, the corium mix was melted by electron bombardment at very high temperature (3000 K) followed by quenching of the ingot in the Isabel 1 evaporator. Metallographic analyses were then required to validate the thermodynamic databases set by the Thermo-Calc software. The study consists in defining an overall surface quantitative analysis method that is fast and reliable, in order to determine the overall corium composition. The analyzed ingot originated in a [U+Fe+Y+UO 2 +ZrO 2 ) mix, with a total mass of 2253.7 grams. Several successive heating with average power were performed before a very brief plateau at very high temperature, so that the ingot was formed progressively and without any evaporation liable to modify its initial composition. The central zone of the ingot was then analyzed by qualitative and quantitative global surface methods, to yield the volume composition of the analyzed zone. Corium sample analysis happens to be very complex because of the variety and number of elements present, and also because of the presence of oxygen in a heavy element like the uranium based matrix. Three different global quantitative surface analysis methods were used: global EDS analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), with SEM, global WDS analysis (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) with EPMA, and coupling of image analysis with EDS or WDS point spectroscopic analyses. The difficulties encountered during the study arose from sample preparation (corium is very sensitive to oxidation), and the choice of acquisition parameters of the images and analyses. The corium sample studied consisted of two zones displaying

  19. Quantitative analysis of untreated bio-samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Matsuda, K.

    1999-01-01

    A standard-free method of quantitative analysis for untreated samples has been developed. For hair samples, measurements were performed by irradiating with a proton beam a few hairs as they are, and quantitative analysis was carried out by means of a standard-free method developed by ourselves. First, quantitative values of concentration of zinc were derived, then concentration of other elements was obtained by regarding zinc as an internal standard. As the result, values of concentration of sulphur for 40 samples agree well with the average value for a typical Japanese and also with each other within 20%, and validity of the present method could be confirmed. Accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained by the usual internal standard method, too. For the purpose of a surface analysis of a bone sample, a very small incidence angle of the proton beam was used, so that both energy loss of the projectile and self-absorption of X-rays become negligible. As the result, consistent values of concentration for many elements were obtained by the standard-free method

  20. Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of crystal orientation in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeyanagi, Chisato; Kaneko, Takuya; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2018-05-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is attracting keen attention as a new spectroscopic tool for characterizing various materials. In this research, the possibility of analyzing the crystal orientation in a crystalline polymer by THz-TDS is investigated by measuring angle-resolved THz absorption spectra for sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and poly(phenylene sulfide). The resultant angle dependence of the absorption intensity of each polymer is similar to that of the crystal orientation examined using pole figures of X-ray diffraction. More specifically, THz-TDS can indicate the alignment of molecules in polymers.

  1. Quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Nariaki; Hoer, G.; Johost, S.; Maul, F.-D.; Standke, R.

    1981-01-01

    The method of quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy using computer assisted technique was described. Calculated indices are washout factor, vitality index and redistribution factor. Washout factor is the ratio of counts at certain period of time after exercise and immediately after exercise. This value is neccessary for the evaluation of redistribution to the ischemic areas in serial imagings to correct the Tl-201 washout from the myocardium under the assumption that the washout is constant in the whole myocardium. Vitality index is the ratio between the Tl-201 uptake in the region of interest and that of the maximum. Redistribution factor is the ratio of the redistribution in the region of interest in serial imagings after exercise to that of immediately after exercise. Four examples of exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigrams and the quantitative analyses before and after the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were presented. (author)

  2. Features of the use of charge-coupled devices in emission spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, A.M.; Peleznev, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Multielement radiation receivers based on linear charge-coupled photodiode devices have become more aand more widely used recently in spectroscopic analysis. The main feature of such receivers is their ability to record not only the intensity of the incident light flux, but also its spatial distribution. This article considers the advantages and disadvantages of charge-coupled devices when used in emission spectroscopic analysis. The main methods nd devices employed for this purpose and discussed here can be divided into four types: photographic photometry, visual styloscopy, quantometry, and successive analysis. 4 refs., 1 fig

  3. Quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainai, T; Mashimo, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Science and Engineering

    1976-04-01

    Recent papers on the practical quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are reviewed. Specifically, the determination of moisture in liquid N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as an oxidizing agent for rocket propulsion, the analysis of hydroperoxides, the quantitative analysis using a shift reagent, the analysis of aromatic sulfonates, and the determination of acids and bases are reviewed. Attention is paid to the accuracy. The sweeping velocity and RF level in addition to the other factors must be on the optimal condition to eliminate the errors, particularly when computation is made with a machine. Higher sweeping velocity is preferable in view of S/N ratio, but it may be limited to 30 Hz/s. The relative error in the measurement of area is generally 1%, but when those of dilute concentration and integrated, the error will become smaller by one digit. If impurities are treated carefully, the water content on N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ can be determined with accuracy of about 0.002%. The comparison method between peak heights is as accurate as that between areas, when the uniformity of magnetic field and T/sub 2/ are not questionable. In the case of chemical shift movable due to content, the substance can be determined by the position of the chemical shift. Oil and water contents in rape-seed, peanuts, and sunflower-seed are determined by measuring T/sub 1/ with 90 deg pulses.

  4. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  5. Quantitative phase analysis by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Song, Su Ho; Lee, Jin Ho; Shim, Hae Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This study is to apply quantitative phase analysis (QPA) by neutron diffraction to the round robin samples provided by the International Union of Crystallography(IUCr). We measured neutron diffraction patterns for mixed samples which have several different weight percentages and their unique characteristic features. Neutron diffraction method has been known to be superior to its complementary methods such as X-ray or Synchrotron, but it is still accepted as highly reliable under limited conditions or samples. Neutron diffraction has strong capability especially on oxides due to its scattering cross-section of the oxygen and it can become a more strong tool for analysis on the industrial materials with this quantitative phase analysis techniques. By doing this study, we hope not only to do one of instrument performance tests on our HRPD but also to improve our ability on the analysis of neutron diffraction data by comparing our QPA results with others from any advanced reactor facilities. 14 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  6. Good practices for quantitative bias analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy L; Fox, Matthew P; MacLehose, Richard F; Maldonado, George; McCandless, Lawrence C; Greenland, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative bias analysis serves several objectives in epidemiological research. First, it provides a quantitative estimate of the direction, magnitude and uncertainty arising from systematic errors. Second, the acts of identifying sources of systematic error, writing down models to quantify them, assigning values to the bias parameters and interpreting the results combat the human tendency towards overconfidence in research results, syntheses and critiques and the inferences that rest upon them. Finally, by suggesting aspects that dominate uncertainty in a particular research result or topic area, bias analysis can guide efficient allocation of sparse research resources. The fundamental methods of bias analyses have been known for decades, and there have been calls for more widespread use for nearly as long. There was a time when some believed that bias analyses were rarely undertaken because the methods were not widely known and because automated computing tools were not readily available to implement the methods. These shortcomings have been largely resolved. We must, therefore, contemplate other barriers to implementation. One possibility is that practitioners avoid the analyses because they lack confidence in the practice of bias analysis. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe what we view as good practices for applying quantitative bias analysis to epidemiological data, directed towards those familiar with the methods. We focus on answering questions often posed to those of us who advocate incorporation of bias analysis methods into teaching and research. These include the following. When is bias analysis practical and productive? How does one select the biases that ought to be addressed? How does one select a method to model biases? How does one assign values to the parameters of a bias model? How does one present and interpret a bias analysis?. We hope that our guide to good practices for conducting and presenting bias analyses will encourage

  7. Immune adherence: a quantitative and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, T [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Research Inst.

    1978-09-01

    Quantitative and kinetic analysis of the immune-adherence reaction (IA) between C3b fragments and IA receptors as an agglutination reaction is difficult. Analysis is possible, however, by use of radio-iodinated bovine serum albumin as antigen at low concentrations (less than 200 ng/ml) and optimal concentration of antibody to avoid precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes with human erythrocytes without participation of complement. Antigen and antibody are reacted at 37/sup 0/C, complement is added, the mixture incubated and human erythrocytes added; after further incubation, ice-cold EDTA containing buffer is added and the erythrocytes centrifuged and assayed for radioactivity. Control cells reacted with heated guinea pig serum retained less than 5% of the added radioactivity. The method facilitates measurement of IA reactivity and permits more detailed analysis of the mechanism underlying the reaction.

  8. Micro photometer's automation for quantitative spectrograph analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez E, C.Y.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Microphotometer is used to increase the sharpness of dark spectral lines. Analyzing these lines one sample content and its concentration could be determined and the analysis is known as Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis. The Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis is carried out in 3 steps, as follows. 1. Emulsion calibration. This consists of gauging a photographic emulsion, to determine the intensity variations in terms of the incident radiation. For the procedure of emulsion calibration an adjustment with square minimum to the data obtained is applied to obtain a graph. It is possible to determine the density of dark spectral line against the incident light intensity shown by the microphotometer. 2. Working curves. The values of known concentration of an element against incident light intensity are plotted. Since the sample contains several elements, it is necessary to find a work curve for each one of them. 3. Analytical results. The calibration curve and working curves are compared and the concentration of the studied element is determined. The automatic data acquisition, calculation and obtaining of resulting, is done by means of a computer (PC) and a computer program. The conditioning signal circuits have the function of delivering TTL levels (Transistor Transistor Logic) to make the communication between the microphotometer and the computer possible. Data calculation is done using a computer programm

  9. Quantitative standard-less XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulitzka, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: For most analytical tasks in the mining and associated industries matrix-matched calibrations are used for the monitoring of ore grades and process control. In general, such calibrations are product specific (iron ore, bauxite, alumina, mineral sands, cement etc.) and apply to a relatively narrow concentration range but give the best precision and accuracy for those materials. A wide range of CRMs is available and for less common materials synthetic standards can be made up from 'pure' chemicals. At times, analysis of materials with varying matrices (powders, scales, fly ash, alloys, polymers, liquors, etc.) and diverse physical shapes (non-flat, metal drillings, thin layers on substrates etc.) is required that could also contain elements which are not part of a specific calibration. A qualitative analysis can provide information about the presence of certain elements and the relative intensities of element peaks in a scan can give a rough idea about their concentrations. More often however, quantitative values are required. The paper will look into the basics of quantitative standardless analysis and show results for some well-defined CRMs. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis of intact plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraya, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are specialized cell organelles in plant cells that are differentiated into various forms including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts, and fulfill important functions in maintaining the overall cell metabolism and sensing environmental factors such as sunlight. It is therefore important to grasp the mechanisms of differentiation and functional changes of plastids in order to enhance the understanding of vegetality. In this chapter, details of a method for the extraction of intact plastids that makes analysis possible while maintaining the plastid functions are provided; in addition, a quantitative shotgun method for analyzing the composition and changes in the content of proteins in plastids as a result of environmental impacts is described.

  11. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  12. A temperature-controlled photoelectrochemical cell for quantitative product analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Elizabeth R.; Creel, Erin B.; Kim, Youngsang; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Kostecki, Robert; McCloskey, Bryan D.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we describe the design and operation of a temperature-controlled photoelectrochemical cell for analysis of gaseous and liquid products formed at an illuminated working electrode. This cell is specifically designed to quantitatively analyze photoelectrochemical processes that yield multiple gas and liquid products at low current densities and exhibit limiting reactant concentrations that prevent these processes from being studied in traditional single chamber electrolytic cells. The geometry of the cell presented in this paper enables front-illumination of the photoelectrode and maximizes the electrode surface area to electrolyte volume ratio to increase liquid product concentration and hence enhances ex situ spectroscopic sensitivity toward them. Gas is bubbled through the electrolyte in the working electrode chamber during operation to maintain a saturated reactant concentration and to continuously mix the electrolyte. Gaseous products are detected by an in-line gas chromatograph, and liquid products are analyzed ex situ by nuclear magnetic resonance. Cell performance was validated by examining carbon dioxide reduction on a silver foil electrode, showing comparable results both to those reported in the literature and identical experiments performed in a standard parallel-electrode electrochemical cell. To demonstrate a photoelectrochemical application of the cell, CO2 reduction experiments were carried out on a plasmonic nanostructured silver photocathode and showed different product distributions under dark and illuminated conditions.

  13. IR and UV spectroscopic analysis of TBP complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Berrak, A.; Seridi, L.; Attou, M.

    1985-06-01

    The complexity of TBP molecule and the limited number of references stimulated the elaboration of this report. The spectroscopic of TBP and its complexes in the IR and UV fields permitted to elucidate or to confirm certain aspects concerning the solvation phenomenum. In IR spectroscopy, the stretching band of the P→O bond only is characteristic of the complex formed. The position of this band gives sufficient information about the kind and the stability of a complex. The TBP electronic spectra are characterized by two bands (200-220 nm) 1 and (268-290 nm) 2 whose intensity ratio (2/1) is about 0,13. The solvent nature seems to influence the positions of these bands and that of the inflexion point. The band 2 disappears when the TBP is complexed and the position and the intensity of the band 1 depend upon the complex nature

  14. Spectroscopic and corpuscular analysis of laser-produced carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Kubkowska, M.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Parys, P.; Sadowski, M.J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Ladygina, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes spectroscopic and corpuscular measurements of laser-produced carbon plasma, which was created at surfaces of three targets made of CFC of the Snecma-N11 type with different crystallographic orientations. In order to irradiate the investigated samples the use was made of a Nd:YAG laser. Experiments were performed in a vacuum chamber under the initial pressure equal to 5.10-5 mbar. A Mechelle 900 optical spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector was used to record spectra emitted from the produced carbon-plasma. The recorded optical spectra showed distinct carbon lines ranging from CI to CIV. Basing on the Stark broadening of the CII 426.7 nm line it was possible to estimate the electron density of plasma from each investigated sample. Corpuscular measurements of the emitted ions were carried out by means of an electrostatic ion-energy analyzer and ion collector.

  15. Inspection, visualisation and analysis of quantitative proteomics data

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Material Quantitative Proteomics and Data Analysis Course. 4 - 5 April 2016, Queen Hotel, Chester, UK Table D - Inspection, visualisation and analysis of quantitative proteomics data, Laurent Gatto (University of Cambridge)

  16. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by 'Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a clinical setting. After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis satisfying the entry criteria were subjected to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis after adequate sample homogenization at a single testing center. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate stone mixture was most commonly encountered in 35 (71%) followed by calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium hexahydrate and xanthine stones. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows an accurate, reliable quantitative method of stone analysis. It also helps in maintaining a computerized large reference library. Knowledge of precise stone composition may allow the institution of appropriate prophylactic therapy despite the absence of any detectable metabolic abnormalities. This may prevent and or delay stone recurrence.

  17. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  18. Raman spectroscopic analysis identifies testicular microlithiasis as intratubular hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, B W D; De Gouveia Brazao, C A; Stoop, H; Wolffenbuttel, K P; Oosterhuis, J W; Puppels, G J; Weber, R F A; Looijenga, L H J; Kok, D J

    2004-01-01

    As diagnosed by ultrasonography, testicular microlithiasis is associated with various benign and malignant conditions. The molecular constitution of these microliths is largely unknown. Raman spectroscopy provides detailed in situ information about the molecular composition of tissues and to our knowledge it has not been applied to gonadal microliths. We analyzed the molecular composition of gonadal microlithiasis and its surrounding region using Raman spectroscopy in malignant and benign conditions. Multiple microliths from 6 independent samples diagnosed with gonadal microlithiasis by ultrasound and histologically confirmed were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The samples included 4 testicular parenchyma samples adjacent to a germ cell tumor (4 seminomas), a gonadoblastoma of a dysgenetic gonad and testicular biopsy of a subfertile male without malignancy. Raman spectroscopic mapping demonstrated that testicular microliths were located within the seminiferous tubule. Glycogen surrounded all microliths in the samples associated with germ cell neoplasm but not in the benign case. The molecular composition of the 26 microliths in all 6 conditions was pure hydroxyapatite. Microliths in the testis are located in the seminiferous tubules and composed of hydroxyapatite. In cases of germ cell neoplasm they co-localize with glycogen deposits.

  19. Diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative and quantitative stress CMR perfusion analysis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, R; van Assen, M; Vliegenthart, R; de Bock, G H; van der Harst, P; Oudkerk, M

    2017-11-27

    Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging is a promising modality for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) due to high spatial resolution and absence of radiation. Semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of CMR perfusion are based on signal-intensity curves produced during the first-pass of gadolinium contrast. Multiple semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters have been introduced. Diagnostic performance of these parameters varies extensively among studies and standardized protocols are lacking. This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of semi- quantitative and quantitative CMR perfusion parameters, compared to multiple reference standards. Pubmed, WebOfScience, and Embase were systematically searched using predefined criteria (3272 articles). A check for duplicates was performed (1967 articles). Eligibility and relevance of the articles was determined by two reviewers using pre-defined criteria. The primary data extraction was performed independently by two researchers with the use of a predefined template. Differences in extracted data were resolved by discussion between the two researchers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the 'Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Tool' (QUADAS-2). True positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives were subtracted/calculated from the articles. The principal summary measures used to assess diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity, specificity, andarea under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Data was pooled according to analysis territory, reference standard and perfusion parameter. Twenty-two articles were eligible based on the predefined study eligibility criteria. The pooled diagnostic accuracy for segment-, territory- and patient-based analyses showed good diagnostic performance with sensitivity of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.83, specificity of 0.72, 0.83, and 0.76 and AUC of 0.90, 0.84, and 0.87, respectively. In per territory

  20. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  1. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  2. Investment appraisal using quantitative risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik

    2002-07-01

    Investment appraisal concerned with investments in fire safety systems is discussed. Particular attention is directed at evaluating, in terms of the Bayesian decision theory, the risk reduction that investment in a fire safety system involves. It is shown how the monetary value of the change from a building design without any specific fire protection system to one including such a system can be estimated by use of quantitative risk analysis, the results of which are expressed in terms of a Risk-adjusted net present value. This represents the intrinsic monetary value of investing in the fire safety system. The method suggested is exemplified by a case study performed in an Avesta Sheffield factory.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Thallium-201 Myocardial Tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Nam, Gi Byung; Choi, Chang Woon

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of quantitative Tl-201 tomography to identify and localize coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 41 patients (31 males, 10 females; mean age 55 ± 7 yr) including 14 with prior myocardial infarction who underwent both exercise Tl-201 myocardium SPECT and coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. From the short axis and vertical long axis tomograms, stress extent polar maps were generated by Cedars-Sinai Medical Center program, and the 9 stress defect extent (SDE) was quantified for each coronary artery territory. For the purpose of this study, the coronary circulation was divided into 6 arterial segments, and the myocardial ischemic score (MIS) was calculated from the coronary angiogram. Sensitivity for the detection of CAD (>50% coronary stenosis by angiography) by stress extent polar map was 95% in single vessel disease, and 100% in double and triple vessel diseases. Overall sensitivity was 97%<. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of individual diseased vessels were, respectively, 87% and 90% for the left anterior descending artery (LAD), 36% and 93% for the left circumflex artery (LCX), and 71% and 70%, for the right coronary artery (RCA). Concordance for the detection of individual diseased vessels between the coronary angiography and stress polar map was fair for the LAD (kappa=0.70), and RCA (kappa=0.41) lesions, whereas it was poor for the LCK lesions (kappa =0.32) There were significant correlations between the MIS and SDE in LAD (rs=0. 56, p=0.0027), and RCA territory (rs=0.60, p=0.0094). No significant correlation was found in LCX territory. When total vascular territories were combined, there was a significant correlation between the MIS and SDE (rs=0.42, p=0,0116). In conclusion, the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 tomograms appears to be accurate for determining the presence and location of CAD.

  4. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  5. Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

  6. An unconventional method of quantitative microstructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The experiment described here introduces a simple methodology which could be used to replace the time-consuming and expensive conventional methods of metallographic and quantitative analysis of thermal treatment effect on microstructure. The method is ideal for the microstructural evaluation of tungsten filaments and other wire samples such as copper wire which can be conveniently coiled. Ten such samples were heat treated by ohmic resistance at temperatures which were expected to span the recrystallization range. After treatment, the samples were evaluated in the elastic recovery test. The normalized elastic recovery factor was defined in terms of these deflections. Experimentally it has shown that elastic recovery factor depends on the degree of recrystallization. In other words this factor is used to determine the fraction of unrecrystallized material. Because the elastic recovery method examines the whole filament rather than just one section through the filament as in metallographical method, it more accurately measures the degree of recrystallization. The method also takes a considerably shorter time and cost compared to the conventional method

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Retrieved Glenoid Liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Childs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Revision of orthopedic surgeries is often expensive and involves higher risk from complications. Since most total joint replacement devices use a polyethylene bearing, which serves as a weak link, the assessment of damage to the liner due to in vivo exposure is very important. The failures often are due to excessive polyethylene wear. The glenoid liners are complex and hemispherical in shape and present challenges while assessing the damage. Therefore, the study on the analysis of glenoid liners retrieved from revision surgery may lend insight into common wear patterns and improve future product designs. The purpose of this pilot study is to further develop the methods of segmenting a liner into four quadrants to quantify the damage in the liner. Different damage modes are identified and statistically analyzed. Multiple analysts were recruited to conduct the damage assessments. In this paper, four analysts evaluated nine glenoid liners, retrieved from revision surgery, two of whom had an engineering background and two of whom had a non-engineering background. Associated human factor mechanisms are reported in this paper. The wear patterns were quantified using the Hood/Gunther, Wasielewski, Brandt, and Lombardi methods. The quantitative assessments made by several observers were analyzed. A new, composite damage parameter was developed and applied to assess damage. Inter-observer reliability was assessed using a paired t-test. Data reported by four analysts showed a high standard deviation; however, only two analysts performed the tests in a significantly similar way and they had engineering backgrounds.

  8. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  9. Quantitative spectrographic analysis of impurities in antimonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de; Gomes, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An emission spectrographic method is describe for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, Pb, Sn, Si, and Zn in high purity antimony metal. The metal sample ia dissolved in nitric acid(1:1) and converted tp oxide by calcination at 900 0 C for one hour. The oxide so obtained is mixed with graphite, which is used as a spectroscopic buffer, and excited by a direct current arc. Many parameters are studied optimum conditions are selected for the determination of the impurities mentioned. The spectrum is photographed in the second order of a 15.000 lines per inch grating and the most sensitive lines for the elements are selected. The impurities are determined in the concentration range of 1 - 0,01% with a precision of approximately 10% [pt

  10. Spectroscopic analysis of coal plasma emission produced by laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Londoño, Liliana Patricia; Pérez-Taborda, Jaime Andrés; Riascos-Landázuri, Henry

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation using 1,064 nm of laser radiation from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on coal mineral samples under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C2 Swan System , the First Negative System N2 (Band head at 501.53 nm) and different emission lines were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0.62 eV). The density and ...

  11. Contribution of surface analysis spectroscopic methods to the lubrication field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, C.

    1979-01-01

    The analytical surface technics such as ESCA, AES and SIMS are tested to be applied to a particular lubrication field. One deals with a 100 C 6 steel surface innumered in tricresylphosphate at 110 0 C for 15 days. The nature of the first layers is studied after relevant solvant cleaning. An iron oxide layer is produced on the bearing surface, namely αFe 2 -O 3 . ESCA, AES and SIMS studies show an overlayer of iron phosphate. The exact nature of iron phosphate is not clearly established but the formation of a ferrous phosphate coating can be assumed from ESCA analysis [fr

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, J.; Bruneau, S.; Sentis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma generated by the interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse with gas has been analyzed using time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The laser beam has been focused with a microscope objective into different gases (air, Ar, He) at pressures ranging from 10 2 to 10 5 Pa. From the analysis of spectral line emission from ions and neutral atoms, the plasma parameters and the plasma composition have been determined as a function of time and space. Furthermore, the generation of fast electrons and/or VUV radiation by the femtosecond laser interaction with the gas was brought to the fore. From the time- and space-evolution of the plasma parameters, a rough estimation of initial values of electron density and refraction index in the focal volume has been performed. These results are compared to analysis of the laser beam transmitted by the plasma. The latter show that only a small fraction of the laser energy is absorbed by the plasma while the spatial distribution of the transmitted laser beam is strongly perturbed by the plasma, which acts like a defocusing lens. However, in ambient helium, the plasma defocusing is weak due to the high ionization potential of helium. The understanding of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown is useful for process optimization in femtosecond laser applications like micromachining or surface microanalysis, etc

  13. Fractal and spectroscopic analysis of soot from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Raj, Vimal; Sankararaman, S.

    2018-03-01

    Today diesel engines are used worldwide for various applications and very importantly in transportation. Hydrocarbons are the most widespread precursors among carbon sources employed in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The aging of internal combustion engine is an important parameter in deciding the carbon emission and particulate matter due to incomplete combustion of fuel. In the present work, an attempt has been made for the effective utilization of the aged engines for potential applicationapplications in fuel cells and nanoelectronics. To analyze the impact of aging, the particulate matter rich in carbon content areis collected from diesel engines of different ages. The soot with CNTs is purified by the liquid phase oxidation method and analyzed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric analysis. The SEM image contains self-similar patterns probing fractal analysis. The fractal dimensions of the samples are determined by the box counting method. We could find a greater amount of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the particulate matter emitted by aged diesel engines and thereby giving information about the combustion efficiency of the engine. The SWCNT rich sample finds a wide range of applicationapplications in nanoelectronics and thereby pointing a potential use of these aged engines.

  14. Mechanical and Spectroscopic Analysis of Retrieved/Failed Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Daood

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine surface alterations and bone formation on the surface of failed dental implants (Straumann [ST] and TiUnite [TiUn] removed due to any biological reason. In addition, failure analysis was performed to test mechanical properties. Dental implants (n = 38 from two manufacturers were collected and subjected to chemical cleaning. The presence of newly formed hydroxyapatite bone around failed implants was evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify surface defects. Mechanical testing was performed using a Minneapolis servo-hydraulic system (MTS along with indentation using a universal testing machine and average values were recorded. A statistical analysis of mechanical properties was done using an unpaired t test, and correlation between observed defects was evaluated using Chi-square (p = 0.05. Apatite-formation was evident in both implants, but was found qualitatively more in the ST group. No significant difference was found in indentation between the two groups (p > 0.05. The percentage of “no defects” was significantly lower in the ST group (71%. Crack-like and full-crack defects were observed in 49% and 39% of TiUn. The ST group showed 11,061 cycles to failure as compared with 10,021 cycles in the TiUnite group. Implant failure mechanisms are complex with a combination of mechanical and biological reasons and these factors are variable with different implant systems.

  15. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  16. New spectroscopic techniques for wine analysis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the presented thesis was the development of new, rapid tools for wine analysis based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) - spectroscopy. The results of this thesis are presented in the form of five publications. In publication I a sensor for assessing the main sensory property of red wine polyphenols (tannins), namely astringency, was developed on basis of the underlying chemical reaction between the tannins and the proline-rich proteins in the saliva. The interaction of polyphenols (tannins) with proline rich proteins (gelatin) has been studied using an automated flow injection system with FTIR detection. In Publication II FTIR-spectroscopy of polyphenolic wine extracts combined with multivariate data analysis was applied for the varietal discrimination of Austrian red wines. By hierarchical clustering it could be shown that the mid-infrared spectra of the dry extracts contain information on the varietal origin of wines. The classification of the wines was successfully performed by soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). Publication III describes the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine by Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with FTIR-detection, where a diamond attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-element was employed for the design of a rugged detector. Partly or completely co-eluting peaks were chemometrically resolved by multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Publication IV reports the first application of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) for molecular specific laser detection in liquid chromatography. Using a laser wavelength of 9.3721 μm glucose and fructose could be specifically detected and quantified in red wine in spite of the presence of organic acids. Publication V presents the development of an automated method for measuring the primary amino acid concentration in wines and musts by

  17. Sensitive Spectroscopic Analysis of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, A.; Bounds, J.; Zhu, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Kaya, N.; Aluauee, E.; Amani, M.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2018-06-01

    We have developed a novel optical setup which is based on a high finesse cavity and absorption laser spectroscopy in the near-IR spectral region. In pilot experiments, spectrally resolved absorption measurements of biomarkers in exhaled breath, such as methane and acetone, were carried out using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). With a 172-cm-long cavity, an efficient optical path of 132 km was achieved. The CRDS technique is well suited for such measurements due to its high sensitivity and good spectral resolution. The detection limits for methane of 8 ppbv and acetone of 2.1 ppbv with spectral sampling of 0.005 cm-1 were achieved, which allowed to analyze multicomponent gas mixtures and to observe absorption peaks of 12CH4 and 13CH4. Further improvements of the technique have the potential to realize diagnostics of health conditions based on a multicomponent analysis of breath samples.

  18. Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kumirska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds.

  19. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis of oil from an oil shale flash pyrolysis unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khraisha, V.H.; Irqsousi, N.A. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Shabib, I.M. [Applied Science Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H NMR) and chromatographic (GC) techniques were used to analyze two Jordanian shale oils, Sultani and El-Lajjun. The oils were extracted at different pyrolysis temperatures (400-500{sup o}C) using a fluidized bed reactor. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses show that the variation of pyrolysis temperature has no significant effect on the composition of the produced oil. The {sup 1}H NMR results indicate that the protons of methyl and methelyene represent the bulk of the hydrogen ({approx}90%) in most shale oil samples. GC analysis reveals that the oil samples contain n-alkanes with a predominant proportion of n-C{sub 25}. (Author)

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of the powdery complex chitosan-iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegel, Natalia O.; Babicheva, Tatyana S.; Belyakova, Olga A.; Lugovitskaya, Tatyana N.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2018-04-01

    A chitosan-iodine complex was obtained by modification of polymer powder in the vapor of an iodine-containing sorbate and studied by electron and IR spectroscopy, optical rotation dispersion. It was found that the electronic spectra of an aqueous solution of the modified chitosan (the source one and that stored for a year) showed intense absorption bands of triiodide and iodate ions, and also polyiodide ions, bound to the macromolecule by exciton bonding with charge transfer. Analysis of the IR spectra shows destruction of the network of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the iodinated chitosan powder in comparison with the source polymer and the formation of a new chemical substance. E.g., the absorption band of deformation vibrations of the hydroxyl group disappears in the modified sample, and that of the protonated amino group shifts toward shorter wavelengths. The intensity of the stretching vibration band of the glucopyranose ring atoms significantly reduces. Heating of the modified sample at a temperature below the thermal degradation point of the polymer leads to stabilization of the chitosan-iodine complex. Based on our studies, the hydroxyl and amino groups of the aminopolysaccharide have been recognized as the centers of retention of polyiodide chains in the chitosan matrix.

  1. Quantitative Auger analysis of Nb-Ge superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using Auger electron analysis for quantitative analysis was investigated by studying Nb 3 Ge thin-film Auger data with different approaches. A method base on elemental standards gave consistent quantitative values with reported Nb-Ge data. Alloy sputter yields were also calculated and results were consistent with those for pure elements

  2. Quantitative Data Analysis--In the Graduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative research study collects numerical data that must be analyzed to help draw the study's conclusions. Teaching quantitative data analysis is not teaching number crunching, but teaching a way of critical thinking for how to analyze the data. The goal of data analysis is to reveal the underlying patterns, trends, and relationships of a…

  3. Detection and monitoring of neurotransmitters--a spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S; Lee, Kendall H; Durrer, William G; Bennet, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy provides rapid, detailed, and accurate neurotransmitter analysis, enabling millisecond time resolution monitoring of biochemical dynamics. As a prototypical demonstration of the power of the method, we present real-time in vitro serotonin, adenosine, and dopamine detection, and dopamine diffusion in an inhomogeneous organic gel, which was used as a substitute for neurologic tissue.  Dopamine, adenosine, and serotonin were used to prepare neurotransmitter solutions in distilled water. The solutions were applied to the surfaces of glass slides, where they interdiffused. Raman mapping was achieved by detecting nonoverlapping spectral signatures characteristic of the neurotransmitters with an alpha 300 WITec confocal Raman system, using 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser excitation. Every local Raman spectrum was recorded in milliseconds and complete Raman mapping in a few seconds.  Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific microscale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where changes in composition can influence neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.  Accurate nondestructive characterization for real-time detection of neurotransmitters in inhomogeneous environments without the requirement of sample labeling is a key issue in neuroscience. Our work demonstrates the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy in biological applications, possibly providing a new tool for elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of deep brain stimulation. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. Critical Race Quantitative Intersections: A "testimonio" Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Nava, Pedro E.; Lara, Argelia; Burciaga, Rebeca; Vélez, Verónica N.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2018-01-01

    The educational pipeline has become a commonly referenced depiction of educational outcomes for racialized groups across the country. While visually impactful, an overreliance on decontextualized quantitative data often leads to majoritarian interpretations. Without sociohistorical contexts, these interpretations run the risk of perpetuating…

  5. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided...

  6. Automated approach to quantitative error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, E.H.

    1977-04-01

    A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given neutron transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost is described. This code also generates user-oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces. 5 figures, 1 table

  7. Quantitative blood flow analysis with digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of digital techniques in quantitating absolute blood flow during arteriography are described. Results are presented for a phantom constructed to correlate digitally calculated absolute flow with direct flow measurements. The clinical use of digital techniques in cerebrovascular angiography is briefly described. (U.K.)

  8. Combination and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am going to outline ways of combining qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis on five levels. On the technical level, programs for the computer-aided analysis of qualitative data offer various combinations. Where the data are concerned, the employment of categories (for instance by using qualitative content analysis allows for combining qualitative and quantitative forms of data analysis. On the individual level, the creation of types and the inductive generalisation of cases allow for proceeding from individual case material to quantitative generalisations. As for research design, different models can be distinguished (preliminary study, generalisation, elaboration, triangulation which combine qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis. Where the logic of research is concerned, it can be shown that an extended process model which combined qualitative and quantitative research can be appropriate and thus lead to an integration of the two approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs010162

  9. [Rapid analysis of suppositories by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, R A; Kovaleva, S A; Goriainov, S V; Vorob'ev, A N; Kalabin, G A

    2012-01-01

    Rapid analysis of suppositories with ibuprofen and arbidol by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed. Optimal conditions for the analysis were developed. The results are useful for design of rapid methods for quality control of suppositories with different components

  10. Prior-knowledge Fitting of Accelerated Five-dimensional Echo Planar J-resolved Spectroscopic Imaging: Effect of Nonlinear Reconstruction on Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zohaib; Wilson, Neil E; Thomas, M Albert

    2017-07-24

    1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic imaging (SI) is a powerful tool capable of investigating metabolism in vivo from mul- tiple regions. However, SI techniques are time consuming, and are therefore difficult to implement clinically. By applying non-uniform sampling (NUS) and compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction, it is possible to accelerate these scans while re- taining key spectral information. One recently developed method that utilizes this type of acceleration is the five-dimensional echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (5D EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) spectra from three spatial dimensions. The prior-knowledge fitting (ProFit) algorithm is typically used to quantify 2D spectra in vivo, however the effects of NUS and CS reconstruction on the quantitation results are unknown. This study utilized a simulated brain phantom to investigate the errors introduced through the acceleration methods. Errors (normalized root mean square error >15%) were found between metabolite concentrations after twelve-fold acceleration for several low concentra- tion (OGM) human brain matter were quantified in vivo using the 5D EP-JRESI sequence with eight-fold acceleration.

  11. Hydrate formation during wet granulation studied by spectroscopic methods and multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna; Rantanen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Milja

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to follow hydrate formation of two structurally related drugs, theophylline and caffeine, during wet granulation using fast and nondestructive spectroscopic methods. METHODS: Anhydrous theophylline and caffeine were granulated with purified water. Charge-coupled device (CCD......) Raman spectroscopy was compared with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in following hydrate formation of drugs during wet granulation (off-line). To perform an at-line process analysis, the effect of water addition was monitored by NIR spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA). The changes...

  12. Analysis of Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s ExpoCast program is developing high throughput (HT) approaches to generate the needed exposure estimates to compare against HT bioactivity data generated from the US inter-agency Tox21 and the US EPA ToxCast programs. Assessing such exposures for the thousands of chemicals in consumer products requires data on product composition. This is a challenge since quantitative product composition data are rarely available. We developed methods to predict the weight fractions of chemicals in consumer products from weight fraction-ordered chemical ingredient lists, and curated a library of such lists from online manufacturer and retailer sites. The probabilistic model predicts weight fraction as a function of the total number of reported ingredients, the rank of the ingredient in the list, the minimum weight fraction for which ingredients were reported, and the total weight fraction of unreported ingredients. Weight fractions predicted by the model compared very well to available quantitative weight fraction data obtained from Material Safety Data Sheets for products with 3-8 ingredients. Lists were located from the online sources for 5148 products containing 8422 unique ingredient names. A total of 1100 of these names could be located in EPA’s HT chemical database (DSSTox), and linked to 864 unique Chemical Abstract Service Registration Numbers (392 of which were in the Tox21 chemical library). Weight fractions were estimated for these 864 CASRN. Using a

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging and SPA-LDA Quantitative Analysis for Detection of Colon Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Ch.; Dai, B.; Zhao, M.; Li, B.

    2018-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been demonstrated to provide a rapid, precise, and noninvasive method for cancer detection. However, because HSI contains many data, quantitative analysis is often necessary to distill information useful for distinguishing cancerous from normal tissue. To demonstrate that HSI with our proposed algorithm can make this distinction, we built a Vis-NIR HSI setup and made many spectral images of colon tissues, and then used a successive projection algorithm (SPA) to analyze the hyperspectral image data of the tissues. This was used to build an identification model based on linear discrimination analysis (LDA) using the relative reflectance values of the effective wavelengths. Other tissues were used as a prediction set to verify the reliability of the identification model. The results suggest that Vis-NIR hyperspectral images, together with the spectroscopic classification method, provide a new approach for reliable and safe diagnosis of colon cancer and could lead to advances in cancer diagnosis generally.

  14. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  15. Development of atomic spectroscopy technology -Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Kee; Suk, Song Kyoo; Kim, Duk Hyun; Hong, Suk Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yang, Kee Hoh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    For the resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment, erbium and samarium were chosen as test elements and their optimum photoionization schemes for trace analysis have been investigated by using multiphoton spectroscopic techniques. With the optimum scheme, the detection limit of various atoms were measured. For the test of laser induced fluorescence system, calibration curves obtained from lead and cadmium standard solutions were made and Pb concentrations of various unknown solutions were determined. By using the developed differential absorption lidar system, backscattering signals from aerosol and ozone have been measured. Error source, error calibration and data interpretation techniques have been also studied. 60 figs, 8 pix, 28 tabs, 30 refs. (Author).

  16. Development of atomic spectroscopy technology -Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Kee; Song Kyoo Suk; Kim, Duk Hyun; Hong, Suk Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yang, Kee Hoh

    1995-07-01

    For the resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment, erbium and samarium were chosen as test elements and their optimum photoionization schemes for trace analysis have been investigated by using multiphoton spectroscopic techniques. With the optimum scheme, the detection limit of various atoms were measured. For the test of laser induced fluorescence system, calibration curves obtained from lead and cadmium standard solutions were made and Pb concentrations of various unknown solutions were determined. By using the developed differential absorption lidar system, backscattering signals from aerosol and ozone have been measured. Error source, error calibration and data interpretation techniques have been also studied. 60 figs, 8 pix, 28 tabs, 30 refs. (Author)

  17. Spectroscopic and asteroseismic analysis of the remarkable main-sequence A star KIC 11145123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2017-01-01

    A spectroscopic analysis was carried out to clarify the properties of KIC 11145123 - the first main-sequence star with a directly measured core-to-surface rotation profile - based on spectra observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) of the Subaru telescope. The atmospheric parameters (T......-eff = 7600 K, log g = 4.2, xi = 3.1 kms(-1) and [Fe/H] = -0.71 dex), the radial and rotation velocities, and elemental abundances were obtained by analysing line strengths and fitting line profiles, which were calculated with a 1D LTE model atmosphere. The main properties of KIC 11145123 are: (1) a low [Fe...

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of postmortem muscle development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang

    Meat quality development is highly dependent on postmortem (PM) metabolism and rigor mortis development in PM muscle. PM glycometabolism and rigor mortis fundamentally determine most of the important qualities of raw meat, such as ultimate pH, tenderness, color and water-holding capacity. Protein...... phosphorylation is known to play essential roles on regulating metabolism, contraction and other important activities in muscle systems. However, protein phosphorylation has rarely been systematically explored in PM muscle in relation to meat quality. In this PhD project, both gel-based and mass spectrometry (MS......)-based quantitative phosphoproteomic strategies were employed to analyze PM muscle with the aim to intensively characterize the protein phosphorylation involved in meat quality development. Firstly, gel-based phosphoproteomic studies were performed to analyze the protein phosphorylation in both sarcoplasmic proteins...

  19. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in olfactory bulbectomy animal depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J; Parlinska-Wojtan, M

    2018-01-30

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the potential causes being impaired smell. In this study Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of bulbectomized rats (OB_NaCl), which is a common animal depression model. The efficiency of amitriptyline (AMI) treatment was also evaluated. The obtained results show a significant decrease in the phospholipid and protein fractions (as well as changes in their secondary structures) in blood serum of bulbectomized rats. AMI treatment in bulbectomized rats increased protein level and did not affect the level of phospholipids. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of bulbectomized rats was normalized after amitriptyline therapy, while the damaged structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that impaired smell could be one of the causes of depression and may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources .... Data collection design is an important process in complex forest statistical ... Ideally, the sample size should be equal among groups and sufficiently large.

  2. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the Anticonvulsant ... Two types of molecular descriptors, including the 2D autocorrelation ..... It is based on the simulation of natural .... clustering anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and.

  3. Quantitative-genetic analysis of wing form and bilateral asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lines; Procrustes analysis; wing shape; wing size. ... Models of stochastic gene expression pre- dict that intrinsic noise ... Quantitative parameters of wing size and shape asymmetries ..... the residuals of a regression on centroid size produced.

  4. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  5. Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets marketed in Maiduguri using spectrophotometric ... and compared with that of the standard, wavelength of maximum absorbance at 331nm for chloroquine. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Principal component and spatial correlation analysis of spectroscopic-imaging data in scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2009-01-01

    An approach for the analysis of multi-dimensional, spectroscopic-imaging data based on principal component analysis (PCA) is explored. PCA selects and ranks relevant response components based on variance within the data. It is shown that for examples with small relative variations between spectra, the first few PCA components closely coincide with results obtained using model fitting, and this is achieved at rates approximately four orders of magnitude faster. For cases with strong response variations, PCA allows an effective approach to rapidly process, de-noise, and compress data. The prospects for PCA combined with correlation function analysis of component maps as a universal tool for data analysis and representation in microscopy are discussed.

  7. Quantitative data analysis in education a critical introduction using SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Connolly, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a refreshing and user-friendly guide to quantitative data analysis in education for students and researchers. It assumes absolutely no prior knowledge of quantitative methods or statistics. Beginning with the very basics, it provides the reader with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to undertake routine quantitative data analysis to a level expected of published research. Rather than focusing on teaching statistics through mathematical formulae, the book places an emphasis on using SPSS to gain a real feel for the data and an intuitive grasp of t

  8. Implementing quantitative analysis and its complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Nelson, W.R.; Shepherd, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an application of risk analysis for the evaluation of nuclear reactor facility operation. Common cause failure analysis (CCFA) techniques to identify potential problem areas are discussed. Integration of CCFA and response trees, a particular form of the path sets of a success tree, to gain significant insight into the operation of the facility is also demonstrated. An example illustrating the development of the risk analysis methodology, development of the fault trees, generation of response trees, and evaluation of the CCFA is presented to explain the technique

  9. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity

  10. Quantitative infrared analysis of hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuta, D.M.

    1997-04-01

    This work was performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant where hydrogen fluoride is produced upon the hydrolysis of UF 6 . This poses a problem for in this setting and a method for determining the mole percent concentration was desired. HF has been considered to be a non-ideal gas for many years. D. F. Smith utilized complex equations in his HF studies in the 1950s. We have evaluated HF behavior as a function of pressure from three different perspectives. (1) Absorbance at 3877 cm -1 as a function of pressure for 100% HF. (2) Absorbance at 3877 cm -1 as a function of increasing partial pressure HF. Total pressure = 300 mm HgA maintained with nitrogen. (3) Absorbance at 3877 cm -1 for constant partial pressure HF. Total pressure is increased to greater than 800 mm HgA with nitrogen. These experiments have shown that at partial pressures up to 35mm HgA, HIF follows the ideal gas law. The absorbance at 3877 cm -1 can be quantitatively analyzed via infrared methods

  11. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of Cepheid variables with 2D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Valeriy

    2018-06-01

    The analysis of chemical enrichment history of dwarf galaxies allows to derive constraints on their formation and evolution. In this context, Cepheids play a very important role, as these periodically variable stars provide a means to obtain accurate distances. Besides, chemical composition of Cepheids can provide a strong constraint on the chemical evolution of the system. Standard spectroscopic analysis of Cepheids is based on using one-dimensional (1D) hydrostatic model atmospheres, with convection parametrised using the mixing-length theory. However, this quasi-static approach has theoretically not been validated. In my talk, I will discuss the validity of the quasi-static approximation in spectroscopy of short-periodic Cepheids. I will show the results obtained using a 2D time-dependent envelope model of a pulsating star computed with the radiation-hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. I will then describe the impact of new models on the spectroscopic diagnostic of the effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity. One of the interesting findings of my work is that 1D model atmospheres provide unbiased estimates of stellar parameters and abundances of Cepheid variables for certain phases of their pulsations. Convective inhomogeneities, however, also introduce biases. I will then discuss how these results can be used in a wider parameter space of pulsating stars and present an outlook for the future studies.

  13. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of detonation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yun

    2005-01-01

    Different sampling and different injection method were used during analyzing unknown detonation products in a obturator. The sample analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrum. Qualitative analysis was used with CO, NO, C 2 H 2 , C 6 H 6 and so on, qualitative analysis was used with C 3 H 5 N, C 10 H 10 , C 8 H 8 N 2 and so on. The method used in the article is feasible. The results show that the component of detonation in the study is negative oxygen balance, there were many pollutants in the detonation products. (authors)

  15. Quantitative analysis of probabilistic BPMN workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework for modelling and analysis of realworld business workflows. We present a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) and then proceed to extend this language with probabilistic nondeterministic branching and general-purpose reward annotations...... of events, reward-based properties and best- and worst- case scenarios. We develop a simple example of medical workflow and demonstrate the utility of this analysis in accurate provisioning of drug stocks. Finally, we suggest a path to building upon these techniques to cover the entire BPMN language, allow...

  16. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  17. Quantitative Determination of Aluminum in Deodorant Brands: A Guided Inquiry Learning Experience in Quantitative Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedwick, Victoria; Leal, Anne; Turner, Dea; Kanu, A. Bakarr

    2018-01-01

    The monitoring of metals in commercial products is essential for protecting public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. This article presents a guided inquiry (GI) experimental lab approach in a quantitative analysis lab class that enabled students' to determine the levels of aluminum in deodorant brands. The utility of a GI experimental…

  18. Fundamentals of quantitative PET data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, ATM; van den Hoff, J

    2002-01-01

    Drug analysis and development with PET should fully exhaust the ability of this tomographic technique to quantify regional tracer concentrations in vivo. Data evaluation based on visual inspection or assessment of regional image contrast is not sufficient for this purpose since much of the

  19. Event History Analysis in Quantitative Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel

    Event history analysis is a clas of statistical methods specially designed to analyze time-to-event characteristics, e.g. the time until death. The aim of the thesis was to present adequate multivariate versions of mixed survival models that properly represent the genetic aspects related to a given...

  20. Quantitative analysis of probabilistic BPMN workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework for modelling and analysis of realworld business workflows. We present a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) and then proceed to extend this language with probabilistic nondeterministic branching and general-purpose reward annotations...... of events, reward-based properties and best- and worst- case scenarios. We develop a simple example of medical workflow and demonstrate the utility of this analysis in accurate provisioning of drug stocks. Finally, we suggest a path to building upon these techniques to cover the entire BPMN language, allow...... for more complex annotations and ultimately to automatically synthesise workflows by composing predefined sub-processes, in order to achieve a configuration that is optimal for parameters of interest....

  1. Quantitative analysis of myocardial tissue with digital autofluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The opportunity offered by whole slide scanners of automated histological analysis implies an ever increasing importance of digital pathology. To go beyond the importance of conventional pathology, however, digital pathology may need a basic histological starting point similar to that of hematoxylin and eosin staining in conventional pathology. This study presents an automated fluorescence-based microscopy approach providing highly detailed morphological data from unstained microsections. This data may provide a basic histological starting point from which further digital analysis including staining may benefit. Methods: This study explores the inherent tissue fluorescence, also known as autofluorescence, as a mean to quantitate cardiac tissue components in histological microsections. Data acquisition using a commercially available whole slide scanner and an image-based quantitation algorithm are presented. Results: It is shown that the autofluorescence intensity of unstained microsections at two different wavelengths is a suitable starting point for automated digital analysis of myocytes, fibrous tissue, lipofuscin, and the extracellular compartment. The output of the method is absolute quantitation along with accurate outlines of above-mentioned components. The digital quantitations are verified by comparison to point grid quantitations performed on the microsections after Van Gieson staining. Conclusion: The presented method is amply described as a prestain multicomponent quantitation and outlining tool for histological sections of cardiac tissue. The main perspective is the opportunity for combination with digital analysis of stained microsections, for which the method may provide an accurate digital framework.

  2. Quantitative analysis of red wine tannins using Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Katherina; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-09-05

    Tannin content and composition are critical quality components of red wines. No spectroscopic method assessing these phenols in wine has been described so far. We report here a new method using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the quantitative analysis of red wine tannins. Calibration models were developed using protein precipitation and phloroglucinolysis as analytical reference methods. After spectra preprocessing, six different predictive partial least-squares (PLS) models were evaluated, including the use of interval selection procedures such as iPLS and CSMWPLS. PLS regression with full-range (650-4000 cm(-1)), second derivative of the spectra and phloroglucinolysis as the reference method gave the most accurate determination for tannin concentration (RMSEC = 2.6%, RMSEP = 9.4%, r = 0.995). The prediction of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the tannins also gave a reasonable prediction (RMSEC = 6.7%, RMSEP = 10.3%, r = 0.958). These results represent the first step in the development of a spectroscopic methodology for the quantification of several phenolic compounds that are critical for wine quality.

  3. Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

  4. Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

  5. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  6. Quantitative analysis of deuterium by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Shohei; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1981-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of deuterium concentration in water and hydrogen gas by gas chromatography is described. HD and D 2 in a hydrogen gas sample were separated from H 2 by a column packed with Molecular Sieve 13X, using extra pure hydrogen gas as carrier. A thermal conductivity detector was used. Concentrations of deuterium were determined by comparison with standard samples. The error inherent to the present method was less a 1% on the basis of the calibration curves obtained with the standard samples. The average time required for the analysis was about 3 minutes. (author)

  7. Influence of corrosion layers on quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Bohne, W.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Rauschenberg, J.; Roehrich, J.; Strub, E.

    2005-01-01

    Art historians and restorers in charge of ancient metal objects are often reluctant to remove the corrosion layer evolved over time, as this would change the appearance of the artefact dramatically. Therefore, when an elemental analysis of the objects is required, this has to be done by penetrating the corrosion layer. In this work the influence of corrosion was studied on Chinese and Roman coins, where removal of oxidized material was possible. Measurements on spots with and without corrosion are presented and the results discussed

  8. Recent Developments in Solid-Phase Extraction for Near and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Huck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review with more than 100 references on the principles and recent developments in the solid-phase extraction (SPE prior and for in situ near and attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared spectroscopic analysis is presented. New materials, chromatographic modalities, experimental setups and configurations are described. Their advantages for fast sample preparation for distinct classes of compounds containing different functional groups in order to enhance selectivity and sensitivity are discussed and compared. This is the first review highlighting both the fundamentals of SPE, near and ATR spectroscopy with a view to real sample applicability and routine analysis. Most of real sample analyses examples are found in environmental research, followed by food- and bioanalysis. In this contribution a comprehensive overview of the most potent SPE-NIR and SPE-ATR approaches is summarized and provided.

  9. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  10. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  11. Structural model analysis of multiple quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhua Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a method for the analysis of multilocus, multitrait genetic data that provides an intuitive and precise characterization of genetic architecture. We show that it is possible to infer the magnitude and direction of causal relationships among multiple correlated phenotypes and illustrate the technique using body composition and bone density data from mouse intercross populations. Using these techniques we are able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect overall body size and thus reveal a shortcoming of standardized measures such as body mass index that are widely used in obesity research. The identification of causal networks sheds light on the nature of genetic heterogeneity and pleiotropy in complex genetic systems.

  12. Human eyeball model reconstruction and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qi; Wei, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Determining shape of the eyeball is important to diagnose eyeball disease like myopia. In this paper, we present an automatic approach to precisely reconstruct three dimensional geometric shape of eyeball from MR Images. The model development pipeline involved image segmentation, registration, B-Spline surface fitting and subdivision surface fitting, neither of which required manual interaction. From the high resolution resultant models, geometric characteristics of the eyeball can be accurately quantified and analyzed. In addition to the eight metrics commonly used by existing studies, we proposed two novel metrics, Gaussian Curvature Analysis and Sphere Distance Deviation, to quantify the cornea shape and the whole eyeball surface respectively. The experiment results showed that the reconstructed eyeball models accurately represent the complex morphology of the eye. The ten metrics parameterize the eyeball among different subjects, which can potentially be used for eye disease diagnosis.

  13. Quantitative Image Simulation and Analysis of Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    Microscopy (HRTEM) has become a routine analysis tool for structural characterization at atomic resolution, and with the recent development of in-situ TEMs, it is now possible to study catalytic nanoparticles under reaction conditions. However, the connection between an experimental image, and the underlying...... physical phenomena or structure is not always straightforward. The aim of this thesis is to use image simulation to better understand observations from HRTEM images. Surface strain is known to be important for the performance of nanoparticles. Using simulation, we estimate of the precision and accuracy...... of strain measurements from TEM images, and investigate the stability of these measurements to microscope parameters. This is followed by our efforts toward simulating metal nanoparticles on a metal-oxide support using the Charge Optimized Many Body (COMB) interatomic potential. The simulated interface...

  14. Biostatistical analysis of quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, C; Albrecht, M A; Lam, V; Takechi, R; Mamo, J C

    2016-12-01

    Semiquantitative immunofluorescence microscopy has become a key methodology in biomedical research. Typical statistical workflows are considered in the context of avoiding pseudo-replication and marginalising experimental error. However, immunofluorescence microscopy naturally generates hierarchically structured data that can be leveraged to improve statistical power and enrich biological interpretation. Herein, we describe a robust distribution fitting procedure and compare several statistical tests, outlining their potential advantages/disadvantages in the context of biological interpretation. Further, we describe tractable procedures for power analysis that incorporates the underlying distribution, sample size and number of images captured per sample. The procedures outlined have significant potential for increasing understanding of biological processes and decreasing both ethical and financial burden through experimental optimization. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Developments in statistical analysis in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    of genetic means and variances, models for the analysis of categorical and count data, the statistical genetics of a model postulating that environmental variance is partly under genetic control, and a short discussion of models that incorporate massive genetic marker information. We provide an overview......A remarkable research impetus has taken place in statistical genetics since the last World Conference. This has been stimulated by breakthroughs in molecular genetics, automated data-recording devices and computer-intensive statistical methods. The latter were revolutionized by the bootstrap...... and by Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC). In this overview a number of specific areas are chosen to illustrate the enormous flexibility that McMC has provided for fitting models and exploring features of data that were previously inaccessible. The selected areas are inferences of the trajectories over time...

  16. Parameter determination for quantitative PIXE analysis using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Belmont-Moreno, E.

    1996-01-01

    For biological and environmental samples, PIXE technique is in particular advantage for elemental analysis, but the quantitative analysis implies accomplishing complex calculations that require the knowledge of more than a dozen parameters. Using a genetic algorithm, the authors give here an account of the procedure to obtain the best values for the parameters necessary to fit the efficiency for a X-ray detector. The values for some variables involved in quantitative PIXE analysis, were manipulated in a similar way as the genetic information is treated in a biological process. The authors carried out the algorithm until they reproduce, within the confidence interval, the elemental concentrations corresponding to a reference material

  17. Quantitative analysis of carbon in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Chantal.

    1979-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for the determination of carbon traces (20 to 400 ppm) in plutonium. The development of a carbon in plutonium standard is described, then the content of this substance is determined and its validity as a standard shown by analysis in two different ways. In the first method used, reaction of the metal with sulphur and determination of carbon as carbon sulphide, the following parameters were studied: influence of excess reagent, surface growth of samples in contact with sulphur, temperature and reaction time. The results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by the conventional method of carbon determination, combustion in oxygen and measurement of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Owing to the presence of this standard we were then able to study the different parameters involved in plutonium combustion so that the reaction can be made complete: temperature reached during combustion, role of flux, metal surface in contact with oxygen and finally method of cleaning plutonium samples [fr

  18. Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Castillo-Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Evaluate the economic extinction efficiency of forest fires, based on the study of fire combat undertaken by aerial and terrestrial means. Area of study, materials and methods: Approximately 112,000 hectares in Chile. Records of 5,876 forest fires that occurred between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. The area further provides a validation sector for results, by incorporating databases for the years 2010 and 2012. The criteria used for measuring extinction efficiency were economic value of forestry resources, Contraction Factor analysis and definition of the extinction costs function. Main results: It is possible to establish a relationship between burnt area, extinction costs and economic losses. The method proposed may be used and adapted to other fire situations, requiring unit costs for aerial and terrestrial operations, economic value of the property to be protected and speed attributes of fire spread in free advance. Research highlights: The determination of extinction efficiency in containment works of forest fires and potential projection of losses, different types of plant fuel and local conditions favoring the spread of fire broaden the admissible ranges of a, φ and Ce considerably.

  19. [Quantitative data analysis for live imaging of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Shigeto

    Bone tissue is a hard tissue, it was difficult to observe the interior of the bone tissue alive. With the progress of microscopic technology and fluorescent probe technology in recent years, it becomes possible to observe various activities of various cells forming bone society. On the other hand, the quantitative increase in data and the diversification and complexity of the images makes it difficult to perform quantitative analysis by visual inspection. It has been expected to develop a methodology for processing microscopic images and data analysis. In this article, we introduce the research field of bioimage informatics which is the boundary area of biology and information science, and then outline the basic image processing technology for quantitative analysis of live imaging data of bone.

  20. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ mid-infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite with water in supercritical CO2: Dependence of mineral carbonation on quantitative water speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, J. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Schaef, H. T.; Martin, P.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide holds promise for helping mitigate CO2 emissions generated from the burning of fossil fuels. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) plumes containing variable water concentrations (wet scCO2) will displace aqueous solution and dominate the pore space adjacent to caprocks. It is important to understand possible mineral reactions with wet scCO2 to better predict long-term caprock integrity. We introduce novel in situ instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2 at temperatures and pressures relevant to target geologic reservoirs. The system includes both transmission and attenuated total reflection mid-infrared optics. Transmission infrared spectroscopy is used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, and incorporated into precipitated carbonates. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor water adsorption, mineral dissolution, and carbonate precipitation reactions. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), a model divalent metal silicate, with water in scCO2 at 100 bar and at both 50 and 75°C. The spectral data demonstrate that the quantitative speciation of water as either dissolved or adsorbed is important for understanding the types, growth rates, and amounts of carbonate precipitates formed. Relationships between dissolved/adsorbed water, water concentrations, and the role of liquid-like adsorbed water are discussed. Our results unify previous in situ studies from our laboratory based on infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  2. Quantiprot - a Python package for quantitative analysis of protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Bogumił M; Marciniak, Marta; Dyrka, Witold

    2017-07-17

    The field of protein sequence analysis is dominated by tools rooted in substitution matrices and alignments. A complementary approach is provided by methods of quantitative characterization. A major advantage of the approach is that quantitative properties defines a multidimensional solution space, where sequences can be related to each other and differences can be meaningfully interpreted. Quantiprot is a software package in Python, which provides a simple and consistent interface to multiple methods for quantitative characterization of protein sequences. The package can be used to calculate dozens of characteristics directly from sequences or using physico-chemical properties of amino acids. Besides basic measures, Quantiprot performs quantitative analysis of recurrence and determinism in the sequence, calculates distribution of n-grams and computes the Zipf's law coefficient. We propose three main fields of application of the Quantiprot package. First, quantitative characteristics can be used in alignment-free similarity searches, and in clustering of large and/or divergent sequence sets. Second, a feature space defined by quantitative properties can be used in comparative studies of protein families and organisms. Third, the feature space can be used for evaluating generative models, where large number of sequences generated by the model can be compared to actually observed sequences.

  3. Analysis of the spectroscopic characteristics on the binding interaction between tosufloxacin and bovine lactoferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ming; Zhang Luying; Lue Weijun; Cao Huaru

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between tosufloxacin (TELX) and bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in aqueous solution was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. The binding parameters and energy-transfer efficiency parameters were determined and the mechanism of interaction was discussed. The effect of tosufloxacin acting on the BLF's conformation was detected and the unfolding procedure of BLF induced by tosufloxacin was explored by 'fluorescence phase diagram'. Following experimental data of fluorescence polarization values P and r, the saturation characteristic of such kind of binding reaction was observed for the first time. The interaction between tosufloxacin and BLF influenced by Ni 2+ and Co 2+ were also preliminarily explored in this work. - Research Highlights: →In this paper, a new saturation spectroscopic characteristic of non-covalent binding reaction is proposed. The saturated character of interaction of tosufloxacin binding with bovine lactoferrin is firstly observed by fluorescence polarization spectroscopy. →The unfolding procedure of bovine lactoferrin induced by drug ligand is analyzed by 'fluorescence phase diagram', and it is quantitatively characterized. →The binding parameters and energy-transfer efficiency parameters of bovine lactoferrin-tosufloxacin/tosufloxacin-Co 2+ (Ni 2+ ) system are determined and the mechanism of interaction is discussed.

  4. FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis of pigments from an Augustinian friary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Newton, Emma M; O'Connor, Sonia; Evans, D

    2010-08-01

    The Raman spectroscopic analysis of several stone samples with applied red pigments obtained from an archaeological excavation of an Augustinian friary discovered during the construction of an extension to Hull Magistrates Court in 1994 has revealed a surprising diversity of composition. Cinnabar, red lead and haematite have all been identified alone or in admixture; the cinnabar is exceptional in that it has only been found heavily adulterated with red ochre and red lead, as the other two pigments are found alone. There are signatures of limewash putty, which has been applied to the stone substrate prior to the painting, which is characteristic of the Roman method of wall painting, and there are no traces of gypsum found in the specimens studied. This evidence indicates an early mediaeval method of stone decoration.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of DA white dwarfs from the McCook and Sion catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianninas, A; Bergeron, P; Ruiz, M T

    2009-01-01

    For some years now, we have been gathering optical spectra of DA white dwarfs in an effort to study and define the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. However, we have recently expanded this survey to include all the DA white dwarfs in the McCook and Sion catalog down to a limiting visual magnitude of V = 17.5. We present here a spectroscopic analysis of over 1000 DA white dwarfs from this ongoing survey. We have several specific areas of interest most notably the hot DAO white dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti instability strip, and the DA+dM binary systems. Furthermore, we present a comparison of the ensemble properties of our sample with those of other large surveys of DA white dwarfs, paying particular attention to the distribution of mass as a function of effective temperature.

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of lithium hydroxide and carbonate in solid state lithium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oohira, Shigeru; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Masato; Nagumo, Tadashi

    1985-08-01

    Infrared spectra of LiOH and Li2CO3 suspended on KBr discs were measured over the concentration range 20 g/100 mg KBr to 600 g/100 mg KBr. The absorbance of a selected infrared band of each sample was carefully determined. The empirical equation, which expresses a correlation between the absorbance and the concentration, was given for each lithium compound. The feasibility of independent and direct determination of the LiOH and Li2CO3 content in Li2O was shown, and the spectroscopic technique was applied to a typical Li2O sample. It was shown that the detection limit of the analysis was improved by low-temperature measurements of the infrared spectra. (orig.).

  7. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  8. Original methods of quantitative analysis developed for diverse samples in various research fields. Quantitative analysis at NMCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC) has been opened for nationwide-common utilization of positron nuclear medicine (PET) and PIXE since April 1993. At the present time, nearly 40 subjects of PIXE in various research fields are pursued here, and more than 50,000 samples have been analyzed up to the present. In order to perform quantitative analyses of diverse samples, technical developments in sample preparation, measurement and data analysis have been continuously carried out. Especially, a standard-free method for quantitative analysis'' made it possible to perform analysis of infinitesimal samples, powdered samples and untreated bio samples, which could not be well analyzed quantitatively in the past. The standard-free method'' and a ''powdered internal standard method'' made the process for target preparation quite easier. It has been confirmed that results obtained by these methods show satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility preventing any ambiguity coming from complicated target preparation processes. (author)

  9. Quantitative scenario analysis of low and intermediate level radioactive repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keon Jae; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Keon Baek; Song, Min Cheon; Lee, Ho Jin

    1998-03-01

    Derivation of hypothetical radioactive waste disposal facility os conducted through sub-component characteristic analysis and conceptual modeling. It is studied that quantitative analysis of constructed scenario in terms of annual effective dose equivalent. This study is sequentially conducted according to performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facility such as : ground water flow analysis, source term analysis, ground water transport, surface water transport, dose and pathways. The routine program module such as VAM2D-PAGAN-GENII is used for quantitative scenario analysis. Detailed data used in this module are come from experimental data of Korean territory and default data given within this module. Is case of blank data for code execution, it is estimated through reasonable engineering sense

  10. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopic (GC-MS) Analysis of n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tuber-regium (synonym Pleurotus tuber regium) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (GC-. MS) techniques. Methods: The n-hexane extract of the sclerotia ... Soxhlet extraction and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (MS) techniques. ..... Phytochemical composition of Pleurotus tuber regium.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.K.; Sierocinski, P.; Oost, van der J.; Wright, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative proteomic analysis of the membrane of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using iTRAQ was successfully demonstrated in this technical note. The estimated number of membrane proteins of this organism is 883 (predicted based on Gravy score), corresponding to 30 % of the total

  13. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadar Dudekula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides. A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis. Keywords: Spleen, Rat, Protein extraction, Label-free quantitative proteomics

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources remains significant in the sustainable management of complex tropical forest resources. Analyses of data from complex tropical forest stands have not been easy or clear due to improper data management. It is pivotal to practical researches ...

  15. Quantitative spectral and orientational analysis in surface sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Gan, Wei; Lu, Rong; Rao, Yi; Wu, Bao-Hua

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been proven to be a uniquely effective spectroscopic technique in the investigation of molecular structure and conformations, as well as the dynamics of molecular interfaces. However, the ability to apply SFG-VS to complex molecular interfaces has been limited by the ability to abstract quantitative information from SFG-VS experiments. In this review, we try to make assessments of the limitations, issues and techniques as well as methodologies in quantitative orientational and spectral analysis with SFG-VS. Based on these assessments, we also try to summarize recent developments in methodologies on quantitative orientational and spectral analysis in SFG-VS, and their applications to detailed analysis of SFG-VS data of various vapour/neat liquid interfaces. A rigorous formulation of the polarization null angle (PNA) method is given for accurate determination of the orientational parameter D = /, and comparison between the PNA method with the commonly used polarization intensity ratio (PIR) method is discussed. The polarization and incident angle dependencies of the SFG-VS intensity are also reviewed, in the light of how experimental arrangements can be optimized to effectively abstract crucial information from the SFG-VS experiments. The values and models of the local field factors in the molecular layers are discussed. In order to examine the validity and limitations of the bond polarizability derivative model, the general expressions for molecular hyperpolarizability tensors and their expression with the bond polarizability derivative model for C3v, C2v and C∞v molecular groups are given in the two appendixes. We show that the bond polarizability derivative model can quantitatively describe many aspects of the intensities observed in the SFG-VS spectrum of the vapour/neat liquid interfaces in different polarizations. Using the polarization analysis in SFG-VS, polarization selection rules or

  16. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  17. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K; Pickett, Joseph P; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-14

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of 'culturomics,' focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. Culturomics extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities.

  18. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva P.; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Pickett, Joseph P.; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics’, focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. ‘Culturomics’ extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

  19. FUSE SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE SLOWEST SYMBIOTIC NOVA AG PEG DURING QUIESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward Michael; Godon, Patrick; Katynski, Marcus; Mikolajewska, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    We present a far ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of the slowest known symbiotic nova AG Peg (MIII giant + hot white dwarf; P_orb = 818.4 days) which underwent a nova explosion in 1850 followed by a very slow decline that did not end until ~ 1996, marking the beginning of queiscence. Eight years of quiescence ended in June 2015, when AG Peg exhibited a Z And-type outburst with an optical amplitude of ~ 3 magnitudes. We have carried out accretion disk and WD photosphere synthetic spectral modeling of a FUSE spectrum (Froning et al. 2014) obtained on June 5.618, 2003 during the quiescence intervai ~ 12 years before the 2015 outburst. The spectrum is heavily affected by ISM absorption as well as strong broad emission lines. We de-reddened the FUSE fluxes with E(B-V) = 0.10 which is the maximum galactic reddening in the direction of AG Peg and took the distance of 800 pc (Kenyon et al. 1993) but used a range of white dwarf masses, surface temperatures and disk inclination angles. Our analysis also incororates archival HST FOS spectra obtained in 1996 at the onset of quiescence, 147 years after the 1850 nova explosion. The results of our analysis are presented and implications are discussed.This work is supported in part by NASA ADP grant NNX17AF36G to Villanova University.

  20. In situ Spectroscopic Analysis and Quantification of [Tc(CO)3]+ in Hanford Tank Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Shirmir D; French, Amanda D; Lines, Amanda M; Soderquist, Chuck Z; Rapko, Brian M; Heineman, William R; Bryan, Samuel A

    2018-06-12

    The quantitative conversion of non-pertechnetate [Tc(CO)3]+ species in nuclear waste storage tank 241-AN-102 at the Hanford Site is demonstrated. A waste sample containing the [Tc(CO)3]+ species is added to a developer solution that rapidly converts the non-emissive species into a luminescent complex, which is detected spectroscopically. This method was first demonstrated using a [Tc(CO)3]+ sample non-waste containing matrix to determine a detection limit (LOD), resulting in a [Tc(CO)3]+ LOD of 2.20 × 10-7 M, very near the LOD of the independently synthesized standard (2.10 × 10-7 M). The method was then used to detect [Tc(CO)3]+ in a simulated waste using the standard addition method, resulting in a [Tc(CO)3]+ concentration of 1.89 × 10-5 M (within 27.7% of the concentration determined by β- liquid scintillation counting). Three samples from 241-AN-102 were tested by the standard addition method: (1) a 5 M Na adjusted fraction, (2) a fraction depleted of 137Cs, (3) and an acid-stripped eluate. The concentrations of [Tc(CO)3]+ in these fractions were determined to be 9.90 × 10-6 M (1), 0 M (2), and 2.46 × 10-6 M (3), respectively. The concentration of [Tc(CO)3]+ in the as-received AN-102 tank waste supernatant was determined to be 1.84 × 10-5 M.

  1. Quantitative analysis with electron energy-loss: spectroscopic imaging and its application in pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.D. Beckers (Guus)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAfter the invention of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) in 1931 by Ruska and Knoll, it took about 20 years to develop the inslmment into a tool for ultrastructural research. In material science this led to the ability to visualize and investigate atomic arrangements through the

  2. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry for analysis and control of thin film polycrystalline semiconductor deposition in photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Prakash; Attygalle, Dinesh; Aryal, Puruswottam; Pradhan, Puja; Chen, Jie [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Ferlauto, Andre S.; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Collins, Robert W. [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) from the near-infrared to ultraviolet has been applied for analysis of the deposition of polycrystalline thin films that form the basis of two key photovoltaic heterojunction configurations, superstrate SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe and substrate Mo/Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}/CdS. The focus of this work is to develop capabilities for monitoring and controlling the key steps in the fabrication of these device structures. Analysis of RTSE data collected during sputter deposition of CdS on a rough SnO{sub 2} transparent top contact provides the time evolution of the CdS effective thickness, or film volume per unit substrate area. This thickness includes interface, bulk, and surface roughness layer components and affects the CdS/CdTe heterojunction performance and the quantum efficiency of the solar cell in the blue region of the solar spectrum. Similarly, analysis of RTSE data collected during co-evaporation of Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS; x ∼ 0.3) on a rough Mo back contact provides the evolution of a second phase of Cu{sub 2−x}Se within the CIGS layer. During the last stage of CIGS deposition, the In, Ga, and Se co-evaporants convert this Cu{sub 2−x}Se phase to CIGS, and RTSE identifies the endpoint, specifically the time at which complete conversion occurs and single-phase, large-grain CIGS is obtained in this key stage. - Highlights: • Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) study of CdS and CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • RTSE during CdS deposition provides the evolution of the CdS effective thickness. • RTSE for CIGS film enables to measure and control the composition and thickness. • The work leads to the development of optical models for processing steps.

  3. Quantitative analysis by computer controlled X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, T.V.; Angelo, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has become a widely accepted method in the metallurgical field for analysis of both minor and major elements. As encountered in many other analytical techniques, the problem of matrix effect generally known as the interelemental effects is to be dealt with effectively in order to make the analysis accurate. There are several methods by which the effects of matrix on the analyte are minimised or corrected for and the mathematical correction is one among them. In this method the characteristic secondary X-ray intensities are measured from standard samples and correction coefficients. If any, for interelemental effects are evaluated by mathematical calculations. This paper describes attempts to evaluate the correction coefficients for interelemental effects by multiple linear regression programmes using a computer for the quantitative analysis of stainless steel and a nickel base cast alloy. The quantitative results obtained using this method for a standard stainless steel sample are compared with the given certified values. (author)

  4. Preparation and spectroscopic analysis of zinc oxide nanorod thin films of different thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Nasrul Haque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide thin films with different thicknesses were prepared on microscopic glass slides by sol-gel spin coating method, then hydrothermal process was applied to produce zinc oxide nanorod arrays. The nanorod thin films were characterized by various spectroscopic methods of analysis. From the images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, it was observed that for the film thickness up to 200 nm the formed nanorods with wurtzite hexagonal structure were uniformly distributed over the entire surface substrate. From X-ray diffraction analysis it was revealed that the thin films had good polycrystalline nature with highly preferred c-axis orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The optical characterization done by UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the films had high transparency of 83 % to 96 % in the visible region and sharp cut off at ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum. The band gap of the films decreased as their thickness increased. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed the presence of zinc and oxygen elements in the films and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed the chemical composition of ZnO in the film.

  5. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taewoo; Lee, Howon; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jonghyeon; Jo, Young Chan; Kim, Jae Hoon; Baek, Na Yeon; Kang, Dai-ill; Lee, Han Hyoung

    2017-05-01

    We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment]. To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0.1 - 3 THz, we carried out transmission measurements in such a way that intense absorption peaks did not completely suppress the transmission level. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.

  6. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  7. Accurate quantitative XRD phase analysis of cement clinkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge about the absolute phase abundance in cement clinkers is a requirement for both, research and quality control. Traditionally, quantitative analysis of cement clinkers has been carried out by theoretical normative calculation from chemical analysis using the so-called Bogue method or by optical microscopy. Therefore chemical analysis, mostly performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), forms the basis of cement plan control by providing information for proportioning raw materials, adjusting kiln and burning conditions, as well as cement mill feed proportioning. In addition, XRF is of highest importance with respect to the environmentally relevant control of waste recovery raw materials and alternative fuels, as well as filters, plants and sewage. However, the performance of clinkers and cements is governed by the mineralogy and not the elemental composition, and the deficiencies and inherent errors of Bogue as well as microscopic point counting are well known. With XRD and Rietveld analysis a full quantitative analysis of cement clinkers can be performed providing detailed mineralogical information about the product. Until recently several disadvantages prevented the frequent application of the Rietveld method in the cement industry. As the measurement of a full pattern is required, extended measurement times made an integration of this method into existing automation environments difficult. In addition, several drawbacks of existing Rietveld software such as complexity, low performance and severe numerical instability were prohibitive for automated use. The latest developments of on-line instrumentation, as well as dedicated Rietveld software for quantitative phase analysis (TOPAS), now make a decisive breakthrough possible. TOPAS not only allows the analysis of extremely complex phase mixtures in the shortest time possible, but also a fully automated online phase analysis for production control and quality management, free of any human interaction

  8. Quantitative analysis of myocardial tissue with digital autofluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Svendsen, Ida M H

    2016-01-01

    to that of hematoxylin and eosin staining in conventional pathology. This study presents an automated fluorescence-based microscopy approach providing highly detailed morphological data from unstained microsections. This data may provide a basic histological starting point from which further digital analysis including...... staining may benefit. METHODS: This study explores the inherent tissue fluorescence, also known as autofluorescence, as a mean to quantitate cardiac tissue components in histological microsections. Data acquisition using a commercially available whole slide scanner and an image-based quantitation algorithm......BACKGROUND: The opportunity offered by whole slide scanners of automated histological analysis implies an ever increasing importance of digital pathology. To go beyond the importance of conventional pathology, however, digital pathology may need a basic histological starting point similar...

  9. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  10. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  11. A quantitative analysis of coupled oscillations using mobile accelerometer sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Fernando; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, smartphone acceleration sensors were used to perform a quantitative analysis of mechanical coupled oscillations. Symmetric and asymmetric normal modes were studied separately in the first two experiments. In the third, a coupled oscillation was studied as a combination of the normal modes. Results indicate that acceleration sensors of smartphones, which are very familiar to students, represent valuable measurement instruments for introductory and first-year physics courses. (paper)

  12. A quantitative analysis of coupled oscillations using mobile accelerometer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Fernando; Monsoriu, Juan A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, smartphone acceleration sensors were used to perform a quantitative analysis of mechanical coupled oscillations. Symmetric and asymmetric normal modes were studied separately in the first two experiments. In the third, a coupled oscillation was studied as a combination of the normal modes. Results indicate that acceleration sensors of smartphones, which are very familiar to students, represent valuable measurement instruments for introductory and first-year physics courses.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the ATV data base, Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenquist, C.; Kjellbert, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A supplementary study of the Swedish ATV data base was carried out. The study was limited to an analysis of the quantitative coverage of component failures from 1979 through 1980. The results indicate that the coverage of component failures is about 75-80 per cent related to the failure reports and work order sheets at the reactor sites together with SKI's ''Safety Related Occurrences''. In general there has been an improvement compared to previous years. (Auth.)

  14. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva P.; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Pickett, Joseph P.; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics’, focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pu...

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Google Books Team; Pickett, Joseph; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics,’ focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pu...

  16. Quantitative risk analysis of a space shuttle subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that in an attempt to investigate methods for risk management other than qualitative analysis techniques, NASA has funded pilot study quantitative risk analyses for space shuttle subsystems. The authors performed one such study of two shuttle subsystems with McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company. The subsystems were the auxiliary power units (APU) on the orbiter, and the hydraulic power units on the solid rocket booster. The technology and results of the APU study are presented in this paper. Drawing from a rich in-flight database as well as from a wealth of tests and analyses, the study quantitatively assessed the risk of APU-initiated scenarios on the shuttle during all phases of a flight mission. Damage states of interest were loss of crew/vehicle, aborted mission, and launch scrub. A quantitative risk analysis approach to deciding on important items for risk management was contrasted with the current NASA failure mode and effects analysis/critical item list approach

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of PMMA/PVC blends containing CoCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Alghunaim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA and polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer blend containing different concentrations (⩽10 wt. of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 were prepared by casting techniques. The changes of the structural, spectroscopic, optical and thermal parameters of the samples are studied using different tools. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the complexation between the blends and Co+2-ions. The decrease or increase of IR band intensity with some shifts of other bands suggests an interaction and compatibility between PMMA/PVC blends with CoCl2 take place. The Ultra violet and visible (UV/Vis spectra indicated that the presence of band gap energy depends on increasing of CoCl2 contents. The absorption intensity of the samples doped with CoCl2 becomes faint lower than the pure blend. The values of energy gap for direct and indirect transition decreases with the increase of CoCl2 due to the presence of charge transfer between PMMA/PVC and CoCl2. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA curves for all the samples have the same behavior and more steps of decomposition were observed. The reduction of mass loss for samples containing CoCl2 compared to the pure blend was observed and it was attributed to crosslink formation between the blend and CoCl2.

  18. NMR spectroscopic and analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of membrane protein detergent complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Senyon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs are hampered by inherent difficulties in their heterologous expression and in the purification of solubilized protein-detergent complexes (PDCs. The choice and concentrations of detergents used in an IMP preparation play a critical role in protein homogeneity and are thus important for successful crystallization. Results Seeking an effective and standardized means applicable to genomic approaches for the characterization of PDCs, we chose 1D-NMR spectroscopic analysis to monitor the detergent content throughout their purification: protein extraction, detergent exchange, and sample concentration. We demonstrate that a single NMR measurement combined with a SDS-PAGE of a detergent extracted sample provides a useful gauge of the detergent's extraction potential for a given protein. Furthermore, careful monitoring of the detergent content during the process of IMP production allows for a high level of reproducibility. We also show that in many cases a simple sedimentation velocity measurement provides sufficient data to estimate both the oligomeric state and the detergent-to-protein ratio in PDCs, as well as to evaluate the homogeneity of the samples prior to crystallization screening. Conclusion The techniques presented here facilitate the screening and selection of the extraction detergent, as well as help to maintain reproducibility in the detergent exchange and PDC concentration procedures. Such reproducibility is particularly important for the optimization of initial crystallization conditions, for which multiple purifications are routinely required.

  19. Optical spectroscopic analysis for the discrimination of extra-virgin olive-oil (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Naomi; Auñón Garcia, Juan M.; Guengerich, Zoe; Smith, Terry K.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2017-02-01

    We present an optical spectroscopic technique, making use of both Raman signals and fluorescence spectroscopy, for the identification of five brands of commercially available extra-virgin olive-oil (EVOO). We demonstrate our technique on both a `bulk-optics' free-space system and a compact device. Using the compact device, which is capable of recording both Raman and fluorescence signals, we achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 98.4% and 99.6% for discrimination, respectively. Our approach demonstrates that both Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for portable discrimination of EVOOs which obviates the need to use centralised laboratories and opens up the prospect of in-field testing. This technique may enable detection of EVOO that has undergone counterfeiting or adulteration. One of the main challenges facing Raman spectroscopy for use in quality control of EVOOs is that the oxidation of EVOO, which naturally occurs due to aging, causes shifts in Raman spectra with time, which implies regular retraining would be necessary. We present a potential method of analysis to minimize the effect that aging has on discrimination efficiency; we show that by discarding the first principal component, which contains information on the variations due to oxidation, we can improve discrimination efficiency thus improving the robustness of our technique.

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muslet, Nafie A.; Ali, Essam E.

    2012-03-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Africa. It takes several days to reach a diagnosis using histological examinations of specimens obtained by endoscope, which increases the medical expense. Recently, spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues has received considerable attention as a diagnosis technique due to its sensitivity to biochemical variations in the samples. This study investigated the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze a number of bladder cancer tissues. Twenty-two samples were collected from 11 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from different hospitals without any pretreatment. From each patient two samples were collected, one normal and another cancerous. FTIR spectrometer was used to differentiate between normal and cancerous bladder tissues via changes in spectra of these samples. The investigations detected obvious changes in the bands of proteins (1650, 1550 cm-1), lipids (2925, 2850 cm-1), and nucleic acid (1080, 1236 cm-1). The results show that FTIR spectroscopy is promising as a rapid, accurate, nondestructive, and easy to use alternative method for identification and diagnosis of bladder cancer tissues.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of electron trapping levels in pentacene field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bum Park, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Electron trapping phenomena have been investigated with respect to the energy levels of localized trap states and bias-induced device instability effects in pentacene field-effect transistors. The mechanism of the photoinduced threshold voltage shift (ΔV T ) is presented by providing a ΔV T model governed by the electron trapping. The trap-and-release behaviour functionalized by photo-irradiation also shows that the trap state for electrons is associated with the energy levels in different positions in the forbidden gap of pentacene. Spectroscopic analysis identifies two kinds of electron trap states distributed above and below the energy of 2.5 eV in the band gap of the pentacene crystal. The study of photocurrent spectra shows the specific trap levels of electrons in energy space that play a substantial role in causing device instability. The shallow and deep trapping states are distributed at two centroidal energy levels of ∼1.8 and ∼2.67 eV in the pentacene band gap. Moreover, we present a systematic energy profile of electron trap states in the pentacene crystal for the first time. (paper)

  2. Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Unusual Type Ia SN1999ac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavini, G.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Blanc, G.; Conley, A.; Dahlen, T.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Fan, X.; Folatelli, G.; Frye, B.; Gates, E.L.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Howell, D.A.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B.C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Miller, G.J.; Moniez, M.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Perdereau, O.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Richards, G.T.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present optical spectra of the peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 1999ac. The data extend from -15 to +42 days with respect to B-band maximum and reveal an event that is unusual in several respects. prior to B-band maximum, the spectra resemble those of SN 1999aa, a slowly declining event, but possess stronger Si II and Ca II signatures (more characteristic of a spectroscopically normal SN). Spectra after B-band maximum appear more normal. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from Si II are among the slowest ever observed, though SN 1999ac is not particularly dim. The analysis of the parameters v 10 (Si II), R(Si II), v, and Δm 15 further underlines the unique characteristics of SN 1999ac. They find convincing evidence of C II λ6580 in the day -15 spectrum with ejection velocity v > 16,000 km s -1 , but this signature disappears by day -9. This rapid evolution at early times highlights the importance of extremely early-time spectroscopy

  3. Constraining reconnection region conditions using imaging and spectroscopic analysis of a coronal jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Sean; Kankelborg, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Coronal jets typically appear as thin, collimated structures in EUV and X-ray wavelengths, and are understood to be initiated by magnetic reconnection in the lower corona or upper chromosphere. Plasma that is heated and accelerated upward into coronal jets may therefore carry indirect information on conditions in the reconnection region and current sheet located at the jet base. On 2017 October 14, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) observed a series of jet eruptions originating from NOAA AR 12599. The jet structure has a length-to-width ratio that exceeds 50, and remains remarkably straight throughout its evolution. Several times during the observation bright blobs of plasma are seen to erupt upward, ascending and subsequently descending along the structure. These blobs are cotemporal with footpoint and arcade brightenings, which we believe indicates multiple episodes of reconnection at the structure base. Through imaging and spectroscopic analysis of jet and footpoint plasma we determine a number of properties, including the line-of-sight inclination, the temperature and density structure, and lift-off velocities and accelerations of jet eruptions. We use these properties to constrain the geometry of the jet structure and conditions in reconnection region.

  4. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Radzali Othman; Messer, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  5. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLUX REGULATION THROUGH HIERARCHICAL REGULATION ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Rossell, Sergio; Bouwman, Jildau; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Jameson, D; Verma, M; Westerhoff, HV

    2011-01-01

    Regulation analysis is a methodology that quantifies to what extent a change in the flux through a metabolic pathway is regulated by either gene expression or metabolism. Two extensions to regulation analysis were developed over the past years: (i) the regulation of V(max) can be dissected into the

  6. Quantitative analysis of flux regulation through hierarchical regulation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eunen, K. van; Rossell, S.; Bouwman, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation analysis is a methodology that quantifies to what extent a change in the flux through a metabolic pathway is regulated by either gene expression or metabolism. Two extensions to regulation analysis were developed over the past years: (i) the regulation of Vmax can be dissected into the

  7. Novel approach in quantitative analysis of shearography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    The application of laser interferometry in industrial non-destructive testing and material characterization is becoming more prevalent since this method provides non-contact full-field inspection of the test object. However their application only limited to the qualitative analysis, current trend has changed to the development of this method by the introduction of quantitative analysis, which attempts to detail the defect examined. This being the design feature for a ranges of object size to be examined. The growing commercial demand for quantitative analysis for NDT and material characterization is determining the quality of optical and analysis instrument. However very little attention is currently being paid to understanding, quantifying and compensating for the numerous error sources which are a function of interferometers. This paper presents a comparison of measurement analysis using the established theoretical approach and the new approach, taken into account the factor of divergence illumination and other geometrical factors. The difference in the measurement system could be associated in the error factor. (Author)

  8. Quantitative subsurface analysis using frequency modulated thermal wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, S. K.; Suresh, B.; Ghali, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative depth analysis of the anomaly with an enhanced depth resolution is a challenging task towards the estimation of depth of the subsurface anomaly using thermography. Frequency modulated thermal wave imaging introduced earlier provides a complete depth scanning of the object by stimulating it with a suitable band of frequencies and further analyzing the subsequent thermal response using a suitable post processing approach to resolve subsurface details. But conventional Fourier transform based methods used for post processing unscramble the frequencies with a limited frequency resolution and contribute for a finite depth resolution. Spectral zooming provided by chirp z transform facilitates enhanced frequency resolution which can further improves the depth resolution to axially explore finest subsurface features. Quantitative depth analysis with this augmented depth resolution is proposed to provide a closest estimate to the actual depth of subsurface anomaly. This manuscript experimentally validates this enhanced depth resolution using non stationary thermal wave imaging and offers an ever first and unique solution for quantitative depth estimation in frequency modulated thermal wave imaging.

  9. Quantitative analysis of patient-specific dosimetric IMRT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budgell, G J; Perrin, B A; Mott, J H L; Fairfoul, J; Mackay, R I

    2005-01-01

    Patient-specific dosimetric verification methods for IMRT treatments are variable, time-consuming and frequently qualitative, preventing evidence-based reduction in the amount of verification performed. This paper addresses some of these issues by applying a quantitative analysis parameter to the dosimetric verification procedure. Film measurements in different planes were acquired for a series of ten IMRT prostate patients, analysed using the quantitative parameter, and compared to determine the most suitable verification plane. Film and ion chamber verification results for 61 patients were analysed to determine long-term accuracy, reproducibility and stability of the planning and delivery system. The reproducibility of the measurement and analysis system was also studied. The results show that verification results are strongly dependent on the plane chosen, with the coronal plane particularly insensitive to delivery error. Unexpectedly, no correlation could be found between the levels of error in different verification planes. Longer term verification results showed consistent patterns which suggest that the amount of patient-specific verification can be safely reduced, provided proper caution is exercised: an evidence-based model for such reduction is proposed. It is concluded that dose/distance to agreement (e.g., 3%/3 mm) should be used as a criterion of acceptability. Quantitative parameters calculated for a given criterion of acceptability should be adopted in conjunction with displays that show where discrepancies occur. Planning and delivery systems which cannot meet the required standards of accuracy, reproducibility and stability to reduce verification will not be accepted by the radiotherapy community

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid, quantitative analysis of bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Daniel P; Andersen, David H; Beatson, Ron A; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2014-12-31

    Hops, Humulus lupulus, are grown worldwide for use in the brewing industry to impart characteristic flavor and aroma to finished beer. Breeders produce many varietal crosses with the aim of improving and diversifying commercial hops varieties. The large number of crosses critical to a successful breeding program imposes high demands on the supporting chemical analytical laboratories. With the aim of reducing the analysis time associated with hops breeding, quantitative partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) models have been produced, relating reference data acquired by the industrial standard HPLC and UV methods, to vibrational spectra of the same, chemically diverse hops sample set. These models, produced from rapidly acquired infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectra, were appraised using standard statistical metrics. Results demonstrated that all three spectroscopic methods could be used for screening hops for α-acid, total bitter acids, and cohumulone concentrations in powdered hops. Models generated from Raman and IR spectra also showed potential for use in screening hops varieties for xanthohumol concentrations. NIR analysis was performed using both a standard benchtop spectrometer and a portable NIR spectrometer, with comparable results obtained by both instruments. Finally, some important vibrational features of cohumulone, colupulone, and xanthohumol were assigned using DFT calculations, which allow more insightful interpretation of PLS-R latent variable plots.

  11. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  12. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells.

  13. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  14. Quantitative analysis of macro-ARG using IP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Eiichi; Kawai, Kenji; Furuta, Yoshitake

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in imaging plate (IP) system allow us to analyze autoradiographic images quantitatively. In the 'whole-body autoradiography', a method clarify the distribution of radioisotope or labeled compounds in the tissues and organs in a freeze-dried whole-body section of small animals such as rats and mice, the sections are pressed against a IP for exposure and the IP is scanned by Bio-Imaging Analyzer (Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd) and a digital autoradiographic image is given. Quantitative data concerning the activity in different tissues can be obtained using an isotope scale as a reference source. Fading effect, application of IP system for distribution of receptor binding ARG, analysis of radio-spots on TLC and radioactive concentration in liquid such as blood are also discussed. (author)

  15. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  16. Quantitative risk analysis as a basis for emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [Bureau Veritas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Macedo, Eduardo Soares de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several environmental accidents happened in Brazil and in the world during the 70's and 80's. This strongly motivated the preparation for emergencies in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Environmental accidents affect the environment and the communities that are neighbor to the industrial facilities. The present study aims at subsidizing and providing orientation to develop Emergency Planning from the data obtained on Quantitative Risk Analysis, elaborated according to the Technical Standard P4.261/03 from CETESB (Sao Paulo Environmental Agency). It was observed, during the development of the research, that the data generated on these studies need a complementation and a deeper analysis, so that it is possible to use them on the Emergency Plans. The main issues that were analyzed and discussed on this study were the reevaluation of hazard identification for the emergency plans, the consequences and vulnerability analysis for the response planning, the risk communication, and the preparation to respond to the emergencies of the communities exposed to manageable risks. As a result, the study intends to improve the interpretation and use of the data deriving from the Quantitative Risk Analysis to develop the emergency plans. (author)

  17. Fluorescent foci quantitation for high-throughput analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ledesma-Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of cellular proteins localize to discrete foci within cells, for example DNA repair proteins, microtubule organizing centers, P bodies or kinetochores. It is often possible to measure the fluorescence emission from tagged proteins within these foci as a surrogate for the concentration of that specific protein. We wished to develop tools that would allow quantitation of fluorescence foci intensities in high-throughput studies. As proof of principle we have examined the kinetochore, a large multi-subunit complex that is critical for the accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Kinetochore perturbations lead to aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. Hence, understanding kinetochore homeostasis and regulation are important for a global understanding of cell division and genome integrity. The 16 budding yeast kinetochores colocalize within the nucleus to form a single focus. Here we have created a set of freely-available tools to allow high-throughput quantitation of kinetochore foci fluorescence. We use this ‘FociQuant’ tool to compare methods of kinetochore quantitation and we show proof of principle that FociQuant can be used to identify changes in kinetochore protein levels in a mutant that affects kinetochore function. This analysis can be applied to any protein that forms discrete foci in cells.

  18. Quantitative x-ray fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saprykin, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    The study deals with quantitative X-ray fractographic investigation of fatigue fractures of samples with sharp notches tested at various stresses and temperatures with the purpose of establishing a connection between material crack resistance parameters and local plastic instability zones restraining and controlling the crack growth. At fatigue fractures of notched Kh18N9T steel samples tested at +20 and -196 deg C a zone of sharp ring notch effect being analogous to the zone in which crack growth rate is controlled by the microshifting mechanisms is singled out. The size of the notched effect zone in the investigate steel is unambiguosly bound to to the stress amplitude. This provides the possibility to determine the stress value by the results of quantitative fractographic analysis of notched sample fractures. A possibility of determining one of the threshold values of cyclic material fracture toughness by the results of fatigue testing and fractography of notched sample fractures is shown. Correlation between the size of the hsub(s) crack effect zone in the notched sample, delta material yield limit and characteristic of cyclic Ksub(s) fracture toughness has been found. Such correlation widens the possibilities of quantitative diagnostics of fractures by the methods of X-ray fractography

  19. Spectroscopic, microscopic, and internal stress analysis in cadmium telluride grown by close-space sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Diaz, Aryzbe; Quinones, Stella A.

    2015-01-01

    High quality materials with excellent ordered structure are needed for developing photovoltaic and infrared devices. With this end in mind, the results of our research prove the importance of a detailed, comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic analysis in assessing cadmium telluride (CdTe) characteristics. The goal of this work is to examine not only material crystallinity and morphology, but also induced stress in the deposit material. A uniform, selective growth of polycrystalline CdTe by close-space sublimation on patterned Si(111) and Si(211) substrates is demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy images. Besides good crystallinity of the samples, as revealed by both Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared absorption investigations, the far-infrared transmission data also show the presence of surface optical phonon modes, which is direct evidence of confinement in such a material. The qualitative identification of the induced stress was achieved by performing confocal Raman mapping microscopy on sample surfaces and by monitoring the existence of the rock-salt and zinc-blende structural phases of CdTe, which were associated with strained and unstrained morphologies, respectively. Although the induced stress in the material is still largely due to the high lattice mismatch between CdTe and the Si substrate, the current results provide a direct visualization of its partial release through the relaxation effect at crystallite boundaries and of preferential growth directions of less strain. Our study, thus offers significant value for improvement of material properties, by targeting the needed adjustments in the growth processes. - Highlights: • Assessing the characteristics of CdTe deposited on patterned Si substrates • Proving the utility of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring the induced stress • Confirming the partial stress release through the grain boundary relaxation effect • Demonstrating the phonon confinement effect in low

  20. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Antonyuk, Lyudmila P.; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Kulikov, Leonid A.; Perfiliev, Yurii D.; Polissiou, Moschos G.; Gardiner, Philip H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with 57 Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour

  1. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamnev, Alexander A. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: aakamnev@ibppm.sgu.ru; Tugarova, Anna V. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Antonyuk, Lyudmila P. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Tarantilis, Petros A. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Kulikov, Leonid A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perfiliev, Yurii D. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polissiou, Moschos G. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Gardiner, Philip H.E. [Division of Chemistry, School of Science and Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-28

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour.

  2. Spectroscopic and asteroseismic analysis of the remarkable main-sequence A star KIC 11145123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon J.; Takata, Masao; Saio, Hideyuki; Sekii, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    A spectroscopic analysis was carried out to clarify the properties of KIC 11145123 - the first main-sequence star with a directly measured core-to-surface rotation profile - based on spectra observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) of the Subaru telescope. The atmospheric parameters (Teff = 7600 K, log g = 4.2, ξ = 3.1 km s-1 and [Fe/H] = -0.71 dex), the radial and rotation velocities, and elemental abundances were obtained by analysing line strengths and fitting line profiles, which were calculated with a 1D LTE model atmosphere. The main properties of KIC 11145123 are: (1) a low [Fe/H] = -0.71 ± 0.11 dex and a high radial velocity of -135.4 ± 0.2 km s-1. These are remarkable among late-A stars. Our best asteroseismic models with this low [Fe/H] have slightly high helium abundance and low masses of 1.4 M⊙. All of these results strongly suggest that KIC 11145123 is a Population II blue straggler; (2) the projected rotation velocity confirms the asteroseismically predicted slow rotation of the star; (3) comparisons of abundance patterns between KIC 11145123 and Am, Ap, and blue stragglers show that KIC 11145123 is neither an Am star nor an Ap star, but has abundances consistent with a blue straggler. We conclude that the remarkably long 100-d rotation period of this star is a consequence of it being a blue straggler, but both pathways for the formation of blue stragglers - merger and mass loss in a binary system - pose difficulties for our understanding of the exceedingly slow rotation. In particular, we show that there is no evidence of any secondary companion star, and we put stringent limits on the possible mass of any such purported companion through the phase modulation technique.

  3. The cost of electricity distribution in Italy: a quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the cost of medium and low tension electricity distribution in Italy. An econometric analysis of the cost function is proposed, on the basis of data on 147 zones of the dominant firm, ENEL. Data are available only for 1996, which has forced to carry out only a cross-section OLS analysis. The econometric estimate shows the existence of significant scale economies, that the current organisational structure does not exploit. On this basis is also possible to control to what extent exogenous cost drivers affect costs. The role of numerous exogenous factors considered seems however quite limited. The area of the distribution zone and an indicator of quality are the only elements that appear significant from an economic viewpoint [it

  4. Quantitative multiphase analysis of archaeological bronzes by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Siano, S; Celli, M; Pini, R; Salimbeni, R; Zoppi, M; Kockelmann, W A; Iozzo, M; Miccio, M; Moze, O

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first investigation on the potentials of neutron diffraction to characterize archaeological bronze artifacts. The preliminary feasibility of phase and structural analysis was demonstrated on standardised specimens with a typical bronze alloy composition. These were realised through different hardening and annealing cycles, simulating possible ancient working techniques. The Bragg peak widths that resulted were strictly dependent on the working treatment, thus providing an important analytical element to investigate ancient making techniques. The diagnostic criteria developed on the standardised specimens were then applied to study two Etruscan museum pieces. Quantitative multiphase analysis by Rietveld refinement of the diffraction patterns was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the analysis of patterns associated with different artifact elements also yielded evidence for some peculiar perspective of the neutron diffraction diagnostics in archeometric applications. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative surface analysis using deuteron-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afarideh, Hossein

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique consists of looking at the energies of the reaction products which uniquely define the particular elements present in the sample and it analysis the yield/energy distribution to reveal depth profiles. A summary of the basic features of the nuclear reaction analysis technique is given, in particular emphasis is placed on quantitative light element determination using (d,p) and (d,alpha) reactions. The experimental apparatus is also described. Finally a set of (d,p) spectra for the elements Z=3 to Z=17 using 2 MeV incident deutrons is included together with example of more applications of the (d,alpha) spectra. (author)

  6. Program for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepelea, V.; Purice, E.; Dan, R.; Calcev, G.; Domnisan, M.; Galis, V.; Teodosiu, G.; Debert, C.; Mocanu, N.; Nastase, M.

    1985-01-01

    A computer code for processing of data from neutron activation analysis is described. The code is capable of qualitative and quantitative analysis of regular spectra from neutron irradiated samples, measured by a Ge(li) detector. Multichannel analysers with 1024 channels, such as TN 1705 or a Romanian made MCA 79, and an ITC interface can be used. The code is implemented on FELIX M118 and FELIX M216 microcomputers. Spectrum processing is performed off line, after storing the data on a floppy disk. The background is assumed to be a polynomial of first, second or third degree. Qualitative analysis is performed by recursive least square, Gaussian curve fitting. The elements are identified using a polynomial relation between energy and channel, obtained by calibration with a standard sample

  7. Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis

  8. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Quantitative analysis method for niobium in lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideo; Hashimoto, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a strong dielectric ceramic having piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, and is used most as a piezoelectric material. Also it is a main component of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT), which is a typical electrical-optical conversion element. Since these have been developed, the various electronic parts utilizing the piezoelectric characteristics have been put in practical use. The characteristics can be set up by changing the composition of PZT and the kinds and amount of additives. Among the additives, niobium has the action to make metallic ion vacancy in crystals, and by the formation of this vacancy, to ease the movement of domain walls in crystal grains, and to increase resistivity. Accordingly, it is necessary to accurately determine the niobium content for the research and development, quality control and process control. The quantitative analysis methods for niobium used so far have respective demerits, therefore, the authors examined the quantitative analysis of niobium in PZT by using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectro-analysis apparatus which has remarkably developed recently. As the result, the method of dissolving a specimen with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and masking unstable lead with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid 2 sodium and fluoride ions with boric acid was established. The apparatus, reagents, the experiment and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Correlative SEM SERS for quantitative analysis of dimer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Lenferink, A T M; van Wolferen, H A G M; Otto, C

    2016-11-14

    A Raman microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate plasmonic structures by correlative SEM-SERS analysis. The integrated Raman-SEM microscope combines high-resolution electron microscopy information with SERS signal enhancement from selected nanostructures with adsorbed Raman reporter molecules. Correlative analysis is performed for dimers of two gold nanospheres. Dimers were selected on the basis of SEM images from multi aggregate samples. The effect of the orientation of the dimer with respect to the polarization state of the laser light and the effect of the particle gap size on the Raman signal intensity is observed. Additionally, calculations are performed to simulate the electric near field enhancement. These simulations are based on the morphologies observed by electron microscopy. In this way the experiments are compared with the enhancement factor calculated with near field simulations and are subsequently used to quantify the SERS enhancement factor. Large differences between experimentally observed and calculated enhancement factors are regularly detected, a phenomenon caused by nanoscale differences between the real and 'simplified' simulated structures. Quantitative SERS experiments reveal the structure induced enhancement factor, ranging from ∼200 to ∼20 000, averaged over the full nanostructure surface. The results demonstrate correlative Raman-SEM microscopy for the quantitative analysis of plasmonic particles and structures, thus enabling a new analytical method in the field of SERS and plasmonics.

  12. Quantitative imaging analysis of posterior fossa ependymoma location in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Noah D; Merchant, Thomas E; Li, Xingyu; Li, Yimei; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A; Ellison, David W; Ogg, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Imaging descriptions of posterior fossa ependymoma in children have focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal and local anatomic relationships with imaging location only recently used to classify these neoplasms. We developed a quantitative method for analyzing the location of ependymoma in the posterior fossa, tested its effectiveness in distinguishing groups of tumors, and examined potential associations of distinct tumor groups with treatment and prognostic factors. Pre-operative MRI examinations of the brain for 38 children with histopathologically proven posterior fossa ependymoma were analyzed. Tumor margin contours and anatomic landmarks were manually marked and used to calculate the centroid of each tumor. Landmarks were used to calculate a transformation to align, scale, and rotate each patient's image coordinates to a common coordinate space. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the location and morphological variables was performed to detect multivariate patterns in tumor characteristics. The ependymomas were also characterized as "central" or "lateral" based on published radiological criteria. Therapeutic details and demographic, recurrence, and survival information were obtained from medical records and analyzed with the tumor location and morphology to identify prognostic tumor characteristics. Cluster analysis yielded two distinct tumor groups based on centroid location The cluster groups were associated with differences in PFS (p = .044), "central" vs. "lateral" radiological designation (p = .035), and marginally associated with multiple operative interventions (p = .064). Posterior fossa ependymoma can be objectively classified based on quantitative analysis of tumor location, and these classifications are associated with prognostic and treatment factors.

  13. Application of harmonic analysis in quantitative heart scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Knopp, R.; Breuel, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative scintigraphy of the heart after equilibrium distribution of a radioactive tracer permits the measurement of time activity curves in the left ventricle during a representative heart cycle with great statistical accuracy. By application of Fourier's analysis, criteria are to be attained in addition for evaluation of the volume curve as a whole. Thus the entire information contained in the volume curve is completely described in a Fourier spectrum. Resynthesis after Fourier transformation seems to be an ideal method of smoothing because of its convergence in the minimum quadratic error for the type of function concerned. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Quantitative analysis of tritium distribution in austenitic stainless steels welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roustila, A.; Kuromoto, N.; Brass, A.M.; Chene, J.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium autoradiography was used to study the tritium distribution in laser and arc (TIG) weldments performed on tritiated AISI 316 samples. Quantitative values of the local tritium concentration were obtained from the microdensitometric analysis of the autoradiographs. This procedure was used to map the tritium concentration in the samples before and after laser and TIG treatments. The effect of the detritiation conditions and of welding on the tritium distribution in the material is extensively characterized. The results illustrate the interest of the technique for predicting a possible embrittlement of the material associated with a local enhancement of the tritium concentration and the presence of helium 3 generated by tritium decay. ((orig.))

  15. Quantitative x-ray fluorescent analysis using fundamental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A monochromatic source of x-rays for sample excitation permits the use of pure elemental standards and relatively simple calculations to convert the measured fluorescent intensities to an absolute basis of weight per unit weight of sample. Only the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for the exciting and the fluorescent radiation need be determined. Besides the direct measurement of these absorption coefficients in the sample, other techniques are considered which require fewer sample manipulations and measurements. These fundamental parameters methods permit quantitative analysis without recourse to the time-consuming process of preparing nearly identical standards

  16. Quantitative analysis with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Kapoor, S.S.; Lal, M.; Rao, B.V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of samples using radioisotope excited energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system is described. The complete set-up is built around a locally made Si(Li) detector x-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 220 eV at 5.94 KeV. The photopeaks observed in the x-ray fluorescence spectra are fitted with a Gaussian function and the intensities of the characteristic x-ray lines are extracted, which in turn are used for calculating the elemental concentrations. The results for a few typical cases are presented. (author)

  17. Computer compensation for NMR quantitative analysis of trace components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been written that determines trace components and separates overlapping components in multicomponent NMR spectra. This program uses the Lorentzian curve as a theoretical curve of NMR spectra. The coefficients of the Lorentzian are determined by the method of least squares. Systematic errors such as baseline/phase distortion are compensated and random errors are smoothed by taking moving averages, so that there processes contribute substantially to decreasing the accumulation time of spectral data. The accuracy of quantitative analysis of trace components has been improved by two significant figures. This program was applied to determining the abundance of 13C and the saponification degree of PVA

  18. Stochastic filtering of quantitative data from STR DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    due to the apparatus used for measurements). Pull-up effects (more systematic increase caused by overlap in the spectrum) Stutters (peaks located four basepairs before the true peak). We present filtering techniques for all three technical artifacts based on statistical analysis of data from......The quantitative data observed from analysing STR DNA is a mixture of contributions from various sources. Apart from the true allelic peaks, the observed signal consists of at least three components resulting from the measurement technique and the PCR amplification: Background noise (random noise...... controlled experiments conducted at The Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universityof Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopic (GC-MS) Analysis of n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ... tuber-regium (synonym Pleurotus tuber regium) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (GC- ... Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology,. University of ...

  20. Absorption correction factor in X-ray fluorescent quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimjun, S.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment on absorption correction factor in X-ray fluorescent quantitative analysis were carried out. Standard samples were prepared from the mixture of Fe 2 O 3 and tapioca flour at various concentration of Fe 2 O 3 ranging from 5% to 25%. Unknown samples were kaolin containing 3.5% to-50% of Fe 2 O 3 Kaolin samples were diluted with tapioca flour in order to reduce the absorption of FeK α and make them easy to prepare. Pressed samples with 0.150 /cm 2 and 2.76 cm in diameter, were used in the experiment. Absorption correction factor is related to total mass absorption coefficient (χ) which varied with sample composition. In known sample, χ can be calculated by conveniently the formula. However in unknown sample, χ can be determined by Emission-Transmission method. It was found that the relationship between corrected FeK α intensity and contents of Fe 2 O 3 in these samples was linear. This result indicate that this correction factor can be used to adjust the accuracy of X-ray intensity. Therefore, this correction factor is essential in quantitative analysis of elements comprising in any sample by X-ray fluorescent technique

  1. Developments in Dynamic Analysis for quantitative PIXE true elemental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic Analysis (DA) is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from PIXE event data-streams (off-line or on-line) obtained using the Nuclear Microprobe. The method separates full elemental spectral signatures to produce images that strongly reject artifacts due to overlapping elements, detector effects (such as escape peaks and tailing) and background. The images are also quantitative, stored in ppm-charge units, enabling images to be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in areas of the images. Recent advances in the method include the correction for changing X-ray yields due to varying sample compositions across the image area and the construction of statistical variance images. The resulting accuracy of major element concentrations extracted directly from these images is better than 3% relative as determined from comparisons with electron microprobe point analysis. These results are complemented by error estimates derived from the variance images together with detection limits. This paper provides an update of research on these issues, introduces new software designed to make DA more accessible, and illustrates the application of the method to selected geological problems.

  2. Quantitative XPS analysis of high Tc superconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, A.; Sanada, N.; Suzuki, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Nagoshi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The procedure of quantitative XPS analysis involving the relative sensitivity factors is most convenient to apply to high T c superconductor surfaces because this procedure does not require standards. However, a considerable limitation of such an approach is its relatively low accuracy. In the present work, a proposition is made to use for this purpose a modification of the relative sensitivity factor approach accounting for the matrix and the instrumental effects. The accuracy of this modification when applied to the binary metal alloys is 2% or better. A quantitative XPS analysis was made for surfaces of the compounds Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 , Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , and YBa 2 Cu 3 O Y . The surface composition determined for the polycrystalline samples corresponds reasonably well to the bulk stoichiometry. Slight deficiency of oxygen was found for the Bi-based compounds. The surface exposed on cleavage of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystal was found to be enriched with bismuth, which indicates that the cleavage occurs along the BiO planes. This result is in agreement with the STM studies published in the literature

  3. Quantitative analysis on electrooculography (EOG) for neurodegenerative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Chia; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Seref, Onur; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Sackellares, J. C.; Skidmore, Frank M.

    2007-11-01

    Many studies have documented abnormal horizontal and vertical eye movements in human neurodegenerative disease as well as during altered states of consciousness (including drowsiness and intoxication) in healthy adults. Eye movement measurement may play an important role measuring the progress of neurodegenerative diseases and state of alertness in healthy individuals. There are several techniques for measuring eye movement, Infrared detection technique (IR). Video-oculography (VOG), Scleral eye coil and EOG. Among those available recording techniques, EOG is a major source for monitoring the abnormal eye movement. In this real-time quantitative analysis study, the methods which can capture the characteristic of the eye movement were proposed to accurately categorize the state of neurodegenerative subjects. The EOG recordings were taken while 5 tested subjects were watching a short (>120 s) animation clip. In response to the animated clip the participants executed a number of eye movements, including vertical smooth pursued (SVP), horizontal smooth pursued (HVP) and random saccades (RS). Detection of abnormalities in ocular movement may improve our diagnosis and understanding a neurodegenerative disease and altered states of consciousness. A standard real-time quantitative analysis will improve detection and provide a better understanding of pathology in these disorders.

  4. Quantitative analysis of infantile ureteropelvic junction obstruction by diuretic renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Murakami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2001-01-01

    Infantile hydronephrosis detected by ultrasonography poses a clinical dilemma on how to treat the condition. This article reports a retrospective study to evaluate infantile hydronephrosis due to suspected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction by means of standardized diuretic renography and to speculate its usefulness for quantitative assessment and management of this condition. Between November 1992 and July 1999, 43 patients who had the disease detected in their fetal or infantile period were submitted to this study. Standardized diuretic renograms were obtained with 99m Tc-labeled diethylene-triaminepenta-acetate (Tc-99m-DTPA) or 99m Tc-labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (Tc-99m-MAG3) as radiopharmaceuticals. Drainage half-time clearance (T 1/2) of the activity at each region of interest set to encompass the entire kidney and the dilated pelvis was used as an index of quantitative analysis of UPJ obstruction. Initial T 1/2s of 32 kidneys with suspected UPJ obstruction were significantly longer than those of 37 without obstruction. T 1/2s of kidneys which had undergone pyeloplasty decreased promptly after surgery whereas those of units followed up without surgery decreased more sluggishly. These findings demonstrate that a standardized diuretic renographic analysis with T 1/2 can reliably assess infantile hydronephrosis with UPJ obstruction and be helpful in making a decision on surgical intervention. (author)

  5. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesha R. Hathwar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically, the presence of Cπ...Cπ interactions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. The quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations.

  6. Quantitative analysis of infantile ureteropelvic junction obstruction by diuretic renography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Murakami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Infantile hydronephrosis detected by ultrasonography poses a clinical dilemma on how to treat the condition. This article reports a retrospective study to evaluate infantile hydronephrosis due to suspected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction by means of standardized diuretic renography and to speculate its usefulness for quantitative assessment and management of this condition. Between November 1992 and July 1999, 43 patients who had the disease detected in their fetal or infantile period were submitted to this study. Standardized diuretic renograms were obtained with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylene-triaminepenta-acetate (Tc-99m-DTPA) or {sup 99m}Tc-labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (Tc-99m-MAG3) as radiopharmaceuticals. Drainage half-time clearance (T 1/2) of the activity at each region of interest set to encompass the entire kidney and the dilated pelvis was used as an index of quantitative analysis of UPJ obstruction. Initial T 1/2s of 32 kidneys with suspected UPJ obstruction were significantly longer than those of 37 without obstruction. T 1/2s of kidneys which had undergone pyeloplasty decreased promptly after surgery whereas those of units followed up without surgery decreased more sluggishly. These findings demonstrate that a standardized diuretic renographic analysis with T 1/2 can reliably assess infantile hydronephrosis with UPJ obstruction and be helpful in making a decision on surgical intervention. (author)

  7. Quantitative analysis of tellurium in simple substance sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Yoshiko

    1976-01-01

    The MIBK extraction-bismuthiol-2 absorptiometric method for the quantitative analysis of tellurium was studied. The method and its limitation were compared with the atomic absorption method. The period of time required to boil the solution in order to decompose excess hydrogen peroxide and to reduce tellurium from 6 valance to 4 valance was examined. As a result of experiment, the decomposition was fast in the alkaline solution. It takes 30 minutes with alkaline solution and 40 minutes with acid solution to indicate constant absorption. A method of analyzing the sample containing tellurium less than 5 ppm was studied. The experiment revealed that the sample containing a very small amount of tellurium can be analyzed when concentration by extraction is carried out for the sample solutions which are divided into one gram each because it is difficult to treat several grams of the sample at one time. This method also is suitable for the quantitative analysis of selenium. This method showed good addition effect and reproducibility within the relative error of 5%. The comparison between the calibration curve of the standard solution of tellurium 4 subjected to the reaction with bismuthiol-2 and the calibration curve obtained from the extraction of tellurium 4 with MIBK indicated that the extraction is perfect. The result by bismuthiol-2 method and that by atom absorption method coincided quite well on the same sample. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Tobino, Kazunori; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Doi, Tokuhide; Hoshika, Yoshito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm 2 and 5–10 mm 2 and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL CO /VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p CO /VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  10. Spectroscopic analysis of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and investigation of its reactive properties by DFT and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, B.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Resmi, K. S.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Narayana, B.; Suma, S.

    2018-03-01

    Two 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (57DC8HQ) and 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxy quinoline (5CL7I8HQ) have been investigated in details by means of spectroscopic characterization and computational molecular modelling techniques. FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental spectroscopic approaches have been utilized in order to obtain detailed spectroscopic signatures of title compounds, while DFT calculations have been used in order to visualize and assign vibrations. The computed values of dipole moment, polarizability and hyperpolarizability indicate that the title molecules exhibit NLO properties. The evaluated HOMO and LUMO energies demonstrate the chemical stability of the molecules. NBO analysis is made to study the stability of the molecules arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization. DFT calculations have been also used jointly with MD simulations in order to investigate in details global and local reactivity properties of title compounds. Also, molecular docking has been also used in order to investigate affinity of title compounds against decarboxylase inhibitor and quinoline derivatives can be a lead compounds for developing new antiparkinsonian drug.

  11. AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DA WHITE DWARFS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P.; Gianninas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved spectroscopic and photometric analysis of hydrogen-line DA white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4) based on model atmospheres that include improved Stark broadening profiles with non-ideal gas effects. We also perform a careful visual inspection of all spectroscopic fits with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns > 12) and present improved atmospheric parameters (T eff and log g) for each white dwarf. Through a comparison of spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, we report the discovery of 35 DA+DB/DC double degenerate candidates and two helium-rich DA stars. We also determine that a cutoff at S/N = 15 optimizes the size and quality of the sample for computing the mean mass of DA white dwarfs, for which we report a value of 0.613 M sun . We compare our results to previous analyses of the SDSS DR4 and find a good agreement if we account for the shift produced by the improved Stark profiles. Finally, the properties of DA white dwarfs in the SDSS are weighed against those of the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog sample of Gianninas et al. We find systematically lower masses (by about 3% on average), a difference that we trace back to the data reduction procedure of the SDSS. We conclude that a better understanding of these differences will be important to determine the absolute temperature scale and mean mass of DA white dwarfs.

  12. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  13. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  14. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Maria, Lyra [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)]. E-mail: mlyra@pindos.uoa.gr; Aristides, Antoniou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Lambros, Vlahos [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  15. EBprot: Statistical analysis of labeling-based quantitative proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hiromi W L; Swa, Hannah L F; Fermin, Damian; Ler, Siok Ghee; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Choi, Hyungwon

    2015-08-01

    Labeling-based proteomics is a powerful method for detection of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). The current data analysis platform typically relies on protein-level ratios, which is obtained by summarizing peptide-level ratios for each protein. In shotgun proteomics, however, some proteins are quantified with more peptides than others, and this reproducibility information is not incorporated into the differential expression (DE) analysis. Here, we propose a novel probabilistic framework EBprot that directly models the peptide-protein hierarchy and rewards the proteins with reproducible evidence of DE over multiple peptides. To evaluate its performance with known DE states, we conducted a simulation study to show that the peptide-level analysis of EBprot provides better receiver-operating characteristic and more accurate estimation of the false discovery rates than the methods based on protein-level ratios. We also demonstrate superior classification performance of peptide-level EBprot analysis in a spike-in dataset. To illustrate the wide applicability of EBprot in different experimental designs, we applied EBprot to a dataset for lung cancer subtype analysis with biological replicates and another dataset for time course phosphoproteome analysis of EGF-stimulated HeLa cells with multiplexed labeling. Through these examples, we show that the peptide-level analysis of EBprot is a robust alternative to the existing statistical methods for the DE analysis of labeling-based quantitative datasets. The software suite is freely available on the Sourceforge website http://ebprot.sourceforge.net/. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001426 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001426/). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Quantitative Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Ethirajan

    2016-07-01

    Chennai, also called as Detroit of India due to presence of Automotive Industry producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur, Thirumalizai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estate, Chennai has faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. The objective is to study the Quantitative Performance of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster before (2001-2002) and after the CDA (2008-2009). The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from 100 ACI using quantitative questionnaire and analyzing using Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), Friedman Test (FMT), and Kruskall Wallis Test (KWT).The CA computed for the different set of variables reveals that there is high degree of relationship between the variables studied. The RA models constructed establish the strong relationship between the dependent variable and a host of independent variables. The models proposed here reveal the approximate relationship in a closer form. KWT proves, there is no significant difference between three locations clusters with respect to: Net Profit, Production Cost, Marketing Costs, Procurement Costs and Gross Output. This supports that each location has contributed for development of automobile component cluster uniformly. The FMT proves, there is no significant difference between industrial units in respect of cost like Production, Infrastructure, Technology, Marketing and Net Profit. To conclude, the Automotive Industries have fully utilized the Physical Infrastructure and Centralised Facilities by adopting CDA and now exporting their products to North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. The value chain analysis models have been implemented in all the cluster units. This Cluster Development Approach (CDA) model can be implemented in industries of under developed and developing countries for cost reduction and productivity

  17. Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-11-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. © 2013 WILEY

  18. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Katsutoshi, E-mail: kando@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Tobino, Kazunori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshio-Machi, Iizuka-City, Fukuoka 820-8505 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Doi, Tokuhide [Fukuoka Clinic, 7-18-11 Umeda, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo 123-0851 (Japan); Hoshika, Yoshito [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm{sup 2} and 5–10 mm{sup 2} and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p < 0.05). Pulmonary function correlated negatively with LAA% (p < 0.001) in both groups, yet the correlation with %CSA was significant only in COPD (p < 0.001). When the same analysis was conducted in two groups with equal levels of LAA% and DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  19. QuASAR: quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris T; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Davis, Gordon O; Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-04-15

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have discovered thousands of genetic variants that regulate gene expression, enabling a better understanding of the functional role of non-coding sequences. However, eQTL studies are costly, requiring large sample sizes and genome-wide genotyping of each sample. In contrast, analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) is becoming a popular approach to detect the effect of genetic variation on gene expression, even within a single individual. This is typically achieved by counting the number of RNA-seq reads matching each allele at heterozygous sites and testing the null hypothesis of a 1:1 allelic ratio. In principle, when genotype information is not readily available, it could be inferred from the RNA-seq reads directly. However, there are currently no existing methods that jointly infer genotypes and conduct ASE inference, while considering uncertainty in the genotype calls. We present QuASAR, quantitative allele-specific analysis of reads, a novel statistical learning method for jointly detecting heterozygous genotypes and inferring ASE. The proposed ASE inference step takes into consideration the uncertainty in the genotype calls, while including parameters that model base-call errors in sequencing and allelic over-dispersion. We validated our method with experimental data for which high-quality genotypes are available. Results for an additional dataset with multiple replicates at different sequencing depths demonstrate that QuASAR is a powerful tool for ASE analysis when genotypes are not available. http://github.com/piquelab/QuASAR. fluca@wayne.edu or rpique@wayne.edu Supplementary Material is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Lateralisation with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy: an evaluation of visual and region-of-interest analysis of metabolite concentration images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhoff-Baaz, B. [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Div. of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Malmgren, K. [Dept. of Neurology, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Joensson, L.; Ekholm, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Starck, G. [Div. of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Ljungberg, M.; Forssell-Aronsson, E. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Uvebrant, P. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-09-01

    We carried out spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) on nine consecutive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy being assessed for epilepsy surgery, and nine neurologically healthy, age-matched volunteers. A volume of interest (VOI) was angled along the temporal horns on axial and sagittal images, and symmetrically over the temporal lobes on coronal images. Images showing the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and of choline-containing compounds plus creatine and phosphocreatine (Cho + Cr) were used for lateralisation. We compared assessment by visual inspection and by signal analysis from regions of interest (ROI) in different positions, where side-to-side differences in NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratio were used for lateralisation. The NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratio from the different ROI was also compared with that in the brain stem to assess if the latter could be used as an internal reference, e. g., for identification of bilateral changes. The metabolite concentration images were found useful for lateralisation of temporal lobe abnormalities related to epilepsy. Visual analysis can, with high accuracy, be used routinely. ROI analysis is useful for quantifying changes, giving more quantitative information about spatial distribution and the degree of signal loss. There was a large variation in NAA/(Cho + Cr) values in both patients and volunteers. The brain stem may be used as a reference for identification of bilateral changes. (orig.)

  1. Lateralisation with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy: an evaluation of visual and region-of-interest analysis of metabolite concentration images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhoff-Baaz, B.; Joensson, L.; Ekholm, S.; Starck, G.

    2001-01-01

    We carried out spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) on nine consecutive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy being assessed for epilepsy surgery, and nine neurologically healthy, age-matched volunteers. A volume of interest (VOI) was angled along the temporal horns on axial and sagittal images, and symmetrically over the temporal lobes on coronal images. Images showing the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and of choline-containing compounds plus creatine and phosphocreatine (Cho + Cr) were used for lateralisation. We compared assessment by visual inspection and by signal analysis from regions of interest (ROI) in different positions, where side-to-side differences in NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratio were used for lateralisation. The NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratio from the different ROI was also compared with that in the brain stem to assess if the latter could be used as an internal reference, e. g., for identification of bilateral changes. The metabolite concentration images were found useful for lateralisation of temporal lobe abnormalities related to epilepsy. Visual analysis can, with high accuracy, be used routinely. ROI analysis is useful for quantifying changes, giving more quantitative information about spatial distribution and the degree of signal loss. There was a large variation in NAA/(Cho + Cr) values in both patients and volunteers. The brain stem may be used as a reference for identification of bilateral changes. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative Analysis of TDLUs using Adaptive Morphological Shape Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Adrian; Caban, Jesus J; Figueroa, Jonine; Gierach, Gretchen; Linville, Laura; Hewitt, Stephen; Sherman, Mark

    2013-03-29

    Within the complex branching system of the breast, terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the anatomical location where most cancer originates. With aging, TDLUs undergo physiological involution, reflected in a loss of structural components (acini) and a reduction in total number. Data suggest that women undergoing benign breast biopsies that do not show age appropriate involution are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. To date, TDLU assessments have generally been made by qualitative visual assessment, rather than by objective quantitative analysis. This paper introduces a technique to automatically estimate a set of quantitative measurements and use those variables to more objectively describe and classify TDLUs. To validate the accuracy of our system, we compared the computer-based morphological properties of 51 TDLUs in breast tissues donated for research by volunteers in the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank and compared results to those of a pathologist, demonstrating 70% agreement. Secondly, in order to show that our method is applicable to a wider range of datasets, we analyzed 52 TDLUs from biopsies performed for clinical indications in the National Cancer Institute's Breast Radiology Evaluation and Study of Tissues (BREAST) Stamp Project and obtained 82% correlation with visual assessment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to uncover novel measures when researching the structural properties of the acini by applying machine learning and clustering techniques. Through our study we found that while the number of acini per TDLU increases exponentially with the TDLU diameter, the average elongation and roundness remain constant.

  3. MR imaging of Minamata disease. Qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korogi, Yukunori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sumi, Minako; Hirai, Toshinori; Okuda, Tomoko; Shinzato, Jintetsu; Okajima, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    Minamata disease (MD), a result of methylmercury poisoning, is a neurological illness caused by ingestion of contaminated seafood. We evaluated MR findings of patients with MD qualitatively and quantitatively. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla was performed in seven patients with MD and in eight control subjects. All of our patients showed typical neurological findings like sensory disturbance, constriction of the visual fields, and ataxia. In the quantitative image analysis, inferior and middle parts of the cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemispheres were significantly atrophic in comparison with the normal controls. There were no significant differences in measurements of the basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles, corpus callosum, or cerebral hemispheres between MD and the normal controls. The calcarine sulci and central sulci were significantly dilated, reflecting atrophy of the visual cortex and postcentral cortex, respectively. The lesions located in the calcarine area, cerebellum, and postcentral gyri were related to three characteristic manifestations of this disease, constriction of the visual fields, ataxia, and sensory disturbance, respectively. MR imaging has proved to be useful in evaluating the CNS abnormalities of methylmercury poisoning. (author)

  4. Qualitative and quantitative reliability analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, R.; Rasmussen, N.; Wolf, L.

    1980-05-01

    A code has been developed for the comprehensive analysis of a fault tree. The code designated UNRAC (UNReliability Analysis Code) calculates the following characteristics of an input fault tree: (1) minimal cut sets; (2) top event unavailability as point estimate and/or in time dependent form; (3) quantitative importance of each component involved; and, (4) error bound on the top event unavailability. UNRAC can analyze fault trees, with any kind of gates (EOR, NAND, NOR, AND, OR), up to a maximum of 250 components and/or gates. The code is benchmarked against WAMCUT, MODCUT, KITT, BIT-FRANTIC, and PL-MODT. The results showed that UNRAC produces results more consistent with the KITT results than either BIT-FRANTIC or PL-MODT. Overall it is demonstrated that UNRAC is an efficient easy-to-use code and has the advantage of being able to do a complete fault tree analysis with this single code. Applications of fault tree analysis to safety studies of nuclear reactors are considered

  5. Quantitative analysis and classification of AFM images of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, S P; Monteiro, V F; Longo, E; Ferreira, M M C

    2004-07-01

    The surface topography of human hair, as defined by the outer layer of cellular sheets, termed cuticles, largely determines the cosmetic properties of the hair. The condition of the cuticles is of great cosmetic importance, but also has the potential to aid diagnosis in the medical and forensic sciences. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been demonstrated to offer unique advantages for analysis of the hair surface, mainly due to the high image resolution and the ease of sample preparation. This article presents an algorithm for the automatic analysis of AFM images of human hair. The cuticular structure is characterized using a series of descriptors, such as step height, tilt angle and cuticle density, allowing quantitative analysis and comparison of different images. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by a classification study. Thirty-eight AFM images were measured, consisting of hair samples from (a) untreated and bleached hair samples, and (b) the root and distal ends of the hair fibre. The multivariate classification technique partial least squares discriminant analysis is used to test the ability of the algorithm to characterize the images according to the properties of the hair samples. Most of the images (86%) were found to be classified correctly.

  6. Investigating Functional Extension of Optical Coherence Tomography for Spectroscopic Analysis of Blood Oxygen Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu

    Over the past two decades, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been successfully applied to various fields of biomedical researching and clinical studies, including cardiology, urology, dermatology, dentistry, oncology, and most successfully, ophthalmology. This dissertation seeks to extend the current OCT practice, which is still largely morphology-based, into a new dimension, functional analysis of metabolic activities in vivo. More specifically, the investigation is focused on retrieving blood oxygen saturation (sO2) using intrinsic hemoglobin optical absorption contrast. Most mammalian cells rely on aerobic respiration to support cellular function, which means they consume oxygen to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2), a key hemodynamic parameter, characterizes how much oxygen is consumed during a given period of time, reflecting the metabolic activity of the target tissue. For example, retinal neurons are highly active and almost entirely rely on the moment-to-moment oxygen supply from retinal circulations. Thus, variation in MRO2 reveals the instantaneous activity of these neurons, shedding light on the physiological and pathophysiological change of cellular functions. Eventually, measuring MRO2 can potentially provide a biomarker for early-stage disease diagnosis, and serve as one benchmark for evaluating effectiveness of medical intervention during disease management. Essential in calculating MRO2, blood sO2 measurements using spectroscopic OCT analysis has been attempted as early as 2003. OCT is intrinsically sensitive to the blood optical absorption spectrum due to its wide-band illumination and detection scheme relying on back-scattered photon. However, accurate retrieval of blood sO2 using conventional near infrared (NIR) OCT systems in vivo has remained challenging. It was not until the development of OCT systems using visible light illumination (vis-OCT) when accurate measurement of blood sO2 was reported in live

  7. Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-11

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  8. Quali- and quantitative analysis of commercial coffee by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Leila Aley; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is one of the beverages most widely consumed in the world and the 'cafezinho' is normally prepared from a blend of roasted powder of two species, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Each one exhibits differences in their taste and in the chemical composition, especially in the caffeine percentage. There are several procedures proposed in the literature for caffeine determination in different samples like soft drinks, coffee, medicines, etc but most of them need a sample workup which involves at least one step of purification. This work describes the quantitative analysis of caffeine using 1 H NMR and the identification of the major components in commercial coffee samples using 1D and 2D NMR techniques without any sample pre-treatment. (author)

  9. Automated quantitative cytological analysis using portable microfluidic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Murthy, Rashmi Sreeramachandra; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a portable microfluidic microscopy based approach for automated cytological investigations is presented. Inexpensive optical and electronic components have been used to construct a simple microfluidic microscopy system. In contrast to the conventional slide-based methods, the presented method employs microfluidics to enable automated sample handling and image acquisition. The approach involves the use of simple in-suspension staining and automated image acquisition to enable quantitative cytological analysis of samples. The applicability of the presented approach to research in cellular biology is shown by performing an automated cell viability assessment on a given population of yeast cells. Further, the relevance of the presented approach to clinical diagnosis and prognosis has been demonstrated by performing detection and differential assessment of malaria infection in a given sample. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A; Yahya, Z

    2013-01-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  11. Quantitative analysis of spatial variability of geotechnical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xing

    2018-04-01

    Geotechnical parameters are the basic parameters of geotechnical engineering design, while the geotechnical parameters have strong regional characteristics. At the same time, the spatial variability of geotechnical parameters has been recognized. It is gradually introduced into the reliability analysis of geotechnical engineering. Based on the statistical theory of geostatistical spatial information, the spatial variability of geotechnical parameters is quantitatively analyzed. At the same time, the evaluation of geotechnical parameters and the correlation coefficient between geotechnical parameters are calculated. A residential district of Tianjin Survey Institute was selected as the research object. There are 68 boreholes in this area and 9 layers of mechanical stratification. The parameters are water content, natural gravity, void ratio, liquid limit, plasticity index, liquidity index, compressibility coefficient, compressive modulus, internal friction angle, cohesion and SP index. According to the principle of statistical correlation, the correlation coefficient of geotechnical parameters is calculated. According to the correlation coefficient, the law of geotechnical parameters is obtained.

  12. Quantitative analysis of lead in polysulfide-based impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Silva Braga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Permlastic® is a polysulfide-based impression material widely used by dentists in Brazil. It is composed of a base paste and a catalyzer containing lead dioxide. The high toxicity of lead to humans is ground for much concern, since it can attack various systems and organs. The present study involved a quantitative analysis of the concentration of lead in the material Permlastic®. The lead was determined by plasma-induced optical emission spectrometry (Varian model Vista. The percentages of lead found in the two analyzed lots were 38.1 and 40.8%. The lead concentrations in the material under study were high, but the product’s packaging contained no information about these concentrations.

  13. Quantitative analysis of fission products by γ spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, G.

    1962-01-01

    The activity of the fission products present in treated solutions of irradiated fuels is given as a function of the time of cooling and of the irradiation time. The variation of the ratio ( 144 Ce + 144 Pr activity)/ 137 Cs activity) as a function of these same parameters is also given. From these results a method is deduced giving the 'age' of the solution analyzed. By γ-scintillation spectrography it was possible to estimate the following elements individually: 141 Ce, 144 Ce + 144 Pr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru + 106 Rh, 137 Cs, 95 Zr + 95 Nb. Yield curves are given for the case of a single emitter. Of the various existing methods, that of the least squares was used for the quantitative analysis of the afore-mentioned fission products. The accuracy attained varies from 3 to 10%. (author) [fr

  14. Quantitative image analysis for investigating cell-matrix interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkel, Brian; Notbohm, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix provides both chemical and physical cues that control cellular processes such as migration, division, differentiation, and cancer progression. Cells can mechanically alter the matrix by applying forces that result in matrix displacements, which in turn may localize to form dense bands along which cells may migrate. To quantify the displacements, we use confocal microscopy and fluorescent labeling to acquire high-contrast images of the fibrous material. Using a technique for quantitative image analysis called digital volume correlation, we then compute the matrix displacements. Our experimental technology offers a means to quantify matrix mechanics and cell-matrix interactions. We are now using these experimental tools to modulate mechanical properties of the matrix to study cell contraction and migration.

  15. Quantitative analysis of secretome from adipocytes regulated by insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhou; Yuanyuan Xiao; Rongxia Li; Shangyu Hong; Sujun Li; Lianshui Wang; Rong Zeng; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    Adipocyte is not only a central player involved in storage and release of energy, but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of pep-tides and proteins. During the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, adipocytes are subjected to the increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. We have undertaken cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (clCAT) and label-free quantitation approaches to identify and quantify secretory factors that are differen-tially secreted by 3T3-LI adipocytes with or without insulin treatment. Combination of clCAT and label-free results, there are 317 proteins predicted or annotated as secretory proteins. Among these secretory proteins, 179 proteins and 53 proteins were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. A total of 77 reported adipokines were quantified in our study, such as adiponectin, cathepsin D, cystatin C, resistin, and transferrin. Western blot analysis of these adipo-kines confirmed the quantitative results from mass spectrometry, and revealed individualized secreting pat-terns of these proteins by increasing insulin dose. In addition, 240 proteins were newly identified and quanti-fied as secreted proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes in our study, most of which were up-regulated upon insulin treatment. Further comprehensive bioinformatics analysis revealed that the secretory proteins in extra-cellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway and glycan structure degradation pathway were significantly up-regulated by insulin stimulation.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of women's perceptions of transvaginal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingener, Juliane; Sloan, Jeff A; Ghosh, Karthik; McConico, Andrea; Mariani, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Prior surveys evaluating women's perceptions of transvaginal surgery both support and refute the acceptability of transvaginal access. Most surveys employed mainly quantitative analysis, limiting the insight into the women's perspective. In this mixed-methods study, we include qualitative and quantitative methodology to assess women's perceptions of transvaginal procedures. Women seen at the outpatient clinics of a tertiary-care center were asked to complete a survey. Demographics and preferences for appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and tubal ligation were elicited, along with open-ended questions about concerns or benefits of transvaginal access. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of age, education, parity, and prior transvaginal procedures on preferences. For the qualitative evaluation, content analysis by independent investigators identified themes, issues, and concerns raised in the comments. The completed survey tool was returned by 409 women (grouped mean age 53 years, mean number of 2 children, 82% ≥ some college education, and 56% with previous transvaginal procedure). The transvaginal approach was acceptable for tubal ligation to 59%, for appendectomy to 43%, and for cholecystectomy to 41% of the women. The most frequently mentioned factors that would make women prefer a vaginal approach were decreased invasiveness (14.4%), recovery time (13.9%), scarring (13.7%), pain (6%), and surgical entry location relative to organ removed (4.4%). The most frequently mentioned concerns about the vaginal approach were the possibility of complications/safety (14.7%), pain (9%), infection (5.6%), and recovery time (4.9%). A number of women voiced technical concerns about the vaginal approach. As in prior studies, scarring and pain were important issues to be considered, but recovery time and increased invasiveness were also in the "top five" list. The surveyed women appeared to actively participate in evaluating the technical

  17. Quantitative analysis of protein-ligand interactions by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ayako; Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Yanaka, Saeko; Sugase, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Protein-ligand interactions have been commonly studied through static structures of the protein-ligand complex. Recently, however, there has been increasing interest in investigating the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions both for fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for drug development. NMR is a versatile and powerful tool, especially because it provides site-specific quantitative information. NMR has widely been used to determine the dissociation constant (KD), in particular, for relatively weak interactions. The simplest NMR method is a chemical-shift titration experiment, in which the chemical-shift changes of a protein in response to ligand titration are measured. There are other quantitative NMR methods, but they mostly apply only to interactions in the fast-exchange regime. These methods derive the dissociation constant from population-averaged NMR quantities of the free and bound states of a protein or ligand. In contrast, the recent advent of new relaxation-based experiments, including R2 relaxation dispersion and ZZ-exchange, has enabled us to obtain kinetic information on protein-ligand interactions in the intermediate- and slow-exchange regimes. Based on R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange, methods that can determine the association rate, kon, dissociation rate, koff, and KD have been developed. In these approaches, R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange curves are measured for multiple samples with different protein and/or ligand concentration ratios, and the relaxation data are fitted to theoretical kinetic models. It is critical to choose an appropriate kinetic model, such as the two- or three-state exchange model, to derive the correct kinetic information. The R2 dispersion and ZZ-exchange methods are suitable for the analysis of protein-ligand interactions with a micromolar or sub-micromolar dissociation constant but not for very weak interactions, which are typical in very fast exchange. This contrasts with the NMR methods that are used

  18. Nuclear data for geophysical spectroscopic logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, J.S.; Hertzog, R.C.; Soran, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear geochemical analysis requires the quantitative measurement of elemental concentrations of trace elements, as well as major elements in widely varying concentrations. This requirement places extreme demands on the quality of the spectroscopic measurements, data rates, and relating observed γ-ray intensities to the original elemental concentration. The relationship between γ-ray intensities and elemental concentration is critically dependent on the specific reaction cross sections and their uncertainties. The elements of highest priority for subsurface geochemical analysis are considered with respect to the importance of competing reactions and the neutron energy regions that are most significant. (author)

  19. Quantitative mass-spectrometric analysis of hydrogen helium isotope mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, U.

    1998-12-01

    This work deals with the mass-spectrometric method for the quantitative analysis of hydrogen-helium-isotope mixtures, with special attention to fusion plasma diagnostics. The aim was to use the low-resolution mass spectrometry, a standard measuring method which is well established in science and industry. This task is solved by means of the vector mass spectrometry, where a mass spectrum is repeatedly measured, but with stepwise variation of the parameter settings of a quadruple mass spectrometer. In this way, interfering mass spectra can be decomposed and, moreover, it is possible to analyze underestimated mass spectra of complex hydrogen-helium-isotope mixtures. In this work experimental investigations are presented which show that there are different parameters which are suitable for the UMS-method. With an optimal choice of the parameter settings hydrogen-helium-isotope mixtures can be analyzed with an accuracy of 1-3 %. In practice, a low sensitivity for small helium concentration has to be noted. To cope with this task, a method for selective hydrogen pressure reduction has been developed. Experimental investigations and calculations show that small helium amounts (about 1 %) in a hydrogen atmosphere can be analyzed with an accuracy of 3 - 10 %. Finally, this work deals with the effects of the measuring and calibration error on the resulting error in spectrum decomposition. This aspect has been investigated both in general mass-spectrometric gas analysis and in the analysis of hydrogen-helium-mixtures by means of the vector mass spectrometry. (author)

  20. Quantitative charge-tags for sterol and oxysterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Peter J; William Bentley, T; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Matthews, Ian; Clayton, Peter T; Morris, Andrew A; Bigger, Brian W; Zerbinati, Chiara; Tritapepe, Luigi; Iuliano, Luigi; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J

    2015-02-01

    Global sterol analysis is challenging owing to the extreme diversity of sterol natural products, the tendency of cholesterol to dominate in abundance over all other sterols, and the structural lack of a strong chromophore or readily ionized functional group. We developed a method to overcome these challenges by using different isotope-labeled versions of the Girard P reagent (GP) as quantitative charge-tags for the LC-MS analysis of sterols including oxysterols. Sterols/oxysterols in plasma were extracted in ethanol containing deuterated internal standards, separated by C18 solid-phase extraction, and derivatized with GP, with or without prior oxidation of 3β-hydroxy to 3-oxo groups. By use of different isotope-labeled GPs, it was possible to analyze in a single LC-MS analysis both sterols/oxysterols that naturally possess a 3-oxo group and those with a 3β-hydroxy group. Intra- and interassay CVs were sterols/oxysterols in a single analytical run and can be used to identify inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. [Quantitative analysis of drug expenditures variability in dermatology units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, David; Ferrándiz, Lara; Ramírez-Soto, Gabriel; Muñoyerro, M Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Variability in adjusted drug expenditures among clinical departments raises the possibility of difficult access to certain therapies at the time that avoidable expenditures may also exist. Nevertheless, drug expenditures are not usually applied to clinical practice variability analysis. To identify and quantify variability in drug expenditures in comparable dermatology department of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. Comparative economic analysis regarding the drug expenditures adjusted to population and health care production in 18 dermatology departments of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. The 2012 cost and production data (homogeneous production units -HPU-)were provided by Inforcoan, the cost accounting information system of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. The observed drug expenditure ratio ranged from 0.97?/inh to 8.90?/inh and from 208.45?/HPU to 1,471.95?/ HPU. The Pearson correlation between drug expenditure and population was 0.25 and 0.35 for the correlation between expenditure and homogeneous production (p=0.32 and p=0,15, respectively), both Pearson coefficients confirming the lack of correlation and arelevant degree of variability in drug expenditures. The quantitative analysis of variability performed through Pearson correlation has confirmed the existence of drug expenditure variability among comparable dermatology departments. Copyright © 2013 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of neural networks to quantitative spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilato, V.; Tola, F.; Martinez, J.M.; Huver, M.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of complex spectra (fission and activation products), relies upon experts' knowledge. In some cases several hours, even days of tedious calculations are needed. This is because current software is unable to solve deconvolution problems when several rays overlap. We have shown that such analysis can be correctly handled by a neural network, and the procedure can be automated with minimum laboratory measurements for networks training, as long as all the elements of the analysed solution figure in the training set and provided that adequate scaling of input data is performed. Once the network has been trained, analysis is carried out in a few seconds. On submitting to a test between several well-known laboratories, where unknown quantities of 57 Co, 58 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 131 I, 139 Ce, 141 Ce present in a sample had to be determined, the results yielded by our network classed it amongst the best. The method is described, including experimental device and measures, training set designing, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. Main results are presented together with a statistical model allowing networks error prediction

  3. Study on x-ray spectroscopic analysis by the use of nuclear radiations from radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Hiroshi

    1977-02-01

    The basis and practice of analytical application of the characteristic X rays of low atomic number elements excited by mainly alpha rays from radioisotopes were studied. Some alpha emitters were proved to be advantageously usable to those elements, in particular, very low atomic number elements, despite their accompanying radiations. Operating characteristics of gas flow proportional counters were fully investigated, and besides, the characteristics of pulse-height distribution continuum in those counters and semiconductor detectors were comparatively studied as the detector for the low energy X rays. For calibration in quantitative analysis by the X-ray spectroscopy, a new simple semitheoretical method for thin specimens is proposed and on the other hand general formulae for matrix correction in thick specimens was derived. An industrial X-ray analyzer to simultaneously analyze four main elements of cement raw material mixtures was constructed with the use of a 210 Po alpha-ray source and gain-controlled proportional counters. Problems in practical analysis for the process control were solved and the analyzer has been used routinely in the process for more than ten years. Another analytical application to airborne dust is described as a typical example of application of the proposed calibration method for thin specimens. (auth.)

  4. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  5. The design and application of a new Bassett-type diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic analysis of supercritical aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.J.; Meredith, P.R.; Bassett, W.A.; Mayanovic, R.A.; Benmore, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Bassett-type hydrothermal diamond anvil cell has been modified to facilitate direct x-ray and Raman spectroscopic analysis of aqueous solutions and/or coexisting solid samples at temperatures and pressures above the critical point of water. The new cell provides more sample-detector geometry options for x-ray micro beam analysis and the reduced size of the cell affords a smaller working distance (≥ 14 mm) required for better Raman spectroscopic analysis and microscopic inspection. A shallow recess (300 × 300 × 26.5 μm) milled into one of the diamond anvils is used instead of a metal gasket to contain the aqueous solution. These modifications significantly improve our ability to directly monitor the composition and structure of supercritical fluids and have eliminated the problem of contamination due to the reaction of a metal gasket with supercritical water. The use of the modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell to characterize the MoO 3 -H 2 O system up to 500 o C will be discussed. (author)

  6. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance using quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the preoperative evaluation of tumor grade in cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, Andres; Kulle, Bettina; Gadmar, Oystein B.; Josefsen, Roger; Kumar, Theresa; Nakstad, Per H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor grading is very important both in treatment decision and evaluation of prognosis. While tissue samples are obtained as part of most therapeutic approaches, factors that may result in inaccurate grading due to sampling error (namely, heterogeneity in tissue sampling, as well as tumor-grade heterogeneity within the same tumor specimen), have led to a desire to use imaging better to ascertain tumor grade. The purpose in our study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under the curve (AUC), and accuracy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) or both in grading primary cerebral gliomas. Materials and methods: We performed conventional MR imaging (MR), DWI, and MRSI in 74 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas: 37 glioblastomas multiform (GBM) and 22 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 15 patients had low-grade gliomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumor and peritumoral edema, and ADC ratios (ADC in tumor or peritumoral edema to ADC of contralateral white matter, as well as ADC in tumor to ADC in peritumoral edema) were determined from three regions of interest. The average of the mean, maximum, and minimum for ADC variables was calculated for each patient. The metabolite ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA at intermediate TE were assessed from spectral maps in the solid portion of tumor, peritumoral edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Tumor grade determined with the two methods was then compared with that from histopathologic grading. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to determine optimum thresholds for tumor grading. Measures of diagnostic examination performance, such as sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, AUC, and accuracy for identifying high-grade gliomas were also calculated

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of high protein nigella seeds (Kalonji) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Imran; Khan, M. Zubair; Ali, Irfan; Rehan, Kamran; Sultana, Sabiha; Shah, Sher

    2018-03-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of high protein nigella seeds (also called Kalonji) was performed using pulsed nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at 532 nm. The emission spectrum of Kalonji recorded with an LIBS spectrometer exposed the presence of various elements like Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, K, P, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, S, Si, Cu, Fe, Ti, Sn, Sr, and Zn. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron density) were estimated using Ca-I spectral lines and their behavior were studied against laser irradiance. The electron temperature and electron density was observed to show an increasing trend in the range of 5802-7849 K, and (1.2-3.9) × 1017 cm- 3, respectively, in the studied irradiance range of (1.2-12.6) × 109 W/cm2. Furthermore, the effect of varying laser energy on the integrated signal intensities was also studied. The quantitative analysis of the detected elements was performed via the calibration curves drawn for all the observed elements through typical samples made in the known concentration in the Kalonji matrix, and by setting the concentration of P as the calibration. The validity of our LIBS findings was verified via comparison of the results with the concentration of every element find in Kalonji using the standard analytical tool like ICP/OES. The results acquired using LIBS and ICP/OES were found in fine harmony. Moreover, limit of detection was measured for toxic metals only.

  8. Review of Department of Defense Education Activity (DODEA) Schools. Volume II: Quantitative Analysis of Educational Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Lowell

    2000-01-01

    This volume compiles, and presents in integrated form, IDA's quantitative analysis of educational quality provided by DoD's dependent schools, It covers the quantitative aspects of volume I in greater...

  9. PIQMIe: A web server for semi-quantitative proteomics data management and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kuzniar (Arnold); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe present the Proteomics Identifications and Quantitations Data Management and Integration Service or PIQMIe that aids in reliable and scalable data management, analysis and visualization of semi-quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics experiments. PIQMIe readily integrates

  10. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  11. Optimal display conditions for quantitative analysis of stereoscopic cerebral angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charland, P.; Peters, T.; McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec

    1996-01-01

    For several years the authors have been using a stereoscopic display as a tool in the planning of stereotactic neurosurgical techniques. This PC-based workstation allows the surgeon to interact with and view vascular images in three dimensions, as well as to perform quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional (3-D) space. Some of the perceptual issues relevant to the presentation of medical images on this stereoscopic display were addressed in five experiments. The authors show that a number of parameters--namely the shape, color, and depth cue, associated with a cursor--as well as the image filtering and observer position, have a role in improving the observer's perception of a 3-D image and his ability to localize points within the stereoscopically presented 3-D image. However, an analysis of the results indicates that while varying these parameters can lead to an effect on the performance of individual observers, the effects are not consistent across observers, and the mean accuracy remains relatively constant under the different experimental conditions

  12. Quantitative Machine Learning Analysis of Brain MRI Morphology throughout Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Long, Joe

    2016-01-01

    While cognition is clearly affected by aging, it is unclear whether the process of brain aging is driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage, or involves biological pathways. We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ~0.9822 with the chronological age, indicating that the machine learning analysis of global features is sensitive to the age of the subjects. Profiling of the predicted age shows several periods of mild changes, separated by shorter periods of more rapid alterations. The periods with the most rapid changes were around the age of 55, and around the age of 65. The results show that the process of brain aging of is not linear, and exhibit short periods of rapid aging separated by periods of milder change. These results are in agreement with patterns observed in cognitive decline, mental health status, and general human aging, suggesting that brain aging might not be driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage. Code and data used in the experiments are publicly available.

  13. Automatic quantitative analysis of liver functions by a computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpo, Takako

    1984-01-01

    In the previous paper, we confirmed the clinical usefulness of hepatic clearance (hepatic blood flow), which is the hepatic uptake and blood disappearance rate coefficients. These were obtained by the initial slope index of each minute during a period of five frames of a hepatogram by injecting sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid 37 MBq. To analyze the information simply, rapidly and accurately, we developed a automatic quantitative analysis for liver functions. Information was obtained every quarter minute during a period of 60 frames of the sequential image. The sequential counts were measured for the heart, whole liver, both left lobe and right lobes using a computer connected to a scintillation camera. We measured the effective hepatic blood flow, from the disappearance rate multiplied by the percentage of hepatic uptake as follows, (liver counts)/(tatal counts of the field) Our method of analysis automatically recorded the reappearance graph of the disappearance curve and uptake curve on the basis of the heart and the whole liver, respectively; and computed using BASIC language. This method makes it possible to obtain the image of the initial uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid into the liver by a small dose of it. (author)

  14. Quantitative analysis of normal thallium-201 tomographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Cerqueira, M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the normal (nl) distribution of Tl-201 uptake post exercise (EX) and at redistribution (RD) and nl washout, Tl-201 rotational tomographic (tomo) studies were performed in 40 subjects: 16 angiographic (angio) nls and 24 nl volunteers (12 from Emory and 12 from Yale). Oblique angle short axis slices were subjected to maximal count circumferential profile analysis. Data were displayed as a ''bullseye'' functional map with the apex at the center and base at the periphery. The bullseye was not uniform in all regions because of the variable effects of attenuation and resolution at different view angles. In all studies, the septum: lateral wall ratio was 1.0 in males and approximately equal to 1.0 in females. This occurred predominantly because of anterior defects due to breast soft tissue attenuation. EX and RD bullseyes were similar. Using a bi-exponential model for Tl kinetics, 4 hour normalized washout ranged 49-54% in each group and showed minimal variation between walls throughout the bullseye. Thus, there are well defined variations in Tl-201 uptake in the nl myocardium which must be taken into consideration when analyzing pt data. Because of these defects and the lack of adequate methods for attenuation correction, quantitative analysis of Tl-201 studies must include direct comparison with gender-matched nl data sets

  15. Quantitative analysis of the security performance in wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Jindal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental study to analyze the security performance of a WLAN based on IEEE 802.11 b/g/n standards in various network scenarios is presented in this paper. By setting-up an experimental testbed we have measured results for a layered security model in terms of throughput, response time, encryption overheads, frame loss and jitter. Through numerical results obtained from the testbed, we have presented quantitative as well as realistic findings for both security mechanisms and network performance. It establishes the fact that there is always a tradeoff between the security strength and the associated network performance. It is observed that the non-roaming network always performs better than the roaming network under all network scenarios. To analyze the benefits offered by a particular security protocol a relative security strength index model is demonstrated. Further we have presented the statistical analysis of our experimental data. We found that different security protocols have different robustness against mobility. By choosing the robust security protocol, network performance can be improved. The presented analysis is significant and useful with reference to the assessment of the suitability of security protocols for given real time application.

  16. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  17. A rapid method of radium-226 analysis in water samples using an alpha spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    A fast, reliable and accurate method for radium-226 determination in environmental water samples has been devised, using an alpha spectroscopic technique. The correlation between barium-133 and radium-226 in the barium-radium sulphate precipitation mechanism was studied and in the limited experimental recovery range, the coefficient of correlation was r = 0.986. A self-absorption study for various barium carrier concentrations was also undertaken to obtain the least broadening of alpha energy line widths. An optimum value of 0.3 mg barium carrier was obtained for chemical recovery in the range of 85 percent. (auth)

  18. Multi-spectroscopic studies on the interaction of human serum albumin with astilbin: Binding characteristics and structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Shuang; Peng, Xialian; Yu, Qing [Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Department Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education of China, Guilin 541004 (China); Bian, Hedong, E-mail: gxnuchem312@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Department Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education of China, Guilin 541004 (China); Huang, Fuping [Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Department Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education of China, Guilin 541004 (China); Liang, Hong, E-mail: lianghongby@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Department Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education of China, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Five spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the interaction of astilbin (ASN) with human serum albumin (HSA). UV–vis absorption measurements prove that ASN–HSA complex can be formed. The analysis of fluorescence spectra reveal that in the presence of ASN, quenching mechanism of HSA is considered as static quenching. The quenching rate constant k{sub q}, K{sub SV} and the binding constant K were estimated. According to the van't Hoff equation, the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (ΔΗ) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be −12.94 kJ mol{sup −1} and 35.92 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. These indicate that the hydrophobic interaction is the major forces between ASN and HSA, but the hydrogen bond interaction cannot be excluded. The changes in the secondary structure of HSA which was induced by ASN were determined by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. -- Graphical abstract: In this paper, the interaction of HSA with ASN was systematically studied under simulated physiological conditions by using UV–vis absorption, CD, FT-IR, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic approaches. The quenching constant k{sub q}, K{sub SV} and the binding constant K were estimated. The changes in the secondary structure of HSA were studied by Circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The UV–visible absorption spectra of HSA in the absence and presence of different concentration of ASN (1) and fluorescence spectra of HSA in the absence and the presence of ASN (2). Highlights: ► Interaction of ASN and HSA has been studied by five spectroscopic techniques. ► Hydrophobic interaction is the major forces between ASN and HSA. ► Binding of ASN induced the changes in the secondary structure of HSA.

  19. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular strain using cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Sebastian J., E-mail: sebastian.buss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz, Felix; Mereles, Derliz [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Galuschky, Christian; Schummers, Georg; Stapf, Daniel [TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich (Germany); Hofmann, Nina; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hardt, Stefan E. [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether cardiac computed tomography (CCT) can determine left ventricular (LV) radial, circumferential and longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with congestive heart failure. Background: Echocardiography allows for accurate assessment of strain with high temporal resolution. A reduced strain is associated with a poor prognosis in cardiomyopathies. However, strain imaging is limited in patients with poor echogenic windows, so that, in selected cases, tomographic imaging techniques may be preferable for the evaluation of myocardial deformation. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 27) with congestive heart failure who underwent a clinically indicated ECG-gated contrast-enhanced 64-slice dual-source CCT for the evaluation of the cardiac veins prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were included. All patients underwent additional echocardiography. LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rates were analyzed in identical midventricular short axis, 4-, 2- and 3-chamber views for both modalities using the same prototype software algorithm (feature tracking). Time for analysis was assessed for both modalities. Results: Close correlations were observed for both techniques regarding global strain (r = 0.93, r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). Similar trends were observed for regional radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain (r = 0.88, r = 0.84 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). The number of non-diagnostic myocardial segments was significantly higher with echocardiography than with CCT (9.6% versus 1.9%, p < 0.001). In addition, the required time for complete quantitative strain analysis was significantly shorter for CCT compared to echocardiography (877 ± 119 s per patient versus 1105 ± 258 s per patient, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of LV strain

  20. Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-01-01

    Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12-20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023-1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02-7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21-1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage.

  1. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  2. Collocations and collocation types in ESP textbooks: Quantitative pedagogical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Vesna Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term collocation, even though it is rather common in the English language grammar, it is not a well known or commonly used term in the textbooks and scientific papers written in the Serbian language. Collocating is usually defined as a natural appearance of two (or more words, which are usually one next to another even though they can be separated in the text, while collocations are defined as words with natural semantic and/or syntactic relations being joined together in a sentence. Collocations are naturally used in all English written texts, including scientific texts and papers. Using two textbooks for English for Specific Purposes (ESP for intermediate students' courses, this paper presents the frequency of collocations and their typology. The paper tries to investigate the relationship between lexical and grammatical collocations written in the ESP texts and the reasons for their presence. There is an overview of the most used subtypes of lexical collocations as well. Furthermore, on applying the basic corpus analysis based on the quantitative analysis, the paper presents the number of open, restricted and bound collocations in ESP texts, trying to draw conclusions on their frequency and hence the modes for their learning. There is also a section related to the number and usage of scientific collocations, both common scientific and narrow-professional ones. The conclusion is that the number of present collocations in the selected two textbooks imposes a demand for further analysis of these lexical connections, as well as new modes for their teaching and presentations to the English learning students.

  3. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more effective strategies that take into account the complex

  4. Interaction of tea polyphenols with serum albumins: A fluorescence spectroscopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Adity, E-mail: adityc17j@gmail.com

    2016-01-15

    Interactions of some tea polyphenols, namely (−) Catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (–) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are outlined with the serum albumin proteins. These interactions had all resulted in binding with the proteins with a concomitant static quenching of the protein fluorescence. A fluorescence technique has been considered as the tool to comprehend the polyphenol–protein interactions mainly and simultaneously other spectroscopic techniques used to verify the results have been discussed. In this mini review the different types of equations usually employed to calculate the binding constant values have been outlined, namely, modified Stern Volmer plot, Scatchard plot and Lineweaver Burk equation, with their corresponding results. The n values (number of binding sites) had always been close to unity suggesting a 1:1 complexation with the polyphenols and the protein. A structural change in the polyphenols has been found to alter the binding constant value and the galloyl moiety attached to the C ring of the polyphenols have been found to play a crucial role in this regard. It has been found that an increase in galloyl moiety increases binding of the catechins with proteins. - Highlights: • Review on interactions of some tea polyphenols with the serum albumin proteins. • Tea polyphenols include Catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin. • Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is mainly outlined. • Binding constant studies have been given importance. • Galloyl moiety in the C ring is crucial in increasing binding constant.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of radiation-generated changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.R. Jr.; Long, S.A.T.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of electron radiation on Ultem, a polyetherimide were studied for doses from 2 x 10 to the 9th power to 6 x 10 to the 9th power rad. Specimens were studied for tensile property testing and for electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopic measurements of molecular structure. A Faraday cup design and a method for remote temperature measurement were developed. The spectroscopic data show that radiation caused dehydrogenation of methyl groups, rupture of main-chain ether linkage, and opening of imide rings, all to form radicals and indicate that the so-formed atomic hydrogen attached to phenyl radicals, but not to phenoxyl radicals, which would have formed hydroxyls. The observed decays of the radiation-generated phenoxyl, gem-dimethyl, and carbonyl radicals were interpreted as a combining of the radicals to form crosslinking. This crosslinking is the probable cause of the major reduction in the elongation of the tensile specimens after irradiation. Subsequent classical solubility tests indicate that the irradiation caused massive crosslinking

  6. Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  8. A Quantitative Analysis of Photovoltaic Modules Using Halved Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a silicon wafer-based photovoltaic (PV module, significant power is lost due to current transport through the ribbons interconnecting neighbour cells. Using halved cells in PV modules is an effective method to reduce the resistive power loss which has already been applied by some major PV manufacturers (Mitsubishi, BP Solar in their commercial available PV modules. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of PV modules using halved cells is needed. In this paper we investigate theoretically and experimentally the difference between modules made with halved and full-size solar cells. Theoretically, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.8% absolute and output power of 90 mW for the halved cell minimodule. Experimentally, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.3% absolute and output power of 60 mW for the halved cell module. Also, we investigate theoretically how this effect confers to the case of large-size modules. It is found that the performance increment of halved cell PV modules is even higher for high-efficiency solar cells. After that, the resistive loss of large-size modules with different interconnection schemes is analysed. Finally, factors influencing the performance and cost of industrial halved cell PV modules are discussed.

  9. Field nonuniformity correction for quantitative analysis of digitized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    Several factors, including the heel effect, variation in distance from the x-ray source to points in the image and path obliquity contribute to the signal nonuniformity of mammograms. To best use digitized mammograms for quantitative image analysis, these field non-uniformities must be corrected. An empirically based correction method, which uses a bowl-shaped calibration phantom, has been developed. Due to the annular spherical shape of the phantom, its attenuation is constant over the entire image. Remaining nonuniformities are due only to the heel and inverse square effects as well as the variable path through the beam filter, compression plate and image receptor. In logarithmic space, a normalized image of the phantom can be added to mammograms to correct for these effects. Then, an analytical correction for path obliquity in the breast can be applied to the images. It was found that the correction causes the errors associated with field nonuniformity to be reduced from 14% to 2% for a 4 cm block of material corresponding to a combination of 50% fibroglandular and 50% fatty breast tissue. A repeatability study has been conducted to show that in regions as far as 20 cm away from the chest wall, variations due to imaging conditions and phantom alignment contribute to <2% of overall corrected signal

  10. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  11. Quantitative analysis of dynamic association in live biological fluorescent samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Ruusuvuori

    Full Text Available Determining vesicle localization and association in live microscopy may be challenging due to non-simultaneous imaging of rapidly moving objects with two excitation channels. Besides errors due to movement of objects, imaging may also introduce shifting between the image channels, and traditional colocalization methods cannot handle such situations. Our approach to quantifying the association between tagged proteins is to use an object-based method where the exact match of object locations is not assumed. Point-pattern matching provides a measure of correspondence between two point-sets under various changes between the sets. Thus, it can be used for robust quantitative analysis of vesicle association between image channels. Results for a large set of synthetic images shows that the novel association method based on point-pattern matching demonstrates robust capability to detect association of closely located vesicles in live cell-microscopy where traditional colocalization methods fail to produce results. In addition, the method outperforms compared Iterated Closest Points registration method. Results for fixed and live experimental data shows the association method to perform comparably to traditional methods in colocalization studies for fixed cells and to perform favorably in association studies for live cells.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plutonium in solid waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Escarieux, Emile

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the results given by a study carried out for the development of qualitative and quantitative analysis, by γ spectrometry, of plutonium in solid waste drums is presented. After having reminded the standards and their incidence on the quantities of plutonium to be measured (application at industrial Pu: 20% of Pu 240 ) the equipment used is described. Measurement station provided with a mechanical system consisting of: a rail and a pulley block to bring the drums; a pit and a hydraulic jack with a rotating platform. The detection instrumentation consisting of: a high volume coaxial Ge(Li) detector with a γ ray resolution of 2 keV; an associated electronic; a processing of data by a 'Plurimat 20' minicomputer. Principles of the identification and measurements are specified and supported by experimental results. They are the following: determination of the quality of Pu by measuring the ratio between the γ ray intensities of the 239 Pu 129 keV and of the 241 Pu 148 keV; measurement of the 239 Pu mass by estimating the γ ray counting rate of the 375 keV from the calibrating curves given by plutonium samples varying from 32 mg to 80 g; correction of the results versus the source position into the drum and versus the filling in plastic materials into this drum. The experimental results obtained over 40 solid waste drums are presented along with the error estimates [fr

  13. FFT transformed quantitative EEG analysis of short term memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Singh, Jayvardhan; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-07-01

    The EEG is considered as building block of functional signaling in the brain. The role of EEG oscillations in human information processing has been intensively investigated. To study the quantitative EEG correlates of short term memory load as assessed through Sternberg memory test. The study was conducted on 34 healthy male student volunteers. The intervention consisted of Sternberg memory test, which runs on a version of the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm software on a computer. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 19 scalp locations according to 10-20 international system of electrode placement. EEG signals were analyzed offline. To overcome the problems of fixed band system, individual alpha frequency (IAF) based frequency band selection method was adopted. The outcome measures were FFT transformed absolute powers in the six bands at 19 electrode positions. Sternberg memory test served as model of short term memory load. Correlation analysis of EEG during memory task was reflected as decreased absolute power in Upper alpha band in nearly all the electrode positions; increased power in Theta band at Fronto-Temporal region and Lower 1 alpha band at Fronto-Central region. Lower 2 alpha, Beta and Gamma band power remained unchanged. Short term memory load has distinct electroencephalographic correlates resembling the mentally stressed state. This is evident from decreased power in Upper alpha band (corresponding to Alpha band of traditional EEG system) which is representative band of relaxed mental state. Fronto-temporal Theta power changes may reflect the encoding and execution of memory task.

  14. Quantitative risk analysis of the pipeline GASDUC III - solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Bettoni, Izabel Cristina [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the quantitative risks analysis to the external public of the Pipeline Cabiunas - REDUC (GASDUC III), with 180 km, linking the municipalities of Macae and Duque de Caxias - RJ was performed by the Companies PETROBRAS and ITSEMAP do Brasil. In addition to the large diameter of the pipeline 38 inches and high operation pressure 100 kgf/cm{sup 2} operating with natural gas through several densely populated areas. Initially, the individual risk contours were calculated without considering mitigating measures, obtaining as result the individual risk contour with frequencies of 1x10{sup -06} per year involving sensitive occupations and therefore considered unacceptable when compared with the INEA criterion. The societal risk was calculated for eight densely populated areas and their respective FN-curves situated below the advised limit established by INEA, except for two areas that required the proposal of additional mitigating measures to the reduction of societal risk. Regarding to societal risk, the FN-curve should be below the advised limit presented in the Technical Instruction of INEA. The individual and societal risk were reassessed incorporating some mitigating measures and the results situated below the advised limits established by INEA and PETROBRAS has obtained the license for installation of the pipeline. (author)

  15. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, P; Weeke, B; Loewenstein, H [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10/sup 4/, 2 x 10/sup 4/, 2 x 10/sup 5/ dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A.

  16. Quantitative produced water analysis using mobile 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Lisabeth; Fridjonsson, Einar O; May, Eric F; Stanwix, Paul L; Graham, Brendan F; Carroll, Matthew R J; Johns, Michael L; Kalli, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of oil contamination of produced water is required in the oil and gas industry to the (ppm) level prior to discharge in order to meet typical environmental legislative requirements. Here we present the use of compact, mobile 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in combination with solid phase extraction (SPE), to meet this metrology need. The NMR hardware employed featured a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field, such that chemical shift differences could be used to unambiguously differentiate, and hence quantitatively detect, the required oil and solvent NMR signals. A solvent system consisting of 1% v/v chloroform in tetrachloroethylene was deployed, this provided a comparable 1 H NMR signal intensity for the oil and the solvent (chloroform) and hence an internal reference 1 H signal from the chloroform resulting in the measurement being effectively self-calibrating. The measurement process was applied to water contaminated with hexane or crude oil over the range 1–30 ppm. The results were validated against known solubility limits as well as infrared analysis and gas chromatography. (paper)

  17. Photographers’ Nomenclature Units: A Structural and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita A. Mihailova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the needs of cross and intercultural communication as well as the methodology of contrastive research, the paper presents the results of the complex analysis conducted to describe semantic and pragmatic parameters of nomenclature units denoting photography equipment in the modern Russian informal discourse of professional photographers. The research is exemplified by 34 original nomenclature units and their 34 Russian equivalents used in 6871 comments posted at “Клуб.Foto.ru” web-site in 2015. The structural and quantitative analyses of photographers’ nomenclature demonstrate the users’ morphological and graphic preferences and indirectly reflect their social and professional values. The corpus-based approach developed by Kast-Aigner (2009: 141 was applied in the study with the aim to identify the nomenclature units denoting photography equipment, validate and elaborate the data of the existing corpus. The research also throws light on the problems of professional language development and derivational processes. The perspective of the study lies in the research of the broader context of professional nomenclature.

  18. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, P.; Weeke, B.; Loewenstein, H.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 5 dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A. (author)

  19. Social media in epilepsy: A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Elkaim, Lior; Wang, Justin; Liu, Jessica; Alotaibi, Naif M; Ibrahim, George M; Fallah, Aria; Weil, Alexander G; Valiante, Taufik A; Lozano, Andres M; Rutka, James T

    2017-06-01

    While the social burden of epilepsy has been extensively studied, an evaluation of social media related to epilepsy may provide novel insight into disease perception, patient needs and access to treatments. The objective of this study is to assess patterns in social media and online communication usage related to epilepsy and its associated topics. We searched two major social media platforms (Facebook and Twitter) for public accounts dedicated to epilepsy. Results were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The former involved thematic and word count analysis for online posts and tweets on these platforms, while the latter employed descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Facebook had a higher number of pages (840 accounts) and users (3 million) compared to Twitter (137 accounts and 274,663 users). Foundation and support groups comprised most of the accounts and users on both Facebook and Twitter. The number of accounts increased by 100% from 2012 to 2016. Among the 403 posts and tweets analyzed, "providing information" on medications or correcting common misconceptions in epilepsy was the most common theme (48%). Surgical interventions for epilepsy were only mentioned in 1% of all posts and tweets. The current study provides a comprehensive reference on the usage of social media in epilepsy. The number of online users interested in epilepsy is likely the highest among all neurological conditions. Surgery, as a method of treating refractory epilepsy, however, could be underrepresented on social media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. B1 -sensitivity analysis of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Mathieu; Stikov, Nikola; Pike, G Bruce

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) fitted parameters to B 1 inaccuracies, focusing on the difference between two categories of T 1 mapping techniques: B 1 -independent and B 1 -dependent. The B 1 -sensitivity of qMT was investigated and compared using two T 1 measurement methods: inversion recovery (IR) (B 1 -independent) and variable flip angle (VFA), B 1 -dependent). The study was separated into four stages: 1) numerical simulations, 2) sensitivity analysis of the Z-spectra, 3) healthy subjects at 3T, and 4) comparison using three different B 1 imaging techniques. For typical B 1 variations in the brain at 3T (±30%), the simulations resulted in errors of the pool-size ratio (F) ranging from -3% to 7% for VFA, and -40% to > 100% for IR, agreeing with the Z-spectra sensitivity analysis. In healthy subjects, pooled whole-brain Pearson correlation coefficients for F (comparing measured double angle and nominal flip angle B 1 maps) were ρ = 0.97/0.81 for VFA/IR. This work describes the B 1 -sensitivity characteristics of qMT, demonstrating that it varies substantially on the B 1 -dependency of the T 1 mapping method. Particularly, the pool-size ratio is more robust against B 1 inaccuracies if VFA T 1 mapping is used, so much so that B 1 mapping could be omitted without substantially biasing F. Magn Reson Med 79:276-285, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Quantitative Gait Analysis in Patients with Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Jong Pyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Gait disturbance is the main factor contributing to a negative impact on quality of life in patients with Huntington’s disease (HD. Understanding gait features in patients with HD is essential for planning a successful gait strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate temporospatial gait parameters in patients with HD compared with healthy controls. Methods We investigated 7 patients with HD. Diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis, and patients were evaluated with the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. Gait features were assessed with a gait analyzer. We compared the results of patients with HD to those of 7 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Results Step length and stride length were decreased and base of support was increased in the HD group compared to the control group. In addition, coefficients of variability for step and stride length were increased in the HD group. The HD group showed slower walking velocity, an increased stance/swing phase in the gait cycle and a decreased proportion of single support time compared to the control group. Cadence did not differ significantly between groups. Among the UHDRS subscores, total motor score and total behavior score were positively correlated with step length, and total behavior score was positively correlated with walking velocity in patients with HD. Conclusion Increased variability in step and stride length, slower walking velocity, increased stance phase, and decreased swing phase and single support time with preserved cadence suggest that HD gait patterns are slow, ataxic and ineffective. This study suggests that quantitative gait analysis is needed to assess gait problems in HD.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking of imidazole derivatives and investigation of its reactive properties by DFT and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renjith; Hossain, Mossaraf; Mary, Y. Sheena; Resmi, K. S.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Ranjan, Vivek Kumar; Vijayakumar, G.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Solvent-free synthesis pathway for obtaining two imidazole derivatives (2-chloro-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole (CLMPDI) and 1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-chloro-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole (BPCLDI) has been reported in this work, followed by detailed experimental and computational spectroscopic characterization and reactivity study. Spectroscopic methods encompassed IR, FT-Raman and NMR techniques, with the mutual comparison of experimentally and computationally obtained results at DFT/B3LYP level of theory. Reactivity study based on DFT calculations encompassed molecular orbitals analysis, followed by calculations of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and average local ionization energy (ALIE) values, Fukui functions and bond dissociation energies (BDE). Additionally, the stability of title molecules in water has been investigated via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, while interactivity with aspulvinonedimethylallyl transferase protein has been evaluated by molecular docking procedure. CLMPDI compound showed antimicrobial activity against all four bacterial strain in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria while, BPCLDI showed only in gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus Aureus (MTCC1144). The first order hyperpolarizability of CLMPDI and BPCLDI are 20.15 and 6.10 times that of the standard NLO material urea.

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF FIVE PHYLOGENETICALLY DISTANT FUNGI (DIVISION: ASCOMYCETE FROM VELLAR ESTUARY, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA – A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Subburaj

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal taxonomy is dynamically driven towards controversial discipline that consequently requires changes in nomenclature. Scarcity of microbiological expertise particularly for marine fungi is another major setback for these taxonomical differences. Here, five different species pharmacologically important marine fungi under Division Ascomycete were studied for their spectral variation. This work verified the practical applicability of FT-IR microspectroscopy technique for early and rapid identification of these species based on the spectral data showed striking difference with their major biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids produced by them. Spectra of all the species showed striking differences while individual peaks of each spectrum are parallel to each other in their respective spectral regions. Aspergillus oryzae have intense peaks in the lipid and nucleic acid spectral region and moderate bands in the amide spectrum. Phoma herbarum and Trichoderma piluliferum showed intense peaks in the protein spectral region but moderate peaks in the lipid and nucleic acid regions. Hypocrea lixii and Meyerozyma guilliermandii have less intense peaks in all the five spectral regions. This unique spectral representation is concordant with the cluster analysis dendrogram by minimum variance statistical method where low spectroscopic distance was found between H. lixii and M. guilliermondii whereas a higher spectroscopic distance was found between P. herbarum and T. piluliferum. FTIR spectroscopy delivers a combined advantage for efficient fungal classification as well as simultaneous visualization of chemical composition of samples as evident from this study.

  4. Detection of Normal Aging Effects on Human Brain Metabolite Concentrations and Microstructure with Whole-Brain MR Spectroscopic Imaging and Quantitative MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylers, V V; Maudsley, A A; Bronzlik, P; Dellani, P R; Lanfermann, H; Ding, X-Q

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of age-related physiological changes in the human brain is a prerequisite to identify neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this study whole-brain (1)H-MRS was used in combination with quantitative MR imaging to study the effects of normal aging on healthy human brain metabolites and microstructure. Sixty healthy volunteers, 21-70 years of age, were studied. Brain maps of the metabolites NAA, creatine and phosphocreatine, and Cho and the tissue irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation times T2 and T2' were derived from the datasets. The relative metabolite concentrations and the values of relaxation times were measured with ROIs placed within the frontal and parietal WM, centrum semiovale, splenium of the corpus callosum, hand motor area, occipital GM, putamen, thalamus, pons ventral/dorsal, and cerebellar white matter and posterior lobe. Linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Aging resulted in decreased NAA concentrations in the occipital GM, putamen, splenium of the corpus callosum, and pons ventral and decreased creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations in the pons dorsal and putamen. Cho concentrations did not change significantly in selected brain regions. T2 increased in the cerebellar white matter and decreased in the splenium of the corpus callosum with aging, while the T2' decreased in the occipital GM, hand motor area, and putamen, and increased in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Correlations were found between NAA concentrations and T2' in the occipital GM and putamen and between creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations and T2' in the putamen. The effects of normal aging on brain metabolites and microstructure are region-dependent. Correlations between both processes are evident in the gray matter. The obtained data could be used as references for future studies on patients. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis and dosimetry of diagnostic x-ray beams filtered by rare earth materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyndall, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was carried out to assess the effect of various types of rare earth filter materials on the energy spectrum and concomitant reduced exposure values of diagnostic x-ray beams at 70, 80, and 90 kVp. An x-ray spectroscope was constructed and used to generate the energy spectra of beams passing through the various rare earth filter materials. Photographs were made of each spectrum, and live-time gross photon counts were recorded. Following spectral determinations, ionization chamber readings were generated for each filter material. Substantial effects on x-ray spectra and reduction of exposure values were noted. The degree of these effects were dependent on the atomic number, k-edge, and thickness of each filter. Metallic forms of rare earth materials proved to be more effective than the salt forms with erbium offering the greatest potential for reduction in exposures over the range of experimental kilovolt (peak) values

  6. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my; Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Faiz, A., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  7. Simple preparation of new N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides and their spectroscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Henao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To prepare new indolic molecules and characterize them by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: All reagentswere purchased from Aldrich, commercial grade. The purity of the products and the composition of the reaction mixtures were monitoredby thin layer chromatography over Silufol UV254 0.25 mm-thick chromatoplates. Product isolation and purification were performed bycolumn chromatography (SiO2, using ethyl acetate-petroleum ether mixtures as eluents. Results. The synthesis of new N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides based on first step iminization reaction of indol-3-carbaldehyde is accomplished. The structures of the C-3substituted indoles were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR studies supported by inverse-detected 2D NMR experiments and alsothrough monocrystal X-ray diffraction. Conclusions. An efficient, economic, and fast synthetic route was designed to the construction ofthe N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides, structural analogues of some alkaloids.

  8. Ethyl 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoate: Synthesis, Spectroscopic and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. White

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acid catalyzed esterification of 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (1 in the presence of absolute ethanol afforded ethyl 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate (2. The structure of the resulting compound was supported by spectroscopic data and unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The title compound crystallized in the triclinic space group P ī with unit cell parameters a = 8.5518(3 Å, b = 10.8826(8 Å, c = 11.9939(6 Å, α = 101.273(5°, β = 98.287(3°, γ = 94.092(4°, V = 1077.54(10 Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.296 Mg/m3, F(000 = 448 and μ = 0.098 mm−1. Compound (2 crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit with similar conformations.

  9. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the Maya wall paintings in Ek'Balam, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, P.; Bodé, S.; Alonso, A.; Moens, L.

    2005-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the examination of wall painting fragments from the archaeological site of Ek'Balam (Yucatán, Mexico). Thirty-three samples have been studied, all originating from room 23 of the Acropolis, and being representative of the painting technique at Ek'Balam during the late Classic Maya period. Several pigments such as haematite, calcite, carbon, cinnabar and indigo were identified in these samples. The latter pigment was presumed to be present as 'Maya blue', which is an intercalation product of indigo and palygorskite clay. The observed Raman spectra are reported and some band assignments have been made. This survey is the first Raman spectroscopic examination of a whole set of pigments in archaeological Maya wall painting fragments.

  10. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the effects of simulated space radiation on a polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, J. E.; Long, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the effects of electron radiation on the polyimide PMDA-p,p-prime- ODA. The radiation exposures were made at various dose rates, for a total dose approximately equal to that for 30 years of exposure to electron radiation in geosynchronous earth orbit. At high dose rates the major effect was probably the formation of a polyisoimide or a charged quaternary amine, and at the low dose rates the effect was a reduction in the amount or aromatic ether linkage. In addition, the effects of dose rate for a small total dose were studied. Elevated temperatures occurred at high dose rates and were, in part, probably the cause of the radiation product. The data suggest that dose rates for accelerated simulations of the space environment should not exceed 100,000 rads/sec.

  11. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF AN EIT WAVE/DIMMING OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.

    2010-01-01

    EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) waves are a wavelike phenomenon propagating outward from the coronal mass ejection source region, with expanding dimmings following behind. We present a spectroscopic study of an EIT wave/dimming event observed by the Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer. Although the identification of the wave front is somewhat affected by the pre-existing loop structures, the expanding dimming is well defined. We investigate the line intensity, width, and Doppler velocity for four EUV lines. In addition to the significant blueshift implying plasma outflows in the dimming region as revealed in previous studies, we find that the widths of all four spectral lines increase at the outer edge of the dimmings. We illustrate that this feature can be well explained by the field line stretching model, which claims that EIT waves are apparently moving brightenings that are generated by the successive stretching of the closed field lines.

  12. Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for US Army Recruiting Input Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... An objective study of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of recruiting is necessary to meet the future needs of the Army, in light of strong possibilities of recruiting resource reduction...

  14. Quantitative analysis of psychological personality for NPP operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jia; Huang Xiangrui

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces the relevant personality quantitative psychological research work carried out by 'Prognoz' Laboratory and Taiwan, and presents the primary results of the research for Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operator's psychological personality assessment, which based on the survey of MMPI, and presents the main contents for the personality quantitative psychological research in NPP of China. And emphasizes the need to carry out psychological selection and training in nuclear industry

  15. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  16. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  17. Universal platform for quantitative analysis of DNA transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajunen Maria I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completed genome projects have revealed an astonishing diversity of transposable genetic elements, implying the existence of novel element families yet to be discovered from diverse life forms. Concurrently, several better understood transposon systems have been exploited as efficient tools in molecular biology and genomics applications. Characterization of new mobile elements and improvement of the existing transposition technology platforms warrant easy-to-use assays for the quantitative analysis of DNA transposition. Results Here we developed a universal in vivo platform for the analysis of transposition frequency with class II mobile elements, i.e., DNA transposons. For each particular transposon system, cloning of the transposon ends and the cognate transposase gene, in three consecutive steps, generates a multifunctional plasmid, which drives inducible expression of the transposase gene and includes a mobilisable lacZ-containing reporter transposon. The assay scores transposition events as blue microcolonies, papillae, growing within otherwise whitish Escherichia coli colonies on indicator plates. We developed the assay using phage Mu transposition as a test model and validated the platform using various MuA transposase mutants. For further validation and to illustrate universality, we introduced IS903 transposition system components into the assay. The developed assay is adjustable to a desired level of initial transposition via the control of a plasmid-borne E. coli arabinose promoter. In practice, the transposition frequency is modulated by varying the concentration of arabinose or glucose in the growth medium. We show that variable levels of transpositional activity can be analysed, thus enabling straightforward screens for hyper- or hypoactive transposase mutants, regardless of the original wild-type activity level. Conclusions The established universal papillation assay platform should be widely applicable to a

  18. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  19. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  20. Quantitative analysis of real-time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.D.; Condon, P.E.; Barry, R.C.; Betz, R.A.; Klynn, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed which yields quantitative information on the spatial resolution, contrast sensitivity, image noise, and focal spot size from real time radiographic images. The method uses simple image quality indicators and computer programs which make it possible to readily obtain quantitative performance measurements of single or multiple radiographic systems. It was used for x-ray and optical images to determine which component of the system was not operating up to standard. Focal spot size was monitored by imaging a bar pattern. This paper constitutes the second progress report on the development of the camera and radiation image quality indicators

  1. Interaction of Lysozyme with Rhodamine B: A combined analysis of spectroscopic & molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Sabera; Satish, Lakkoji; Kesh, Sandeep; Chaudhary, Yatendra S; Sahoo, Harekrushna

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of Rhodamine B (RB) with Lysozyme (Lys) was investigated by different optical spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, fluorescence, and circular-dichroism (CD), along with molecular docking studies. The fluorescence results (including steady-state and time-resolved mode) revealed that the addition of RB effectively causes strong quenching of intrinsic fluorescence in Lysozyme and mostly, by the static quenching mechanism. Different binding and thermodynamic parameters were calculated at different temperatures and the binding constant value was found to be 2963.54Lmol(-1) at 25°C. The average distance (r0) was found to be 3.31nm according to Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer between Lysozyme and RB. The conformational change in Lysozyme during interaction with RB was confirmed from absorbance, synchronous fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements. Finally, molecular docking studies were done to confirm that the dye binds with Lysozyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ex-vivo holographic microscopy and spectroscopic analysis of head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Stephen; Wurtz, Robert; Auyeung, Kelsey; Auyeung, Kris; Paspaley-Grbavac, Milan; Mulroe, Brigid; Sobrero, Maximiliano; Miles, Brett

    2015-03-01

    Optical probes to identify tumor margins in vivo would greatly reduce the time, effort and complexity in the surgical removal of malignant tissue in head and neck cancers. Current approaches involve visual microscopy of stained tissue samples to determine cancer margins, which results in the excision of excess of tissue to assure complete removal of the cancer. Such surgical procedures and follow-on chemotherapy can adversely affect the patient's recovery and subsequent quality of life. In order to reduce the complexity of the process and minimize adverse effects on the patient, we investigate ex vivo tissue samples (stained and unstained) using digital holographic microscopy in conjunction with spectroscopic analyses (reflectance and transmission spectroscopy) in order to determine label-free, optically identifiable characteristic features that may ultimately be used for in vivo processing of cancerous tissues. The tissue samples studied were squamous cell carcinomas and associated controls from patients of varying age, gender and race. Holographic microscopic imaging scans across both cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samples yielded amplitude and phase reconstructions that were correlated with spectral signatures. Though the holographic reconstructions and measured spectra indicate variations even among the same class of tissue, preliminary results indicate the existence of some discriminating features. Further analyses are presently underway to further this work and extract additional information from the imaging and spectral data that may prove useful for in vivo surgical identification.

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of soil metal contamination around a derelict mine site in the Blue Mountains, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Raval, S.; Taplin, R.

    2014-09-01

    Abandoned mine sites pose the potential threat of the heavy metal pollution spread through streams and via runoff leading to contamination of soil and water in their surrounding areas. Regular monitoring of these areas is critical to minimise impacts on water resources, flora and fauna. Conventional ground based monitoring is expensive and sometimes impractical; spectroscopic methods have been emerged as a reliable alternative for this purpose. In this study, the capabilities of the spectroscopy method were examined for modelling soil contamination from around the abandoned silver-zinc mine located at Yerranderie, NSW Australia. The diagnostic characteristics of the original reflectance data were compared with models derived from first and second derivatives of the reflectance data. The results indicate that the models derived from the first derivative of the reflectance data estimate heavy metals significantly more accurately than model derived from the original reflectance. It was also found in this study that there is no need to use second derivative for modelling heavy metal soil contamination. Finally, the results indicate that estimates were of greater accuracy for arsenic and lead compared to other heavy metals, while the estimation for silver was found to be the most erroneous.

  4. Application of spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of kidney stones: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K. M., Muhammed; Chawla, Arun; Bankapur, Aseefhali; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-03-01

    Identification and characterization of kidney stone remains one of the important analytical tasks in the medical field. Kidney stone is a common health complication throughout the world, which may cause severe pain, obstruction and infection of urinary tract, and can lead to complete renal damage. It commonly occurs in both sexes regardless of age. Kidney stones have different composition, although each stones have a major single characteristic component. A complete understanding of a sample properties and their function can only be feasible by utilizing elemental and molecular information simultaneously. Two laser based analytical techniques; Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study different types of kidney stones from different patients. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy are highly complementary spectroscopic techniques, which provide elemental and molecular information of a sample. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm laser having energy 17mJ per pulse at 10 Hz repetition rate was used for getting LIBS spectra. Raman measurements were carried out using a home assembled micro-Raman spectrometer. Using the recorded Raman spectra of kidney stones, we were able to differentiate different kinds of kidney stones. LIBS spectra of the same stones are showing the evidence of C, Ca, H, and O and also suggest the presence of certain pigments.

  5. AN INTERFEROMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEM HD 193322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Farrington, Christopher D.; Schaefer, Gail H.

    2011-01-01

    The star HD 193322 is a remarkable multiple system of massive stars that lies at the heart of the cluster Collinder 419. Here we report on new spectroscopic observations and radial velocities of the narrow-lined component Ab1 which we use to determine its orbital motion around a close companion Ab2 (P = 312 days) and around a distant third star Aa (P = 35 years). We have also obtained long baseline interferometry of the target in the K' band with the CHARA Array which we use in two ways. First, we combine published speckle interferometric measurements with CHARA separated fringe packet measurements to improve the visual orbit for the wide Aa,Ab binary. Second, we use measurements of the fringe packet from Aa to calibrate the visibility of the fringes of the Ab1,Ab2 binary, and we analyze these fringe visibilities to determine the visual orbit of the close system. The two most massive stars, Aa and Ab1, have masses of approximately 21 and 23 M sun , respectively, and their spectral line broadening indicates that they represent extremes of fast and slow projected rotational velocity, respectively.

  6. Integrated Analysis of the Wood Oil from Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep. by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzali, Ophélie; Thai, Tran Huy; Hoi, Tran Minh; Khang, Nguyen Sinh; Hien, Nguyen Thi; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-27

    In order to get better knowledge about the volatiles produced by Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, a species recently discovered in Vietnam, its wood oil has been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic (GC, CC) and spectroscopic (GC-MS, (13)C-NMR) techniques. Forty components that accounted for 87.9% of the oil composition have been identified. The composition is dominated by nootkatene (20.7%), 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-7-one (17.2%), γ-eudesmol (5.1%), nootkatone (4.7%), valencene (3.5%) and 13-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-11-one (2.6%). The structure of two new compounds-10-epi-nor-γ-eudesmen-11-one and 12-hydroxy-isodihydroagarofuran-has been elucidated, while 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-7-ol is reported as a natural product for the first time. The composition of X. vietnamensis wood oil varied drastically from those of leaf oils, dominated by hedycaryol (34.4%), phyllocladene (37.8%) or by pimara-6(14)-15-diene (19.4%).

  7. Integrated Analysis of the Wood Oil from Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep. by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophélie Bazzali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to get better knowledge about the volatiles produced by Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, a species recently discovered in Vietnam, its wood oil has been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic (GC, CC and spectroscopic (GC-MS, 13C-NMR techniques. Forty components that accounted for 87.9% of the oil composition have been identified. The composition is dominated by nootkatene (20.7%, 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10-en-7-one (17.2%, γ-eudesmol (5.1%, nootkatone (4.7%, valencene (3.5% and 13-nor-eremophil-1(10-en-11-one (2.6%. The structure of two new compounds—10-epi-nor-γ-eudesmen-11-one and 12-hydroxy-isodihydroagarofuran—has been elucidated, while 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10-en-7-ol is reported as a natural product for the first time. The composition of X. vietnamensis wood oil varied drastically from those of leaf oils, dominated by hedycaryol (34.4%, phyllocladene (37.8% or by pimara-6(14-15-diene (19.4%.

  8. Quantitative analysis of results for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, Bruno Martins

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerators represent the most important, practical and versatile source of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. These functional characteristics influence the geometric and dosimetric accuracy of therapeutic doses applied to patients. The performance of this equipment may vary due to electronic defects, component failures or mechanical breakdowns, or may vary due to the deterioration and aging of components. Maintaining the quality of care depends on the stability of the accelerators and quality control of the institutions to monitor deviations in the parameters of the beam. The aim of this study is to assess and analyze the stability of the calibration factor of linear accelerators, as well as the other dosimetric parameters normally included in a program of quality control in radiotherapy. The average calibration factors of the accelerators for the period of approximately four years for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 6EX were (0,998 ± 0,012) and (0,996 ± 0,014), respectively. For the Clinac 2100CD 6 MV and 15 MV was (1,008 ± 0,009) and (1,006 ± 0,010), respectively, in a period of approximately four years. Statistical analysis of the three linear accelerators was found that the coefficient of variation of calibration factors had values below 2% which shows a consistency in the data. By calculating the normal distribution of calibration factors, we found that for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 2100CD, is an expected probability that more than 90% of cases the values are within acceptable limits according to the TG-142, while for the Clinac 6EX is expected around 85% since this had several exchanges of accelerator components. The values of TPR 20,10 of three accelerators are practically constant and within acceptable limits according to the TG-142. It can be concluded that a detailed study of data from the calibration factor of the accelerators and TPR20,10 from a quantitative point of view, is extremely useful in a quality assurance program. (author)

  9. A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

  10. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  11. Quantitative analysis of soluble elements in environmental waters by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Adachi, M.; Tsuji, M.; Hattori, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have started PIXE research for environmental science at Van de Graaff accelerator facility in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Quantitative measurements of soluble fractions in river waters have been carried out using the preconcentrate method developed in Tohoku University. We reveal that this PIXE target preparation can be also applied to waste water samples. (author)

  12. Identification of Case Content with Quantitative Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Lolle; Olsen, Henrik Palmer; Tarissan, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    the relevant articles. In order to enhance information retrieval about case content, without relying on manual labor and subjective judgment, we propose in this paper a quantitative method that gives a better indication of case content in terms of which articles a given case is more closely associated with...

  13. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RodrМguez-Prieto

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... enhancing safety margins and adding greater precision to quantitative accident prediction [45]. One deterministic methodology is the stringency level (SL) approach, which is recognized as a valuable decision tool in the selection of standardized materials specifications to prevent potential failures [3].

  14. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 20 in ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs ...

  15. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  16. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  17. Determination of mercury and copper in water samples by activation analysis using preconcentration on emission spectroscopic carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    A simple preconcentration procedure for mercury and copper was examined in the activation analysis of water samples. The preconcentration using pure activated carbon has been reported in several papers. The authors found that the carbon powder for emission spectroscopic analysis showed the high purity equivalent to pure activated carbon. The influence of various parameters in adsorption conditions was studied by radioactive tracers 197 Hg and 64 Cu. It was confirmed that 100% of these elements were adsorbed on carbon powders as pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate complexes at an acidity of pH 6 - 8, the temperature of 50 0 C and the stirring time of 30 minutes. This method was applied to the activation analysis of the river water samples taken from the upper stream area of the Arakawa river and the ground water samples taken from the wells of the environs of Tokyo Megalopolis. The carbon powders which adsorbed these elements were filtered, dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Hg concentrations of 0.01 - 0.1 ppb in river water and 0.03 - 1.4 ppb in ground water were obtained as well as the Cu concentrations of 0.3 - 3.0 ppb in ground water. The limits of determination of this method are 0.01 ppb Hg and 0.2 ppb Cu in the case of 1.1 sample of fresh water. (auth.)

  18. Microchromatography of hemoglobins. VIII. A general qualitative and quantitative method in plastic drinking straws and the quantitative analysis of Hb-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, W A; Pace, L A

    1978-03-01

    The microchromatographic procedure for the quantitative analysis of the hemoglobin components in a hemolysate uses columns of DEAE-cellulose in a plastic drinking straw with a glycine-KCN-NaCl developer. Not only may the method be used for the quantitative analysis of Hb-F but also for the analysis of the varied components in mixtures of hemoglobins.

  19. Laser Spectroscopic Analysis of Liquid Water Samples for Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are tracers of choice for water cycle processes in hydrological, atmospheric and ecological studies. The use of isotopes has been limited to some extent because of the relatively high cost of isotope ratio mass spectrometers and the need for specialized operational skills. Here, the results of performance testing of a recently developed laser spectroscopic instrument for measuring stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water samples are described, along with a procedure for instrument installation and operation. Over the last four years, the IAEA Water Resources Programme conducted prototype and production model testing of these instruments and this publication is the outcome of those efforts. One of the main missions of the IAEA is to promote the use of peaceful applications of isotope and nuclear methods in Member States and this publication is intended to facilitate the use of laser absorption based instruments for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses of liquid water samples for hydrological and other studies. The instrument uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy to measure absolute abundances of 2 HHO, HH 18 O, and HHO via laser absorption. Test results using a number of natural and synthetic water standards and samples with a large range of isotope values demonstrate adequate precision and accuracy (e.g. precisions of 1 per mille for δ 2 H and 0.2 per mille for δ 18 O). The laser instrument has much lower initial and maintenance costs than mass spectrometers and is substantially easier to operate. Thus, these instruments have the potential to bring about a paradigm shift in isotope applications by enabling researchers in all fields to measure isotope ratios by themselves. The appendix contains a detailed procedure for the installation and operation of the instrument. Using the procedure, new users should be able to install the instrument in less than two hours. It also provides step

  20. Comparison between infrared and Raman spectroscopic analysis of maturing rabbit cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Mikael J; Saarakkala, Simo; Rieppo, Lassi; Helminen, Heikki J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

    2011-06-01

    The molecular composition of the organic and inorganic matrices of bone undergoes alterations during maturation. The aim of this study was to compare Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy techniques for characterization of the composition of growing and developing bone from young to skeletally mature rabbits. Moreover, the specificity and differences of the techniques for determining bone composition were clarified. The humeri of female New Zealand White rabbits, with age range from young to skeletally mature animals (four age groups, n = 7 per group), were studied. Spectral peak areas, intensities, and ratios related to organic and inorganic matrices of bone were analyzed and compared between the age groups and between FT-IR and Raman microspectroscopic techniques. Specifically, the degree of mineralization, type-B carbonate substitution, crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA), mineral content, and collagen maturity were examined. Significant changes during maturation were observed in various compositional parameters with one or both techniques. Overall, the compositional parameters calculated from the Raman spectra correlated with analogous parameters calculated from the IR spectra. Collagen cross-linking (XLR), as determined through peak fitting and directly from the IR spectra, were highly correlated. The mineral/matrix ratio in the Raman spectra was evaluated with multiple different peaks representing the organic matrix. The results showed high correlation with each other. After comparison with the bone mineral density (BMD) values from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging measurements and crystal size from XRD measurements, it is suggested that Raman microspectroscopy is more sensitive than FT-IR microspectroscopy for the inorganic matrix of the bone. In the literature, similar spectroscopic parameters obtained with FT-IR and NIR Raman microspectroscopic techniques are often compared. According to the present

  1. Quantitative chromatography in the analysis of labelled compounds 1. Quantitative paper chromotography of amino acids by A spot comparison technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Farag, A.N.; El-Gharbawy, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    For the determination of the specific activity of labelled compounds separated by paper sheet chromatography, it was found essential to perfect the quantitative aspect of the paper chromatographic technique. Actually, so far paper chromatography has been used as a separation tool mainly and its use in quantification of the separated materials is by far less studied. In the present work, the quantitative analysis of amino acids by paper sheet chromatography has been carried out by methods, depending on the use of the relative spot area values for correcting the experimental data obtained. The results obtained were good and reproducible. The main advantage of the proposed technique is its extreme simplicity. No complicated equipment of procedures are necessary

  2. Quantitative analysis of Moessbauer backscatter spectra from multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, J.

    1975-01-01

    The quantitative interpretation of Moessbauer backscatter spectra with particular reference to internal conversion electrons has been treated assuming that electron attenuation in a surface film can be satisfactorily described by a simple exponential law. The theory of Krakowski and Miller has been extended to include multi-layer samples, and a relation between the Moessbauer spectrum area and an individual layer thickness derived. As an example, numerical results are obtained for a duplex oxide film grown on pure iron. (Auth.)

  3. Geometrical conditions at the quantitative neutronographic texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobisch, J.; Kleinstueck, K.

    1975-10-01

    The beam geometry for measuring quantitative pole figures by a neutronographic texture diffractometer is explained for transmission and reflection arrangement of spherical samples and sheets. For given dimensions of counter aperture the maximum possible cross sections of the incident beam are calculated as a function of sample dimensions and the Bragg angle theta. Methods for the calculation of absorption factors and volume correction are given. Under special conditions advantages result in the transmission case for sample motion into the direction +α. (author)

  4. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision problems. New quantitative models are developed for these decision problems using a range of mathematical techniques, thereby contributing to the further development of purchasing theory and its appliati...

  5. Quantitative analysis of carbon radiation in edge plasmas of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.F.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Goto, M.; Murakami, I.; Wang, E.R.; Huang, X.L.

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to compare the carbon radiation loss between LHD and tokamaks. Since the radiation from C"3"+ is much smaller than that from C"5"+, it is also interesting to examine the difference in the detached plasma. In addition, it is important to study quantitatively the radiation from each ionization stage of carbon which is uniquely the dominant impurity in most tokamaks and LHD. (J.P.N.)

  6. Pulmonary nodule characterization, including computer analysis and quantitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Koo, Chi Wan; Johnson, Geoffrey B; White, Darin B; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Moynagh, Michael R; Lindell, Rebecca M; Hartman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly detected in computed tomography (CT) chest screening of a high-risk population. The specific visual or quantitative features on CT or other modalities can be used to characterize the likelihood that a nodule is benign or malignant. Visual features on CT such as size, attenuation, location, morphology, edge characteristics, and other distinctive "signs" can be highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis and, in general, be used to determine the probability that a specific nodule is benign or malignant. Change in size, attenuation, and morphology on serial follow-up CT, or features on other modalities such as nuclear medicine studies or MRI, can also contribute to the characterization of lung nodules. Imaging analytics can objectively and reproducibly quantify nodule features on CT, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some quantitative techniques show great promise in helping to differentiate benign from malignant lesions or to stratify the risk of aggressive versus indolent neoplasm. In this article, we (1) summarize the visual characteristics, descriptors, and signs that may be helpful in management of nodules identified on screening CT, (2) discuss current quantitative and multimodality techniques that aid in the differentiation of nodules, and (3) highlight the power, pitfalls, and limitations of these various techniques.

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic studies of cadmium (II) chloride complex with 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudani, S. [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ferretti, V. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Structural Diffractometry, via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Jelsch, C. [CRM2, CNRS, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France); Lefebvre, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique de Surface (LCOMS), Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nasr, C. Ben, E-mail: cherif_bennasr@yahoo.fr [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel cadmium (II) 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine complex, Cd{sub 4}Cl{sub 10}(C{sub 6}H{sub 14}NO){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, have been reported. The atomic arrangement can be described as built up by an anionic framework, formed by edge sharing CdCl{sub 6} and CdCl{sub 5}O octahedral linear chains spreading along the a-axis. These chains are interconnected by water molecules via O–H⋯Cl and O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to (011) plane. The organic cations are inserted between layers through C–H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Investigation of intermolecular interactions and crystal packing via Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that the H{sub C}⋯Cl and H{sub C}⋯H{sub C} intermolecular interactions are the most abundant contacts of the organic cation in the crystal packing. The statistical analysis of crystal contacts reveals the driving forces in the packing formation. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the NMR peaks and of the IR bands.

  8. Quantitative phase analysis of a highly textured industrial sample using a Rietveld profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eunjoo; Huh, Moo-Young; Seong, Baek-Seok; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2001-01-01

    For the quantitative phase analysis on highly textured two-phase materials, samples with known weight fractions of zirconium and aluminum were prepared. Strong texture components prevailed in both zirconium and aluminum sheet. The diffraction patterns of samples were measured by the neutron and refined by the Rietveld method. The preferred orientation correction of diffraction patterns was carried out by means of recalculated pole figures from the ODF. The present Rietveld analysis of various samples with different weight fractions showed that the absolute error of the calculated weight fractions was less than 7.1%. (author)

  9. Analytical applications of a recycled flow nuclear magnetic resonance system: quantitative analysis of slowly relaxing nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, D.A. Jr.; Lee, R.W.K.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of a recycled flow system for the efficient quantitative analysis of NMR spectra is demonstrated. Requisite conditions are first established for the quantitative flow experiment and then applied to a variety of compounds. An application of the technique to determination of the average polymer chain length for a silicone polymer by quantitative flow 29 Si NMR is also presented. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  10. The Quantitative Analysis of a team game performance made by men basketball teams at OG 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kocián, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Title: The quantitative analysis of e team game performance made by men basketball teams at Olympis games 2008 Aims: Find reason successes and failures of teams in Olympis game play-off using quantitative (numerical) observation of selected game statistics. Method: The thesis was made on the basic a quantitative (numerical) observation of videorecordings using KVANTÝM. Results: Obtained selected statistic desribed the most essentials events for team winning or loss. Keywords: basketball, team...

  11. Development and analysis of spectroscopic learning tools and the light and spectroscopy concept inventory for introductory college astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardar, Erin M.

    Electromagnetic radiation is the fundamental carrier of astronomical information. Spectral features serve as the fingerprints of the universe, revealing many important properties of objects in the cosmos such as temperature, elemental compositions, and relative motion. Because of its importance to astronomical research, the nature of light and the electromagnetic spectrum is by far the most universally covered topic in astronomy education. Yet, to the surprise and disappointment of instructors, many students struggle to understand underlying fundamental concepts related to light and spectroscopic phenomena. This dissertation describes research into introductory college astronomy students' understanding of light and spectroscopy concepts, through the development and analysis of both instructional materials and an assessment instrument. The purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to develop a novel suite of spectroscopic learning tools that enhance student understanding of light and spectroscopy and (2) to design and validate a Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) with the sensitivity to distinguish the relative effectiveness of various teaching interventions within the context of introductory college astronomy. Through a systematic investigation that included multiple rounds of clinical interviews, open-ended written surveys, and multiple-choice testing, introductory college astronomy students' commonly held misconceptions and reasoning difficulties were explored for concepts relating to: (1) The nature of the electromagnetic spectrum, including the interrelationships of wavelength, frequency, energy, and speed; (2) interpretation of Doppler shift; (3) properties of blackbody radiation; and (4) the connection between spectral features and underlying physical processes. These difficulties guided the development of instructional materials including six unique "homelab" exercises, a binocular spectrometer, a spectral analysis software tool, and the 26

  12. A Strategy for Identifying Quantitative Trait Genes Using Gene Expression Analysis and Causal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishikawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting complex diseases and other quantitative traits have been reported in humans and model animals. However, the genetic architecture of these traits remains elusive due to the difficulty in identifying causal quantitative trait genes (QTGs for common QTL with relatively small phenotypic effects. A traditional strategy based on techniques such as positional cloning does not always enable identification of a single candidate gene for a QTL of interest because it is difficult to narrow down a target genomic interval of the QTL to a very small interval harboring only one gene. A combination of gene expression analysis and statistical causal analysis can greatly reduce the number of candidate genes. This integrated approach provides causal evidence that one of the candidate genes is a putative QTG for the QTL. Using this approach, I have recently succeeded in identifying a single putative QTG for resistance to obesity in mice. Here, I outline the integration approach and discuss its usefulness using my studies as an example.

  13. A Strategy for Identifying Quantitative Trait Genes Using Gene Expression Analysis and Causal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-11-27

    Large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting complex diseases and other quantitative traits have been reported in humans and model animals. However, the genetic architecture of these traits remains elusive due to the difficulty in identifying causal quantitative trait genes (QTGs) for common QTL with relatively small phenotypic effects. A traditional strategy based on techniques such as positional cloning does not always enable identification of a single candidate gene for a QTL of interest because it is difficult to narrow down a target genomic interval of the QTL to a very small interval harboring only one gene. A combination of gene expression analysis and statistical causal analysis can greatly reduce the number of candidate genes. This integrated approach provides causal evidence that one of the candidate genes is a putative QTG for the QTL. Using this approach, I have recently succeeded in identifying a single putative QTG for resistance to obesity in mice. Here, I outline the integration approach and discuss its usefulness using my studies as an example.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Anomalies in Subsurface Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2017-04-01

    problem was the basis for an inverse problem, i.e. revealing depth of a body occurrence, its location in a space as well as determining physical properties. At the same time, this method has not received a wide practical application taking into account complexity of real geological media. Careful analysis piezo- and seismoelectric anomalies shows the possibility of application of quantitative analysis of these effects advanced methodologies developed in magnetic prospecting for complex physical-geological conditions (Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001, 2010; Eppelbaum, 2010; 2011, 2015). Employment of these methodologies (improved modifications of tangents, characteristic points areal methods) for obtaining quantitative characteristics of ore bodies, environmental features and archaeological targets (models of horizontal circular cylinder, sphere, thin bed, thick bed and thin horizontal plate were utilized) have demonstrated their effectiveness. Case study at the archaeological site Tel Kara Hadid Field piezoelectric observations were conducted at the ancient archaeological site Tel Kara Hadid with gold-quartz mineralization in southern Israel within the Precambrian terrain at the northern extension of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Neishtadt et al., 2006). The area of the archaeological site is located eight kilometers north of the town of Eilat, in an area of strong industrial noise. Ancient river alluvial terraces (extremely heterogeneous at a local scale, varying from boulders to silt) cover the quartz veins and complicate their identification. Piezoelectric measurements conducted over a quartz vein covered by surface sediments (approximately of 0.4 m thickness) produced a sharp (500 μV ) piezoelectric anomaly. Values recorded over the host rocks (clays and shales of basic composition) were close to zero. The observed piezoelectric anomaly was successfully interpreted by the use of methodologies developed in magnetic prospecting. For effective integration of piezo- and

  15. Quantitative analysis of water heavy by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Gil, V.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has been applied to a wide variety of quantitative problems. A typical example has been the determination of isotopic composition. In this paper two different analytical methods for the determination of water in deuterium oxide are described. The first one, employs acetonitril as an internal standard compound and in the second one calibration curve of signal integral curve versus amount of D 2 O is constructed. Both methods give results comparable to those of mass spectrometry of IR spectroscopy. (Author) 5 refs

  16. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-01-01

    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s −1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is c p = 0.15. The v 3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively. (paper)

  17. Risk management and analysis: risk assessment (qualitative and quantitative)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Mazareanu

    2007-01-01

    We use to define risk as the possibility of suffering a loss. Starting this, risk management is defined as a business process whose purpose is to ensure that the organization is protected against risks and their effects. In order to prioritize, to develop a response plan and after that to monitor the identified risks we need to asses them. But at this point a question is born: should I choose a qualitative approach or a quantitative one? This paper will make a short overview over the risk eva...

  18. Correlation of quantitative histopathological morphology and quantitative radiological analysis during aseptic loosening of hip endoprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Kriegsmann, J; Eckardt, A; Delank, K-S; Drees, P; Hansen, T; Otto, M

    2006-01-01

    Aseptic hip prosthesis loosening is the most important long-term complication in total hip arthroplasty. Polyethylene (PE) wear is the dominant etiologic factor in aseptic loosening, which together with other factors induces mechanisms resulting in bone loss, and finally in implant loosening. The single-shot radiograph analysis (EBRA, abbreviation for the German term "Einzel-Bild-Röntgenanalyse") is a computerized method for early radiological prediction of aseptic loosening. In this study, EBRA parameters were correlated with histomorphological parameters of the periprosthetic membrane. Periprosthetic membranes obtained from 19 patients during revision surgery of loosened ABG I-type total hip pros-theses were analyzed histologically and morphometrically. The pre-existing EBRA parameters, the thickness of the PE debris lay-er and the dimension of inclination and anteversion, were compared with the density of macrophages and giant cells. Addi-tionally, the semiquantitatively determined density of lymphocytes, plasma cells, giant cells and the size of the necrotic areas were correlated with the EBRA results. All periprosthetic membranes were classified as debris-induced type membranes. We found a positive correlation between the number of giant cells and the thickness of the PE debris layer. There was no significant correlation between the number of macrophages or all semiquantitative parameters and EBRA parameters. The number of giant cells decreased with implant duration. The morphometrically measured number of foreign body giant cells more closely reflects the results of the EBRA. The semiquantitative estimation of giant cell density could not substitute for the morphometrical analysis. The density of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and the size of necrotic areas did not correlate with the EBRA parameters, indicating that there is no correlation with aseptic loosening.

  19. MCM - 2 and Ki - 67 as proliferation markers in renal cell carcinoma: A quantitative and semi - quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Muhammad Zain; Nagi, Abdul Hanan; Naseem, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most important histological parameter to predict prognosis in a patient of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variation giving rise to need of a parameter that not only correlates with nuclear grade but is also objective and reproducible. Proliferation is the measure of aggressiveness of a tumour and it is strongly correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grade, clinical survival and recurrence in RCC. Ki-67 is conventionally used to assess proliferation. Mini-chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM-2) is a lesser known marker of proliferation and identifies a greater proliferation faction. This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of MCM-2 by comparing it with Fuhrman nuclear grade and Ki-67. n=50 cases of various ages, stages, histological subtypes and grades of RCC were selected for this study. Immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67(MIB-1, Mouse monoclonal antibody, Dako) and MCM-2 (Mouse monoclonal antibody, Thermo) was performed on the paraffin embedded blocks in the department of Morbid anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Labeling indices (LI) were determined by two pathologists independently using quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to determine a correlation of proliferation markers with grade, and Pearson's correlate was used to determine correlation between the two proliferation markers. Labeling index of MCM-2 (median=24.29%) was found to be much higher than Ki-67(median=13.05%). Both markers were significantly related with grade (p=0.00; Kruskall-Wallis test). LI of MCM-2 was found to correlate significantly with LI of Ki-67(r=0.0934;p=0.01 with Pearson's correlate). Results of semi-quantitative analysis correlated well with quantitative analysis. Both Ki-67 and MCM-2 are markers of proliferation which are closely linked to grade. Therefore, they

  20. The usefulness of 3D quantitative analysis with using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Park, Youn Soo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MRI 3D quantitative analysis for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head in comparison with MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen. For 3 months at our hospital, 14 femoral head specimens with osteonecrosis were obtained after total hip arthroplasty. The patients preoperative MRIs were retrospectively reviewed for quantitative analysis of the size of the necrosis. Each necrotic fraction of the femoral head was measured by 2D quantitative analysis with using mid-coronal and mid-sagittal MRIs, and by 3D quantitative analysis with using serial continuous coronal MRIs and 3D reconstruction software. The necrotic fraction of the specimen was physically measured by the fluid displacement method. The necrotic fraction according to MRI 2D or 3D quantitative analysis was compared with that of the specimen by using Spearman's correlation test. On the correlative analysis, the necrotic fraction by MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen showed moderate correlation (r = 0.657); on the other hand, the necrotic fraction by MRI 3D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.952) (ρ < 0.05). MRI 3D quantitative analysis was more accurate than 2D quantitative analysis using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Therefore, it may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome and deciding the proper treatment option

  1. Micro-computer system for quantitative image analysis of damage microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Kohno, Y.; Satoh, K.; Igata, N.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis of radiation induced damage microstructure is very important in evaluating material behaviors in radiation environment. But, quite a few improvement have been seen in quantitative analysis of damage microstructure in these decades. The objective of this work is to develop new system for quantitative image analysis of damage microstructure which could improve accuracy and efficiency of data sampling and processing and could enable to get new information about mutual relations among dislocations, precipitates, cavities, grain boundaries, etc. In this system, data sampling is done with X-Y digitizer. The cavity microstructure in dual-ion irradiated 316 SS is analyzed and the effectiveness of this system is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative analysis of the secretion of the MCP family of chemokines by muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) method for quantitative analysis resulted in the identification and generation of quantitative profiles of 59 growth factors and cytokines, including 9 classical chemokines. The members of the CC chemokine family of proteins such as monocyte chemotactic proteins 1, 2...

  3. Quantitative analysis of target components by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mispelaar, V.G. van; Tas, A.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Asten, A.C. van

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC) is still rarely reported. This is largely due to a lack of suitable software. The objective of the present study is to generate quantitative results from a large GC x GC data set, consisting of 32 chromatograms.

  4. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods: TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results: Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for dete...

  5. Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Quantitative Analysis of Rosa rugosa by UPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanawar Mansur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD was developed for quantitative analysis of five active compounds and chemical fingerprint analysis of Rosa rugosa. Ten batches of R. rugosa collected from different plantations in the Xinjiang region of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used UPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA of China. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regression (R2 = 0.9995 within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 94.2%–103.8%. The similarities of liquid chromatography fingerprints of 10 batches of R. rugosa were more than 0.981. The developed UPLC fingerprint method is simple, reliable, and validated for the quality control and identification of R. rugosa. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive ingredients in the R. rugosa samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the UPLC fingerprint, as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis, can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of R. rugosa.

  6. Transportation and quantitative analysis of socio-economic development of relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Transportation has a close relationship with socio-economic. This article selects the indicators which can measure the development of transportation and socio-economic, using the method of correlation analysis, regression analysis, intensity of transportation analysis and transport elastic analysis, to analyze the relationship between them quantitatively, so that it has the fact guiding sense in the national development planning for the future.

  7. Toward best practices in data processing and analysis for intact biotherapeutics by MS in quantitative bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, John F; Kehler, Jonathan R; Karlinsey, Molly Z; Summerfield, Scott G

    2017-12-01

    Typically, quantitation of biotherapeutics from biological matrices by LC-MS is based on a surrogate peptide approach to determine molecule concentration. Recent efforts have focused on quantitation of the intact protein molecules or larger mass subunits of monoclonal antibodies. To date, there has been limited guidance for large or intact protein mass quantitation for quantitative bioanalysis. Intact- and subunit-level analyses of biotherapeutics from biological matrices are performed at 12-25 kDa mass range with quantitation data presented. Linearity, bias and other metrics are presented along with recommendations made on the viability of existing quantitation approaches. This communication is intended to start a discussion around intact protein data analysis and processing, recognizing that other published contributions will be required.

  8. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160...... phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant...... and rigor mortis development in PM muscle. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The manuscript describes the characterization of postmortem (PM) porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem from the perspective of protein phosphorylation using advanced phosphoproteomic techniques. In the study, the authors employed...

  9. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two......Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we...

  10. Dynamic Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Plant Phenomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zitong; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2015-12-01

    Advanced platforms have recently become available for automatic and systematic quantification of plant growth and development. These new techniques can efficiently produce multiple measurements of phenotypes over time, and introduce time as an extra dimension to quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. Functional mapping utilizes a class of statistical models for identifying QTLs associated with the growth characteristics of interest. A major benefit of functional mapping is that it integrates information over multiple timepoints, and therefore could increase the statistical power for QTL detection. We review the current development of computationally efficient functional mapping methods which provide invaluable tools for analyzing large-scale timecourse data that are readily available in our post-genome era. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Matrine in Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to quantitatively determine matrine in liquid crystal nanoparticles. The chromatographic method is carried out using an isocratic system. The mobile phase was composed of methanol-PBS(pH6.8-triethylamine (50 : 50 : 0.1% with a flow rate of 1 mL/min with SPD-20A UV/vis detector and the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. The linearity of matrine is in the range of 1.6 to 200.0 μg/mL. The regression equation is y=10706x-2959 (R2=1.0. The average recovery is 101.7%; RSD=2.22%  (n=9. This method provides a simple and accurate strategy to determine matrine in liquid crystalline nanoparticle.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Allelopathy in Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Courtois, B; Olofsdotter, M

    2008-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. was investigated under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. A population of 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived through single-seed descent from a cross between the indica cultivar AC...... the population phenotype was normally distributed. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were located on chromosomes 4 and 7, explaining 20% of the phenotypic variation. A second relay seeding experiment was set up, this time including charcoal in the perlite. This screening showed that the allelopathic rice...... varieties did not have any effect on the weed species when grown with charcoal, the charcoal reversing the effect of any potential allelochemicals exuded from the rice roots. The second phenotypic experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots. Thirteen QTLs were detected for four different...

  13. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  14. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Building and Interpreting Clusters from Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219

  16. Application of non-quantitative modelling in the analysis of a network warfare environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available based on the use of secular associations, chronological origins, linked concepts, categorizations and context specifications. This paper proposes the use of non-quantitative methods through a morphological analysis to better explore and define...

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom 04 - 06: Opportunities to Apply Quantitative Methods to Intelligence Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Eric C

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the need for a quantitative analytical capability within organizations and staffs that provide intelligence analysis to Army, Joint, and Coalition Force headquarters...

  18. Quantitative analysis by microchip capillary electrophoresis – current limitations and problem-solving strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.; Götz, S.; Künnemeyer, Jens; Karst, U.

    2008-01-01

    Obstacles and possible solutions for the application of microchip capillary electrophoresis in quantitative analysis are described and critically discussed. Differences between the phenomena occurring during conventional capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis are

  19. Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuba, J.; Dziedzic, A.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials, with use of internal standard, has been presented. The errors committed by determining the content of particular phases have been also given. (author)

  20. Spectroscopic analysis on the binding interaction between tetracycline hydrochloride and bovine proteins β-casein, α-lactalbumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Hongna; Tang, Lin; Gao, Xin; Jia, Jingjing; Lv, Henghui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the binding interaction between tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) and bovine proteins β-casein (β-CN), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) in aqueous solution by multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence showed that TCH effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of bovine proteins via static quenching, while there was a single class of binding site on protein. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that electrostatic forces played major roles in the interaction between β-CN and TCH, whereas α-LA-TCH complex were stabilized by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Moreover, circular dichroism spectra (CD spectra), ultraviolet visible absorption spectra (UV–vis absorption spectra), and fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra results indicated the secondary structure of bovine proteins was changed in the presence of TCH with the α-helix percentage of protein-TCH complexes decreased. Molecular modeling analysis supported the experimental results well. In addition, the research of surface hydrophobicity further verified tertiary structure of proteins was changed in the presence of TCH and the possible changes of protein function. These results achieved from experiments may be valuable in the milk industry and food safety.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis on the binding interaction between tetracycline hydrochloride and bovine proteins β-casein, α-lactalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Hongna; Tang, Lin, E-mail: tanglin@sdnu.edu.cn; Gao, Xin; Jia, Jingjing; Lv, Henghui

    2016-10-15

    We investigated the binding interaction between tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) and bovine proteins β-casein (β-CN), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) in aqueous solution by multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence showed that TCH effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of bovine proteins via static quenching, while there was a single class of binding site on protein. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that electrostatic forces played major roles in the interaction between β-CN and TCH, whereas α-LA-TCH complex were stabilized by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Moreover, circular dichroism spectra (CD spectra), ultraviolet visible absorption spectra (UV–vis absorption spectra), and fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra results indicated the secondary structure of bovine proteins was changed in the presence of TCH with the α-helix percentage of protein-TCH complexes decreased. Molecular modeling analysis supported the experimental results well. In addition, the research of surface hydrophobicity further verified tertiary structure of proteins was changed in the presence of TCH and the possible changes of protein function. These results achieved from experiments may be valuable in the milk industry and food safety.

  2. Optical gradients in a-Si:H thin films detected using real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry with virtual interface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junda, Maxwell M.; Karki Gautam, Laxmi; Collins, Robert W.; Podraza, Nikolas J.

    2018-04-01

    Virtual interface analysis (VIA) is applied to real time spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements taken during the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films using various hydrogen dilutions of precursor gases and on different substrates during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A procedure is developed for optimizing VIA model configurations by adjusting sampling depth into the film and the analyzed spectral range such that model fits with the lowest possible error function are achieved. The optimal VIA configurations are found to be different depending on hydrogen dilution, substrate composition, and instantaneous film thickness. A depth profile in the optical properties of the films is then extracted that results from a variation in an optical absorption broadening parameter in a parametric a-Si:H model as a function of film thickness during deposition. Previously identified relationships are used linking this broadening parameter to the overall shape of the optical properties. This parameter is observed to converge after about 2000-3000 Å of accumulated thickness in all layers, implying that similar order in the a-Si:H network can be reached after sufficient thicknesses. In the early stages of growth, however, significant variations in broadening resulting from substrate- and processing-induced order are detected and tracked as a function of bulk layer thickness yielding an optical property depth profile in the final film. The best results are achieved with the simplest film-on-substrate structures while limitations are identified in cases where films have been deposited on more complex substrate structures.

  3. The effect of synthesis temperature on the formation of hydrotalcites in Bayer liquor: a vibrational spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sara J; Frost, Ray L

    2009-07-01

    The seawater neutralization process is currently used in the alumina industry to reduce the pH and dissolved metal concentrations in bauxite refinery residues through the precipitation of Mg, Al, and Ca hydroxide and carbonate minerals. This neutralization method is very similar to the co-precipitation method used to synthesize hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2(OH)16CO3.4H2O). This study looks at the effect of temperature on the type of precipitates that form from the seawater neutralization process of Bayer liquor. The Bayer precipitates have been characterized by a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The mineralogical composition of Bayer precipitates largely includes hydrotalcite, hydromagnesite, and calcium carbonate species. Analysis with XRD determined that Bayer hydrotalcites that are synthesized at 55 degrees C have a larger interlayer distance, indicating that more anions are removed from Bayer liquor. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques have identified an increase in hydrogen bond strength for precipitates formed at 55 degrees C, suggesting the formation of a more stable Bayer hydrotalcite. Raman spectroscopy identified the intercalation of sulfate and carbonate anions into Bayer hydrotalcites using these synthesis conditions.

  4. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Dai, Jie; Lametsch, René

    2014-06-25

    Protein phosphorylation can regulate most of the important processes in muscle, such as metabolism and contraction. The postmortem (PM) metabolism and rigor mortis have essential effects on meat quality. In order to identify and characterize the protein phosphorylation events involved in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160 phosphoproteins with 784 phosphorylation sites. Among these, 184 phosphorylation sites on 93 proteins had their phosphorylation levels significantly changed. The proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction were the two largest clusters of phosphoproteins with significantly changed phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant changes at the phosphorylation level but were relatively stable at the total protein level, suggesting that protein phosphorylation may have important roles in meat quality development through the regulation of proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction, thereby affecting glycolysis and rigor mortis development in PM muscle. The manuscript describes the characterization of postmortem (PM) porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem from the perspective of protein phosphorylation using advanced phosphoproteomic techniques. In the study, the authors employed the dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment and LC-MS/MS strategy. This was the first high-throughput quantitative phosphoproteomic study in PM muscle of farm animals. In the work, both the proteome

  6. Quantitative analysis of agricultural land use change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jieming; Dong, Wenjie; Wang, Shuyu; Fu, Yuqing

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop sown area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; During 1949-2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country's eastern and western regions. The most rapid increase and decrease of agricultural land were observed in Xinjiang and North China respectively, Northwest China and South China is also changed rapid. The variation trend before 1980 differed significantly from that after 1980. Agricultural land was affected by both natural and social factors, such as regional climate and environmental changes, population growth, economic development, and implementation of policies. In this paper, the effects of temperature and urbanization on the coverage of agriculture land are evaluated, and the results show that the urbanization can greatly affects the amount of agriculture land in South China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Southwest China. From 1980 to 2009, the extent of agricultural land use had increased as the surplus capacity had decreased. Still, large remaining potential space is available, but the future utilization of agricultural land should be carried out with scientific planning and management for the sustainable development.

  7. [Device for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Hideko; Kato, Jitsu; Ogawa, Setsuro; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    The article describes an analysing device that measures the perception and intensity of pain quantitatively. While it is not necessarily true that psychological aspect is totally irrelevant to pain measurement, this device is remarkable in that it is capable of measuring the intensity of pain felt by the patient more objectively by using electric stimuli. The feature of this device is that it uses a non-pain heteresthesia for measuring the intensity of pain. The device is compact, light-weight, and portable. Unlike VAS that requires only a scale, the device requires a person to carry out the measurement. Nevertheless, as the National Health Insurance (NHI) coverage has been approved, introduction of the device may be facilitated in terms of budget for the purchase and labor. The device is useful to better understand not only the intensity of pain but also the pathological conditions, resulting in more appropriate treatment, by (1) comparing degree of pain or VAS values taken by a multicenter study with those of a patient; (2) using both degree of pain and VAS; and (3) multiple measurements of degree of pain and VAS in one case.

  8. Quantitative analysis of impact measurements using dynamic load cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent J. Maranzano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is used to estimate material properties from a short duration transient impact force measured by dropping spheres onto rectangular coupons fixed to a dynamic load cell. The contact stress between the dynamic load cell surface and the projectile are modeled using Hertzian contact mechanics. Due to the short impact time relative to the load cell dynamics, an additional Kelvin–Voigt element is included in the model to account for the finite response time of the piezoelectric crystal. Calculations with and without the Kelvin–Voigt element are compared to experimental data collected from combinations of polymeric spheres and polymeric and metallic surfaces. The results illustrate that the inclusion of the Kelvin–Voigt element qualitatively captures the post impact resonance and non-linear behavior of the load cell signal and quantitatively improves the estimation of the Young's elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. Mathematically, the additional KV element couples one additional differential equation to the Hertzian spring-dashpot equation. The model can be numerically integrated in seconds using standard numerical techniques allowing for its use as a rapid technique for the estimation of material properties. Keywords: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Dynamic load cell

  9. Quantitative risk analysis offshore-Human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espen Skogdalen, Jon; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) are one of the main tools for risk management within the Norwegian and UK oil and gas industry. Much criticism has been given to the limitations related to the QRA-models and that the QRAs do not include human and organizational factors (HOF-factors). Norway and UK offshore legislation and guidelines require that the HOF-factors are included in the QRAs. A study of 15 QRAs shows that the factors are to some extent included, and there are large differences between the QRAs. The QRAs are categorized into four levels according to the findings. Level 1 QRAs do not describe or comment on the HOF-factors at all. Relevant research projects have been conducted to fulfill the requirements of Level 3 analyses. At this level, there is a systematic collection of data related to HOF. The methods are systematic and documented, and the QRAs are adjusted. None of the QRAs fulfill the Level 4 requirements. Level 4 QRAs include the model and describe the HOF-factors as well as explain how the results should be followed up in the overall risk management. Safety audits by regulatory authorities are probably necessary to point out the direction for QRA and speed up the development.

  10. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author)

  11. Quantitative XRD analysis of {110} twin density in biotic aragonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michio; Kim, Hyejin; Mukai, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2012-12-01

    {110} Twin densities in biotic aragonite have been estimated quantitatively from the peak widths of specific reflections in powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, as well as direct confirmation of the twins using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Influence of the twin density on the peak widths in the XRD pattern was simulated using DIFFaX program, regarding (110) twin as interstratification of two types of aragonite unit layers with mirrored relationship. The simulation suggested that the twin density can be estimated from the difference of the peak widths between 111 and 021, or between 221 and 211 reflections. Biotic aragonite in the crossed-lamellar microstructure (three species) and nacreous microstructure (four species) of molluscan shells, fish otoliths (two species), and a coral were investigated. The XRD analyses indicated that aragonite crystals in the crossed-lamellar microstructure of the three species contain high density of the twins, which is consistent with the TEM examination. On the other hand, aragonite in the nacre of the four species showed almost no difference of the peak widths between the paired reflections, indicating low twin densities. The results for the fish otoliths were varied between the species. Such variation of the twin density in biotic aragonites may reflect different schemes of crystal growth in biomineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  13. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the thermal damping of coherent axion oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Unruh and Wald have recently discussed a new mechanism for damping coherent axion oscillations, ''thermal damping,'' which occurs due to the temperature dependence of the axion mass and neutrino viscosity. We investigate the effect quantitatively and find that the present energy density in axions can be written as rho/sub a/ = rho/sub a0//(1+J/sub UW/), where rho/sub a/0 is what the axion energy density would be in the absence of the thermal-damping effect and J/sub UW/ is an integral whose integrand depends upon (dm/sub a//dT) 2 . As a function of f(equivalentPeccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale) J/sub UW/ achieves its maximum value for f/sub PQ/approx. =3 x 10 12 GeV; unless the axion mass turn-on is very sudden, Vertical Bar(T/m/sub a/)(dm/sub a//dT)Vertical Bar>>1, J/sub UW/ is <<1, implying that this damping mechanism is not significant

  15. Quantitative analysis of minerals by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroluongo, L.R.V.; Veiga, M.M. da

    1982-01-01

    Considerations about the X-ray diffraction technique for quantitative analyses are made; some experiments carried out at CETEM - Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) with synthetic samples and real samples of diatomites (from northeastern region of Brazil) are described. Quartz quantification has been a problem for analytical chemists and is of great importance to the industries which use this raw material. Comments are made about the main factors influencing the intensity of diffracted X-rays, such as: the crystallinity of the mineral phase; the granulometry, the preferential orientation; sample preparation and pressing, the chemical composition of standards and experimental analytical conditions. Several analytical methods used are described: direct measurement of the height or area of a peak resulting from a particular reflection and comparison with a pre-calibrated curve; method of sequential addition of the mineral of interest in the sample and extrapolation of results for ZERO addition; methods of external and internal standards. (C.L.B.) [pt

  16. Quantitative analysis of complexes in electron irradiated CZ silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Ohyama, H.; Goto, Y.; Sugiyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    Complexes in helium or electron irradiated silicon are quantitatively analyzed by highly sensitive and accurate infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. Carbon concentration (1x10 15 -1x10 17 cm -3 ) and helium dose (5x10 12 -5x10 13 cm -2 ) or electron dose (1x10 15 -1x10 17 cm -2 ) are changed by two orders of magnitude in relatively low regime compared to the previous works. It is demonstrated that the carbon-related complex in low carbon concentration silicon of commercial grade with low electron dose can be detected clearly. Concentration of these complexes is estimated. It is clarified that the complex configuration and thermal behavior in low carbon and low dose samples is simple and almost confined within the individual complex family compared to those in high concentration and high dose samples. Well-established complex behavior in electron-irradiated sample is compared to that in He-irradiated samples, obtained by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) or cathodoluminescence (CL), which had close relation to the Si power device performance

  17. Quantitative analysis of task selection for brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera, Alberto; Gómez, Vicenç; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. To assess quantitatively the impact of task selection in the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Approach. We consider the task-pairs derived from multi-class BCI imagery movement tasks in three different datasets. We analyze for the first time the benefits of task selection on a large-scale basis (109 users) and evaluate the possibility of transferring task-pair information across days for a given subject. Main results. Selecting the subject-dependent optimal task-pair among three different imagery movement tasks results in approximately 20% potential increase in the number of users that can be expected to control a binary BCI. The improvement is observed with respect to the best task-pair fixed across subjects. The best task-pair selected for each subject individually during a first day of recordings is generally a good task-pair in subsequent days. In general, task learning from the user side has a positive influence in the generalization of the optimal task-pair, but special attention should be given to inexperienced subjects. Significance. These results add significant evidence to existing literature that advocates task selection as a necessary step towards usable BCIs. This contribution motivates further research focused on deriving adaptive methods for task selection on larger sets of mental tasks in practical online scenarios.

  18. Quantitative Performance Analysis of the SPEC OMPM2001 Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Aslot

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of modern computer systems has evolved to allow easy access to multiprocessor systems by supporting multiple processors on a single physical package. As the multiprocessor hardware evolves, new ways of programming it are also developed. Some inventions may merely be adopting and standardizing the older paradigms. One such evolving standard for programming shared-memory parallel computers is the OpenMP API. The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC has created a suite of parallel programs called SPEC OMP to compare and evaluate modern shared-memory multiprocessor systems using the OpenMP standard. We have studied these benchmarks in detail to understand their performance on a modern architecture. In this paper, we present detailed measurements of the benchmarks. We organize, summarize, and display our measurements using a Quantitative Model. We present a detailed discussion and derivation of the model. Also, we discuss the important loops in the SPEC OMPM2001 benchmarks and the reasons for less than ideal speedup on our platform.

  19. A CGE analysis for quantitative evaluation of electricity market changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Risk and uncertainty entailed by electricity industry privatization impose a heavy burden on the political determination. In this sense, ex ante analyses are important in order to investigate the economic effects of privatization or liberalization in the electricity industry. For the purpose of fulfilling these quantitative analyses, a novel approach is developed, incorporating a top-down and bottom-up model that takes into account economic effects and technological constraints simultaneously. This study also examines various counterfactual scenarios after Korean electricity industry reform through the integrated framework. Simulation results imply that authorities should prepare an improved regulatory system and policy measures such as forward contracts for industry reform, in order to promote competition in the distribution sector as well as the generation sector. -- Highlights: •A novel approach is proposed for incorporating a top-down and bottom-up model. •This study examines various counterfactual scenarios after Korean electricity industry reform. •An improved regulatory system and policy measures are required before the reform

  20. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  1. Spectroscopic analysis in the virtual observatory environment with SPLAT-VO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škoda, Petr; Draper, P.; Neves, M.C.; Andrešič, D.; Jenness, T.

    7–8, November–December (2014), s. 108-120 ISSN 2213-1337 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08195S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : spectral analysis * virtual observatory Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...

  3. Using Raman spectroscopic imaging for non-destructive analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boros, Evelin; Porse, Peter Bak; Nielsen, Inga

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples with concentr...

  4. Application of independent component analysis to H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging exams of brain tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo de Edelenyi, F.; Simonetti, A.W.; Postma, G.; Huo, R.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The low spatial resolution of clinical H-1 MRSI leads to partial volume effects. To overcome this problem, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) on a set of H-1 MRSI exams of brain turnours. With this method, tissue types that yield statistically independent spectra can be separated. Up to

  5. [Quantitative spectrum analysis of characteristic gases of spontaneous combustion coal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun-Tao; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Luo, Hai-Zhu; Sun, Yong

    2011-09-01

    Aimed at the characteristics of spontaneous combustion gas such as a variety of gases, lou limit of detection, and critical requirement of safety, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis is presented to analyze characteristic gases of spontaneous combustion In this paper, analysis method is introduced at first by combing characteristics of absorption spectra of analyte and analysis requirement. Parameter setting method, sample preparation, feature variable abstract and analysis model building are taken into consideration. The methods of sample preparation, feature abstraction and analysis model are introduced in detail. And then, eleven kinds of gases were tested with Tensor 27 spectrometer. CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iC4H10, nC4H10, C2 H4, C3 H6, C3 H2, SF6, CO and CO2 were included. The optical path length was 10 cm while the spectra resolution was set as 1 cm(-1). The testing results show that the detection limit of all analytes is less than 2 x 10(-6). All the detection limits fit the measurement requirement of spontaneous combustion gas, which means that FTIR may be an ideal instrument and the analysis method used in this paper is competent for spontaneous combustion gas measurement on line.

  6. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  7. Clays as green catalysts in the cholesterol esterification: spectroscopic characterization and polymorphs identification by thermal analysis methods. An interdisciplinary laboratorial proposal for the undergraduate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Teresa M R.; Nunes, Rui M. D.; Pereira, Mariette M.; Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that enables the professor to introduce the problematic of sustainable development in pharmaceutical chemistry to undergraduate students is proposed, using a simple synthetic procedure. Cholesteryl acetate is prepared by the esterification of cholesterol using Montmorillonite K10 as heterogeneous catalyst. Cholesterol and cholesteryl acetate are characterized by spectroscopic ( 1 H RMN, 13 C RMN, FTIR) and thermal analysis techniques. The thermal methods are used to introduce the concepts of polymorphism and the nature of mesophases. (author)

  8. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  9. Stable Isotope Quantitative N-Glycan Analysis by Liquid Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Stefan; Albrecht, Simone; Váradi, Csaba; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Liquid phase separation analysis and subsequent quantitation remains a challenging task for protein-derived oligosaccharides due to their inherent structural complexity and diversity. Incomplete resolution or co-detection of multiple glycan species complicates peak area-based quantitation and associated statistical analysis when optical detection methods are used. The approach outlined herein describes the utilization of stable isotope variants of commonly used fluorescent tags that allow for mass-based glycan identification and relative quantitation following separation by liquid chromatography (LC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Comparability assessment of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides is performed by derivatization with commercially available isotope variants of 2-aminobenzoic acid or aniline and analysis by LC- and CE-mass spectrometry. Quantitative information is attained from the extracted ion chromatogram/electropherogram ratios generated from the light and heavy isotope clusters.

  10. Quantitative analysis of some volatile components in Mimusops elengi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantana Aromdee

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dried pikul flower (Mimusops elengi L., Sapotaceae is used in many recipes of Thai traditional medicine i.e. cardiotonic and stomachic. In this study, fresh and dried pikul flowers were investigated. The odour of pikul flower, even when it was dried, is very strong and characteristic. The constituents of volatile oils in fresh and dried pikul flowers extracted by ether were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Phenylethanol, 4-hydroxybenzenemethanol and cinnamyl alcohol were mainly found in fresh flower, 10.49, 8.69 and 6.17%, respectively. Whereas those mainly found in dried flowers were long chain carboxylic acid ester and (Z-9-octadecenoic acid, 5.37 and 4.71% of ether extract, respectively.An analytical method simultaneously determining benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben was developed by using the GC-FID method. The percent recoveries were 91.66, 104.59 and 105.28%, respectively. The intraday variations(% RSD were 7.22, 6.67 and 1.86%; and the interday variation were 3.12, 2.52 and 3.55%, respectively. Detection limits were 0.005, 0.014 and 0.001 ppm, and quantitation limits were 0.015, 0.048 and 0.003 ppm, respectively. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben content of dried flowers (9 samples from various drug stores in Thailand and one sample from China were 6.40-13.46, 17.57-196.57 and 27.35-355.53 ppm, respectively.

  11. Quantitative genetic analysis of anxiety trait in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Hare, E; Chavarría, G; Raventós, H

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder type I (BPI) affects approximately 1% of the world population. Although genetic influences on bipolar disorder are well established, identification of genes that predispose to the illness has been difficult. Most genetic studies are based on categorical diagnosis. One strategy to overcome this obstacle is the use of quantitative endophenotypes, as has been done for other medical disorders. We studied 619 individuals, 568 participants from 61 extended families and 51 unrelated healthy controls. The sample was 55% female and had a mean age of 43.25 (SD 13.90; range 18-78). Heritability and genetic correlation of the trait scale from the Anxiety State and Trait Inventory (STAI) was computed by using the general linear model (SOLAR package software). we observed that anxiety trait meets the following criteria for an endophenotype of bipolar disorder type I (BPI): 1) association with BPI (individuals with BPI showed the highest trait score (F = 15.20 [5,24], p = 0.009), 2) state-independence confirmed after conducting a test-retest in 321 subjects, 3) co-segregation within families 4) heritability of 0.70 (SE: 0.060), p = 2.33 × 10 -14 and 5) genetic correlation with BPI was 0.20, (SE = 0.17, p = 3.12 × 10 -5 ). Confounding factors such as comorbid disorders and pharmacological treatment could affect the clinical relationship between BPI and anxiety trait. Further research is needed to evaluate if anxiety traits are specially related to BPI in comparison with other traits such as anger, attention or response inhibition deficit, pathological impulsivity or low self-directedness. Anxiety trait is a heritable phenotype that follows a normal distribution when measured not only in subjects with BPI but also in unrelated healthy controls. It could be used as an endophenotype in BPI for the identification of genomic regions with susceptibility genes for this disorder. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of the uranium including calcium. Time resolved measurement spectroscopic analysis (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaoka, Katsuaki; Maruyama, Youichiro; Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

    2010-05-01

    For the remote analysis of low DF TRU (Decontamination Factor Transuranic) fuel, Laser Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to uranium oxide including a small amount of calcium oxide. The characteristics, such as spectrum intensity and plasma excitation temperature, were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy. As a result, in order to obtain the stable intensity of calcium spectrum for the uranium spectrum, it was found out that the optimum observation delay time of spectrum is 4 microseconds or more after laser irradiation. (author)

  13. Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qing; Shao Hanru

    1994-01-01

    Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis

  14. ImatraNMR: Novel software for batch integration and analysis of quantitative NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, A. V.; Heikkilä, O.; Kilpeläinen, I.; Heikkinen, S.

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative NMR spectroscopy is a useful and important tool for analysis of various mixtures. Recently, in addition of traditional quantitative 1D 1H and 13C NMR methods, a variety of pulse sequences aimed for quantitative or semiquantitative analysis have been developed. To obtain actual usable results from quantitative spectra, they must be processed and analyzed with suitable software. Currently, there are many processing packages available from spectrometer manufacturers and third party developers, and most of them are capable of analyzing and integration of quantitative spectra. However, they are mainly aimed for processing single or few spectra, and are slow and difficult to use when large numbers of spectra and signals are being analyzed, even when using pre-saved integration areas or custom scripting features. In this article, we present a novel software, ImatraNMR, designed for batch analysis of quantitative spectra. In addition to capability of analyzing large number of spectra, it provides results in text and CSV formats, allowing further data-analysis using spreadsheet programs or general analysis programs, such as Matlab. The software is written with Java, and thus it should run in any platform capable of providing Java Runtime Environment version 1.6 or newer, however, currently it has only been tested with Windows and Linux (Ubuntu 10.04). The software is free for non-commercial use, and is provided with source code upon request.

  15. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-12-05

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  16. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Jampana, Nagaraju; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  17. Quantitative risk assessment using the capacity-demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, M.; Donnelly, C.R.; Westermann, G.D.; Huang, J.H.S.; Lam, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The hydroelectric industry's recognition of the importance of avoiding unexpected failure, or forced outages, led to the development of probabilistic, or risk-based, methods in order to attempt to quantify exposures. Traditionally, such analysis has been carried out by qualitative assessments, relying on experience and sound engineering judgment to determine the optimum time to maintain, repair or replace a part or system. Depending on the nature of the problem, however, and the level of experience of those included in the decision making process, it is difficult to find a balance between acting proactively and accepting some amount of risk. The development of a practical means for establishing the probability of failure of any part or system, based on the determination of the statistical distribution of engineering properties such as acting stresses, is discussed. The capacity-demand analysis methodology, coupled with probablistic, risk-based analysis, permits all the factors associated with a decision to rehabilitate or replace a part, including the risks associated with the timing of the decision, to be assessed in a transparent and defendable manner. The methodology does not eliminate judgment altogether, but does move it from the level of estimating the risk of failure to the lower level of estimating variability in material properties, uncertainty in loading, and the uncertainties inherent in any engineering analysis. The method was successfully used in 1998 to carry out a comprehensive, economic risk analysis for the entire water conveyance system of a 90 year old hydropower station. The analysis included a number of diverse parts ranging from rock slopes and aging steel and concrete conduits, and the method allowed a rational assessment of the risks associated with reach of these varied parts to be determined, permitting the essential remedial works to be prioritized. 14 refs., 4 figs

  18. Quantitative Safety and Security Analysis from a Communication Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, Boris; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Jung, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces and exemplifies a trade-off analysis of safety and security properties in distributed systems. The aim is to support analysis for real-time communication and authentication building blocks in a wireless communication scenario. By embedding an authentication scheme into a real...... at handover situations in a IEEE 802.11 wireless setup between mobile nodes and access points. The trade-offs involve application-layer data goodput, probability of completed handovers, and effect on usable protocol slots, to quantify the impact of security from a lower-layer communication perspective...

  19. Quantitative Immunofluorescence Analysis of Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillinger, Stefan; Németh, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of eu- and heterochromatin is nonrandom, heterogeneous, and dynamic, which is mirrored by specific spatiotemporal arrangements of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here we describe a semiautomated method for the analysis of histone PTM localization patterns within the mammalian nucleus using confocal laser scanning microscope images of fixed, immunofluorescence stained cells as data source. The ImageJ-based process includes the segmentation of the nucleus, furthermore measurements of total fluorescence intensities, the heterogeneity of the staining, and the frequency of the brightest pixels in the region of interest (ROI). In the presented image analysis pipeline, the perinucleolar chromatin is selected as primary ROI, and the nuclear periphery as secondary ROI.

  20. Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of a thin film composite membrane consisting of polysulfone on a porous α-alumina support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Wormeester, Herbert; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck E

    2012-02-01

    Exposure of a thin polymer film to a fluid can affect properties of the film such as the density and thickness. In particular in membrane technology, these changes can have important implications for membrane performance. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a convenient technique for in situ studies of thin films, because of its noninvasive character and very high precision. The applicability of spectroscopic ellipsometry is usually limited to samples with well-defined interfacial regions, whereas in typical composite membranes, often substantial and irregular intrusion of the thin film into the pores of a support exists. In this work, we provide a detailed characterization of a polished porous alumina membrane support, using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in combination with atomic force microscopy and mercury porosimetry. Two Spectroscopic ellipsometry optical models are presented that can adequately describe the surface roughness of the support. These models consider the surface roughness as a distinct layer in which the porosity gradually increases toward the outer ambient interface. The first model considers the porosity profile to be linear; the second model assumes an exponential profile. It is shown that the models can be extended to account for a composite membrane geometry, by deposition of a thin polysulfone film onto the support. The developed method facilitates practicability for in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of nonequilibrium systems, i.e., membranes under actual permeation conditions.

  1. Quantitative analysis of natural resource management options at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Natural capital (land, water, air) consists of many resources, each with its own quality, dynamics and renewability, but with strong interactions. The increasing competition for the natural resources, especially land and water, calls for a basic redirection in the analysis of land use. In this

  2. A quantitative method for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan; Meesters, A.J.; Klingenberg, W.; Hicks, C.

    2012-01-01

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is commonly used for designing maintenance routines by analysing potential failures, predicting their effect and facilitating preventive action. It is used to make decisions on operational and capital expenditure. The literature has reported that despite its

  3. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Luan, Q X

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the plaque staining image by using image analysis software, to verify the maneuverability, practicability and repeatability of this technique, and to evaluate the influence of different plaque stains. In the study, 30 volunteers were enrolled from the new dental students of Peking University Health Science Center in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The digital images of the anterior teeth were acquired after plaque stained according to filming standardization.The image analysis was performed using Image Pro Plus 7.0, and the Quigley-Hein plaque indexes of the anterior teeth were evaluated. The plaque stain area percentage and the corresponding dental plaque index were highly correlated,and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.776 (Pchart showed only a few spots outside the 95% consistency boundaries. The different plaque stains image analysis results showed that the difference of the tooth area measurements was not significant, while the difference of the plaque area measurements significant (P<0.01). This method is easy in operation and control,highly related to the calculated percentage of plaque area and traditional plaque index, and has good reproducibility.The different plaque staining method has little effect on image segmentation results.The sensitive plaque stain for image analysis is suggested.

  4. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RodrМguez-Prieto

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... In this paper, a systematic analysis of different methods of d-ferrite estimation is carried out based ... Keywords. d-Ferrite; hot cracking; prediction methods; stringency levels; decision tool. 1. .... prediction of d-ferrite content using a system of multi- ..... support the selection of some materials according to their.

  5. Quantitative electron microscope autoradiography: application of multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of high resolution EM autoradiographs is described. It identifies labelled cell organelle profiles in sections on a strictly statistical basis and provides accurate estimates for their radioactivity without the need to make any assumptions about their size, shape and spatial arrangement. (author)

  6. Towards automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, M.; Quist, M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Paetsch, I.; Al-Saadi, N.; Nagel, E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and reliable automatic image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the automatic evaluation of

  7. From POOSL to UPPAAL : transformation and quantitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, J.; Theelen, B.D.; Langerak, R.; Pol, van de J.C.; Tretmans, J.; Voeten, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    POOSL (Parallel Object-Oriented Specification Language) is a powerful general purpose system-level modeling language. In research on design space exploration of motion control systems, POOSL has been used to construct models for performance analysis. The considered motion control algorithms are

  8. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Herbig, J.; Beauchamp, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), 027101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of the density and temperature gradients in the laser-heated gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Auerbach, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the x-ray spectra produced by a 1.0TW, lambda/sub L/-0.53μm laser-irradiated gas jet. Plasmas produced by ionization of neon, argon and N 2 + SF 6 gases were included in those measurements. Plasma electron density and temperature gradients were obtained by comparison of measured spectra with those produced by computer modeling. Density gradients were also obtained using laser interferometry. The limitations of this technique for plasma diagnosis will be discussed

  10. Analysis of laser and inkjet prints using spectroscopic methods for forensic identification of questioned documents

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Lukáš; Belovičová, Michaela; Oravec, Michal; Palková, Miroslava; Čeppan, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The spectral properties in UV-VIS-NIR and IR regions of laser and inkjet prints were studied for the purposes of forensic analysis of documents. The procedures of measurements and processing of spectra of printed documents using fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy in UV-VIS and NIR region, FTIR-ATR with diamond/ZnSe and germanium crystals were optimized. It was found that the shapes of spectra of various black laser jet prints and inkjet prints generally differ in the spectral regions...

  11. Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU

  12. Quantitative analysis of intraoperative communication in open and laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevdalis, Nick; Wong, Helen W L; Arora, Sonal; Nagpal, Kamal; Healey, Andrew; Hanna, George B; Vincent, Charles A

    2012-10-01

    Communication is important for patient safety in the operating room (OR). Several studies have assessed OR communications qualitatively or have focused on communication in crisis situations. This study used prospective, quantitative observation based on well-established communication theory to assess similarities and differences in communication patterns between open and laparoscopic surgery. Based on communication theory, a standardized proforma was developed for assessment in the OR via real-time observation of communication types, their purpose, their content, and their initiators/recipients. Data were collected prospectively in real time in the OR for 20 open and 20 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs. Assessors were trained and calibrated, and their reliability was established statistically. During 1,884 min of operative time, 4,227 communications were observed and analyzed (2,043 laparoscopic vs 2,184 open communications). The mean operative duration (laparoscopic, 48 min vs open, 47 min), mean communication frequency (laparoscopic, 102 communications/procedure vs open, 109 communications/procedure), and mean communication rate (laparoscopic, 2.13 communications/min vs open, 2.23 communications/min) did not differ significantly across laparoscopic and open procedures. Communications were most likely to be initiated by surgeons (80-81 %), to be received by either other surgeons (46-50%) or OR nurses (38-40 %), to be associated with equipment/procedural issues (39-47 %), and to provide direction for the OR team (38-46%) in open and laparoscopic cases. Moreover, communications in laparoscopic cases were significantly more equipment related (laparoscopic, 47 % vs open, 39 %) and aimed significantly more at providing direction (laparoscopic, 46 % vs open, 38 %) and at consulting (laparoscopic, 17 % vs open, 12 %) than at sharing information (laparoscopic, 17 % vs open, 31 %) (P communications were found in both laparoscopic and open cases during a relatively low

  13. Photometric, Spectroscopic, and X-ray Analysis of the Cool Algol BD+05 706

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G.; Mader, J.; Marschall, L. A.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Duffy, A. S.

    2000-12-01

    BD+05 706 is an example of a rare class of a dozen or so interacting binaries called ``cool Algols", in which both components of the system are late-type stars. By contrast, the ``classical Algols" are systems in which the star transfering mass is of late spectral type, but the mass gainer is much hotter. BD+05 706 was shown previously to be eclipsing (Marschall, Torres & Neuhaeuser 1998, BAAS, 30, 835). In this paper we report our complete analysis of BVRI light curves for the system obtained at Gettysburg College Observatory, together with spectroscopy from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics reported previously (Torres, Neuhaeuser & Wichmann 1998, AJ, 115, 2028), and X-ray observations obtained with the ROSAT satellite. Our light curve analysis indicates the presence of spots, most likely on the more massive, active component (primary), which change from season to season. Our results confirm the semi-detached nature of the system, and combined with the spectroscopy they have allowed us to obtain the most precise absolute masses and radii for any object of this class. Our X-ray light curve for BD+05 706 shows the primary eclipse clearly, but no sign of a secondary eclipse, confirming that the primary is the active star. Strong X-ray flares are also visible.

  14. Development and implementation of novel interfaces for miniaturized analysis systems with vibrational spectroscopic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, M.

    2003-05-01

    The presented thesis describes the development and application of two software packages for computer controlled operation of the devices of the newly developed analysis systems as well as the first time implementation of silicon microstructured microdispensers, an automated xy-stage and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in miniaturized chemical analysis systems. The software package Sagittarius V2 allows automated operation of flow system components, microdispensers and an electronic xy-stage. QCL-Control is a software package for computer controlled quantum cascade laser operation and data acquisition. Using a flow-through microdispenser generating picoliter droplets, an interface enabling deposition of liquid samples on solid infrared (IR) transparent supports for enhanced solvent elimination prior to IR transmission measurements was developed. Furthermore, the microdispenser was combined with an ultrasonic levitator to conduct surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments by in-situ preparation of the SERS substrate (silver colloid) in the levitated droplet. Finally, quantum cascade lasers were investigated for their performance as novel light sources in combination with an in-house made fibre optic flow-through cell for IR detection of aqueous samples in automated flow systems. (author)

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and thermogravimetric analysis of two series of substituted (metallotetraphenylporphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha K. Al-Shewiki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subsequent treatment of H2TPP(CO2H4 (tetra(p-carboxylic acid phenylporphyrin, 1 with an excess of oxalyl chloride and HNR2 afforded H2TPP(C(ONR24 (R = Me, 2; iPr, 3 with yields exceeding 80%. The porphyrins 2 and 3 could be converted to the corresponding metalloporphyrins MTPP(C(ONR24 (R = Me/iPr for M = Zn (2a, 3a; Cu (2b, 3b; Ni (2c, 3c; Co (2d, 3d by the addition of 3 equiv of anhydrous MCl2 (M = Zn, Cu, Ni, Co to dimethylformamide solutions of 2 and 3 at elevated temperatures. Metalloporphyrins 2a–d and 3a–d were obtained in yields exceeding 60% and have been, as well as 2 and 3, characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS and IR and UV–vis spectroscopy. Porphyrins 2, 2a–d and 3, 3a–d are not suitable for organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD, which is attributed to their comparatively low thermal stability as determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TG of selected representatives.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and thermogravimetric analysis of two series of substituted (metallo)tetraphenylporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shewiki, Rasha K; Mende, Carola; Buschbeck, Roy; Siles, Pablo F; Schmidt, Oliver G; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    Subsequent treatment of H 2 TPP(CO 2 H) 4 (tetra( p -carboxylic acid phenyl)porphyrin, 1 ) with an excess of oxalyl chloride and HNR 2 afforded H 2 TPP(C(O)NR 2 ) 4 (R = Me, 2 ; iPr, 3 ) with yields exceeding 80%. The porphyrins 2 and 3 could be converted to the corresponding metalloporphyrins MTPP(C(O)NR 2 ) 4 (R = Me/iPr for M = Zn ( 2a , 3a ); Cu ( 2b , 3b ); Ni ( 2c , 3c ); Co ( 2d , 3d )) by the addition of 3 equiv of anhydrous MCl 2 (M = Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) to dimethylformamide solutions of 2 and 3 at elevated temperatures. Metalloporphyrins 2a - d and 3a - d were obtained in yields exceeding 60% and have been, as well as 2 and 3 , characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) and IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Porphyrins 2 , 2a - d and 3 , 3a - d are not suitable for organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD), which is attributed to their comparatively low thermal stability as determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) of selected representatives.

  17. Use of spectroscopic techniques for the chemical analysis of biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon, J.M. Cano; Alonso, E. Vereda; Cordero, M.T. Siles; Torres, A. Garcia de; Lopez-Cepero, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics are a new class of materials prepared by several complex processing steps including pre-processing (shaping, drying, high-temperature pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere) and reaction with liquid silicon to obtain silicon-carbide. The results of industrial process of synthesis (measured by the SiC content) must be evaluated by means of fast analytical methods. In the present work, diverse samples of biomorphic ceramics derived from wood are studied for to evaluate the capability of the different analytical techniques (XPS, LIBS, FT-IR and also atomic spectroscopy applied to previously dissolved samples) for the analysis of these materials. XPS and LIBS gives information about the major components, whereas XPS and FT-IR can be used to evaluate the content of SiC. On the other hand, .the use of atomic techniques (as ICP-MS and ETA-AAS) is more adequate for the analysis of metal ions, specially at trace level. The properties of ceramics depend decisively of the content of chemical elements. Major components found were C, Si, Al, S, B and Na in all cases. Previous dissolution of the samples was optimised by acid attack in an oven under microwave irradiation

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of orthonitrodiphenyl sulfide C12H9NO2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This work reports the synthesis of the first (stable) form a of orthonitrodiphenyl sulphide [1-Nitro, 2-(Phenylthio) Benzene], followed by the preparation of the metastable (β) form, obtained by the method of seeding, caracterization of this form and analysis of structural differences by means of infrared and Raman Spectra. A tentative assignment of frequencies has been made, in which some differences between the two forms are explained. This analysis was based mostly on the solid phase spectra which show striking characteristics of the polymorphic species. Spectra of the β-form are, until now, completely unpublished. The spectra of solutions and melt of the α an β forms are fairly similar to those of solid β. This feature leads to the conclusion that both forms have the same molecular structure in melt and solutions, differing only in the solid state. It is also remarkable that the β-form displays a different Infrared Spectrum in a short range interval of temperature soon after melting. In this transition phase the Spectrum is more like the solid α Spectrum. The phenomenon is credited to a transient liquid crystal character. (author) [pt

  19. Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for Windows a guide for social scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bryman, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The latest edition of this best-selling introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis through the use of a computer package has been completely updated to accommodate the needs of users of SPSS Release 8 for Windows. Like its predecessor, it provides a non-technical approach to quantitative data analysis and a user-friendly introduction to the widely used SPSS for Windows. It assumes no previous familiarity with either statistics or computing but takes the reader step-by-step through the techniques, reinforced by exercises for further practice. Techniques explained in Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 8 for Windows include: * correlation * simple and multiple regression * multivariate analysis of variance and covariance * factor analysis The book also covers issues such as sampling, statistical significance, conceptualization and measurement and the selection of appropriate tests. For further information or to download the book's datasets, please visit the webstite: http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/...

  20. Analysis of corrosion layers in ancient Roman silver coins with high resolution surface spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keturakis, Christopher J. [Operando Molecular Spectroscopy and Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Notis, Ben [Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02453 (United States); Blenheim, Alex [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, PA 16802 (United States); Miller, Alfred C.; Pafchek, Rob [Zettlemoyer Center for Surface Studies, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Notis, Michael R., E-mail: mrn1@lehigh.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Wachs, Israel E., E-mail: iew0@lehigh.edu [Operando Molecular Spectroscopy and Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE–244 CE) were analyzed using surface characterization techniques. • Both destructive and non-destructive surface characterization methods were developed. • Alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu{sub 2}O corrosion layer. - Abstract: Determination of the microchemistry of surface corrosion layers on ancient silver alloy coins is important both in terms of understanding the nature of archaeological environmental conditions to which these ancient coins were exposed and also to help in their conservation. In this present study, five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE–244 CE) were used as test vehicles to measure their immediate surface microchemistry and evaluate the appropriateness and limitations of High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (HS-LEIS, 0.3 nm depth analysis), High Resolution-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS, 1–3 nm depth analysis) and High Resolution-Raman Spectroscopy (HR-Raman, ∼1000 nm depth analysis). Additional information about the deeper corrosion layers, up to ∼300–1000 nm, was provided by dynamic HS-LEIS and HR-Raman spectroscopy. While not archeologically significant, the use of these coins of small commercial value provides data that is more representative of the weaker signals typically obtained from ancient corroded objects, which can be in stark contrast to pristine data often obtained from carefully prepared alloys of known composition. The oldest coins, from 225 to 214 BCE, possessed an outermost surface layer containing Cu{sub 2}O, Na, Al, Pb, and adsorbed hydrocarbons, while the more recent coins, from 98 to 244 CE, contained Cu{sub 2}O, Ag, N, F, Na, Al, S, Cl, and adsorbed hydrocarbons in similar corresponding surface layers. It thus appears that alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu{sub 2}O layer. Depth profiling revealed the presence of K, Na, Cl, and

  1. Analysis of corrosion layers in ancient Roman silver coins with high resolution surface spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keturakis, Christopher J.; Notis, Ben; Blenheim, Alex; Miller, Alfred C.; Pafchek, Rob; Notis, Michael R.; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE–244 CE) were analyzed using surface characterization techniques. • Both destructive and non-destructive surface characterization methods were developed. • Alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu 2 O corrosion layer. - Abstract: Determination of the microchemistry of surface corrosion layers on ancient silver alloy coins is important both in terms of understanding the nature of archaeological environmental conditions to which these ancient coins were exposed and also to help in their conservation. In this present study, five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE–244 CE) were used as test vehicles to measure their immediate surface microchemistry and evaluate the appropriateness and limitations of High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (HS-LEIS, 0.3 nm depth analysis), High Resolution-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS, 1–3 nm depth analysis) and High Resolution-Raman Spectroscopy (HR-Raman, ∼1000 nm depth analysis). Additional information about the deeper corrosion layers, up to ∼300–1000 nm, was provided by dynamic HS-LEIS and HR-Raman spectroscopy. While not archeologically significant, the use of these coins of small commercial value provides data that is more representative of the weaker signals typically obtained from ancient corroded objects, which can be in stark contrast to pristine data often obtained from carefully prepared alloys of known composition. The oldest coins, from 225 to 214 BCE, possessed an outermost surface layer containing Cu 2 O, Na, Al, Pb, and adsorbed hydrocarbons, while the more recent coins, from 98 to 244 CE, contained Cu 2 O, Ag, N, F, Na, Al, S, Cl, and adsorbed hydrocarbons in similar corresponding surface layers. It thus appears that alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu 2 O layer. Depth profiling revealed the presence of K, Na, Cl, and S as key

  2. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  3. Quantitative Safety and Security Analysis from a Communication Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Malinowsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and exemplifies a trade-off analysis of safety and security properties in distributed systems. The aim is to support analysis for real-time communication and authentication building blocks in a wireless communication scenario. By embedding an authentication scheme into a real-time communication protocol for safety-critical scenarios, we can rely on the protocol’s individual safety and security properties. The resulting communication protocol satisfies selected safety and security properties for deployment in safety-critical use-case scenarios with security requirements. We look at handover situations in a IEEE 802.11 wireless setup between mobile nodes and access points. The trade-offs involve application-layer data goodput, probability of completed handovers, and effect on usable protocol slots, to quantify the impact of security from a lower-layer communication perspective on the communication protocols. The results are obtained using the network simulator ns-3.

  4. Quantitative analysis of allantoin in Iranian corn silk

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khanpour*; M. Modarresi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Zea mays is cultivated in different parts of Iran and corn silk is used in traditional medicine. Allantoin is one of the major compounds in corn silk. The purpose of this research was the quantitatve analysis of allantoin in corn silks belonging to several regions of Iran. Methods: The samples of corn silk were prepared from three provinces of Iran (Kermanshah, Fars and Razavi Khorasan). The dried plant materials were infused in boiling distilled water with a temper...

  5. African Primary Care Research: Quantitative analysis and presentation of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research Methods. The article describes types of continuous and categorical data, how to capture data in a spreadsheet, how to use descriptive and inferential statistics and, finally, gives advice on how to present the results in text, figures and tables. The article intends to help Master's level students with writing the data analysis section of their research proposal and presenting their results in their final research report. PMID:26245435

  6. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  7. Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Eisenmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars.

  8. SpcAudace: Spectroscopic processing and analysis package of Audela software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauclaire, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    SpcAudace processes long slit spectra with automated pipelines and performs astrophysical analysis of the latter data. These powerful pipelines do all the required steps in one pass: standard preprocessing, masking of bad pixels, geometric corrections, registration, optimized spectrum extraction, wavelength calibration and instrumental response computation and correction. Both high and low resolution long slit spectra are managed for stellar and non-stellar targets. Many types of publication-quality figures can be easily produced: pdf and png plots or annotated time series plots. Astrophysical quantities can be derived from individual or large amount of spectra with advanced functions: from line profile characteristics to equivalent width and periodogram. More than 300 documented functions are available and can be used into TCL scripts for automation. SpcAudace is based on Audela open source software.

  9. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Analysis of RuO2 Based Thick Film pH Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjakkal, Libu; Djurdjic, Elvira; Cvejin, Katarina; Kulawik, Jan; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Szwagierczak, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The conductimetric interdigitated thick film pH sensors based on RuO 2 were fabricated and their electrochemical reactions with solutions of different pH values were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The microstructural properties and composition of the sensitive films were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The EIS analysis of the sensor was carried out in the frequency range 10 mHz–2 MHz for pH values of test solutions 2–12. The electrical parameters of the sensor were found to vary with changing pH. The conductance and capacitance of the film were distinctly dependent on pH in the low frequency range. The Nyquist and Bode plots derived from the impedance data for the metal oxide thick film pH sensor provided information about the underlying electrochemical reactions

  10. Using decision trees and their ensembles for analysis of NIR spectroscopic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    and interpretation of the models. In this presentation, we are going to discuss an applicability of decision trees based methods (including gradient boosting) for solving classification and regression tasks with NIR spectra as predictors. We will cover such aspects as evaluation, optimization and validation......Advanced machine learning methods, like convolutional neural networks and decision trees, became extremely popular in the last decade. This, first of all, is directly related to the current boom in Big data analysis, where traditional statistical methods are not efficient. According to the kaggle.......com — the most popular online resource for Big data problems and solutions — methods based on decision trees and their ensembles are most widely used for solving the problems. It can be noted that the decision trees and convolutional neural networks are not very popular in Chemometrics. One of the reasons...

  11. Crystal chemistry and Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of clays around Riyadh for brick industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: mkhalil@ksu.edu.sa [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-04-15

    A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.

  12. Watershed Planning within a Quantitative Scenario Analysis Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P

    2016-07-24

    There is a critical need for tools and methodologies capable of managing aquatic systems within heavily impacted watersheds. Current efforts often fall short as a result of an inability to quantify and predict complex cumulative effects of current and future land use scenarios at relevant spatial scales. The goal of this manuscript is to provide methods for conducting a targeted watershed assessment that enables resource managers to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for use within a scenario analysis management framework. Sites are first selected for inclusion within the watershed assessment by identifying sites that fall along independent gradients and combinations of known stressors. Field and laboratory techniques are then used to obtain data on the physical, chemical, and biological effects of multiple land use activities. Multiple linear regression analysis is then used to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for predicting aquatic conditions. Lastly, methods for incorporating cumulative effects models within a scenario analysis framework for guiding management and regulatory decisions (e.g., permitting and mitigation) within actively developing watersheds are discussed and demonstrated for 2 sub-watersheds within the mountaintop mining region of central Appalachia. The watershed assessment and management approach provided herein enables resource managers to facilitate economic and development activity while protecting aquatic resources and producing opportunity for net ecological benefits through targeted remediation.

  13. A Quantitative Accident Sequence Analysis for a VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jintae; Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In Korea, the basic design features of VHTR are currently discussed in the various design concepts. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) offers a logical and structured method to assess risks of a large and complex engineered system, such as a nuclear power plant. It will be introduced at an early stage in the design, and will be upgraded at various design and licensing stages as the design matures and the design details are defined. Risk insights to be developed from the PRA are viewed as essential to developing a design that is optimized in meeting safety objectives and in interpreting the applicability of the existing demands to the safety design approach of the VHTR. In this study, initiating events which may occur in VHTRs were selected through MLD method. The initiating events were then grouped into four categories for the accident sequence analysis. Initiating events frequency and safety systems failure rate were calculated by using reliability data obtained from the available sources and fault tree analysis. After quantification, uncertainty analysis was conducted. The SR and LR frequency are calculated respectively 7.52E- 10/RY and 7.91E-16/RY, which are relatively less than the core damage frequency of LWRs.

  14. SAXS and other spectroscopic analysis of 12S cruciferin isolated from the seeds of Brassica nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Binish; Falke, Sven; Negm, Amr; Buck, Friedrich; Munawar, Aisha; Saqib, Maria; Mahmood, Seema; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Betzel, Christian; Akrem, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Oilseeds of the plant family Brassicaceae are important for providing both lipid and protein contents to human nutrition. Cruciferins (12S globulins) are seed storage proteins, which are getting attention due to their allergenic and pathogenicity related nature. This study describes the purification and characterization of a trimeric (∼190 kDa) cruciferin protein from the seeds of Brassica nigra (L.). Cruciferin was first partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation constant) and further purified by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis showed 82% sequence homology with cruciferin from Arabidopsis thaliana. The 50-55 kDa monomeric cruciferin produced multiple bands of two major molecular weight ranges (α-polypeptides of 28-32 kDa and β-polypeptides of 17-20 kDa) under reduced conditions of SDS-PAGE. The 2D gel electrophoretic analysis showed the further separation of the bands into their isoforms with major pI ranges between 5.7 and 8.0 (α-polypeptides) and 5.5-8.5 (β-polypeptides). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed the monodisperse nature of the cruciferin with hydrodynamic radius of 5.8 ± 0.1 nm confirming the trimeric nature of the protein. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed both α-helices and β-sheets in the native conformation of the trimeric protein. The pure cruciferin protein (40 mg/ml) was successfully crystallized; however, the crystals diffracted only to low resolution data (8 Å). Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution. SAXS showed that the radius of gyration is 4.24 ± 0.25 nm and confirmed the nearly globular shape. The SAXS based ab initio dummy model of B. nigra cruciferin was compared with 11S globulins.

  15. Comparative study of standard space and real space analysis of quantitative MR brain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin S; He, Jiabao; Blamire, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    To compare the robustness of region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data in real space with analysis in standard space and to test the hypothesis that standard space image analysis introduces more partial volume effect errors compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Twenty healthy adults with no history or evidence of neurological diseases were recruited; high-resolution T(1)-weighted, quantitative T(1), and B(0) field-map measurements were collected. Algorithms were implemented to perform analysis in real and standard space and used to apply a simple standard ROI template to quantitative T(1) datasets. Regional relaxation values and histograms for both gray and white matter tissues classes were then extracted and compared. Regional mean T(1) values for both gray and white matter were significantly lower using real space compared to standard space analysis. Additionally, regional T(1) histograms were more compact in real space, with smaller right-sided tails indicating lower partial volume errors compared to standard space analysis. Standard space analysis of quantitative MRI brain data introduces more partial volume effect errors biasing the analysis of quantitative data compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Method of quantitative x-ray diffractometric analysis of Ta-Ta2C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, A.A.; Glazunov, M.P.; Korolev, Yu.M.; Spitsyn, V.I.; Fedoseev, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    The syste86 Ta-Ta 2 C has beemonsidered because of specific features of diffraction patterns of the components, namely, overlapping of the most intensive reflexes of both phases. The method of standard binary system has been used for quantitative analysis. Because of overlapping of the intensive reflexes dsub(1/01)=2.36(Ta 2 C) and dsub(110)=2.33(Ta), the other, most intensive, reflexes have been used for quantitative determination of Ta 2 C and Ta: dsub(103)=1.404 A for tantalum subcarbide and dsub(211)=1.35A for tantalum. Besides, the TaTa 2 C phases have been determined quantitatively with the use of another pair of reflexes: dsub(102)=1.82 A for Ta 2 C and dsub(200)=1.65 A for tantalum. The agreement between the results obtained while performing the quantitative phase analysis is good. To increase reliability and accuracy of the quantitative determination of Ta and Ta 2 C, it is expedient to carry out the analysis with the use of two above-mentioned pairs of reflexes located in different regions of the diffraction spectrum. Thus, the procedure of quantitative analysis of Ta and Ta 2 C in different ratios has been developed taking into account the specific features of the diffraction patterns of these components as well as the ability of Ta 2 C to texture in the process of preparation

  17. Quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    PIGE analysis of thick and intermediate samples is usually performed with the help of standards, but this method gives only good results when the standard is very similar to the sample to be analysed. In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of light elements in thick samples. This method is based on a code that integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For the integration procedure the sample is divided in sublayers, defined by the energy steps that were used to measure accurately the excitation function. This function is used as input. Within each sublayer the stopping power cross-sections may be assumed as constant. With these two conditions the calculus of the contribution of each sublayer for the total yield becomes an easy task. This work presents results for the analysis of lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium in thick samples. For this purpose, excitation functions of the reactions 7 Li(p,p ' γ) 7 Li, 19 F(p,p ' γ) 19 F, 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be and 23 Na(p,p ' γ) 23 Na were employed. Calculated γ-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds of the referred elements. The agreement is better than 7.5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values used, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role

  18. Pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds successfully demonstrated a local dielectric difference associated with in vivo anti-prion activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Teruya

    Full Text Available Our previous study on prion-infected rodents revealed that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds (HPMCs with different molecular weights but similar composition and degree of substitution have different levels of long-lasting anti-prion activity. In this study, we searched these HPMCs for a parameter specifically associated with in vivo anti-prion activity by analyzing in vitro chemical properties and in vivo tissue distributions. Infrared spectroscopic and thermal analyses revealed no differences among HPMCs, whereas pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the fluorescence intensity ratio of peak III/peak I correlated with anti-prion activity. This correlation was more clearly demonstrated in the anti-prion activity of the 1-year pre-infection treatment than that of the immediate post-infection treatment. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak III/peak I negatively correlated with the macrophage uptake level of HPMCs in our previous study. However, the in vivo distribution pattern was apparently not associated with anti-prion activity and was different in the representative tissues. These findings suggest that pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis are powerful methods to successfully demonstrate local dielectric differences in HPMCs and provide a feasible parameter denoting the long-lasting anti-prion activity of HPMCs in vivo.

  19. The quantitative analysis of 163Ho source by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Ishii, K.; Fujioka, M.; Izawa, G.; Omori, T.

    1984-01-01

    We have been studying the electron-capture in 163 Ho as a method for determining the mass of electron neutrino. The 163 Ho sources were produced with the 164 Dy(p,2n) reaction by means of a method of internal irradiation 2 ). We applied the PIXE method to determine the total number of 163 Ho atoms in the source. Proton beams of 3 MeV and a method of ''external standard'' were employed for nondestructive analysis of the 163 Ho source as well as an additional method of ''internal standard''. (author)

  20. Interleukin-2 signaling pathway analysis by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Moss, Helle; Arrizabalaga, Onetsine

    2011-01-01

    among which 79 were found with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, including several previously not reported IL-2 downstream effectors. Combinatorial site-specific phosphoproteomic analysis resulted in identification of 99 phosphorylated sites mapping to the identified proteins...... with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, of which 34 were not previously described. In addition, chemical inhibition of the identified IL-2-mediated JAK, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways, resulted in distinct alteration on the IL-2 dependent proliferation....