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  1. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  2. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry; Caracterizacao da resposta RPE dos excipientes dos medicamentos para aplicacao em dosimetria de acidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases.

  3. Microstructural characterization aluminium alloys from the addition of boron; Caracterizacao microestrutural de ligas de aluminio a partir da adicao de boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.G.P.; Pipano, T.F.; Mota, M.A.; Mariano, N.A.; Ramos, E.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2014-07-01

    In the electrical industry, the aluminum becomes attractive because it has excellent characteristics for transmitting electricity. The liquid aluminum has in its composition transition elements (zirconium, titanium, vanadium and chromium) that interfere negatively on the quality of the product. The addition of aluminum-boron alloys have been used to remove transition metals through the formation of borides, enabling an increase in electrical conductivity. However, no detailed reports of reactions between boron, transition metals and primary aluminum engines. However, the objective is to determine the stoichiometric composition that enables an increase in electrical conductivity of an aluminum alloy. Samples with different concentrations of boron were characterized by optical emission spectrometry, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The addition of boron in excess reduces the time in the formation of borides, and enable an increase in electrical conductivity. (author)

  4. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus; Isolamento e caracterizacao da delta toxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Lucelia de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  5. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  6. Cloning, periplasmic expression, purification and structural characterization of human ribosomal protein L10; Clonagem, expressao, purificacao e caracterizacao estrutural da proteina ribossomal L10 humana recombinante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Larissa Miranda

    2009-07-01

    The ribosomal protein L10 (RP L10) is a strong candidate to be included in the class of tumor suppressor proteins. This protein, also denominated as QM, is known to participate in the binding of ribosomal subunits 60S and 40S and the translation of mRNAs. It has a molecular weight that varies between 24 and 26 kDa and an isoelectric point of (pI) 10.5. The sequence of the protein QM is highly conserved in mammals, plants, invertebrates, insects and yeast which indicates its critical functions in a cell. As a tumor suppressor, RP L10 has been studied in strains of Wilm's tumor (WT-1) and tumor cells in the stomach, where was observed a decrease in the amount of its mRNA. More recently, the RP L10 was found in low amounts in the early stages of prostate adenoma and showed some mutation in ovarian cancer, what indicates its role as a suppressor protein in the development of these diseases. It has also been described that this protein interacts with c-Jun and c-Yes inhibiting growth factors and consequently, cell division. This work has an important role on the establishment of soluble expression of QM to give base information for further studies on expression that aim to evaluate the specific regions where it acts binding the 60S and 40S ribosomal subunits and translation, as well as its binding to proto-oncogenes. The cDNA for QM protein was amplified by PCR and cloned into periplasmic expression vector p3SN8. The QM protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) in the region of cytoplasm and periplasm, the best condition was obtained from the expression of the recombinant plasmid QM p1813{sub Q}M at 25 degree C or 30 degree C, the soluble protein was obtained with small amounts of contaminants. The assays of secondary structure showed that the QM protein is predominantly alpha-helix, but when it loses the folding, this condition changes and the protein is replaced by {beta}- sheet feature. (author)

  7. Application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the characterization of recombinant proteins up to 44 kDa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsselaer, A.; Bitsch, F.; Green, B.; Jarvis, S.; Lepage, P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Kolbe, V.J.; Roitsch, C.

    1990-01-01

    Mass measurement by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) is used as a rapid preliminary verification of the identity of various recombinant proteins ranging from 7 to 44 kDa with an accuracy of 0.01-0.03%. ESMS not only improves the speed but also the reliability of the protein structure

  8. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant; Caracterizacao quimica das cinzas de fundo originadas pela combustao, em usina termoeletrica, de um carvao mineral do nordeste da Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Lobo, C.J.S.; Nobre, A.I.S.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, C.J.M., E-mail: hspfisica@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  9. Microstructural characterization of porous materials by X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques; Caracterizacao da microestrutura de materiais porosos por microtomografia de raios X e transmissao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the application of the X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques for the microstructure characterization of different kinds of materials. Total porosity, pore size distribution and the two point correlation functions were measured. The two point correlation function, which allows the reconstruction of 3D models, was carried out for two samples. Seven ceramic tablets of Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), seven tablets of Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C), three samples of sedimentary rocks and one sample of Titanium foam were analyzed. The experimental set up for the Gamma Ray Transmission technique consisted of: a 2'' x 2'' crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an {sup 241} Am radioactive source (59,53 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Two microtomography systems were used: a Fein Focus system, constituted by an X-ray tube, operated at 160 kV and 0.3 to 1.1 mA, a CCD camera and the movement sample system, and a Skyscan system, model 1072, with a X-ray tube operated at 100 kV and 100{mu}A, and a CCD camera. The ceramic tablets, analyzed by the gamma ray transmission technique presented results for most of the porosities data with smaller confidence intervals and inside the intervals supplied by the tablets manufacturer. The Titanium porous sample was analyzed by the two techniques, its microtomography images achieved a resolution of 17{mu}m, obtained employing the Fein Focus system. For both techniques, this sample showed high porosity, which allows its application for this purpose. The sandstones samples were analyzed by the Skyscan system, achieving resolutions of 19{mu}m, 11{mu}m and 3.8{mu}m for each sample, respectively. The resolutions of 11{mu}m and 3.8{mu}m were the ones that generated better 2D sections for the respective samples and, consequently, more reliable porosities. The 3.8{mu}m resolution was the one that best quantified the pore size

  10. Characterization of the oligosaccharide structure of human glycosylated prolactin (G-hPRL) native and recombinant; Caracterizacao da estrutura oligossacaridica de prolactina glicosilada humana (G-hPRL) nativa e recombinante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos Vinicius Nucci Capone

    2013-07-01

    Human prolactin (hPRL) is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary under the regulation of the hypothalamus, involved in a variety of biological processes such as mammary gland development and lactation. The recombinant product is important in medical diagnosis and treatment of failure of lactation. This hormone may occur in the form of non-glycosylated protein (NGhPRL) and glycosylated (G-hPRL) with molecular weights of approximately 23 and 25 kilodalton (kDa), respectively; has a single N-glycosylation site located at asparagine (Asn) position 31, which is partially occupied, thus being a particularly interesting model of glycosylation. The biological activity of G-hPRL is lower compared to NG-hPRL (~4 times) and its physiological function is not well defined: the portion of carbohydrate appears to have an important role in the hormone biosynthesis, secretion, biological activity, and plasma survival of the hormone. The main objective of this study was to compare the structures of N-glycans present in glycosylated pituitary prolactin (G-hPRL-NHPP) with those present in the recombinant. To obtain the recombinant G-hPRL the production was performed in laboratory scale from Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), genetically modified and adapted to growth in suspension. Cycloheximide (CHX), whose main effect was to increase the ratio G-hPRL/NG-hPRL from 5% to 38% was added to the culture medium, thereby facilitating the purification of G-hPRL. The G-hPRL was purified in two steps, a cation exchanger followed by a purification by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) which demonstrated the efficient separation of the two isoforms of hPRL. Recombinant G-hPRL-IPEN was well characterized by several techniques confirming its purity and biological activity, including comparisons with other reference preparation of pituitary origin purchased from the {sup N}ational Hormone & Peptide Program (NHPPU. S.){sup .} The composition of N

  11. Identification of a 48 kDa tubulin or tubulin-like C6/36 mosquito cells protein that binds dengue virus 2 using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, H.-Y.; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2004-01-01

    Binding of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) to C6/36 mosquito cells protein was investigated. A 48 kDa DENV-2-binding C6/36 cells protein (D2BP) was detected in a virus overlay protein-binding assay. The binding occurred only to the C6/36 cells cytosolic protein fraction and it was inhibited by free D2BP. D2BP was shown to bind to DENV-2 E in the far-Western-binding studies and using mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS, peptide masses of the D2BP that matched to β-tubulin and α-tubulin chains were identified. These findings suggest that DENV-2 through DENV-2 E binds directly to a 48 kDa tubulin or tubulin-like protein of C6/36 mosquito cells

  12. Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); Caracterizacao dos niveis de elementos quimicos em solo, submetido a diferentes sistemasde uso e manejo, utilizando espectrometria de fluorescencia de raios-X por energia dispersiva (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wastowski, Arci Dirceu; Rosa, Genesio Mario da; Cherubin, Mauricio Roberto; Rigon, Joao Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz, E-mail: wastowski@smail.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Frederico Westphalen, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte do Rio Grande do Sul

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agroforestry (SAF), T2 - native field (CN), T3 - native forest (NM), T4 - tillage forest (PF); T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC) and T6 - system tillage (NT). Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm. (author)

  13. 26kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: real-time monitoring of the enzymatic reaction and substrate binding experiments using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dennhart, Nicole; Weigang, Linda M M; Fujiwara, Maho

    2009-01-01

    A 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds was enzymatically characterized exclusively by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). At first, oligosaccharide hydrolysis catalyzed by the barley chitinase was monitored in real-time by ESI-MS. The reaction time-course obtained by ESI......-MS monitoring was found to be consistent with the data obtained earlier by HPLC, and the quantitative profile was successfully simulated by kinetic modeling of the enzymatic hydrolysis. It is obvious that the real-time monitoring method by ESI-MS allows a faster and cheaper determination of the chitinase...... of the enzymatic activity in E67Q is definitely caused by a point mutation of Glu67 but not due to partial unfolding of the mutated enzyme. Finally, association constants of enzyme-oligosaccharide complexes were calculated from Scatchard plots obtained by mass spectra. The binding free energy values obtained for E...

  14. Surface Induced Dissociation Coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Unveils Heterogeneity of a 211 kDa Multicopper Oxidase Protein Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mowei; Yan, Jing; Romano, Christine A.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2018-01-01

    Manganese oxidation is an important biogeochemical process that is largely regulated by bacteria through enzymatic reactions. However, the detailed mechanism is poorly understood due to challenges in isolating and characterizing these unknown enzymes. A manganese oxidase, Mnx, from Bacillus sp. PL-12 has been successfully overexpressed in active form as a protein complex with a molecular mass of 211 kDa. We have recently used surface induced dissociation (SID) and ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to release and detect folded subcomplexes for determining subunit connectivity and quaternary structure. The data from the native mass spectrometry experiments led to a plausible structural model of this multicopper oxidase, which has been difficult to study by conventional structural biology methods. It was also revealed that each Mnx subunit binds a variable number of copper ions. Becasue of the heterogeneity of the protein and limited mass resolution, ambiguities in assigning some of the observed peaks remained as a barrier to fully understanding the role of metals and potential unknown ligands in Mnx. In this study, we performed SID in a modified Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy and resolution offered by FTICR unveiled unexpected artificial modifications on the protein that had been previously thought to be iron bound species based on lower resolution spectra. Additionally, isotopically resolved spectra of the released subcomplexes revealed the metal binding stoichiometry at different structural levels. This method holds great potential for in-depth characterization of metalloproteins and protein-ligand complexes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Characterization of kaolin wastes from kaolin mining industry from the amazon region as raw material for pozzolans production; Caracterizacao dos residuos cauliniticos das industrias de mineracao de caulim da amazonia como materia-prima para producao de pozolanas de alta reatividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, M.S.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: msb@amazon.com.br, E-mail: angelica@ufpa.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Capim and Jari are the two most important kaolin mining districts of the Brazilian Amazon region. They encompass the major Brazilian reserves of high quality kaolin for the paper coating industry. The kaolin is mined and processed by three major companies responsible for about 500,000 ton of a residue mainly composed of kaolinite. The wastes come mainly from the centrifugation phase of the kaolin beneficiation process and their final destinations are huge sedimentation basins that occupy large areas. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the kaolin wastes processed from the Capim and Jari region, in order to obtain meta kaolinite, a high reactive pozzolans for the cement industry. When incorporated to ordinary Portland cement such pozzolans increases the concrete and mortars performance. All the residues studied in this work were characterized by means of: X-ray diffraction analysis, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and laser diffraction. Both residues are mainly constitutes by at least 92% of low granulometry kaolinite with specific surface area above 8 m2 /g and mean diameter below 1 {mu}m. Free silica (quartz) contents are below 3%. The high concentration of kaolinite in these residues dispenses rigid control parameters for removal of impurities usually employed in pozzolans production. The Jari kaolin exhibits high disordered kaolinite in comparison with the high ordered kaolinite of the Capim region and gives rise to higher desidroxilation degree at lower temperatures. It points to energy saving and reducing costs during the production of a pozzolans. The results are satisfactory and reveal that both kaolin wastes are excellent raw material for the production of high reactive meta kaolin. (author)

  16. Hydrogeological characterization of Itataia mine, Ceara, Brazil; Caracterizacao hidrogeologica da jazida de Itataia, CE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Roberto de Alcantara e

    2003-07-01

    This work analyzes the geological-geotechnical-geophysical behavior, aiming to define the characteristics of a karstic-fissural aquifer in the mid-northern region of the State of Ceara, named as Itataia Phosphor-Uranium Deposit. This area is constituted of marbles and gneisses from Itataia Group, which are morphologically located at a higher point to the south and at a lower point to the north, related to Paleoproterozoic Era. Fracture system led to the implantation of two karstic marble phases, being the oldest from Cambrian Period and the most recent from Tertiary/Quaternary Period. Porosity is secondary to fractures, fissures and crushed zones which act as hydraulic channels for groundwater flow. Major geophysics defined conducting lines are controlled by normal fractures and faults in both N70 deg E and N80 deg W directions, and secondarily in both N10 deg E and N30 deg W directions, dipping 70 deg -85 deg into the northern quadrant of the main axes. Fault characteristics are typical of graben and horst patterns. Rocks in the area are distributed into three classes of geotechnical massif: healthy rock, moderately altered and fractured rock, and strongly altered and fractured rock. The latter occurs predominantly in the center of the area, from the soil surface to an average depth of 150 meters. Groundwater flow is characterized by fractures which enlarged by the karstic phenomenon dissolution, and then become closer as deeper they are. This flow may be slower or even discontinue in light of silty-argillaceous alteration material that fill the open fracture gaps. Water level is not lower than 5 m or higher than 90 m, averaging by 30 m ali over the area. The synoptic piezometry map shows a general south-north direction; however in the southwestern portion - the recharge zone - it takes the south direction, while in the southeastern portion it takes the southeast direction. (author)

  17. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry with top-down electron capture dissociation for characterizing structural transitions of a 17 kDa protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jingxi; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H; Konermann, Lars

    2009-09-09

    Amide H/D exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for protein structural studies. Traditionally, this technique involves protein labeling in D(2)O, followed by acid quenching, proteolytic digestion, and analysis of peptide deuteration levels by HPLC/MS. There is great interest in the development of alternative HDX approaches involving the top-down fragmentation of electrosprayed protein ions, instead of relying on enzymatic cleavage and solution-phase separations. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that electron capture dissociation (ECD) results in fragmentation of gaseous protein ions with little or no H/D scrambling. However, the successful application of this approach for in-depth protein conformational studies has not yet been demonstrated. The current work uses horse myoglobin as a model system for assessing the suitability of HDX-MS with top-down ECD for experiments of this kind. It is found that ECD can pinpoint the locations of protected amides with an average resolution of less than two residues for this 17 kDa protein. Native holo-myoglobin (hMb) shows considerable protection from exchange in all of its helices, whereas loops are extensively deuterated. Fraying is observable at some helix termini. Removal of the prosthetic heme group from hMb produces apo-myoglobin (aMb). Both hMb and aMb share virtually the same HDX protection pattern in helices A-E, whereas helix F is unfolded in aMb. In addition, destabilization is evident for some residues close to the beginning of helix G, the end of helix H, and the C-terminus of the protein. The structural changes reported herein are largely consistent with earlier NMR data for sperm whale myoglobin, although small differences between the two systems are evident. Our findings demonstrate that the level of structural information obtainable with top-down ECD for small to medium-sized proteins considerably surpasses that of traditional HDX-MS experiments, while at the same time greatly reducing

  18. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para determinacao da atividade de radionuclideos por sistema de espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mariacc05@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the {sup 18}F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  19. Combined discrete nebulization and microextraction process for molybdenum determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); Avaliacao da combinacao da nebulizacao discreta e processos de microextracao aplicados a determinacao de molibdenio por espectrometria de absorcao atomica com chama (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Jesus, Amanda M.D. de; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R., E-mail: erpf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    Simple and sensitive procedures for the extraction/preconcentration of molybdenum based on vortex-assisted solidified floating organic drop microextraction (VA-SFODME) and cloud point combined with flame absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS) and discrete nebulization were developed. The influence of the discrete nebulization on the sensitivity of the molybdenum preconcentration processes was studied. An injection volume of 200 μ resulted in a lower relative standard deviation with both preconcentration procedures. Enrichment factors of 31 and 67 and limits of detection of 25 and 5 μ L{sup -1} were obtained for cloud point and VA-SFODME, respectively. The developed procedures were applied to the determination of Mo in mineral water and multivitamin samples. (author)

  20. Characterization and Identification of Natural Terpenic Resins employed in “Madonna con Bambino e Angeli” by Antonello da Messina using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural resins were frequently employed as adhesives or as components of oleo-resinous media in paintings in the past. The identification of vegetable resins is still an open problem. The aim of this paper is to analyze by GC-MS some vegetable resins frequently employed in paintings, such as Venice turpentine, dammar, copal, elemi in order to identify their main component in raw and aged samples. Some molecules are proposed as chemical “markers” to identify these natural resins. Results The results obtained on standards allowed us to successfully analyze sample collected from one work of art: the Madonna with the Infant and Angels by Antonello da Messina (XV century. Conclusion The results obtained confirm that the painting the artist originally used a mixture of linseed oil and natural resin (Venice turpentine as binding medium.

  1. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  2. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  3. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  4. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  5. Characterization of limestone of region South and Southeast of Para; Caracterizacao de calcario da regiao Sul e Sudeste do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, A.R.O.; Vieira, J.H.A.; Antunes Junior, L.V.; Medeiros, A.C.; Souza, G.P., E-mail: marabaonline@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (FEMAT/UNIFESSPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Limestone is used in daily activities, and it is common the use of products containing calcium carbonate in various applications, from construction to food production, air purification to sewage treatment, the sugar refining materials for the toothpaste, the manufacture of glass and steel in the manufacture of paper, plastics, paints, ceramics and many others. The Limestone present in the region of south and southeast of Para is presented in deposits that have not been explored on a large scale, being justified a deepening in characteristics thereof. For the characterization of the material, gross samples were comminuted by crushing and ball mill, sieved and then separated into aliquots. In the end were used fluorescence analysis of X-ray, diffraction X-rays, determination of the moisture and loss on ignition of the material at 950 °C for one hour, obtaining results of a dolomitic limestone. (author)

  6. Preliminary characterization of dose in personnel of interventional radiology; Caracterizacao preliminar da dose em profissionais de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolfim, Laura Larre; Anes, Mauricio; Bacelar, Alexandre; Lykawka, Rochelle [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to X-rays of Interventional Radiology professionals (IR) impacts in the high dose rate received by these individuals, and there are reports of biological effects of this professional activity. Therefore, it is fomented greater control over the doses received by these workers. This research intends to characterize the doses received by the professionals during IR procedures. We evaluated the doses of radiologists, anesthesiologists and nursing staff of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, through measures with dosimeters of the OSL type, distributed in up to six regions of the body of these professionals. Until now were accompanied 33 cholangiography procedures and 29 embolization procedures. As a preliminary result, it was possible to identify a wide variation between doses of the professionals of the same function in each procedure. In overview, the dose of the professionals presented in descending order as a radiologist 1> radiologist 2 > anesthetist > nursing. (author)

  7. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts; Caracterizacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em pele humana para aloenxerto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourroul, Selma Cecilia

    2004-07-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  8. Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic aspects of the trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis; Caracterizacao clinica, radiografica e cintilografica da osteoartrose trapeziometacarpiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziyama, Helena Hideko Seguchi

    1996-12-31

    Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis occurs mainly in women during the menopausal period. It is related to manual activities and is usually bilateral. The onset is insidious and the evolution is slow and progressive. It is characterized by of strength and pain in the basis of the thumb resulting in limitation of the use and function of the hand. The diagnosis of this condition is based on the physical examination. The manouver of compression axial-rotation of the trapezimetacarpal joint is a common positive finding. Typical findings of osteoarthritis are present in the radiological studies. Scintigraphic images have a predictive value. The early diagnosis is important to avoid the risk factors and to prevent disabilities of the hand. (author) 102 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Characterization of application of acu sandstone in ceramic mass; Caracterizacao da aplicacao do arenito acu na massa ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M.; Gomes, Y.S.; Fernandes, D.L., E-mail: junior.luiz09@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DIAREN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Laboratorio de Processamento Mineral e Residuo

    2016-07-01

    The sandstone is a sedimentary rock formed mainly by quartz grains. In Rio Grande do Norte, there is the Potiguar Basin with the Jandaira and Acu Formations. The latter consists of thick layers of whitish-colored sandstones. It stands out as a water storage facility in the state, but it is also used for building aggregates. This article aimed at the use of the sandstone of this formation in the ceramic mass for coating. Initially, the material was sampled. It went through the comminution process to achieve the required granulometry. After this, three formulations were made to incorporate this new material into the traditional ones. The methods were performed according to ISO 13816. After sintering at 1200 °C, the specimens were subjected to the physical tests. A positive result was obtained for the use of the Acu sandstone in low concentrations. It is clear, therefore, its use in ceramics for coating.

  10. Viscosity and density study for characterization of oil mixtures; Estudo da viscosidade e densidade para caracterizacao das misturas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Michelle I.; Azevedo, Vildomar S.; Jacinto, Tulio Wagner B. [Aurizonia Petroleo S.A, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vieira, Mariane; Vidal, Rosangela Regia Lima; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil can be defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons and sulphur, nitrogen and oxygenated organic derivatives at lower amount. There is a practical difficulty of analytical determination of the oil composition, mainly due to the large quantity of medium and heavy oil fractions. For heavier fractions, it is necessary to infer the composition of the cut from properties that can be readily obtained in the laboratory, such as refraction index, density and viscosity. The analysis of oil composition and its fractions is important information on various aspects (IOB et al., 1996): determining the operating conditions of refining, selection of suitable catalysts and mixing operations ('blending'), the economic evaluation of mixtures and analysis of environmental impact due to emissions. The first study on characterization of fractions of the oil was reported by Hill and Coats (1928), who set an empirical relationship between the density and Saybolt viscosity named viscosity-density constant (VGC). The statement was obtained from the analysis of the density with the oil viscosity changes. Physical properties such as density, boiling point and viscosity can be used to classify the oil. The aim of this work was to classify oil fractions based on viscosity-density constant, using mixtures of oils with different APIs. The results showed that there is an optimum composition for each mixture, and the addition of more oil of medium classification does not lead to potential commercial oil. (author)

  11. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials from natural chrysotile; Preparacao e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos a partir da crisotila natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldelli, M.G.; Silva, M.L.C.P., E-mail: marciogiraldelli@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    Special attention has been given to the development of new materials from natural chrysotile. This fiber has about 40% silicon oxide in its structure with an outer layer of brucite (MgOH{sub 2}). With the aim of obtaining a material with a more uniform structure, acid leaching was performed to remove the outer layer of brucite, resulting in a silicon oxide hydrate. This material was used as support for the deposition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O. The Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O was prepared by conventional precipitation using as starting material niobium metallic. In this study, we performed the synthesis and characterization of the material SiO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O / Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O 1:1. Both chrysotile as niobium are widely available national resources, which confirms the economic viability of resource use. The materials studied were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG/DTG. (author)

  12. Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic aspects of the trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis; Caracterizacao clinica, radiografica e cintilografica da osteoartrose trapeziometacarpiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziyama, Helena Hideko Seguchi

    1997-12-31

    Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis occurs mainly in women during the menopausal period. It is related to manual activities and is usually bilateral. The onset is insidious and the evolution is slow and progressive. It is characterized by of strength and pain in the basis of the thumb resulting in limitation of the use and function of the hand. The diagnosis of this condition is based on the physical examination. The manouver of compression axial-rotation of the trapezimetacarpal joint is a common positive finding. Typical findings of osteoarthritis are present in the radiological studies. Scintigraphic images have a predictive value. The early diagnosis is important to avoid the risk factors and to prevent disabilities of the hand. (author) 102 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Characterization of AA7050 aluminium alloy processed by ECAP; Caracterizacao da liga de aluminio AA7050 processada por ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.R.; Guido, V. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Travessa, D.N. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Jorge Junior, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The commercial AA7050 aluminium alloy in the solution heat treated condition (W) was processed by ECAP through route A. Two pressing temperatures (room and 150 deg C and velocities (5 and 30mm/min) were used, as well as different number of passes. The effect of such variables on the microstructure evolution was evaluated using optical and transmission electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, and xray diffraction. It was found that the microstructure has been refined by ECAP, as a result of subgrains formed within deformation bands. ECAP at 150 deg C resulted in intense precipitation of plate like {eta} phase, which evolves to equiaxial morphology as the number of passes increases. (author)

  14. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse; Caracterizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica visando o seu reaproveitamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, F.F.; Oliveira, E.B.G.; Oliveira, J.R. de, E-mail: fgrillo@ifes.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Telles, V.B.; Tenorio, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 {mu}m). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO e SiO{sub 2}. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  15. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  16. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series; Caracterizacao da borracha natural dos novos clones de seringueira da serie PB 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: maria-alice.martins@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao/LNNA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Centro de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais; Goncalves, Paulo de S. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  17. The importance of using diffraction of X ray in clays characterization; A importancia da utilizacao da difracao de raios X na caracterizacao de argilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccoli, R.; Nascimento, G.C.; Vitoretti, P.P.; Wernck, A.S.W., E-mail: rosaura@sc.senai.b [SENAI, Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia em Ceramica; Perdona, C.R. [Universidade Barriga Verde, Cocal do Sul, SC (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Ceramica; Perucchi, P. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate how the identification of crystalline phases and deg of crystallinity by diffractometry technique of X-ray (XRD) combined with chemical analysis of a sample can help in the study and characterization of raw materials, mainly those used in ceramic compositions. This study also aims to address the inherent limitations of this technique in relation to types of crystalline phases present in the sample of interest for analysis. (author)

  18. Fishing activity characterization in areas under influence of seismic activity; Caracterizacao da atividade pesqueira em areas sob influencia da atividade sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Izabel Yukimi; Zanella, Joao Francisco Illa Font; Eliseire Junior, Dirceu; Pereira, Edisio [Hidrosfera Oceanografia e Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Sergio Augusto Coelho de; Ferraz, Alexandre; Costa, Leandro Soares da; Vidal, Leonardo; Duppre, Mauricio [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Uller, George [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Seismic surveys are an important method in prospecting for oil and gas reservoirs in the marine environment. The ELPN/IBAMA has required that companies develop an adequate social programme in parallel with the seismic surveys to establish a better interaction with the communities influenced by these operations and reduce possible negative effects. Between January and October 2003, CGG Brazil studied coastal communities in the following areas. BM-CE-1 e BM -CE-2, Ceara; Fragata, BM-ES-5 e BM-ES-6, Espirito Santo; BM BAR-1 e BM BAR-3, Maranhao and BM-C-25 and BM-C-16 off Campos basin. Communities and groups that could potentially be influenced by the surveys were visited to mitigate direct and indirect impacts. Preliminary results show that fisheries were the main group to be monitored. A standard questionnaire was used to characterize the local fisheries and interviews were held with fishermen, boat owners and members of the fishery industries (n=422). In Ceara the fishery is typically handmade and occurs in water depths up to 200 meters. The main boat propulsion is sail and the 'Cacoeira' is the most popular gear used. Off Espirito Santo, small and medium motored boats are usually used and line is the main gear among the fishermen. At Barreirinhas (Maranhao), boats are usually up to 14 meters long, and operate in water depths of up to 120 metres. Again the 'cacoeira' is the proffered gear. We concluded that Programs carried out by CGG reached their purpose. This is confirmed by low incident rate between seismic ships and the fisheries fleet. (author)

  19. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Kaiser, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Methods of neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1981-01-01

    The different methods of neutron spectrometry are based on the direct measurement of neutron velocity or on the use of suitable energy-dependent interaction processes. In the latter case the measuring effect of a detector is connected with the searched neutron spectrum by an integral equation. The solution needs suitable unfolding procedures. The most important methods of neutron spectrometry are the time-of-flight method, the crystal spectrometry, the neutron spectrometry by use of elastic collisions with hydrogen nuclei, and neutron spectrometry with the aid of nuclear reactions, especially of the neutron-induced activation. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are contrasted considering the resolution, the measurable energy range, the sensitivity, and the experimental and computational efforts. (author)

  2. Analysis of the lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A from Borrelia burgdorferi by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchon, B.; Klein, Michele; Bischoff, Rainer; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Roitsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The outer surface protein A, OspA, from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a lipoprotein of 25 kDa. The recombinant OspA (rOspA) expressed in Escherichia coli has been purified and analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). A heterogenous spectrum gave a measured mass of 28,462 +/- 9 Da

  3. Atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental inorganic analysis seems to be dominated today by techniques based on atomic spectrometry. After an evaluation of advantages and limitations of using mass analysers (ion detectors) versus conventional photomultipliers (photon detector) a brief review of the more popular techniques of the emerging Atomic Mass spectrometry is carried out. Their huge potential for inorganic trace analysis is such that in the future we could well witness how this end of the century and millennium marked the fall of the photons empire in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. (Author)

  4. Software for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Software for Nuclear Spectrometry was dedicated to review the present status of software for nuclear spectrometry and to advise on future activities in this field. Because similar AGM and consultant's meetings had been held in the past; together with an attempt to get more streamlined, this AGM was devoted to the specific field of software for gamma ray spectrometry. Nevertheless, many of the issues discussed and the recommendations made are of general concern for any software on nuclear spectrometry. The report is organized by sections. The 'Summary' gives conclusions and recommendations adopted at the AGM. These conclusions and recommendations resulted from the discussions held during and after presentations of the scientific and technical papers. These papers are reported here in their integral form in the following Sections

  5. Glycomics using mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in structural glycomics. This review provides an overview on currently used mass spectrometric approaches such as the characterization of glycans, the analysis of glycopeptides obtained by proteolytic cleavage of proteins and the analysis of glycosphingolipids. The given examples are demonstrating the application of mass spectrometry to study glycosylation changes associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation, lysosomal storage di...

  6. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  7. Diagnosis and characterization of operational conditions of electric power systems; Diagnostico e caracterizacao da condicao operacional de sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Christina Courtouke dos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tiburcio, Julio Cesar [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba (EFEI), MG (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for the realtime diagnosis of a power system in permanent regimen for several states and configurations, providing enough information to help the operator in decision making, resulting in a preventive operation. The methodology is presented, as well as the preliminary results. Also presented are the steps to be followed to the practical implementation of the methodology 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  8. Isotopic characterization of uranium in soils of the Ipanema National Forest (FLONA-Ipanema); Caracterizacao isotopica de uranio em solos da Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA-Ipanema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.B.; Marques, F.H., E-mail: fernandobaliani@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fernando_henrique06@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Enzweiler, J.; Ladeira, F.S.B., E-mail: Jacinta@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: fsbladeira@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    The National Forest of Ipanema (FLONA) is situated on a geological anomaly, known as 'Domo de Aracoiaba'. The soils of the area include Oxisols, Inceptsols and Alfisols. The amount of uranium and respective isotope activities in a soil depend on the parental rock and on the pedologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities for uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U) and the activity ratio (AR) {sup 234}U/ {sup 238}U or secular equilibrium for different soil types of the area collected at horizons A and B. The amount of uranium showed no significant differences for soils generated from alkaline intrusive rocks and sandstone, however, secular equilibrium was observed for Oxisol (RA = 1), while Inceptsol presented RA> 1 and the other soils, Alfisols, presented RA values <1. (author)

  9. Modification and characterization of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steels surface; Modificacao e caracterizacao da superficie do aco inoxidavel martensitico AISI 410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bincoleto, A.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Nascente, P.A.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Steam turbines are used in the generation of more than half the electric energy produced in the world nowadays. It is important the study which aims to improve the efficiency by means of the optimization of leaks and of the aerodynamic profiles, as well as to maintain the integrity of the components. The martensitic stainless steels are widely employed due to the combination of their good mechanical properties with higher corrosion resistance. However, their lower wear resistance and their poor tribological behavior limit their use, since they decrease the component life time. In order to evaluate the improvement in the performance of the AISI 410 stainless steel, several process of surface modification were employed. Five samples were produced: the first one was not treated, the second one received liquid nitriding, the third, gas nitriding, the forth, thermal aspersion of tungsten carbide, and the fifth, boronizing. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, surface microhardness, and X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  10. Characterization of contaminated oil with tritium, from of production of gas tripolar scintillators; Caracterizacao de oleo contaminado com tritio, proveniente da producao de centelhadores tripolares a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Marumo, Julio T.; Goes, Marcos M.; Isiki, Vera L.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate the activity level present in radioactive oil samples. This oil is derived from vacuum pumps used to produce tension protector of electronic equipment in telecommunication area. The method consisted in obtain a calibration curve in counts per minute versus tritium activity. After the equipment calibration it was analyzed 3 batches of radioactive oil samples. (author)

  11. Characterization and improvement gas diffusion layer of low temperature fuel cell; Caracterizacao e aprimoramento da camada difusora de celulas a combustivel de funcionamento a baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C.Z.; Dantas, R.; Oliveira, I.S. de; Azevedo, C.M.N.; Pires, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Quimica; Canalli, V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2006-07-01

    In low temperature fuel cells the main part is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The gas diffusion layer is a component of the MEA, being a composite material constituted by carbon powder and polytetrafluoroethylene, used to increases hydrofobicity, fundamental characteristic in water transport into system. In this work methods were adapted with the aim to a better characterization of the diffusion layer by the measuring the following parameter: contact angle and hysteresis; morphology, thickness and porosity. From these characterization results optimized MEAS will be produced to better fuel cell performance. (author)

  12. Kinetic characterization and of recrystallization of the aluminum alloy 6063 after S work hardening treatment; Caracterizacao e cinetica de recristalizacao da liga de aluminio 6063 apos tratamentos termomecanicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Iara Maria

    2006-07-01

    The aluminum 6063 alloy possesses a great industrial interest, presenting characteristics that justify its frequent use, when compared to the other aluminum alloys: the precipitation hardening and high cold work capacity. These alloys present high ductility, that allows their use in operations with high deformation degrees, as the cold work. The objective of this work is to show comparative analysis of the hardness Vickers of the commercial aluminum 6063 alloy, after cold work with different area reduction degree and thermal treatment. Considering the frequent utilization aluminium 6063 alloy, this work studies the characterization and recrystallization of this alloy, after the plastic deformation in different area reduction degrees, thermal treatment and convenient treatment times - Thermo mechanic Treatments. (author)

  13. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques; Caracterizacao, analise e datacao de ceramicas arqueologicas da Bacia Amazonica atraves de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  14. Characterization of the Ni-45wt% Ti shape memory alloy rapidly solidified; Caracterizacao da liga Ni-45wt%Ti com efeito de memoria de forma solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, G.C.S.; Castro, W.B. de; Araujo, C.J. de, E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEM/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. shape memory characteristics of Ni-45wt%Ti alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the velocity of cooling wheel from 30 to 50 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on martensitic transformation behaviors and structure are discussed. (author)

  15. Preparation and characterization of bentonite clays mixture destined to the removal of heavy metals; Preparacao e caracterizacao da mistura de argilas bentoniticas destinadas a remocao de metais pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Neto, A.F. de; Silva, M.G.C. da, E-mail: ambrosio@feq.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Termofluidodinamica

    2009-07-01

    In this work a mixture was prepared with 50% wt. of the Bofe and Verde-lodo clays. The characterization methods used they were: thermal analyses (TG and DTG), X-ray diffraction, fisissorption of N{sub 2}, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The rehearsals of adsorption we accomplished in system of finite bath using as adsorbent the mixture loamy in natura or it mixes calcined. Starting from TG and DTG a thermal treatment was accomplished to 500 deg C of the loamy mixture. Through the results of the copper adsorption, it was verified that mixes loamy it provokes chemical precipitation of the copper while the calcined sample presents amount metal adsorbed around 7.31 mg of copper/g of adsorbent. The value of removal percentage obtained by the calcined sample it was of 63.02%. (author)

  16. Esterification and characterization of lignin aiming the synthesis of polymeric composite; Esterificacao e caracterizacao da lignina visando a sintese de compositos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, Priscilla A.; Machado, Fabricio, E-mail: fmachado@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Goncalves, Silvia B., E-mail: silvia.belem@embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroenergia, Parque Estacao Biologica (PqEB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Lignin is a natural polymer derived from lignocellulosic materials with high availability, presenting a huge potential for production of new materials. Due to its complex macromolecular structure, and its low compatibility with styrene, eucalyptus wood-extracted lignin method was esterified with methacrylic anhydride - exhibiting a yield of 64% - in order to ensure homogeneity in the organic phase into the reaction medium. The evaluation of both the natural and esterified lignin through infrared (IR) spectroscopy showed a decrease of the hydroxyl band, characteristic of natural lignin (3200-3400 cm{sup -1}) and an increase of the characteristic ester band (1720 to 1740 cm{sup -1}). According to nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) analysis on esterified lignin, intense peaks were observed in the range from 1.7 to 2.05 ppm (-CH{sub 3}) and 5.4 ppm to 6.2 ppm (=CH{sub 2}), related to methacrylic anhydride. According to the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the esterified lignin showed a decrease in its thermal stability when compared to natural lignin, exhibiting two main weight losses between 200 °C and 300 °C and in the interval from 550 °C to 800 °C. Comparatively, the esterified lignin also displayed an increase in its glass transition temperature (Tg = 98 °C) for, when compared to natural lignin, whose Tg value was determined to be equal to 91 °C. (author)

  17. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  18. Consideration on the technical service quality and the Portugal situation; Consideracoes sobre a qualidade tecnica de servico e caracterizacao da situacao em Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, J.; Afonso, Jose [Entidade Reguladora do Sector Electrico (ERSE), XX (Portugal)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents some considerations on the technical quality of power supply for the consumption and, for the specific characterization of the Portugal electric sector, a summary analysis of the energy production, transport and distribution activities.

  19. Preparation and characterization of bentonite clay for formation of nanocomposites; Preparacao e caracterizacao da argila bentonita para a formacao de nanocompositos PELMD/MMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.J.M.; Silva, B.L.; Araujo, I.J.C.; Medeiros, A.M.; Melo, J.D.D.; Paskocimas, C.A., E-mail: bismarckengmat@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This study we used the linear medium density polyethylene (PELMD) as polymer matrix and introduced, as reinforcement to increase the mechanical and thermal properties, the green bentonite deposit of Boa Vista/PB, rich montmorillonite (MMT), previously characterized by XRD, that passed by three stages of purification. The first stage was to clean by washing and filtering for removal of coarse material (sand and organic matter), followed by an acid attack. In the second, we used the quaternary ammonium surfactant, in order to increase the distance between the layers of MMT, and the third was removed from the wastewater, using absolute ethanol, finishing the purification of process. Then, the clay was introduced into the polymer matrix by polymerization in solution by intercalation and characterized by XRD. The results showed a partial exfoliation, satisfying the increasing properties. (author)

  20. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  1. Licuri fibers characterization after treatment to produce cellulose nanocrystals; Caracterizacao da fibra de licuri apos tratamento para producao de nanocristais de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.G.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: elyane_casft@msn.com [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals have been widely studied in the materials area due to their high aspect ratio, which is directly related to a good performance as mechanical reinforcement. Obtaining this nanocrystals from commercial bleached pulps, as eucalyptus, or microcrystalline cellulose is well studied. Trying to find new extraction sources, exploring better the huge variety of Brazil’s natural fibers and giving the opportunity of development to small communities, the present work verifies the influence of two bleaching methodologies, sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide, on licuri fibers. Previous washing and mercerization steps were performed before bleaching. The product of each step was analysed by: DSC, TGA, XRD, SEM and FTIR. The yield of each step was also calculated. (author)

  2. Use of nuclear magnetic resonance in the characterization of modified clays; Uso da ressonancia magnetica nuclear na caracterizacao de argilas modificadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Sidnei Q.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Gil, Rosane A.S. San [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1992-12-31

    This work uses NMR spectroscopy with rotation in the {sup 29} Si, {sup 27} Al and {sup 23} Na magic angles for characterization of clays with Si/Al ratio in the range 3.0 - 16,5, obtained by chemical treatment of commercial samples, under different conditions of leaching with mineral acid 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Preparation and characterization of corn reinforced polymer sheet of fibers; Obtencao e caracterizacao de polimero reforcado com fibras da folha de milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Tatiana Martinez; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru, E-mail: tatianaltda@hotmail.com, E-mail: esmiyseo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    There is a global trend in seeking plant fibers to replace the synthetic fibers to obtain reinforced composites aimed at the use of renewable resources. In this context, this paper aims to develop the process of preparing maize leaf fibers, characterizing them and adapting them for applications in the construction industry and develop a reinforced polymer composite with these fibers. Corn leaves were dried in environmental temperature, treated by mercerizing, then neutralized with acid solution and washed in running water. The characterization of the corn leaf fibers was carried out by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area, thermogravimetry and specific mass. The mercerizing treatment was effective, because the maize fibers have characteristics similar to synthetic fibers, leading to a possibility of new technological uses. The polymeric composite material was developed by extrusion processes and injection and tested for tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, thus reused an organic waste that would be disposed of by inserting it in a technological process, contributing to the research and development of new polymeric materials as well as to reduce waste discarded as scrap. (author)

  4. Extraction and characterization of cellulose nano whiskers from balsa wood; Extracao e caracterizacao de nanocristais de celulose obtidos da madeira balsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Carolina L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Marconcini, Jose M. [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Fabiano V. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Branciforti, Marcia C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study cellulose nano whiskers were obtained from balsa wood. For this purpose, fibers of balsa wood were subjected to hydrolysis reactions for lignin and hemi cellulose digestion and acquisition of nano-scale cellulose. Cellulose nano crystals obtained had medium length and thickness of 176 nm and 7 nm respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the process used for extracting nano whiskers could digest nearly all the lignin and hemi cellulose from the balsa fiber and still preserve the aspect ratio and crystallinity, satisfactory enough for future application in polymer nano composites. Thermogravimetry showed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation of cellulose nano crystals (226 degree C) was higher than the temperature of the balsa fiber (215 degree C), allowing its use in molding processes with many polymers from the molten state.(author)

  5. Preparation and characterization of biocellulose membranes obtained by biosynthesis of bacteria komagataeibacter rhaeticus; Preparacao e caracterizacao de membranas de biocelulose obtidas pela biossintese da bacteria komagataeibacter rhaeticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Rachel Temperani A. [Centro Universitario de Araraquara (QUIMERA), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Medicinal e Medicina Regenerativa; Trovatti, Eliane; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Berreta, Andresa A. [Apis Flora LTDA, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Juncal; Barud, Hernane S., E-mail: hernane.barud@gmail.com, E-mail: hsbarud@uniara.com.br [Group ' Materials + Technologies' (GMT), Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic School, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), San Sebastian (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    This work shows preparation and characterization of bacterial cellulose membranes (CB) produced by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus strain, and strain from ATCC bank, Gluconacetobacter hansenii (ATCC 23769) used as a comparative. Physicochemical assay were done, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy couplet to Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). SEM images reveled a compact structure formed by cellulose nanofibers. FTIR spectra are shown characteristics bands of cellulosic materials and XRD shows cellulose native structure, type I cellulose. (author)

  6. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in lowering the vas deferens twitch in rats in comparison to native crotamine. In addition, the behavior of irradiated toxin in tonic contraction, modulated by noradrenaline, was different from that observed for the native toxin. (author)

  7. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation; Caracterizacao da granalha de aco recuperada do residuo de rochas ornamentais por separacao magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: eduardojunca@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 {mu}m with 4 wt.% over 100 {mu}m and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  8. Methodology for the analysis and characterization of the demand side energy resources; Metodologia para analise e caracterizacao dos recursos energeticos do lado da demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Energia e Eletrotecnica

    2006-07-01

    This abstract aims at describing briefly a model for the assessment of demand side energy resources This model intends to comprehend every kind of action and measure related to demand side management and energy conservation, evaluating them in a holistic way, into four dimensions: technical-economical, environmental, social and political. Different aspects regarding the resources are also accounted, such as energetic potentials (theoretical, accomplishable and economic). At last, scenarios concerning the introduction of evaluated resources through a period of time are elaborated. (author)

  9. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  10. Preparation, characterization and certification of uranium isotope reference materials; Preparacao, Caracterizacao e certificacao de materiais de referencia isotopicos de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de

    2006-07-01

    This work describes the preparation, characterization and certification of a set of uranium isotope reference materials ranging from 0.5 to 20.0 % of {sup 235}U in mass. The most important concepts of metrology in chemical measurements were applied so that the certified quantities in these materials could be directly traceable to the International System of Units (SI). As a consequence of this approach, these materials can be used in the instruments calibration, estimation of measurement uncertainty, method validation, assessment of performance of analysts, quality control routines and interlaboratory comparison programmes. The most advanced methods and techniques in mass spectrometry, that is, gas source mass spectrometry (GSMS), thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) were investigated to identify which are the dominant components in the uncertainty and to quantify its contribution to the final value of the measurement uncertainty of the isotopic ratio. The results obtained were then compared to verify which are the methods and techniques associated to the lowest measurement uncertainty values. The isotope amount ratio n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) was certified in the materials produced to expanded uncertainties ranging from 0.02 to 0.10 % and the ratios n({sup 234}U)/n({sup 238}U) and n({sup 236}U)/n({sup 238}U), to uncertainties ranging from 0.03 to 2.20 %. These values fully comply to the requirements of the isotopic characterization of nuclear fuel as well as the analysis of environmental samples for nuclear safeguards. (author)

  11. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  12. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  13. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of

  14. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  15. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  16. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  17. Metaproteomics of Microbiota in Naturally Fermented Soybean Paste, Da-jiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Pengfei; Xie, Mengxi; An, Feiyu; Qiu, Boshu; Wu, Rina

    2018-05-01

    Da-jiang is a typical traditional fermented soybean product in China. At present, the proteins in da-jiang are needed to be explored. The composition and species of microbial proteins in traditional fermented da-jiang were analyzed by metaproteomics based on sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that the number and variety of microbial proteins in the traditional fermented da-jiang from different regions were different. The production site influences the fermentation in da-jiang. Then we analyzed the functions of the microbial proteins identified in da-jiang, and found that they were mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis, glycometabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. In addtion, we compared the proteins composition in different da-jiang. There are 51 common proteins of naturally fermented da-jiang, and 25 common microbial sources. The main commonly microbial sources of fungal proteins are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces; the main commonly microbial sources of bacterial proteins are Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Bacillus subtilis. These common microbes play the predominant role in da-jiang fermentation. The present results help us to understand the fermentation of da-jiang and improve the quality and safety of final products in the future. The study illustrated metaproteome of microbiota in traditional fermented soybean paste, da-jiang, by sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A method of extracting metaproteome from microbiota in da-jiang was attempted. The findings help to understand the fermentation of da-jiang and improve the quality and safety of da-jiang in fermented industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  19. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  20. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  1. Preparation and characterization of the fish reference material; Preparacao e caracterizacao de um material de referencia de peixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Joao Cristiano

    2011-07-01

    The certified reference materials (CRMs) play an important role in obtaining measurement results traceable to the International System of Units, through an unbroken chain of comparisons. Thus, the demand for new certified reference materials (CRMs) increases every day in all areas of knowledge. The availability of reference materials, mainly in Brazil is still incipient, given that the demand far exceeds the available variety of these materials. The amount of certified reference materials available in the country is insufficient to meet the need of the scientific community and demands for development of new methodologies. Among the many areas in need of reference materials, we highlight the importance for the food trade balance for these products within the country. The certification of food products, intended both for export and for domestic consumption, requires analysis methods that provide precise and accurate results to ensure product quality. This paper describes the preparation and certification of a reference material in the fish matrix in mercury and methylmercury. The study brings together since the stage of material selection, preparation, development of homogeneity and stability studies and characterization. The certification was performed by means of measurements using two analytical techniques, flow injection analysis - cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-CV-AAS) and isotope dilution applied to mass spectrometry (IDMS), which is a primary method. In this work the standards of the ISO 30 (ABNT 30-34) and ISO Guide 35 was used as the basis for the preparation and characterization of the material. For the calculation of uncertainties was used the GUM and Eurachem guide. As a result, was produced and certified a lot of material in relation to the concentration of mercury (Hg = 0.271 {+-} 0.057 mg g{sup -1}) and methylmercury (MeHg = 0.245 {+-} 0.038 mg g{sup -1}), and informational values of lead and arsenic. (author)

  2. Identificação de compostos voláteis da cúrcuma empregando microextração por fase sólida e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas Identification of volatile compounds of turmeric using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana R. Mata

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Compostos voláteis da cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L. cultivada no Brasil foram isolados por microextração por fase sólida. Os rizomas foram cozidos em solução de bicarbonato de sódio 0,1%, fatiados, secos e triturados. Visando estabelecer o sistema ideal para a microextração, fibras de polidimetilsiloxano de 100µm de espessura foram expostas ao headspace de frascos de 10mL. Estudou-se a influência das seguintes variáveis sobre o rendimento dos compostos voláteis obtidos: amostras em pó (0,1 a 1,0g e em solução (40mg/L, diferentes temperaturas (40 a 70ºC e tempos (2 a 20min de partição. O efeito da temperatura (210 a 240ºC e do tempo (3 e 5min de dessorção também foi avaliado. As melhores condições para a partição dos compostos voláteis foram 0,1g do pó, 70ºC e 5min. A temperatura de 220ºC e o tempo de 5 minutos foram os de maior eficiência para a dessorção. A cromatografia gasosa foi conduzida em coluna capilar, detecção por ionização de chama e identificação por espectrometria de massas. A análise dos espectros de massas obtidos para os nove compostos voláteis predominantes indicou a presença de ar-curcúmeno, ar-turmerona, zingibereno, beta-sesquifelandreno, sabineno, 1,8-cineol e 1,4-terpineol.Volatile compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. cultived in Brazil were isolated by solid phase microextraction. The rhizomes were cooked in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution, sliced, dried and ground. Polydimethyldiloxanes fibers (100 mm diameter were exposed to the headspace of 10 mL flasks with the aim of establishing an ideal microextraction system. The influence of the following parameters on the volatile substances obtained was studied: powder samples (0.1 to 1.0 g and dissolved samples (40 mg/L, different temperatures (40 to 70ºC and partition periods (2 to 20 min. The effect of temperature (210 to 240ºC and time (3 to 5 min on desorption efficiency was also evaluated. Optimum conditions for the

  3. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the functional elements of a mass spectrometer and of some currently employed mass spectrometric techniques, such as combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass chromatography, and selected ion monitoring. Various areas of application of mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry are discussed, such as inborn errors of metabolism and other metabolic disorders, intoxications, quantitative determinations of drugs, hormones, gases, and trace elements, and the use of isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a definitive method for the establishment of true values for concentrations of various compounds in reference sera. It is concluded that mass spectrometry is of great value in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

  4. Sample Preprocessing For Atomic Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Tae

    2004-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of atomic spectrometry, which deals with atomic absorption spectrometry such as Maxwell-Boltzmann equation and Beer-Lambert law, atomic absorption spectrometry for solvent extraction, HGAAS, ETASS, and CVAAS and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, such as basic principle, generative principle of plasma and device and equipment, and interferences, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry like device, pros and cons of ICP/MS, sample analysis, reagent, water, acid, flux, materials of experiments, sample and sampling and disassembling of sample and pollution and loss in open system and closed system.

  5. Extraction and characterization of crude oil asphaltenes sub fractions; Extracao e caracterizacao de subfracoes de asfaltenos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Silas R.; Calado, Lucas S.; Honse, Siller O.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Lucas, Elizabete F., E-mail: silas@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Asphaltenes from crude oil have been studied for a long time. However, until today their chemical structures and physical-chemical properties are not well established. Nowadays, it is accepted that asphaltenes are dispersed in the crude oil as macro structures, which are mainly constituted of some condensed aromatic rings (about 6-20), containing aliphatic or naphthenic groups. The asphaltenes are also defined as the crude oil fraction that is insoluble in low molar mass n-alkanes and soluble in aromatic solvents, like benzene and toluene In order to investigate the molecular structure, in this work the asphaltenes were separated by using a different procedure as that normally described in the literature and characterized by infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray fluorescence, elemental analyses and particle size and size distribution. The difference in subfractions polarity can be attributed not only to the aromaticity changes but also to the content of elements, such as N, O, Fe, V, Si e Ni. (author)

  6. Alpha spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, Jana; Kuruc, Jozef; Galanda, Dusan; Matel, Lubomir; Velic, Dusan; Aranyosiova, Monika

    2009-01-01

    A sample of thorium content on steel discs was prepared by electrodeposition with a view to determining the natural thorium isotope. Thorium was determined by alpha spectrometry and by secondary ion mass spectrometry and the results of the two methods were compared

  7. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Freddy C.; Barbante, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science

  8. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Freddy C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Barbante, Carlo, E-mail: barbante@unive.it [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes — CNR, Venice (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science.

  9. Preface Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; le Gac, Severine; le Gac, S.; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry illustrates this trend and focuses on one particular analysis technique, mass spectrometry whose popularity has "dramatically" increased in the last two decades with the explosion of the field of biological analysis and the development of two "soft" ionization

  10. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  11. Laboratory of acceleration mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybler, P.; Chrapan, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper authors describe the principle of the method of acceleration mass spectrometry and the construction plans of this instrument at the Faculty of ecology and environmental sciences in Banska Stiavnica. Using of this instrument for radiocarbon dating is discussed. A review of laboratories with acceleration mass spectrometry is presented

  12. Accelerator-based ultrasensitive mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gove, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter describes a new mass spectrometry technique involving charged particle accelerators normally used for basic research in nuclear science. Topics considered include the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, the limitations of the direct measurement of radioactive decay, mass spectrometry using a tandem electrostatic accelerator, mass spectrometry using a cyclotron, how accelerator mass spectrometry circumvents the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, measurements of stable isotopes, nuclear physics and astrophysics applications, modifications to existing accelerators, descriptions of dedicated systems, and future applications

  13. Characterization of the wind behavior in Botucatu-SP region (Brazil) by Weibull distributing; Caracterizacao do comportamento eolico da regiao de Botucatu-SP atraves da distribuicao de Weibull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CE/UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao de Estagio; Cremasco, Camila Pires [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The wind behavior of a region can be described by frequency distribution that provide information and characteristics needed for a possible deployment of wind energy harvesting in the region. These characteristics, such as the annual average speed, the variance and shunting line standard of the registered speeds and the density of aeolian power average hourly, can be gotten by the frequency of occurrence of determined speed, that in turn must be studied through analytical expressions. The more adjusted analytical function for aeolian distributions is the function of density of Weibull, that can be determined by numerical methods and linear regressions. Once you have determined this function, all wind characteristics mentioned above may be determined accurately. The objective of this work is to characterize the aeolian behavior in the region of Botucatu-SP and to determine the energy potential for implementation of aeolian turbines. For the development of the present research, was used an Monitorial Young Wind anemometer of Campbell company installed a 10 meters of height. The experiment was developed in the Nucleus of Alternative Energies and Renewed - NEAR of the Laboratory of Agricultural Energize of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the UNESP, Agronomy Sciences Faculty, Lageado Experimental Farm, located in the city of Botucatu - SP. The geographic localization is defined by the coordinates 22 deg 51' South latitude (S) and 48 deg 26' Longitude West (W) and average altitude of 786 meters above sea level. The analysis was carried through using registers of speed of the wind during the period of September of 2004 the September of 2005. After determined the distribution of frequencies of the hourly average speed of the wind, it was determined function of associated Weibull, thus making possible the determination of the annual average speed of the wind (2,77 m/s), of the shunting line standard of the registered speeds (0,55 m/s), of the coefficient of variation (20%) and of the density of aeolian power average hourly (24,58 W/m{sup 2}). (author)

  14. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance; Avaliacao da caracterizacao mineralogica de diversos depositos de argilas esmectiticas do estado da Paraiba utilizando analise estatistica de variancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de, E-mail: agama@reitoria.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  15. ETBP (Extended True Boiling Point) curve extension of extra heavy crudes; Extensao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro) de petroleos extrapesados por destilacao molecular e ampliacao da caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rodrigo S.; Batistella, Cesar B.; Maciel, Maria Regina W.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    For the determination of the TBP (True Boiling Point) Curve, which defines the yield of petroleum products, the ASTM D2892 method for petroleum distillation and ASTM D5236 method for vacuum distillation of heavy hydrocarbons were applied. Furthermore, from these distillations, cuts that are submitted to several analyses to determine its physical-chemical properties are obtained, and all this information generates the evaluation of petroleum. For heavy petroleum, these conventional methods have been limited, since the total distilled percentage determined for temperatures up to 565 deg C (maximum reached with ASTM D5236 method) is lower for these oils, reducing the points of the curve, limiting its information. To improve this data set for heavy oils, a methodology for the extension of TBP curve through molecular distillation was established. It was possible to reach values up to 700 deg C, representing a considerable progress for the extension of TBP curve. The objective of this work is to present the results of Extended TBP curve for a heavy petroleum and characterization carried out through the cuts and residues obtained in molecular distillation of the residue 'Zeta' 400 deg C+ (fancy name), made by ASTM D2892 method. (author)

  16. Study of potentiality of raw material of Crato/CE for use in structural ceramics - part I - technological characterization; Estudo da potencialidade da materia-prima do Crato/CE para utilizacao em ceramica estrutural - parte I - caracterizacao tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.C.S.; Santos, G.M.; Saldanha, K.M.; Sales Junior, J.C.C.; Nascimento, R.M.; Paskocimas, C.A., E-mail: jean@ufrnet.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The limitation of information on chemical, mineralogical and thermal characteristics of raw material used in process of manufacture of ceramic products in the region of Cariri, specifically the city of Crato, state of Ceara, motivated the development of this work, since this region ceramics exist that in a general context they appear as important productive chains in the state. The characteristics were evaluated by tests of limit of liquidity, limit of plasticity, index of plasticity, but also by chemical analysis for fluorescence of rays X, analysis of phases for diffraction of rays X, and thermal analysis (thermogratimetric analysis). The results showed that the raw material has excellent size distribution and characteristics acceptable to the processing of structural components of dark color the red, requiring a mixture of clay with coarse less plastic which granulation, that functions as reducer of plasticity. (author)

  17. Spectrometry techniques for radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    The energy of the radiation emission following the nuclear decay is unique and the characteristic of the radio nuclide which undergoes decay. Thus measurement of the energy of the radiation offers a method of identifying the radio nuclides. The prime requirement of the energy measurement is a suitable detector which shows response proportional to the energy of the radiation rather than the presence of the radiation. The response from such detectors are suitably processed and distributed with respect to the signal strength which is proportional to incident energy. This distribution is normally referred as energy spectrum and is recorded in the multichannel analyser. The measurement of energy and intensity of radiation from the spectrum is called radiation spectrometry. Thus the radiation spectrometry allows the identification and quantification of radioactive isotopes in variety of matrices. The radiation spectrometry has now become a popular radioanalytical technique in wide area of nuclear fuel cycle programs. The popular spectrometry techniques commonly used for the radioactivity measurement and analysis are Alpha spectrometry, Gamma ray spectrometry and Beta spectrometry

  18. Imaging mass spectrometry statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emrys A; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Deelder, André M; McDonnell, Liam A

    2012-08-30

    Imaging mass spectrometry is increasingly used to identify new candidate biomarkers. This clinical application of imaging mass spectrometry is highly multidisciplinary: expertise in mass spectrometry is necessary to acquire high quality data, histology is required to accurately label the origin of each pixel's mass spectrum, disease biology is necessary to understand the potential meaning of the imaging mass spectrometry results, and statistics to assess the confidence of any findings. Imaging mass spectrometry data analysis is further complicated because of the unique nature of the data (within the mass spectrometry field); several of the assumptions implicit in the analysis of LC-MS/profiling datasets are not applicable to imaging. The very large size of imaging datasets and the reporting of many data analysis routines, combined with inadequate training and accessible reviews, have exacerbated this problem. In this paper we provide an accessible review of the nature of imaging data and the different strategies by which the data may be analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the assumptions of the data analysis routines to ensure that the reader is apprised of their correct usage in imaging mass spectrometry research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, Frauke; Lintzel, Julia; Nussberger, Stephan; Sokolova, Lucie; Brutschy, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

  20. LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Frauke; Sokolova, Lucie; Lintzel, Julia; Brutschy, Bernhard; Nussberger, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    In the present work we applied a novel mass spectrometry method termed laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein translocon TOM to analyze its subunit composition and stoichiometry. With TOM core complex, purified at high pH, we demonstrate that a TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa is composed of at least two Tom40 and Tom22 molecules, respectively, and more than five small Tom subunits between 5.5 and 6.4 kDa. We show that the multiprotein complex has a total molecular mass higher than 170 depending on the number of Tom5, Tom6 and Tom7 molecules bound.

  1. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaize, S.; Ailloud, J.; Mariani, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author) [fr

  4. Mass Spectrometry of Halopyrazolium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Pande, U. C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven halogen substituted 1-methyl-2-phenylpyrazolium bromides or chlorides were investigated by field desorption, field ionization, and electron impact mass spectrometry. Dealkylation was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition. An exchange between covalent and ionic halogen prior...

  5. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  6. Mass spectrometry for the biophysical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Gross, Michael L

    2014-01-21

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are powerful therapeutics, and their characterization has drawn considerable attention and urgency. Unlike small-molecule drugs (150-600 Da) that have rigid structures, mAbs (∼150 kDa) are engineered proteins that undergo complicated folding and can exist in a number of low-energy structures, posing a challenge for traditional methods in structural biology. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based biophysical characterization approaches can provide structural information, bringing high sensitivity, fast turnaround, and small sample consumption. This review outlines various MS-based strategies for protein biophysical characterization and then reviews how these strategies provide structural information of mAbs at the protein level (intact or top-down approaches), peptide, and residue level (bottom-up approaches), affording information on higher order structure, aggregation, and the nature of antibody complexes. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultra-sensitive radionuclide spectrometry. Radiometrics and mass spectrometry synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in radiometrics and mass spectrometry techniques for ultra-sensitive analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment are reviewed. In the radiometrics sector the dominant development has been the utilization of large HPGe detectors in underground laboratories with anti-cosmic or anti-Compton shielding for the analysis of short and medium-lived radionuclides in the environment. In the mass spectrometry sector, applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the analysis of long-lived radionuclides in the environment are the most important recent achievements. The recent developments do not only considerably decrease the detection limits for several radionuclides (up to several orders of magnitude), but they also enable to decrease sample volumes so that sampling, e.g., of the water column can be much easier and more effective. A comparison of radiometrics and mass spectrometry results for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment shows a reasonable agreement - within quoted uncertainties, for wide range of activities and different sample matrices analyzed. (author)

  8. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Filosofia da análise da estabilidade da liquidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antônio Chaves da Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A informação foi considerada finalidade de nosso conhecimento, até o período em os pensadores e pesquisadores da contabilidade passaram a raciocinar sobre o conteúdo e o significado dos informes. Nesta busca da razão sobre os estados patrimoniais, surgiu a análise contábil que procura por meio de relações e identidades, o significado da dinâmica expressa da estaticamente na informação. O primeiro aspecto que surgiu no objeto de análise foi o estudo da liquidez, que é um dos principais exercícios do patrimônio. A estabilidade também é outro exercício básico e imprescindível, pois este é que promove o equilíbrio do organismo administrativo. A ciência contábil após a sua dignidade científica passou a trilhar caminhos esplendorosos, amparados em doutrina que permite alcançar os píncaros filosóficos. Os estudos concernentes aos aspectos de interação da estabilidade na liquidez são, complexos e somente com os recursos filosóficos da contabilidade se pode estudá-los com o panorama holístico e sublime. A filosofia da contabilidade não é alheia às suas práticas tecnológicas, podendo buscar pontos sublimes de panoramas abrangentes, para o estudo analítico da liquidez e estabilidade, observando todas as dimensionalidades e essencialidades de acontecimentos, na comprovação e orientação dos estados de ineficácia e eficácia patrimonial.

  10. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base

  11. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  12. New trends in nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.; Siemon, K.

    2013-01-01

    An overview on the status and function of current spectrometry hardware, of detectors having energy-dispersive (spectrometric) properties as well as of the latest developments in quantitative spectrometry software is presented. Making extensive use of modern computing power, new strategies in high-precision spectrum analysis have been developed which enhance the quality of results and also open new fields of spectrometric applications. Three principles have been newly introduced to spectrum analysis software: -use no approximations in modelling (Physics, no numerology) -apply all available models to find a solution (Fuzzy Logic) -repeat complete analyses for iterative improvement (Learn from results). -- Highlights: ► We present an overview of MCA hardware and detectors for nuclear spectrometry. ► Physics-oriented descriptions, Fuzzy Logic and multiple repetitive analyses lead to improved results in spectrum analysis. ► New strategies allow the successful deconvolution of spectra that could not be analysed before

  13. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  14. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  15. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  16. Some analytical aspects of the Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical applications of Moessbauer spectrometry are reviewed. Various methods of analysis (qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative) using the Moessbauer effect are dealt with. Sensitivity and accuracy of Moessbauer spectrometry in analytical applications are discussed. (Z.S.)

  17. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  18. Mass spectrometry in epigenetic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    cancers has gained tremendous interest in recent years, and many of these inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. Despite intense research, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of action of these molecules remain, to a wide extent, unclear. The recent application of mass spectrometry...

  19. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  20. Mass spectrometry of large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchetti, S.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures in this volume were given at a course on mass spectrometry of large molecules, organized within the framework of the Training and Education programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. Although first presented in 1983, most of the lectures have since been updated by their authors. (orig.)

  1. Gamma and X 93 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Meetings of Gamma and X 93 Spectrometry were held on 12-14 October 1993. The symposium was organized into six sessions: Instrumentation development, Nuclear matter measurement, Method and calibration, Medical applications, Environment survey (radioactive traces measurement), other applications (spent fuels analysis, various techniques). Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  2. Mass spectrometry with particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator use is renewing the ultrasensitive mass spectrometry in extending the detection limits. These new devices allow the measurement of rare isotope ratio, as 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl or 41 Ca, from the earth natural reservoirs [fr

  3. Eleventh ISMAS workshop on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.

    2004-10-01

    This volume deals with the latest developments in this field, exposing the innumerable applications of mass spectrometry. The topics covered include basic fundamentals of mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of mass spectrometers, selection of a mass spectrometer, its applications in various branches of science as well as recent advances in mass spectrometry. Emphasis is also laid on the practical aspects of mass spectrometry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. A Sintaxe da Janela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Jorge

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação fundamenta! do trabalho é de caráter ontológico: esboçar o problema das significações apriorísticas e autônomas dos elementos que compõem a sintaxe arquitetônica. O trabalho elege um desses elementos: a janela. Este artigo parte da aproximação histórica entre a janela e a secção da pirâmide visual, construção imaginária da teoria da perspectiva renascentista. A consideração da janela na linguagem arquitetônica implica reconhecer uma ambigüidade essencial: a janela deve inserir-se ordenadamente no plano da parede - raciocínio típico da modenatura - mas também relacionar-se com a imagem vista através dela, que extrapola o plano, ressaltando a tridimensionalidade - herança da perspectiva renascentista, fundamentada no espaço euclidiano. Ver janela ou ver através da janela são alternativas que se colocam tanto ao observador interno ao edifício, quanto ao externo. Texto de duplaface, a sintaxe da janela versa sobre o relacionamento desses dois lados

  5. Ninth ISMAS workshop on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2000-12-01

    Mass spectrometry has wide-ranging applications in such diverse areas as nuclear industry, agriculture, drugs, environment, petroleum and lentils. There is an urgent need to absorb and assimilate state-of-the-art technological developments in the field. Emerging trends in atomic mass spectrometry, advances in organic mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative analyses by mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry in oceanography are some of the areas that need to be expeditiously examined and are covered in this volume. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Alpha spectrometry and the secondary ion mass spectrometry of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, J.; Kuruc, J.; Galanda, D.; Matel, L.; Aranyosiova, M.; Velic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis was preparation of samples with thorium content on the steel discs by electrodeposition for determination of natural thorium isotope by alpha spectrometry and the secondary ion mass spectrometry and finding out their possible linear correlation between these methods. The samples with electrolytically excluded isotope of 232 Th were prepared by electrodeposition from solution Th(NO 3 ) 4 ·12 H2 O on steel discs in electrodeposition cell with use of solutions Na 2 SO 4 , NaHSO 4 , KOH and (NH 4 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) by electric current 0.75 A. Discs were measured by alpha spectrometer. Activity was calculated from the registered impulses for 232 Th and surface's weight. After alpha spectrometry measurements discs were analyzed by TOF-SIMS IV which is installed in the International Laser Centre in Bratislava. Intensities of isotope of 232 Th and ions of ThO + , ThOH + , ThO 2 H + , Th 2 O 4 H + , ThO 2 - , ThO 3 H - , ThH 3 O 3 - and ThN 2 O 5 H - were identified. The linear correlation is between surface's weights of Th and intensities of ions of Th + from SIMS, however the correlation coefficient has relatively low value. We found out with SIMS method that oxidized and hydride forms of thorium are significantly represented in samples with electroplated thorium. (authors)

  7. Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J

    2003-10-15

    Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  9. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  10. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  11. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  12. The history of radiation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kunishiro

    2007-01-01

    Recently combination of charge sensitive amplifier, pulse shape amplifier and multi-channel PHA (MCA) is regarded as standard configuration of radiation spectrometry. PHA history shows various kinds of MCA devices before we have obtained original digital ADC technology based MCA in 1960s. Those MCAs include interesting ones such as photographic type, which still keep fresh ideas even today. Room temperature preamplifiers are classified to low, medium range, and large capacitance (over 10000pF) detectors keeping ultra low noise. (author)

  13. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  14. Tópicos da teoria da relatividade

    OpenAIRE

    Fragata, Paulo Renato Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Matemática para Professores, 25 de Outubro 2013, Universidade dos Açores. Qualquer descrição física da natureza tem por base a especificação da posição e do instante em que decorre determinado acontecimento. Para tal, é necessário recorrer a um sistema de coordenadas, escolhido por cada observador, do modo que ele achar mais pertinente. Dada a generalidade na escolha do sistema de coordenadas, é útil conhecer as regras que nos permitem comparar cálculos feitos em d...

  15. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  16. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-06-01

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather complementary. An ideal system

  17. Chemical characterization of neonicotinoids in surface waters by high performance liquid chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS); Caracterização química dos neonicotinóides em águas superficiais via cromatografia liquída de alta eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem (HPLC-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Priscila Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a method for the determination and validation of a method for the identification and quantification of Neonicotinoids in surface waters collected in the Bauru region, in the state of São Paulo. The analytical techniques studied for the development of this method were the high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC - MS / MS), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC / MS) and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC / ECD). The class of pesticides Neonicotinoids was chosen for this work because it is related to a sudden disappearance of bees in colonies around the world. This phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and it is characterized by a rapid loss in the population of adult bees. The Neonicotinoids used in this study were the compounds Clothianidin, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam which were banned in their use as pesticides in Europe by Implementing Regulation No. 540/2011. The samples were concentrated using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid liquid extraction (LLE) techniques and injected into HPLC-MS / MS, GC / MS and GC / ECD. The GC / ECD and GC / MS techniques were not satisfactory for determination in the water matrix because the detection limit (10 mg L{sup -1}) is above the maximum allowed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (0.6 μg L{sup -1}). The HPLC - MS / MS technique using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) proved to be adequate for this study because it obtained quantification limits between 5.89 and 8.06 μg L{sup -1} and a linearity between 0.9963 and 0.9999 for the three compounds. (author)

  18. MACIEZ DA CARNE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as características de qualidade da carne bovina, a maciez assume posição de destaque, sendo considerada a característica organoléptica de maior influência na aceitação da carne por parte dos consumidores. A dureza da carne pode ser dividida em dureza residual, causada pelo tecido conjuntivo e outras proteínas do estroma, e dureza de actomiosina, causada pelas proteínas miofibrilares. Dentre os fatores que influenciam a maciez da carne, podem ser destacados a genética, a raça, a idade ao abate, o sexo, a alimentação, o uso de agentes hormonais (?-adrenérgicos e os tratamentos post-mortem. A qualidade final da carne é resultante de tudo o que aconteceu com o animal durante toda a cadeia produtiva. Devem-se assegurar procedimentos adequados de transporte, armazenamento, manipulação, exposição e preparo da carne, a fim de se obter um produto de melhor qualidade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Calpaínas, calpastatina, qualidade da carne, rigor mortis, tecido muscular.

  19. GERONTOLOGIA: ESTADO DA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M.A.Tordino Brandão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Gerontologia da PUC desenvolve pesquisas focando o ser na perspectiva do envelhecimento. As atividades são interdisciplinares e reúnem docentes, alunos e ex-alunos. Nesta mesa redonda apresentamos um panorama sobre estes estudos. Na área da educação e comunicação o foco está centrado na longevidade e na preparação e representação social da velhice. São ressaltadas como temáticas: a formação continuada de profissionais e pesquisadores; o significado da religiosidade/espiritualidade ao longo da trajetória, e sua repercussão na qualidade de vida do idoso; os programas sócio-educacionais para idosos e concepções sobre educação; o monitoramento da mídia na cobertura da crescente longevidade e seus impactos. Em identidade e modos de morar reflete-se sobre soluções planejadas e sua adequação para a inclusão do envelhecimento populacional como questão fundamental, que implica a elaboração de novas políticas, investigações e, especialmente, apresenta-se como questão a ser analisada, refletida e vivenciada pela sociedade em geral. Quanto à saúde, o Programa desenvolve várias pesquisas numa abordagem interdisciplinar tendo como objetos de estudo: a terapia assistida com animais direcionada a idosos com diagnóstico de Alzheimer; o acompanhamento terapêutico e o atendimento psicoterapêutico em grupo, a aplicação da técnica de Calatonia em idosos moradores de ILPI, além da investigação sobre impasses clínicos no idoso frágil. Palavras-chave: gerontologia, longevidade, envelhecimento

  20. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  1. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  2. Deuterium measurement by emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.; Heilig, K.; Dumke, I.

    1978-01-01

    The method makes it possible to determine the relative deuterium content of enriched water samples. For this, the relative intensities of the Hα and Dα lines are measured which are emitted by a high-frequency discharge in water vapour. Although the method is not as exact as mass spectrometry, it has the following advantages: - Easy sample preparation (no reduction necessary); - samples of highly different enrichment can be measured one after the other without the danger of memory effects; - much lower apparatus and cost expenditure. The necessary sample size is about the same in both methods. (orig.) [de

  3. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the function of genes can take place at the oligonucleotide or protein level. The latter has the advantage of being closest to function, since it is proteins that perform most of the reactions necessary for the cell. For most protein based ('proteomic') approaches to gene f...... numbers of intact proteins by mass spectrometry directly. Examples from this laboratory illustrate biological problem solving by modern mass spectrometric techniques. These include the analysis of the structure and function of the nucleolus and the analysis of signaling complexes....

  4. Principle of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The principle of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is described mainly on technical aspects: hardware construction of AMS, measurement of isotope ratio, sensitivity of measurement (measuring limit), measuring accuracy, and application of data. The content may be summarized as follows: rare isotope (often long-lived radioactive isotope) can be detected by various use of the ion energy obtained by the acceleration of ions, a measurable isotope ratio is one of rare isotope to abundant isotopes, and a measured value of isotope ratio is uncertainty to true one. Such a fact must be kept in mind on the use of AMS data to application research. (M.H.)

  5. Conjecturas da Epistemológia Jurídica e Aspectos da Teoria da Linguagem

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Cartelli de; Cesumar; Motta, Ivan Dias; Cesumar

    2008-01-01

    Apresentar-se-ão reflexões em torno da epistemologia jurídica e alguns aspectos da teoria da linguagem; a necessidade de acompanhamento e aprimoramento da linguagem jurídica, para que o direito não se distancie da realidade, mantendo-se apenas como um sistema do status quo; uma breve análise de algumas teorias da ciência do direito e da linguagem; as especificidades dos termos lingüísticos para a análise da ciência do direito, pautada na contemporaneidade sob a perspectiva humanista, buscando...

  6. Role of Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketha, Siva S; Singh, Ravinder J; Ketha, Hemamalini

    2017-09-01

    The advent of mass spectrometry into the clinical laboratory has led to an improvement in clinical management of several endocrine diseases. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry found some of its first clinical applications in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, in quantitative steroid analysis, and in drug analysis laboratories. Mass spectrometry assays offer analytical sensitivity and specificity that is superior to immunoassays for many analytes. This article highlights several areas of clinical endocrinology that have witnessed the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CONDICIONANTES DA COMPETITIVIDADE EMPRESARIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Contador

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho examina teoricamente os fatores determinantes da competitividade do produto e do negócio, imprescindíveis à elaboração de estratégias competitivas que visam à obtenção e sustentação de vantagens competitivas. Esse tema é objeto tanto da área de marketing estratégico quanto da de estratégia empresarial. Nas duas áreas, há um ponto de consenso que afirma que a empresa deve diferenciar sua oferta para conquistar e manter vantagem competitiva. Mas, os estudos conduzidos por meio do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição revelaram que a empresa pode diferenciar seu produto e/ou serviço de modo mais amplo, levando em consideração, na formulação da sua estratégia competitiva, também o campo da competição, quer do produto, quer dela própria. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar que, para a empresa ser competitiva, além de diferenciar seu produto e/ou seu serviço no sentido tradicional, ela precisa: 1 diferenciar seu produto incluindo a definição em quais campos vai competir em cada segmento; e 2 escolher as armas da competição que irá utilizar e definir a intensidade de cada arma. Para atingir tal objetivo, foram necessários vários conceitos do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição: campo da competição, arma da competição, tese do modelo, configuração dos campos da competição, campo coadjuvante, produto coadjuvante e par produto-mercado. Como uma proposta inovadora sempre desperta dúvida, é mostrado o processo de validação do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição e são discutidas sua universalidade, consistência e completude.

  8. Technological characterization of basaltic rocks of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo - Parana states, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica das rochas basalticas da Usina Hidroeletrica Canoas I, Rio Paranapanema, SP/PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrano, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    Basaltic litotypes from the rock mass foundation of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant were submitted to technological characterization tests, in order to verify their suitability as construction material. Physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, water absorption, ultrasonic velocity, compressive and splitting tensile strength, among others) were determined, besides petrographic analyses. Weather ability tests were also performed, not only through wetting-drying cycles and by immersion in ethylene glycol but by outdoor exposure as well, using crushed and core drilled specimens. Detailed procedures for the weather ability test using core specimens from rotary drilling are given. It is analyzed the influence of a geological feature (fault zone, about 10 meters thick and 20 degrees dip), that occurs in the rock mass foundation, on the technological properties of these rocks. Basaltic litotypes selected as construction material are then pointed out. (author)

  9. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  10. Physical-mechanical characterization of hydroxyapatite-titanium oxide composites made by the polymeric sponge method; Caracterizacao fisico-mecanica de compositos porosos de hidroxiapatita-titania confeccionados pelo metodo da esponja polimerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, A.G.S.; Zavaglia, C.A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bioceramics have been used as bone reconstruction materials since last decades, where hydroxyapatite is one of the most used for this purpose. However, hydroxyapatite's mechanical strength is not so high when compared to other bioceramics. This work aimed on characterizing physically and mechanically composites of HA-TiO{sub 2}. Samples were made by the polymeric sponge method with 70% - 30% wt., 60% - 40% wt. and 50% - 50% wt. of HA - TiO{sub 2}, calcined at 550 deg C for sponge burning and sintered at 1250 deg C, 1300 deg C and 1350 deg C. Samples were submitted to mechanical essays of compression and Hardness Vickers and to physical essays of water absorption, apparent density, burning linear retraction and apparent density. Results showed relatively better than those of pure hydroxyapatite and they are in accordance with the literature. (author)

  11. Characterization of solid wastes from kraft pulp industry for ceramic materials development purposes; Caracterizacao de residuos solidos da industria de celulose tipo kraft visando sua aplicacao no desenvolvimento de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.R.; Francisco, M.A.C.O.; Sagrillo, V.P.D.; Louzada, D.M.; Entringer, J.M.S. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Kraft pulp industry generates a large amount of solid wastes. Due this large quantity, the target of this study is characterize inorganic solid wastes, dregs, grits and lime mud, from the step of reagents recovery of Kraft process, aiming evaluate the potentiality of their use as alternative raw material on development of ceramic materials. Initially, the wastes were dried and ground, then they were subjected to the following characterization techniques: pH analysis, particle size analysis, X ray fluorescence, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, it may be concluded that these wastes could be used as raw material in production of red ceramic and luting materials. (author)

  12. Impregnation of 12-tungstophosphoric acid on silica - part I: determination of impregnation parameters, characterization and evaluation of catalytic activity; Impregnacao do acido 12-fosfotungstico em silica - parte I: determinacao de parametros de impregnacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao da atividade catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroccaro, Karine Isabel; Tanobe, Valcineide Oliveira de Andrade; Cocco, Lilian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, E-mail: karineisabel@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Wypych, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Catalyst based on Kegging-type heteropolyacids (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} - HPA), supported on SiO{sub 2} (H{sub 3}PW), were prepared by the impregnation method under different thermal treatment conditions. The materials were characterized by different instrumental techniques and used as catalysts in the methyl esterification reactions of stearic acid. Using the catalyst with 15% of HPA, conversions higher than 60% were obtained after 2 h of reaction at 65 deg C. Recovery studies using hot-filtration with ethanol at 75 deg C showed satisfactory activity for two additional reaction cycles. (author)

  13. Characterization of isolated biomass of the fermentation processes for ethanol production for use as biofuels; Caracterizacao da biomassa isolada de processos fermentativos de producao de etanol para uso como biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckelberg, Claudia; Andrietta, Maria da Graca Stupiello; Andrietta, Silvio Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CPQBA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Div. de Biotecnologia e Processos], Email: claudia@cpqba.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This study has had the purpose of enhancing the knowledge on the dominant strains of ethanol fermentation process biomass to use as bio fuel. The attributes studied were: numerical taxonomy (Griffits, 1981) and fermentative performance. The results have showed that all strains have presented good fermentative characteristics. All strains have been classified as Saccharomyces. In this genus were found the follow species: chevalieri, coreanus cerevisiae. If the classification according Barnet (1992) is considered, all of them are representative of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of pigments of hematite, obtained through a by-product of the siderurgy industry; Sintese e caracterizacao de pigmento de hematita, obtido atraves de um subproduto da industria siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prim, S.R.; Folgueiras, M.V.; Lima, M.A. de, E-mail: dem6srp@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina (PGCEM/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In the ceramic industry of tooting, whose selection is strongly influenced by the visual aspect of the decorated surface, the color becomes one of the most important characteristic for the too tings. With the purpose of seeking new pigments that replace or optimize the already known, news method to synthesis are being researched, such as new pigments system and also the incorporation of new raw materials. In this form, in the present work search to study the possibility of use of a by-product deriving from of the siderurgical industry, that introduces high grades of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For that different contests of the residue were added in one matrix of silica in the hape of quartz, and homogenized using conventional milling and high energy milling. The material obtained after heating treatment in temperature that varied between 1050 and 1300 deg C was characterization by x-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results shown the feasibility of the process depend of the control of the variables temperature and condition of milling in the quality of material obtained. (author)

  15. Monitoring and characterization of organic reactive species in the atmosphere: a tool for management of air quality; Monitoramento e caracterizacao de especies organicas reativas na atmosfera: uma ferramenta para gestao da qualidade do ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Andrea; Almeida, Jose Claudino; Loureiro, Luciana [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Monitoramento Atmosferico; Moreira, Lino [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grosjean, Daniel; Grosjean, Eric [DGA Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The present paper briefly reports some monitoring campaigns carried out in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area through 1999 a 2001, and presents some benchmarking with the study that took place in Porto Alegre from 1996 a 1999. These studies were developed through CENPES research projects, with partnership with local academy, international consultants, local environmental agencies and the environmental secretaries from the two cities. The main goal of both studies was to speciate and characterize the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) present in the urban environments of both locations in order to assess the overall atmospheric reactivity and the ozone production potentials. Highest priority was given to the locations in which vehicular emissions played important role, once the core objective of both projects was to supply technical information on the atmospheric impact of motor fuels, with special emphasis on gasoline. With the continuation of Rio de Janeiro monitoring campaigns and the inclusion of Sao Paulo in the project as an additional monitoring area, the intention is to grant enough technical input and information to establish a data bank of ambient air concentrations of speciated reactive VOC's, fully customized to the Brazilian urban scenario, aiming to go farther in the realm of atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric reactivity. In essence, the effort devoted to raise local and experimental information on air quality and vehicle emissions aims to build sound scientific basis to technically support environmental management policies of best cost-effectiveness targeting secondary pollutants control in the urban atmospheres (author)

  16. Thermal activation and characterization of chocolate clay for using as adsorbent in nickel removal; Ativacao termica e caracterizacao da argila chocolate visando sua aplicacao como adsorvente na remocao de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, W.C.T.; Brito, A.L.F.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: meiry@deq.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, H.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Clays present interesting properties as adsorbing material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents. This property is clearly modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of chocolate clay before and after thermal activation (from 300 to 500 deg C) is realized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The main differences between the activated and natural clays are structural modifications of the clay, as shown by XRD and DTA/TG, but also a modification of its cation exchange capacity as shown by the methylene blue method. (author)

  17. Preparation and characterization of high density polyethylene and residual fibre of Attalea funifera Mart (piacava) composites; Preparacao e caracterizacao de compositos de polietileno de alta densidade com residuos de fibras de piacava da especie Attalea funifera Mart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrela, Sara P.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Jose, Nadia M., E-mail: saraagrela@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais; Carvalho, Gleidson G.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Producao Animal; Carvalho, Ricardo F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Ambiental Urbana

    2009-07-01

    The use of natural fiber reinforcement thermoplastic polymer is continuously increasing. This fact is manly due to its advantages as low cost, availability, recyclability, low energy demand and then environmental appeal if compared to synthetics fibers. The composites were prepared in different fiber volume ratios (5%, 10% and 20%) mixed with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and heated at 190 deg C. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate thermal stability. The composites structure was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry. Fiber and residue of piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) chemical composition were determined by Van Soest Method. The results indicate that thermo stability of the composites of HDPE prepared with fiber volume ratios up to 20% is only slightly lowered. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of rare earth molybdates nanoparticles for detection of specific prostatic cancer (PSA); Preparacao e caracterizacao de nanoparticulas de molibdatos de terras raras para deteccao do antigeno especifico da prostata (PSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Clarissa Lombardi

    2013-07-01

    The interest in using rare earths to investigate the properties and functions of biochemical systems as well as to determinate biological substances has increased in several fields, including biomarkers in immunology (fluoro immunoassays). Nowadays the use of lanthanides in the diagnosis of various diseases have become more important through the development of commercial diagnostic kits. As main feature, these rare earths can show a long lifetime, photo stability and emission bands of atomic like behavior and well defined, in the visible region, demonstrating unique advantages when compared to other luminescent species. The present work had as its goal to synthesize rare earth molybdates by the co-precipitation method as well as to characterize these materials by X-ray diffraction, near infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and luminescent studies. In this work, three different studied were developed: the influence of the vortex speed variation during co-precipitation in the structure of the final product, morphology and luminescence properties; the influence of the annealing temperature also in the structure, morphology and luminescence properties; and the influence of concentration of the doping in the luminescence properties. Another important step of this work was the functionalization of nanoparticles using an organosilane (APTES) to coat and establish points for binding the particles to biological species. It was proved that this process was very efficient by the characterization results and the silica incorporation was well succeeded. Specific prostatic cancer (PSA) was then linked to the functionalized nanoparticles to diagnostic prostatic cancer by fluoroimmunoassay and levels for detection were established. (author)

  19. Characterization of manganese phases in mineral processing products of the Azul Mine, Carajas. Metallurgical implications; Caracterizacao de fases manganesiferas em produtos de beneficiamento da Mina do Azul, Carajas. Implicacoes metalurgicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.; Fernandez, O.J.Ch., E-mail: pereiragilcimar@hotmail.co, E-mail: ochoque.fernandez@gmail.co [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, M.L. da, E-mail: mlc@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2010-07-01

    Were characterized the manganese phases of the processing products using ore microscopy and x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute with new data and help the processing operations of the mine. Cryptomelane is the main manganese mineral in products, and pyrolusite and nsutite are in minor proportion. Were observed distinctive textures of the cryptomelane and others manganese phases, it were formed in different geological times and therefore affecting the operations in mineral processing, principally, comminution. The observed mineralogical variations affect too the unit operations when expand the pit. (author)

  20. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: marvinchp@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2011-07-01

    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  1. Thermal activation and characterization of clay aiming their use as sorbent in fixed bed columns to remove cadmium; Ativacao termica e caracterizacao da argila visando sua utilizacao como adsorvente em colunas de leito fixo para a remocao de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.M. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, M.L.P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), RN (Brazil); Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C., E-mail: marciliomaximo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work we studied the removal of cadmium in a synthetic wastewater using clay of Pernambuco - Brazil, in systems of fixed bed column. Clay was thermally activated at 500 °C. The materials were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method). For tests in fixed bed column, we applied a factorial design 2{sup 2} and found that increasing the flow adversely affects the process of removing cadmium concentration while acting positively. The studies showed these materials as promising for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} ions in synthetic wastewater containing low levels of this metal. (author)

  2. Synthesis, characterization and study of activity inhibitory of new dialkylphosphorylhdrazones on the growth of trypanosomatids; Sintese, caracterizacao e estudo da atividade inibitoria de novas dialquilfosforilarilidrazonas sobre o crescimento de tripanossomatideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Andrea Janaina M.; Lima, Marco Edilson F. de; DaCosta, Joao Batista N., E-mail: dacosta@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Alves, Eliomara Sousa Sobral; Anjos, Danielle Oliveira dos; Vannier-Santos, Marcos Andre; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz

    2011-07-01

    A new series of dialkylphosphorylhydrazones was synthesized through the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with different phosphorylhydrazines. All synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopies. The in vitro investigation of the activity of these compounds against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and epimastigotes of T. cruzi, showed an efficient inhibition of proliferation, at non toxic concentrations to mammalian cells. The results have shown some derivatives as potential antiparasitic agents against trypanosomatids. (author)

  3. Characterization of barite and crystal glass as attenuators in X-ray and gamma radiation shieldings; Caracterizacao da barita e do vidro cristal como atenuadores na blindagem das radiacoes X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Airton Tavares de

    2005-03-15

    Aiming to determine the barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}) ore and crystal glass attenuation features, both utilized as shieldings against ionizing X and gamma radiations in radiographic installations, a study of attenuation using barite plaster and barite concrete was carried out, which are used, respectively, on wall coverings and in block buildings. The crystal glass is utilized in screens and in windows. To do so, ten plates of barite plaster and three of barite concrete with 900 cm{sup 2} and with an average thickness ranging from 1 to 5 cm, and three plates of crystal glass with 323 cm{sup 2} and with thicknesses of 1, 2 and 4 cm were analyzed. The samples were irradiated with X-rays with potentials of 60, 80, 110 and 150 kilovolts, and also with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. Curves of attenuation were obtained for barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) and (mGy/h), both at 1 meter, as a function of thickness and curve of transmission through barite plaster and barite concrete as a function of the thickness. The equivalent thicknesses of half and tenth value layers for barite plaster, barite concrete and crystal glass for all X-Ray energies were also determined. (author)

  4. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch; Caracterizacao, tratamento e aproveitamento das cinzas da casca do arroz em processos produtivos do ramo industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio, E-mail: stracke@santoangelo.uri.br [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Santo Angelo, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  5. Characterized and cleaning process of montmorillonite clay from Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil; Caracterizacao e processo de purificacao de argila montmorilonitica da cidade de Parelhas, RN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, G N; Costa, T C C; Paskocimas, C A [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The application of montmorillonite nano composites has been improved in order to obtain dispersed phase with particles of nano metric dimensions. To obtain these nanoparticles, the clays must pass an effective purification process for removing unwanted materials, which would undermine the processes of intercalation and exfoliation of montmorillonite in a polymer matrix. This study intention to characterize and purify a montmorillonite clay from deposit recently discovered in the city of Parelhas in Rio Grande do Norte, through the separation of coarser materials by decantation followed by a chemical attack that promoted oxidation in samples where it was realized reduction of impurities such as organic matter and other substances that would hinder the achievement of nanoparticles. Under these conditions, the clay is suitable for the work as dispersed phase in a polymer matrix nano composite. The results were demonstrated by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, BET and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  6. Chemometrics application in fuel's MTR type chemical characterization by X-ray fluorescence; Aplicacao da quimiometria para caracterizacao quimica de combustiveis tipo MTR por fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clayton Pereira da

    2012-07-01

    In Brazil and worldwide the nuclear power has occupied a prominent position with many applications in industry, power generation, environment and medicine, improving the quality of tests and treatments, therefore people's lives. Uranium is the main element used in nuclear facilities and it s employed as base material to generation of electricity in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In the '50s, during the Cold War, the then newly created International Atomic Energy Agency proposed to oversee nuclear facilities and encourage the manufacture of nuclear fuels with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel came then type Material Test Reactor (MTR), manufactured initially in U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} later, both dispersed in aluminum. The use of this technology requires a constant improvement of all processes involving the manufacture of MTR subject to several international protocols, which seek to ensure the reliability of the fuel from the standpoint of practical and environmental. In this context, the control of impurities, from the point of view of neutron economy, directly affects the quality of any nuclear fuel, so strict control is necessary. The literature has reported procedures which, beyond generating residues, are lengthy and costly, they need calibration curve and consequently reference materials. The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis, low cost and analysis time, as well as minimize the generation of waste, for multielement determination of major constituents (Utotal and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd and others) present in U3O8 and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, meeting the needs of nuclear reactors in the nuclear fuel qualification type MTR. For that purposes, will be applied the X-ray fluorescence technique which allows fast chemical and nondestructive analysis, aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous chemical treatments (dissolving, digesting, and others). To corrections like effects of spectral and matrix were applied and evaluated the fundamental parameter method, univariate calibration curve and multivariate calibration. The results were compared by means of statistical tests in accordance with ISO 17025 in MRCs (123 (1-7) and 124 (1-7)) MCRs of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} from New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) and 16 U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} samples provided by CC of IPEN/CNEN-SP. The chemometrics is a promising method to determination of minor and major constituents on the U3Si2 and U3O8 basis nuclear fuel, because the precision and accuracy are statistically equal volumetric analysis, gravimetric and ICPOES methods. (author)

  7. Technological characterization of new clay deposits in the south region of Amapa, Brazil aiming applications in the ceramic industry; Caracterizacao tecnologica de novos depositos de argilas da regiao sul do Amapa visando aplicacoes na industriav ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The objective of the present work was to characterize two new Clay deposits (A and B) from the south region of Amapa state, aiming to establish their adequate uses as ceramic raw materials and to promote the potential of the ceramic industry in the region. Were prepared specimens by uniaxial pressing, being applied a two phase pressing of 13,4 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively. The samples were dried in an oven at 110 deg C, and submitted to burning at 850, 1000 and 1200 deg C. Were determined linear firing shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and modulus of flexural modulus of rupture, as well as mineralogical evolution after burning. Finishing, the microstructure of the sintered clay at 1200 deg C was evaluated in a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the clay A presented a better mechanical development, having a red coloration and, therefore, potential to the red ceramic industry. On the other hand, the clay B presented a light color, due to a low content of iron oxide and, therefore, having potential as refractory raw material. In general, one clay is suitable to be used in white ceramic and the other in red ceramic. (author)

  8. Rheological characterization of LDPE{sub Al} (low density polyethylene and aluminum) e HDPE (high density polyethylene); Caracterizacao das propriedades reologicas da mistura LDPE{sub Al} (polietileno de baixa densidade e aluminio) e HDPE (polietileno de alta densidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Marinha, Ana Beatriz Abreu; Pacheco, Elen Beatriz Acordi Vasques; Monteiro, Elisabeth Ermel da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2008-07-01

    The long life packaging contains paper, polyethylene and aluminum for packaging of food. A few part of total amount produced is recycled and another is discharged in landfills in Brazil. The low density polyethylene and aluminum (LDPE{sub Al}) was obtained from recycling this packaging. The rheological properties of the blends were intermediate to ones of the pure polymers. In a general way, the rheological properties were not modified by the aluminum presence. (author)

  9. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators; Estudo da caracterizacao e do comportamento de fios de Ti-Ni com efeito memoria de forma viabilizando fabricacao de atuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H., E-mail: kikipina@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  10. Preliminary characterization of the rare earth ore from the Barra do Itapirapua, Sao Paulo and Parana states, Brazil. Detail 1 area; Caracterizacao preliminar do minerio de terras raras da Barra do Itapirapua, SP/PR - area de detalhe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzi, M.L.B.; Lorenzi, V.E.; Kahn, H

    1996-12-31

    The main rare earth mineralization on Barra do Itapirapua Alkaline-Carbonatitic Complex is related to the weathering mantle of the Serrana Body carbonatite plug - detail 1 area. The present work describes the preliminary RE ore types established from correlation between geological observations, geochemical weathering profile and mineralogical studies. Mineralogical studies, comprising around 40 thin section analysis, were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive systems (EDS). (author) 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of vermicompost from bovine manure and evaluation of competitive adsorption of cadmium and lead; Caracterizacao quimica e fisico-quimica de vermicomposto de esterco bovino e avaliacao da adsorcao competitiva por cadmio e chumbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamim, Soraida Sozzi Miguel [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Jordao, Claudio Pereira; Brune, Walter; Pereira, Jose Luis [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1996-09-01

    The chemical and physicochemical characterization of vermicompost from bovine manure has been studied. It was examined the pH and cation exchangeable capacity (CTC), moistness, ash, organic carbon, total nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and metal concentrations, among other characteristics. The vermicompost was then applied to the retention and competition of metal pollutants (Cd and Pb) from metal nitrate solutions. The retention was affected by both the pH and time of adsorption, while the competitive character of these metals for the substrate was not relevant to each pH examined. (author) 46 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization; Estudo de ceramicas de sitios arqueologicos circulares da Bacia Amazonica por meio de metodos geoquimicos: datacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  13. Water isotopic characterization of hypersaline formation of a petroleum field Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Caracterizacao isotopica de aguas de formacao hipersalinas de um campo de petroleo da Bacia do Reconcavo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Danilo Ribeiro de Sa; Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes de, E-mail: danilosateles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: expedito@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia; Santos, Christian Pereira Lopes dos, E-mail: cplsgs@gmail.com [Instituto Federal Baiano, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Formation water is the water present in reservoir rock pores, produced together with petroleum. Usually it is hyper saline with concentrations that can be higher than 250 g/l of dissolved solids. The concentration of the dissolved elements and the isotopic composition of the water and of some of the dissolved elements can be excellent tracers to study the dynamic of underground fluid flux, the mixing of distinct sources and the origin of salinization of these waters. This work reports the isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O) and electrical conductivity (EC) of formation waters from 10 wells of a petroleum field of the Reconcavo Basin, looking for their evolution, interaction with the minerals and rocks and reservoir interconnection. The samples have electric conductivity ranging from 84 to 137 mS/cm, with conductivity increasing with depth of production zone. It is observed an enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 with the depth of production zone, probably due to water-rock interactions that were probably increased by higher temperatures of the deeper levels and longer residence times. The samples from the production zone between 1450 to 1520 m, drained by 7 of the 10 wells sampled, show a small range in isotopic composition and in electric conductivity, indicating homogeneity in this level of the reservoir. In the shallow level of 450 m the values of {delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O and EC are lower, with isotopic composition similar to the oceanic water, possibly representing the original water that entered the reservoir during the sedimentation of the basin. (author)

  14. Chemometrics application in fuel's MTR type chemical characterization by X-ray fluorescence; Aplicacao da quimiometria para caracterizacao quimica de combustiveis tipo MTR por fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clayton Pereira da

    2012-07-01

    In Brazil and worldwide the nuclear power has occupied a prominent position with many applications in industry, power generation, environment and medicine, improving the quality of tests and treatments, therefore people's lives. Uranium is the main element used in nuclear facilities and it s employed as base material to generation of electricity in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In the '50s, during the Cold War, the then newly created International Atomic Energy Agency proposed to oversee nuclear facilities and encourage the manufacture of nuclear fuels with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel came then type Material Test Reactor (MTR), manufactured initially in U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} later, both dispersed in aluminum. The use of this technology requires a constant improvement of all processes involving the manufacture of MTR subject to several international protocols, which seek to ensure the reliability of the fuel from the standpoint of practical and environmental. In this context, the control of impurities, from the point of view of neutron economy, directly affects the quality of any nuclear fuel, so strict control is necessary. The literature has reported procedures which, beyond generating residues, are lengthy and costly, they need calibration curve and consequently reference materials. The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis, low cost and analysis time, as well as minimize the generation of waste, for multielement determination of major constituents (Utotal and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd and others) present in U3O8 and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, meeting the needs of nuclear reactors in the nuclear fuel qualification type MTR. For that purposes, will be applied the X-ray fluorescence technique which allows fast chemical and nondestructive analysis, aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous chemical treatments (dissolving, digesting, and others). To corrections like effects of spectral and matrix were applied and evaluated the fundamental parameter method, univariate calibration curve and multivariate calibration. The results were compared by means of statistical tests in accordance with ISO 17025 in MRCs (123 (1-7) and 124 (1-7)) MCRs of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} from New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) and 16 U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} samples provided by CC of IPEN/CNEN-SP. The chemometrics is a promising method to determination of minor and major constituents on the U3Si2 and U3O8 basis nuclear fuel, because the precision and accuracy are statistically equal volumetric analysis, gravimetric and ICPOES methods. (author)

  15. Characterization of dispersion of a nano composites PP/TiO{sub 2} non modified; Caracterizacao da dispersao dos nanocompositos de PP/TiO{sub 2} nao modificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Igor L.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Vanessa A. da; Legramanti, Cintia, E-mail: igorl@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas - IMA (Brazil); Luetkmeyer, Leandro [Universidades Federais do Mato Grosso - UFMT, Escritorio de Inovacao Tecnologica - EIT (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymeric nano composites are composite materials where an inorganic particle, which has a dimension in the nanometer range, is dispersed in a polymer matrix. Nano composites, using polypropylene (PP) as matrix polymer and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as filler, have great versatility in marketing applications, this factor is inherent in the PP and the inherent ability photo degraded TiO{sub 2} particles. This combination can lead to a widely used material and a degradation time after discharge reduced, there by becoming, a residue of low environmental impact. This study aimed to evaluate the dispersion and particle distribution of TiO{sub 2}, non modified, in PP matrix, using the process of preparation by melt extrusion pathway and characterization of the materials obtained: on the molecular dynamics, using low field NMR solid state, measures the relaxation time spin-network (T{sub 1}H); morphology using XRD technique, and thermal analysis technique with the TGA of pure PP and nano composites PP/TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  16. Purification and characterization of b-lapachone and stability study of the crystals under different storing conditions; Purificacao e caracterizacao da b-lapachona e estudo de estabilidade dos cristais em diferentes condicoes de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Geisiane Maria Cavalcante; Rolim, Larissa Araujo; Rolim Neto, Pedro Jose; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; Brondani, Dalci Jose [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: pedro.rolim@pq.cnpq.br; Medeiros, Flavia Patricia Morais de [Laboratorio Farmaceutico do Estado de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bieber, Lothar W. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Mendonca Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2008-07-01

    The beta-lapachone is a product obtained from the Ipe Roxo tree [Tabebuia avellandae], which has proved its excellent antineoplasic potential acting through a particular mechanism of apoptosis against various cancer types. This study aims at determining the identity card of beta-lapachone by means of physico-chemical and pharmaco-technical characterization. A purifying process has been performed, as well as the isolation of a contaminant, its isomer alpha-lapachone. A stability study was also performed, determining the ideal storing conditions for beta-lapachone, essential for the ongoing pre-formulation studies for obtaining the different classic pharmaceutical forms and modified release systems. (author)

  17. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization; Estudo de ceramicas de sitios arqueologicos circulares da Bacia Amazonica por meio de metodos geoquimicos: datacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid)/rice husk ash hydrogels composites; Sintese e caracterizacao de hidrogeis compositos de cinza da casca de arroz e quitosana enxertada com poli(acido acrilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Francisco H.A. [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau - UVA, Sobral, CE (Brazil); Lopes, Gabriel V.; Pereira, Antonio G.B.; Fajardo, Andre R.; Muniz, Edvani C. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa - UEM, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    According to environmental concerns, super absorbent hydrogel composites were synthesized based on rice husk ash (RHA), an industrial waste, and Chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid). The WAXS and FTIR data confirmed the syntheses of hydrogel composites. The effect of crystalline or amorphous RHA on water uptake was investigated. It was found that the RHA in crystalline form induces higher water capacity (W{sub eq}) of composites hydrogels due to the fact that the intra-interactions among silanol groups on RHA make available new sites in the polymer matrix, which could interact to water. (author)

  19. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao e filmes radiocromicos para verificacao da coerencia metrologica entre campos padroes de radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-07-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with radiochromic films in both BSS2 showed that some of them were not geometrically aligned. (author)

  20. OSBRA right of way characterization in Vila Estrutural, Brasilia, Brazil; Caracterizacao de faixa do OSBRA na Vila Estrutural em Brasilia - evidencia de uma nova relacao da TRANSPETRO com a comunidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Walderes Lima de; Castro, Newton Camelo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braga, Gilberto Vieira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this project we will introduce the relationship experience between TRANSPETRO and Vila Estrutural community, located in Guara, D.C., what we consider a social responsibility practice and an important tool of the integrity maintenance of right of way pipelines, considering the risks caused by other people actions. In this specific case, Vila Estrutural is the most critical one, of Sao Paulo - Brasilia pipelines (OSBRA): irregular occupations, with an estimated population by 25,000 people, with an inhabit strangle and development constructions tendency in the straight ahead direction of pipelines. To deal with this reality, OSBRA management created a strategy called 'Acquaintance Communication', increasing the knowledge about the community (diagnostic), promoting to yours employees an acquaintance culture (qualifying); developing communications strategies with those that live nearby right of the pipelines way (relationship); and finally, building the stonemason of the characterization of the right of way pipelines as a real device and right of the way protection (framing). This work is lined up with the idea of an integrated communication, using many strategies (visits, meetings, argument groups, etc.), constituting in a corporative social responsibility practice, admitting the community right of information and knowing it the right manner of living nearby the right of way pipeline, resulting in the equipment integrity, asserting the community safety and environment maintenance. (author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of nickel catalysts supported on cerium for obtaining hydrogen from steam reforming of ethanol; Preparacao e caracterizacao de catalisadores de niquel suportados em ceria para obtencao de hidrogenio a partir da reforma a vapor do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbaninho, A.B.; Bergamaschi, V.S.; Ferreira, J.C., E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Células à Combustível e Hidrogênio

    2016-07-01

    The Ni/Ce catalysts for were prepared by co- precipitation method with a view to their use in steam reforming of ethanol to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy; x-ray dispersive Spectroscopy and surface area BET method. This paper proposes to prepare, characterize and test nickel catalyst supported on cerium in order to obtain a material with higher activity and selectivity of the catalyst using the steam reforming reaction of ethanol, by varying the reaction temperature, molar ratio water/ethanol and uptime. The catalytic tests were monitored by chemical analysis of syngas from steam reforming of ethanol using an analysis online by gas Chromatograph in the reactor. (author)

  2. Characterization of residual soils of the region of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, slip for use in artistic ceramics; Caracterizacao de solos residuais da regiao de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, para uso de engobes em ceramica artistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrispim, Z.M.P.; Alves, M.G.; Ramos, I.S.; Silva, A.L., E-mail: zeliachrispim@terra.com.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LECIV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia Civil; Almeida, L.L.P. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    This work was conducted in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, in which four residual soils collected in the region were technologically characterized. We sought to determine their properties, such as analysis of the colors after firing, aiming at its use in ceramic art. To this end the tests were conducted in the laboratories of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) and that are granulometry (by sieving and sedimentation), specific mass of grains, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, diffraction mineralogical identification X-ray, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. The soils were analyzed before drying at 110 deg C and after burning the different temperatures (500 deg C 750 deg C and 950 deg C). The analyzed results showed the physical composition, chemical and mineralogical of raw material. After burning was possible to observe several color variations. (author)

  3. Characterization of an ecological binder for mortars obtained from recycling of ladle furnace slag; Caracterizacao de aglomerante ecologico para argamassas obtido a partir da reciclagem de escoria de forno panela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, A.B.; Santos, C.M.; Fontes, W.C.; Matias, A.C.P.; Brigolini, G.J.; Peixoto, R.A.F. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenhaira Civil; Carvalho, J.F., E-mail: josemaria.carvalho@ufv.br [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Civil

    2016-07-01

    A sustainable binder obtained from recycling of a ladle furnace slag from Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, was produced in Laboratory of Construction Materials of Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP). A characterization work was performed and the results are presented. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties was obtained using, among others, the following techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld refining method, optical microscopy and Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The chemical analysis showed predominance of CaO and SiO{sub 3}; the mineralogical analysis pointed the predominant presence of calcium-olivine, merwinite and pyroxene and; the images showed predominance of angulous and elongated grains. According to results, the material was classified as a hydraulic binder, with characteristics comparable to hydraulic limes. (author)

  4. Evaluating factorial kriging for seismic attributes filtering: a geostatistical filter applied to reservoir characterization; Avaliacao da krigagem fatorial na filtragem de atributos sismicos: um filtro geoestatistico aplicado a caracterizacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Evaldo Cesario

    1999-02-01

    In this dissertation the Factorial Kriging analysis for the filtering of seismic attributes applied to reservoir characterization is considered. Factorial Kriging works in the spatial, domain in a similar way to the Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain. The incorporation of filtered attributes via External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging in the estimate of reservoir characterization is discussed. Its relevance for the reservoir porous volume calculation is also evaluated based on comparative analysis of the volume risk curves derived from stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with external drift. results prove Factorial Kriging as an efficient technique for the filtering of seismic attributes images, of which geologic features are enhanced. The attribute filtering improves the correlation between the attributes and the well data and the estimates of the reservoir properties. The differences between the estimates obtained by External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging are also reduced. (author)

  5. Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Analysis of Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55% (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the eight week study, cecal and distal-colon contents samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal-colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  6. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  7. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  8. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  9. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from coal ashes modified by cationic surfactant; Sintese e caracterizacao de zeolita de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante cationico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, D.A.; Borrely, S.I., E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash was modified with different concentrations (2 and 20 mmol.L{sup -1}) of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). The Non-Modified Zeolite (NMZ) and Surfactant-Modified Zeolites (SMZ) were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, among others. The SMS presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of NMZ. A decrease in surface area was observed for SMZ as compared to NMZ indicating zeolite surface coverage with HDTMA-Br molecules. The crystalline nature of the zeolite remained intact after adsorption of surfactant and heating for drying. FTIR analysis indicated that there were no significant changes in the structure of the zeolite after adsorption of surfactant. (author)

  10. Efeito da eutonia no tratamento da fibromialgia

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda,Cecília; Martinez,José Eduardo; Neder,Matilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a eutonia como método terapêutico auxiliar no tratamento da fibromialgia (FM). MÉTODOS: estudou-se um grupo de 20 mulheres, segundo os critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR), com duração mínima de seis meses, sem alterações no tratamento medicamentoso ou prescrição de exercícios nesse período. As pacientes foram avaliadas através do questionário de dados sociodemográficos; Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) para dor e questionário genérico de avaliação da qualidade d...

  11. Het Italiaanse voorzetsel da

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING In een voorzetselstudie in het kader van Jackendoffs semantische theorie wordt het sterk polyseme Italiaanse voorzetsel da geanalyseerd als een verzameling deelbetekenissen waarbij de meeste door een of meer semantische regels afgeleid kunnen worden van de basisbetekenis ruimtelijke

  12. ESPECTROS INFRAVERMELHOS DA CREATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko K. Sakane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados espectros infravermelhos da creatina, na faixa de 4000 a 400 cm−1. Os resultados são comparados com espectros observados e calculados, publicados na literatura.

  13. Significados Ocultos da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiliam César alves Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que as ações de cuidar em enfermagem foram sendo moldadas através da história da humanidade e deram-se, majoritariamente, na esfera do subjetivo que permeia as interações existenciais do ser humano que cuida e daquele que recebe cuidados. Campo fecundo para intercâmbios eletromagnéticos. Suas origens remontam ao cuidado prestado por mães, pais, avós, irmãos e demais familiares incumbidos da responsabilidade de ajudar entes recém-natos, crianças, doentes e idosos em suas necessidades de cuidados para preservação da vida.

  14. Chemical and radiological characterization of meals served by the COSEAS (USP-SP); Caracterizacao quimica e radiologica de refeicoes servidas pelo COSEAS/USP-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah Ines Teixeira [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: defavaro@ipen.br; Chioccola, Gabriella Saitta; Bortoli, Maritsa; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental; Taddei, Maria Helena [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laboratrio de Pocos de Caldas (COLAB); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2009-01-15

    This study presents the results obtained for the chemical and radiological analyses of lunch meals served in the cafeteria at the University of Sao Paulo-USP (COSEAS restaurant) in Brazil, on 5 non-consecutive days. On each of the five days, the meals were collected in triplicate and then freeze-dried for analysis totalizing 15 samples. The determination of the proximate composition complied with the AOAC standardized methodologies. The content of Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, and Zn was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and the method validation was performed by certified reference materials analyses. Based on the concentration data, the daily intake of each mineral was calculated (corresponding to 40% of the total daily intake) and compared to the new recommendations set by the National Research Council (USA) considering the 19-30 year-old women range group. Comparing the average values obtained in this study with the recommended values, it was possible to verify that for macronutrients and the micronutrients Fe, Se, and Zn the recommendations were followed; for Ca and K they were deficient and exceeded the recommendation value for Na. The radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were determined by gamma spectrometry; {sup 90}Sr by liquid scintillation and {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th by alpha spectrometry. All radionuclides are present in concentrations below the limits set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (author)

  15. ORIGEM DA ANGTIA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvino Rabuske

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema que me foi proposto "origem da angtia moderna". Por certo, um tema extremamente complexo. Trata-se de surpreender as modalidades modernas de um fenomeno, antigo como o prrio homem. Visando contribuir numa semana de reflexo sobre a esperan crist em, que esta abordada a partir, de diversos gulos, parece indicado que esta exposio n se atenha a um ico aspeto da angtia.

  16. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  17. Mass spectrometry-assisted protease substrate screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Hartmut; Rykl, Jana; Thiemann, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    -phase chromatography they are analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and the substrates identified by database searching. The proof of principle in this study is demonstrated by incubating immobilized human plasma proteins with thrombin and by identifying by tandem mass spectrometry the fibrinopeptides, released...

  18. Inorganic mass spectrometry of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Vertes, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this review some recent developments in the field of inorganic mass spectrometry of solids are described with special emphasis on the actual state of understanding of the ionization processes. It concentrates on the common characteristics of methods such as spark source-, laser-, secondary ion-, inductively coupled plasma- and glow discharge mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  19. Surface analysis by imaging mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidová, Veronika; Volný, Michael; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, 7-8 (2009), s. 1101-1116 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : secondary ion mass spectrometry * matrix assisted laser desorption ionization * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2009

  20. Introduction to mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, R.; Bunkenborg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied to study biomolecules and one rapidly developing field is the global analysis of proteins, proteomics. Understanding and handling mass spectrometry data is a multifaceted task that requires many decisions to be made to get the most comprehensive informati...

  1. Gamma spectrometry of infinite 4Π geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-07-01

    Owing to the weak absorption og gamma radiation by matter, gamma-ray spectrometry may be applied to samples of great volume. A very interesting case is that of the gamma-ray spectrometry applied with 4Π geometry around the detector on a sample assumed to be of infinite extension. The determination of suitable efficiencies allows this method to be quantitative. (author) [pt

  2. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spectrometry as alternative method for trace analysis of ... Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry .... Methods comparison and validation .... plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  3. Characterization of cationic glycoporphyrins by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eduarda M P; Serra, Vanda Vaz; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Tomé, João P C; Domingues, Pedro; Faustino, M Amparo F; Neves, M Graça P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Ferrer-Correia, António J; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2006-01-01

    Novel cationic porphyrin derivatives having a galactose or a bis(isopropylidene)galactose unit linked directly to a pyridine or to an aminophenyl group were characterized by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The electrospray mass spectra (ESI-MS) show the M(+) ions, since these porphyrins are already monocharged in solution. The fragmentation of these ions under ESI-MS/MS conditions was studied and it was found that elimination of the sugar residue as a radical (-163 or -243 Da) is a common fragmentation pathway. Loss of the sugar unit as a neutral fragment (-162 or -242 Da) and cross-ring fragmentations typical of glyco-derivatives are also observed for the pyridinium glycoporphyrins, but they are absent in the case of ammonium glycoporphyrins. The cationic beta-pyridiniumvinyl porphyrins show an atypical fragmentation due to the cleavage of the C(5)-C(6) bond of the sugar unit. Overall, the different patterns of fragmentation observed in the ESI-MS/MS spectra of the sugar pyridinium porphyrins and of the sugar ammonium phenyl porphyrins can give important information about the type of spacer between the porphyrin and the sugar unit. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: sensitivity enhancement by gold deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcorte, A; Médard, N; Bertrand, P

    2002-10-01

    Hydrocarbon oligomers, high-molecular-weight polymers, and polymer additives have been covered with 2-60 nmol of gold/cm2 in order to enhance the ionization efficiency for static secondary ion mass spectrometry (s-SIMS) measurements. Au-cationized molecules (up to -3,000 Da) and fragments (up to the trimer) are observed in the positive mass spectra of metallized polystyrene (PS) oligomer films. Beyond 3,000 Da, the entanglement of polymer chains prevents the ejection of intact molecules from a "thick" organic film. This mass limit can be overcome by embedding the polymer chains in a low-molecular-weight matix. The diffusion of organic molecules over the metal surfaces is also demonstrated for short PS oligomers. In the case of high-molecular-weight polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, PS) and polymer additives (Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168), the metallization procedure induces a dramatic increase of the fingerprint fragment ion yields as well as the formation of new Aucationized species that can be used for chemical diagnostics. In comparison with the deposition of submonolayers of organic molecules on metallic surfaces, metal evaporation onto organic samples provides a comparable sensitivity enhancement. The distinct advantage of the metal evaporation procedure is that it can be used for any kind of organic sample, irrespective of thickness, opening new perspectives for "real world" sample analysis and chemical imaging by s-SIMS.

  5. Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques for application in forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Taryn; Kirkbride, Paul; Pigou, Paul E; Ronci, Maurizio; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent analytical technique for the rapid and sensitive analysis of macromolecules (>700 Da), such as peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and synthetic polymers. However, the detection of smaller organic molecules with masses below 700 Da using MALDI-MS is challenging due to the appearance of matrix adducts and matrix fragment peaks in the same spectral range. Recently, nanostructured substrates have been developed that facilitate matrix-free laser desorption ionization (LDI), contributing to an emerging analytical paradigm referred to as surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) MS. Since SALDI enables the detection of small organic molecules, it is rapidly growing in popularity, including in the field of forensics. At the same time, SALDI also holds significant potential as a high throughput analytical tool in roadside, work place and athlete drug testing. In this review, we discuss recent advances in SALDI techniques such as desorption ionization on porous silicon (DIOS), nano-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) and nano assisted laser desorption ionization (NALDI™) and compare their strengths and weaknesses with particular focus on forensic applications. These include the detection of illicit drug molecules and their metabolites in biological matrices and small molecule detection from forensic samples including banknotes and fingerprints. Finally, the review highlights recent advances in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using SALDI techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry in NIPNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivascu, M; Marinescu, L.; Dima, R.; Cata-Danil, D.; Petrascu, M.; Popescu, I.; Stan-Sion, C.; Radulescu, M.; Plostinaru, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is today the method capable to measure the lowest concentration of a particular nuclide in sample materials. The method has applications in environmental physics, medicine, measurements of cosmic-ray or nuclear power plant produced radionuclides in the earth's atmosphere. All over the world, more than 40 charged particles and heavy ion accelerators are performing such analyses concerning the research interest of a huge number of laboratories. The Romanian Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest has initiated a construction project for the AMS facility at the FN - Van de Graaff Tandem accelerator. This program benefits of technical and financial assistance provided by IAEA in the frame of the IAEA-TC Project ROM 8014-265C. A general lay-out of the AMS project is presented. The construction work has begun and first tests of the AMS injector will take place between July - September this year. (authors)

  7. Ion detection in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolbach, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    This course aims at providing some elements for a better understanding of ion detectors used in mass spectrometers, of their operations, and of their limitations. A first part addresses the functions and properties of an ideal detector, how to detect ions in gas phase, and particle detectors and ion detectors used in mass spectrometry. The second part proposes an overview of currently used detectors with respect to their operation principle: detection from the ion charge (Faraday cylinder), detection by inductive effects (FTICR, Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance), and detection by secondary electron emission. The third part discusses the specificities of secondary electron emission. The fourth one addresses operating modes and parameters related to detectors. The sixth part proposes a prospective view on future detectors by addressing the following issues: cryo-detector, inductive effect and charge detectors, ion detection and nano materials

  8. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B V; Clarke, M; Hu, H; Betz, [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. As dobras da imagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Profª. Drª. Fátima Antunes da Silva (Yaska Antunes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo tentar compreender a produção da imagem visual no teatro. Para isso se vale da apropriação livre do conceito de “dobra? de Gilles Deleuze para se referir à multiplicidade de imagens criadas pelas diversas modalidades artísticas. Como no teatro há o entrelaçamento de imagens verbais – palavras enunciadas pelo texto dramático ou teatral – com imagens visuais – a visualidade advinda da composição cênica concreta que organiza no espaço ator e objeto –, a ênfase só podia recair sobre estas duas formas imagéticas. No caso do teatro, surge ainda a percepção de que para além da materialidade da cena, outras imagens emergem do confronto entre palco e platéia. Nesse sentido, imagem teatral seria então aquilo que surge da interação entre ator e espectador. A contribuição desse trabalho pode estar no fato de atualizar certos conceitos sobre a criação da imagem poética na poesia e no cinema para aplicá-los ao teatro. Ao recuperar o pensa-mento de Otávio Paz, Alfredo Bosi, Sergei Eisenstein, entre outros, bus-ca-se promover uma reflexão mais aprofundada sobre a construção visual no teatro.

  11. Analysis of the primary structure and post-translational modifications of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen Smp28 by electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchon, B.; Jaquinod, M.; Klarskov, K.; Trottein, F.; Klein, Michele; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Bischoff, Rainer; Roitsch, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni glutathione-S-transferase with an apparent molecular mass of 28 kDa, Smp28, has a blocked N-terminus which has been elucidated with the aid of the cDNA sequence combined with mass spectrometry and amino acid composition analysis of the N-terminal tryptic peptide. The blocked

  12. Desalting Protein Ions in Native Mass Spectrometry Using Supercharging Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassou, Catherine A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the supercharging reagents m-NBA and sulfolane on sodium ion adduction to protein ions formed using native mass spectrometry were investigated. There is extensive sodium adduction on protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions containing millimolar concentrations of NaCl, which can lower sensitivity by distributing the signal of a given charge state over multiple adducted ions and can reduce mass measuring accuracy for large proteins and non-covalent complexes for which individual adducts cannot be resolved. The average number of sodium ions adducted to the most abundant ion formed from ten small (8.6–29 kDa) proteins for which adducts can be resolved is reduced by 58% or 80% on average, respectively, when 1.5% m-NBA or 2.5% sulfolane are added to aqueous solutions containing sodium compared to without the supercharging reagent. Sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at reducing sodium ion adduction and at preserving non-covalent protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Desalting with 2.5% sulfolane enables detection of several glycosylated forms of 79.7 kDa holo-transferrin and NADH bound to the 146 kDa homotetramer LDH, which are otherwise unresolved due to peak broadening from extensive sodium adduction. Although sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at protein ion desalting, m-NBA reduces salt clusters at high m/z and can increase the signal-to-noise ratios of protein ions by reducing chemical noise. Desalting is likely a result of these supercharging reagents binding sodium ions in solution, thereby reducing the sodium available to adduct to protein ions. PMID:25133273

  13. Trauma da Veia Porta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trauma da veia porta é raro e freqüentemente fatal por causa de exsanguinação e alta incidência de lesões de estruturas adjacentes. Devido às pecualiaridades desta lesão e diferentes condutas propostas na literatura, o objetivo dos autores é relatar a experiência neste tipo de lesão. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, de janeiro de 1994 e dezembro de 2001, de 1370 pacientes submetidos à laparotomia devido trauma abdominal. Entre esses, 15 pacientes apresentavam lesão da veia porta. As lesões foram classificadas conforme a sua extensão e localização. RESULTADOS: O mecanismo de trauma predominante foi o penetrante. O diagnóstico da lesão foi realizado no intraoperatório. Os procedimentos executados foram: sutura, anastomose término-terminal e ligadura da veia porta. A mortalidade foi de 53,3%. CONCLUSÃO: A lesão da veia porta possui alta taxa de mortalidade e o atendimento adequado está diretamente relacionado à sobrevida.

  14. Mass spectrometry at the Pittsburgh conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borman, S.

    1987-01-01

    Each year analytical chemists flock to the Pittsburgh Conference to learn about the latest trends in analytical instrumentation. In this Focus, a number of prominent mass spectroscopists who attended this year's meeting in Atlantic City, NJ, discuss their perceptions of current developments in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). In the June 1 issue of Analytical Chemistry, the authors coverage of the Pittsburgh Conferences continues with a follow-up article on specific developments in hyphenated mass spectrometry - primarily liquid chromatography - MS (LC/MS) and gas chromatography - infrared spectrometry MS (GC/IR/MS)

  15. A REVIEW ON MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri Neetu; Gupta Ankit; Taneja Ruchi; Bilandi Ajay; Beniwal Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for "weighing" molecules. Obviously, this is not done with a conventional scale or balance. Instead, mass spectrometry is based upon the principle of the motion of a charged particle that is called an ion, in an electric or magnetic field. The mass to charge ratio (m/z) of the ion affects particles motion. Since the charge of an electron is known, the mass to charge ratio (m/z) is a measurement of mass of an ion. Mass spectrometry research focuses ...

  16. Chromatography–mass spectrometry in aerospace industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryak, Alexey K; Serduk, T M

    2013-01-01

    The applications of chromatography–mass spectrometry in aerospace industry are considered. The primary attention is devoted to the development of physicochemical grounds of the use of various chromatography–mass spectrometry procedures to solve topical problems of this industry. Various methods for investigation of the composition of rocket fuels, surfaces of structural materials and environmental media affected by aerospace activities are compared. The application of chromatography–mass spectrometry for the development and evaluation of processes for decontaminations of equipment, industrial wastes and soils from rocket fuel components is substantiated. The bibliography includes 135 references.

  17. Da Vinci Linjen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin.......Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin....

  18. Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindic, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft ionization techniques, electrospray (ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI make the analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry (MS possible. MS is used for determination of the molecular weight of peptides and protein, sequence analysis, characterization of protein-ligand interactions etc. The detection limit, resolution and mass accuracy depend on instrument used (Table 1. Impurities (buffers, salts, detergents can reduce the ion intensities or even totally suppress them, so a separation method (chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis must be used for purification of the sample.Molecular mass of intact protein can be determined by ESI or MALDI MS. Multiply charged ions are produced by ESI MS, while singly charged ions are predominant in MALDI spectra (Fig. 2.Sequence analysis of proteins by MS can be performed using peptide mass fingerprint. In this method, proteins are separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and digested with specific protease (Table 2 or digested and then separated by two-dimensional chromatography (Fig. 1. The obtained peptide mixtures are analyzed by MS or MALDI-TOF technique. The masses determined by MS are compared with calculated masses from database entries. Different algorithms have been developed for protein identification. Example of posttranslational modifications (N- and O-glycosylation and protein sequence complex analysis after dual digestion (endoproteinase digestion followed by endoglycosidase digestion is shown in Fig. 3.It is known that detection of peptides by MS is influenced by intrinsic properties like amino acid composition, the basicity of the C-terminal amino acid, hydrophobicity, etc. Arginine-containing peptides dominate in MS spectra of tryptic digest, so the chemical derivatization of lysine terminal residue by O-methilisourea or 2-methoxy-4,5-1H-imidazole was suggested (Fig. 4.The peptide mass fingerprint method can be improved further by peptide fragmentation using tandem

  19. Profilaxia da peste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato dos Santos Araújo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor parte da premissa de que a profilaxia da doença infecciosa decorre do encadeamento epidemiológico: fonte de infecção-veículo transmissor - receptivel, para explicar a da peste, baseada no mesmo princípio. Depois de citar os 4 principais complexos epidemiológicos da peste e afirmar que tôda a profilaxia da doença consiste em atingir os dois primeiros elos dessas cadeias e proteger o último, passa a classificar os vários métodos profiláticos empregados em 2 grandes grupos: o das medidas destrutivas ou provisórias e o das medidas supressivas ou definitivas. Entre as primeiras arrola a desratização e a despulização, às quais acrescenta o tratamento e isolamento do doente e do portaãor, e entre as segundas inclui a anti-ratização e a imunização. A seguir, passa a explicar em que consistem essas várias medidas profiláticas e quais os agentes de que se tem lançado mão para executá-las, expendendo ao curso dessa exposição o conceito que formula a respeito de cada uma delas, à guisa de apreciação do seu valor relativo. Enaltece sobretudo as medidas supressivas ou definitivas, às quais empresta a maior significação na luta antipestosa, chamando a atenção, em especial, para a necessidade de estudos imunológicos para aperfeiçoamento do poder imunitário das vacinas de germes vivos avirulentos, que considera um grande recurso para a profilaxia da doença, sobretudo para a proteção do rurícola, cujo labor e modo de vida o expõem inevitavelmente a se infectar, por ocasião da ocorrência de epizootias de origem silvestre. Concluída essa primeira parte, passa a fazer o histórico de como se desenvolveu a campanha contra a peste, no Brasil, desde a época da sua invasão em 1899 pelo pôrto de Santos até os nossos dias. Nesse histórico, detem-se um pouco para expôr a atuação do extinto Serviço Nacional de Peste, o qual, criado em 1941, após a reorganização do Departamento Nacional de Saúde, passou

  20. Difraction spectrometry by laser beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in laser technology have permitted the development of numerous applications, in particular diffraction spectrometry by laser beams for the determination of the distribution curve of the particle sizes of different materials; this permits one to obtain the distribution of particle size in both wet and dry materials. In the present paper a brief description of the technique and its principles is offered. The results obtained with different materials-limestone clay, gypsum, Portland cement and siliceous materials are given.

    Los avances en la tecnología laser han permitido el desarrollo de múltiples aplicaciones, en concreto la espectrometría de difracción de rayos laser para la determinación de la curva de distribución del tamaño de partícula de diferentes materiales, y que permite la obtención de la misma tanto en seco como en húmedo. En este trabajo se hace una descripción breve de la técnica y de sus fundamentos. Se presentan resultados con diferentes materiales: caliza, arcilla, yeso, cemento Portland y materiales silíceos.

  1. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, quantitative determinations of alpha emitting nuclides by conventional plate counting methods are difficult, because of sample self-absorption problems in counting and because of non-reproducible losses in conventional sample separation methods. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry offers an attractive alternative with no sample self-absorption or geometry problems and with 100% counting efficiency. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillation counting medium. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination, to yield alpha spectra without beta and gamma background interference. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium and colonium assay. Possibilities for a large number of other applications exist. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 1% range. Backgrounds of the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. The paper will present an overview of liquid scintillation alpha counting techniques and some of the results achieved for specific applications. (orig.)

  2. Ionizing radiations, detection, dosimetry, spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.

    1997-10-01

    A few works in French language are devoted to the detection of radiations. The purpose of this book is to fill a gap.The five first chapters are devoted to the properties of ionizing radiations (x rays, gamma rays, leptons, hadrons, nuclei) and to their interactions with matter. The way of classification of detectors is delicate and is studied in the chapter six. In the chapter seven are studied the statistics laws for counting and the spectrometry of particles is treated. The chapters eight to thirteen study the problems of ionization: charges transport in a gas, ionization chambers (theory of Boag), counters and proportional chambers, counters with 'streamers', chambers with derive, spark detectors, ionization chambers in liquid medium, Geiger-Mueller counters. The use of a luminous signal is the object of the chapters 14 to 16: conversion of a luminous signal in an electric signal, scintillators, use of the Cerenkov radiation. Then, we find the neutron detection with the chapter seventeen and the dosimetry of particles in the chapter eighteen. This book does not pretend to answer to specialists questions but can be useful to physicians, engineers or physics teachers. (N.C.)

  3. Photon spectrometry utilizing neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, R.; Benevides, C.; Lima, F.; Vilela, E.

    2015-01-01

    Having in mind the time spent on the uneventful work of characterization of the radiation beams used in a ionizing radiation metrology laboratory, the Metrology Service of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste - CRCN-NE verified the applicability of artificial intelligence (artificial neural networks) to perform the spectrometry in photon fields. For this, was developed a multilayer neural network, as an application for the classification of patterns in energy, associated with a thermoluminescent dosimetric system (TLD-700 and TLD-600). A set of dosimeters was initially exposed to various well known medium energies, between 40 keV and 1.2 MeV, coinciding with the beams determined by ISO 4037 standard, for the dose of 10 mSv in the quantity Hp(10), on a chest phantom (ISO slab phantom) with the purpose of generating a set of training data for the neural network. Subsequently, a new set of dosimeters irradiated in unknown energies was presented to the network with the purpose to test the method. The methodology used in this work was suitable for application in the classification of energy beams, having obtained 100% of the classification performed. (authors)

  4. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Gonzalez-Vila, F J

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  5. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  6. Mass Spectrometry-Based Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Longo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of candidate biomarkers within the entire proteome is one of the most important and challenging goals in proteomic research. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a modern and promising technology for semiquantitative and qualitative assessment of proteins, enabling protein sequencing and identification with exquisite accuracy and sensitivity. For mass spectrometry analysis, protein extractions from tissues or body fluids and subsequent protein fractionation represent an important and unavoidable step in the workflow for biomarker discovery. Following extraction of proteins, the protein mixture must be digested, reduced, alkylated, and cleaned up prior to mass spectrometry. The aim of our chapter is to provide comprehensible and practical lab procedures for sample digestion, protein fractionation, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis.

  7. Radiation Biomarker Research Using Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bach, Stephan B; Hubert, Walter

    2007-01-01

    .... This review is intended to give an overview of mass spectrometry and its application to biological systems and biomarker discovery and how that might relate to relevant radiation dosimetry studies...

  8. Mass Spectrometry Analyses of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Mitchell; Mittal, Parul; Lokman, Noor A; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are a powerful biological in vitro model, which closely mimics the 3D structure of primary avascularized tumors. Mass spectrometry (MS) has established itself as a powerful analytical tool, not only to better understand and describe the complex structure of MCTS, but also to monitor their response to cancer therapeutics. The first part of this review focuses on traditional mass spectrometry approaches with an emphasis on elucidating the molecular characteristics of these structures. Then the mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches used to obtain spatially defined information from MCTS is described. Finally the analysis of primary spheroids, such as those present in ovarian cancer, and the great potential that mass spectrometry analysis of these structures has for improved understanding of cancer progression and for personalized in vitro therapeutic testing is discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  10. Atom counting with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, Walter

    1995-01-01

    A brief review of the current status and some recent applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are presented. Some connections to resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIS) as the alternate atom counting method are discussed

  11. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  12. Mass spectrometry in life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Stefan; Markgraf, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Investigating complex signatures of biomolecules by mass spectrometry approaches has become indispensable in molecular life science research. Nowadays, various mass spectrometry-based omics technologies are available to monitor qualitative and quantitative changes within hundreds or thousands of biological active components, including proteins/peptides, lipids and metabolites. These comprehensive investigations have the potential to decipher the pathophysiology of disease development at a molecular level and to monitor the individual response of pharmacological treatment or lifestyle intervention.

  13. da sede da Fazenda Rialto, Bananal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. Tirello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the eighteenth century mural paintings at the headquarters of Fazenda Rialto, in Bananal, which were destroyed in 1996. These constituted one of the most important sets of ambient paintings with secular themes produced in the state of São Paulo during the period corresponding to the first cycle of coffee production. Orally attributed to the painter José Maria Villaronga y Panella, all that remains of these paintings are some photographs and dozens of fragments, impossible to reassemble. Studying the fragments of the paintings of Rialto as primary material documents, the main objective of this article is to identify the artistic, technical, and executive characteristics of three sets of murals attributed to a single painter. A methodology which combines laboratory tests and historical research on artistic techniques was adopted for objectively recognizing the artistic and artisan characteristics of the period and discussing the attribution of exclusive authorship to the work. The analytical systems adopted for this purpose were: examination with ultraviolet and infra-red radiation, optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS to analyze its chemical elements. Issues related to the limitations on official Brazilian preservation activities for this category of artistic work were also discussed, reflecting on the development and changes in notions of historicity related to the preservation of works from the past and their methodological implications for conservation and restoration.

  14. Thirteenth ISMAS symposium cum workshop on spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Alamelu, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical tool and finds applications in almost all branches of science and technology like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Material Science, Geology, Nuclear Science, Industry, Oceanography, Environment etc. Innovations in the designs of mass spectrometers coupled with new ionization techniques have further strengthened the capabilities of mass spectrometry for analyzing all types of molecules including thermally labile and non-volatile at concentrations down to femto gram levels. The applications of mass spectrometry to the biomedical sciences have provided a unique, easy and fast approach to genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The availability of different types of mass spectrometers for inorganic elemental and isotopic composition determination have strengthened the role of mass spectrometry for analyzing all elements starting from hydrogen onwards. It is now possible to carry out speciation analysis using electrospray mass spectrometry. The individual conference papers in the proceedings covers fundamentals of mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of mass spectrometers, selection of mass spectrometer, and recent advances in the field. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. da Zehirlenmeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Akbulut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıda Teknolojisinin gelişmesi ile, gıda maddesinin tüketici için daha alımlı olmasını sağlamak, kısa zamanda bozulmasını engellemek ve pazara yeni çeşitler sunmak için bazı kimyasal maddeler kullanılmaya başlanılmıştır. Bunun yanında tarımda kullanılan kimyasal maddeler artmış, ambalaj sanayi gelişmiş, bu dada maddelerine bulaşan maddelerin türlerini arttırmıştır. Ayrıca gıda maddelerine belirli amacı olmadan katılan maddelerde vardır. Diğer taraftan tüketiciyi aldatmak, hile yapmak, çok kar sağlamak veya kötü kaliteyi gizlemek amacı ile de kullanılan maddeler bulunmaktadır. İster teknik zorunluk, ister hile amacıyla olsun bu tür yabancı maddeler öncelikle insan sağlığını ilgilendirmektedir. Bazı maddelerin vücuda alınması sakıncasız olduğu halde, bazıları sakıncalıdır. Sakıncasız olanlarında belirli bir sınırın üzerinde uzun süre alınmaları zararlı olabilmektedir. Bu toplum sağlığı sorunu birçok ülkeyi gıda sanayiinde kullanılan kimyasal maddelerin hoşgörü sınırlarının hesaplanması noktasına götürmüştür.

  16. A REFORMA DA IGREJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Galdino Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O pontificado do papa Francisco trouxe à tona o tema da reforma da Igreja. Retoma-se essa causa que acompanha a história da Igreja desde os seus primórdios e que interessa a todos os membros do povo santo de Deus. O texto divide-se em quatro partes. Primeiro, faz-se um apanhado histórico dos anseios de reforma da Igreja, mostrando que, muitas vezes em instâncias subterrâneas, sempre houve o desejo e também ações concretas de renovação. Em seguida, apresenta-se como razão para a reforma da Igreja o anúncio e a realização do Reino de Deus, pelo qual é preciso que a Igreja se volte à concretude humana e histórica de Jesus de Nazaré, pela superação do apego ao poder e às estruturas religiosas. Num terceiro momento, trata-se do critério pelo qual se mede a realização e a veracidade da reforma da Igreja: a santidade de cada fiel e do povo cristão no meio do mundo. Por fim, conclui-se que o caminho para a reforma da Igreja está na escuta dos clamores do Espírito Santo, que fala na própria Igreja e no mundo através do sensus fidei dos fiéis, das Igrejas particulares, dos pobres, das mulheres e das realidades terrestres. ABSTRACT: The pontificate of Pope Francis brought to the surface the theme of reform of the Church. This essay takes up this cause that accompanies the history of the Church from its beginnings and concerns all the members of the holy people of God. The text is divided into four parts. First, it gives a historical summary of the yearnings for reform of the Church, showing that, in many instances subterranean, there has always been the desire and also the concrete actions of renewal. Following from this, the essay presents as the reason for the reform of the Church the proclamation and the realization of the Kingdom of God, whereby it is necessary that the Church return to the concrete human and historical Jesus of Nazareth, in order to overcome the addiction to power and to religious structures. In the

  17. A cultura da internet

    OpenAIRE

    Cádima, Francisco Rui

    2017-01-01

    O novo ambiente digital é cada vez mais perturbante na sua dimensão ‘visível’ e está, em boa parte, incontrolável nessa área ainda algo desconhecida da Internet negra, conhecida por deep web ou dark net, convoca-nos para uma reflexão profunda de largo espectro, que não se pode vincular apenas às questões de mercado, tecnológicas e de redes, mas que nos vem alertar sobretudo para a ordem do político e da cidadania, do ‘desconhecido’ e do conhecimento e, enfim, do acesso à rede, quer no que is...

  18. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  19. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa; Nilton Soares Formiga; Simone Helena dos Santos Oliveira; Marta Miriam Lopes Costa; Maria Júlia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem. Método: revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013. Resultados: cinco...

  20. Os (descaminhos da identidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Cardoso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A conferência procurou apresentar uma interpretação das vicissitudes da identidade étnica e/ou nacional quando observada em situações de ambigüidade. É quando o processo identitário expressa crises reais ou virtuais, como as que têm lugar entre imigrantes latino-americanos nos Estados Unidos, entre povos de diferentes regiões da Espanha emigrados para Barcelona, entre catalães espanhóis, franceses e andorranos residentes em Andorra, e entre povos indígenas em regiões de fronteira do Brasil com países vizinhos. O exame do processo identitário que tem lugar em diferentes latitudes, nas Américas e na Europa, sugere que os fenômenos socioculturais de etnicidade e de nacionalidade possuem em comum características tais como a busca de reconhecimento da pessoa moral, o respeito à diferença e, como corolário ético, a elevação do que se pode definir como "taxa de consideração".

  1. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Castro Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atribuído as microcistinas incluírem gastroenterite, reações alérgicas ou irritativas, neurotoxicidade, o principal alvo da toxina é o fígado. Nos hepatócitos as microcistinas são carreadas pelo sistema transportador do ácido biliar, inibindo a atividade da proteína fosfatase no citoplasma. A inibição leva a mudanças morfológicas na membrana plasmática pela hiperfosforilação de citoqueratinas, e à atividade de promoção tumoral pelas proteínas hiperfosforiladas. Os métodos de detecção e quantificação de microcistinas no ambiente incluem a cromatografia líquida, o bioensaio em camundongos e os testes imunoenzimáticos. O último vem ganhando destaque pela praticidade e alta sensibilidade.

  2. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry facilitates detection of fibrinogen (Bbeta 14 Arg --> Cys) mutation in a family with thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S O; Hammonds, B; Spearing, R; George, P M

    1997-12-01

    We report the first direct detection of a fibrinogen mutation by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The propositus, from a family with a history of thrombosis, came to attention after a pulmonary embolism subsequent to a spontaneous abortion. Prolonged thrombin (41 s) and reptilase times (26 s) together with an impairment of fibrinopeptide B release suggested a mutation at the thrombin cleavage site of the Bbeta chain. Direct mass analysis of purified fibrin chains from a thrombin induced clot showed that 50% of the Bbeta chains remained uncleaved. The measured mass of the mono sialo isoform of this uncleaved chain was 54150 Da, compared to a value of 54198 Da for normal Bbeta chains. This decrease of 48 Da in the intact protein is indicative of either a Bbeta 14 Arg to Cys, or Arg to Leu substitution. Heterozygosity for the Bbeta 14 Arg --> Cys mutation was verified by PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis.

  3. Mass spectrometry for the characterization of brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Adriana Fu; Aoyagui, Caroline Tiemi; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage produced by fermenting ingredients containing starch, especially malted cereals, and other compounds such as water, hops and yeast. The process comprises five main steps: malting, mashing, boiling, fermentation and maturation. There has been growing interest in the subject, since there is increasing demand for beer quality aspects and beer is a ubiquitous alcoholic beverage in the world. This study is based on the manufacturing process of a Brazilian craft brewery, which is characterized by withdrawing samples during key production stages and using electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), a selective and reliable technique used in the identification of substances in an expeditious and practical way. Multivariate data analysis, namely partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used to define its markers. In both positive and negative modes of PLS-DA score plot, it is possible to notice differences between each stage. VIP score analysis pointed out markers coherent with the process, such as barley components ((+)-catechin), small peptide varieties, hop content (humulone), yeast metabolic compounds and, in maturation, flavoring compounds (caproic acid, glutaric acid and 2,3-butanediol). Besides that, it was possible to identify other important substances such as off-flavor precursors and other different trace compounds, according to the focus given. This is an attractive alternative for the control of food and beverage industry, allowing a quick assessment of process status before it is finished, preventing higher production costs, ensuring quality and helping the control of desirable features, as flavor, foam stability and drinkability. Covering different classes of compounds, this approach suggests a novel analytical strategy: "processomics", aiming at understanding processes in detail, promoting control and being able to make improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-06-01

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  5. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H K [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kuukankorpi, S; Moring, M; Smolander, P; Toivonen, H [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  6. Tandem mass spectrometry at low kinetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooks, R.G.; Hand, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent progress in mass spectrometry, as applied to molecular analysis, is reviewed with emphasis on tandem mass spectrometry. Tandem instruments use multiple analyzers (sector magnets, quadrupole mass filters and time-of-flight devices) to select particular molecules in ionic form, react them in the gas-phase and then record the mass, momenta or kinetic energies of their products. The capabilities of tandem mass spectrometry for identification of individual molecules or particular classes of compounds in complex mixtures are illustrated. Several different types of experiments can be run using a tandem mass spectrometer; all share the feature of sifting the molecular mixture being analyzed on the basis of chemical properties expressed in terms of ionic mass, kinetic energy or charge state. Applications of mass spectrometry to biological problems often depend upon desorption methods of ionization in which samples are bombarded with particle beams. Evaporation of preformed charged species from the condensed phase into the vacuum is a particularly effective method of ionization. It is suggested that the use of accelerator mass spectrometers be extended to include problems of molecular analysis. In such experiments, low energy tandem mass spectrometry conducted in the eV or keV range of energies, would be followed by further characterization of the production ion beam using high selective MeV collision processes

  7. Mass spectrometry in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Takuji

    1985-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely used and playing a very important role in the field of nuclear science and technology. A major reason for this is that not only the types of element but also its isotopes have to be identified and measured in this field. Thus, some applications of this analytical method are reviewed and discussed in this article. Its application to analytical chemistry is described in the second section following an introductory section, which includes subsections for isotropic dilution mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and isotopic correlation technique. The isotopic ratio measurement for hydrogen, uranium and plutonium as well as nuclear material control and safeguards are also reviewed in this section. In the third section, mass spectrometry is discussed in relation to nuclear reactors, with subsections on natural uranium reactor and neutron flux observation. Some techniques for measuring the burnup fraction, including the heavy isotopic ratio method and fission product monitoring, are also described. In the fourth section, application of mass spectrometry to measurement of nuclear constants, such as ratio of effective cross-sectional area for 235 U, half-life and fission yield is reviewed. (Nogami, K.)

  8. [Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Histopathologic Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Seto, Mitsutoshi

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) enables visualization of the distribution of a range of biomolecules by integrating biochemical information from mass spectrometry with positional information from microscopy. IMS identifies a target molecule. In addition, IMS enables global analysis of biomolecules containing unknown molecules by detecting the ratio of the molecular weight to electric charge without any target, which makes it possible to identify novel molecules. IMS generates data on the distribution of lipids and small molecules in tissues, which is difficult to visualize with either conventional counter-staining or immunohistochemistry. In this review, we firstly introduce the principle of imaging mass spectrometry and recent advances in the sample preparation method. Secondly, we present findings regarding biological samples, especially pathological ones. Finally, we discuss the limitations and problems of the IMS technique and clinical application, such as in drug development.

  9. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  10. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  11. Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis investigated by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Fernanda; de O Rocha, Daniele F; Jaeeger, Caroline F; Rocha, Francisca J S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Giorgio, Selma

    2017-09-26

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is recognized as a powerful tool to investigate the spatial distribution of untargeted or targeted molecules of a wide variety of samples including tissue sections. Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. Leishmaniasis is a major public health risk in different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Cutaneous lesions from mice experimentally infected with Leishmania spp. were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS using the SCiLS Lab software for statistical analysis. Being applied to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the first time, MALDI-IMS was used to search for peptides and low molecular weight proteins (2-10 kDa) as candidates for potential biomarkers. Footpad sections of Balb/c mice infected with (i) Leishmania amazonensis or (ii) Leishmania major were imaged. The comparison between healthy and infected skin highlighted a set of twelve possible biomarker proteins for L. amazonenis and four proteins for L. major. Further characterization of these proteins could reveal how these proteins act in pathology progression and confirm their values as biomarkers.

  12. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with ANNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2009-10-01

    Artificial neural networks technology has been applied to unfold the neutron spectra and to calculate the effective dose, the ambient equivalent dose, and the personal dose equivalent for 252 Cf and 241 AmBe neutron sources. A Bonner sphere spectrometry with a 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator was utilized to measure the count rates of the spheres that were utilized as input in two artificial neural networks, one for spectrometry and another for dosimetry. Spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were also obtained with BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. With both procedures spectra and ambient dose equivalent agrees in less than 10%. (author)

  13. Atomic electron spectrometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of atomic electron spectrometry were applied to atoms in the gaseous and solid states to derive information about fundamental atomic properties. A new method was developed to measure Coster-Kronig yields in metals by photoionization with synchrotron radiation. Photon-energy sensitive Si L-VV Auger satellites were investigated via electron spectrometry. The krypton 1s photoionization spectrum was measured in an experiment which was motivated by the need to understand the krypton 1s satellite spectrum for calibration of an experiment to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino

  14. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  15. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  16. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  17. Analysis of mass spectrometry data in proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rune; Jensen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    The systematic study of proteins and protein networks, that is, proteomics, calls for qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins and peptides. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a key analytical technology in current proteomics and modern mass spectrometers generate large amounts of high-quality data...... that in turn allow protein identification, annotation of secondary modifications, and determination of the absolute or relative abundance of individual proteins. Advances in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics rely on robust bioinformatics tools that enable large-scale data analysis. This chapter describes...... some of the basic concepts and current approaches to the analysis of MS and MS/MS data in proteomics....

  18. Chemical analysis of refractories by plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray spectrometry has been, since the last two or three decades, the traditional procedure for the chemical analysis of refractories, due to its high degree of accuracy and speed to produce analytical results. An interesting alternative to X-ray fluorescence is provided by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry technique, for those laboratories where wet chemistry facilities are already available or process control is not required at high speed, or investiment costs have to be low. This paper presents results obtained by plasma spectroscopy for the analysis of silico - aluminous refractories, showing calibration curves, precion and detection limits. Considerations and comparisons with X-ray fluorescence are also made. (author) [pt

  19. An automatic sample changer for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An automatic sample changer for gamma spectrometry is described which is designed for large-volume, low radioactivity environmental samples of various sizes up to maximum dimensions 100 mm diameter x 60 mm high. The sample changer is suitable for use with most existing gamma spectrometry systems which utilize GeLi or NaI detectors in vertical mode, in conjunction with a pulse height analyzer having auto-cycle and suitable data output facilities; it is linked to a Nuclear Data ND 6620 computer-based analysis system. (U.K.)

  20. Analog to digital conversion for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.V.R. de.

    1982-04-01

    A study of the analog to digital conversion techniques for nuclear spectrometry is presented and the main design philosophies of nuclear ADC's are compared. Among them, the most suitable for the current Brazilian conditions, concerning the specifications and components avaiability is the one that employs a statistical correction of successive approximation converters. This technique is described in full detail. A prototype has been developed an tested for the practical demonstration of the theoretical conclusions. These tests was carried on nuclear spectrometry data aquisition system whose implementation is also described. (Author) [pt

  1. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    OpenAIRE

    Leal,Andréa de Castro; Soares,Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atrib...

  2. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry; Spectrometrie et dosimetrie des neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaize, S; Ailloud, J; Mariani, J; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons etudie la spectrometrie et la dosimetrie des neutrons rapides en utilisant les protons de recul qu'ils produisent dans une matiere hydrogenee. En spectrometrie, nous avons employe des emulsions nucleaires, en dosimetrie, du polyethylene recouvert de sulfure de zinc place devant un photomultiplicateur. (auteur)

  3. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG no gene que codifica a cadeia beta da hemoglobina, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu um melhor e mais amplo conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica nos pacientes falcêmicos. Analisando a hemoglobina na sua estrutura normal e mutante, sua produção e evolução, pode-se ter um entendimento mais completo da fisiopatologia desta doença e da sua complexidade clínica.

  4. REFLETINDO SOBRE AS ESPECIFICIDADES DA GEOGRAFIA NA CRISE DA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício A. S. Carneiro Carneiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a evolução da ciência moderna, bem como a crise desse paradigma dominante e seus efeitos sobre a geografia. Destaca ainda a necessidade da construção de um novo pensamento científico para além das fronteiras disciplinares e do método absoluto.

  5. A dignidade da pessoa humana na doutrina social da igreja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzone, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma análise panorâmica sobre a compreensão da dignidade humana nos diversos textos da Doutrina Social da Igreja, mostrando o entendimento da mesma nos diversos documentos dos Papas, notadamente Leão XII, Pio XI, Pio XII e João Paulo II, além de apontar aspectos históricos e culturais que influenciaram cada pronunciamento, o que foi determinante para a evolução do pensamento do Magistério na questão social. O ponto de partida é a visão antropológica da Doutrina Social da Igreja, resumida em termos de “homem criado por Deus a sua imagem e resgatado pelo sangue de Jesus Cristo” (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis 29. A partir daí, há a defesa do primado do ser humano sobre o social e reivindicações totalitaristas que perpassaram a história recente da humanidade, embora a pessoa seja sempre um ser-em-relação e situado em uma sociedade determinada

  6. Os usos da diversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Geertz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Ao discorrer sobre o “Futuro do Etnocentrismo”, este artigo parte da premissa de que a globalização, apesar de ter – em muitos casos – diminuído as diferenças entre povos, não tem amenizado os preconceitos e as formas de discriminação que ocorrem em nome dessas diferenças. Ele resgata a importância do antropólogo neste cenário lembrando que a diversidade cultural faz parte da sociedade complexa, remetendo-se não apenas a grupos étnicos ou nacionais bem delimitados, mas também a diferenças de geração, gênero, sexo e classe, entre outros. Neste contexto, a tolerância passiva de modos distantes de vida assim como a aceitação pragmática de nosso próprio paroquialismo são atitudes não somente intelectualmente desonestas mas também moralmente repreensíveis. É no encontro incômodo de subjetividades variantes na sua própria sociedade que o antropólogo define seu lugar.

  7. Progresso Interdisciplinar da Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Correia-Pinto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Portugal é muitas vezes citado como um bom exemplo na prestação de cuidados de saúde. Para tal concorreram a investigação (engenharia biomédica, a evolução técnica e a diferenciação clínica de diferentes especialidades. Para que esta evolução se transfira para o paciente com o seu máximo potencial, o diálogo e a interdisciplinaridade são imprescindíveis. Nesta Edição da Gazeta Médica, vários artigos trazem até ao leitor alguns exemplos desta evolução e interdisciplinaridade, que continua todos os dias nos nossos hospitais. Assim não podemos deixar de salientar o enorme progresso que houve no desenvolvimento de antimicrobianos e logicamente, o desafio que agora enfrentamos, o da resistência aos antibióticos. Por outro lado, a biologia molecular ao permitir-nos conhecer melhor a origem e fisiopatologia de inúmeras doenças, abriu um janela de oportunidade para individualizar o algoritmo clínico de orientação e tratamento clínicos. É com naturalidade, portanto, que a seguir encontramos vários artigos que relatam estratégias de individualização terapêutica, aumentando o efeito terapêutico, e minimizando os efeitos laterais. Sendo o relator deste editorial, um cirurgião, não posso deixar de dar enfoque à forma como a cirurgia minimamente invasiva tem revolucionado a intervenção cirúrgica. A história reporta-nos que foram os urologistas e os ginecologistas os pioneiros em muitos dos passos determinantes para chegarmos à cirurgia laparoscópica. Aqueles e os cirurgiões digestivos documentaram clinicamente que o desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe consigo várias vantagens que, resumidamente, resultam numa convalescença pós-operatória mais suave e mais curta. Inspirado pelos benefícios bem documentados de cirurgia minimamente invasiva em adultos e crianças, o século XXI começou com as primeiras tentativas de transportar as vantagens desta abordagem para recém-nascidos, tal

  8. Identification of bacteria using mass spectrometry techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krásný, Lukáš; Hynek, R.; Hochel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 353, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 67-79 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0664 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Bacteria * Identification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  9. Four decades of joy in mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbering, N.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tremendous developments in mass spectrometry have taken place in the last 40 years. This holds for both the science and the instrumental revolutions in this field. In chemistry the research was heavily focused on organic molecules that upon electron ionization fragmented via complex mechanistic

  10. Inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a new technique for elemental and isotopic analysis which is currently attracting a great deal of interest. This relatively new technique has found wide applications in different fields of research viz., nuclear, geological, biological and environmental sciences

  11. Peculiarities of the modern neutron spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Neutron spectrometry provides many branches of science and technology with the .... of this isotope is close to constant for some intervals of atomic mass. For real ... There are nice reviews on these processes [8] and [9]. The data of ...

  12. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  13. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  14. Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Measurement of High Concentrations of Arsenic and Selenium. ... This procedure allowed a rapid determination of As from minimum 4.462 mg/L to higher concentrations without sample pretreatment. Besides As, this method successfully measured Se concentrations ...

  15. Characterization of microbial siderophores by mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluháček, Tomáš; Lemr, Karel; Ghosh, D.; Milde, D.; Novák, Jiří; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 35-47 ISSN 0277-7037 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13038; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/1150; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : iron * siderophores * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.373, year: 2016

  16. Burnup determination of mass spectrometry for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunhua.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods currently being used in burnup determination of nuclear fuels are studied and reviewed. The mass spectrometry method of destructive testing is discussed emphatically. The burnup determination of mass spectrometry includes heavy isotopic abundance ratio method and isotope dilution mass spectrometry used as burnup indicator for the fission products. The former is applied to high burnup level, but the later to various burnup level. According to experiences, some problems which should be noticed in burnup determination of mass spectrometry are presented

  17. Application of gamma spectrometry survey and discussion on data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ji'an; He Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed and discussed the different opinions about the measured parameters of gamma spectrometry data, introduced the effect of gamma spectrometry survey to the search for sandstone type uranium deposit. The author believes that it is very necessary to perform some ground gamma spectrometry survey and enforce the development and application of airborne radiometric data so as to carry out the role of gamma spectrometry in the exploration of sandstone type uranium deposit. (authors)

  18. The combined measurement of uranium by alpha spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvan, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of thesis was to found the dependence between radiometric method - alpha spectrometry and surface sensitive method - Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Uranium or naturally occurring uranium isotopes were studied. Samples (high polished stainless steel discs) with uranium isotopes were prepared by electrodeposition. Samples were measured by alpha spectrometry after electrodeposition and treatment. It gives surface activities. Weights, as well as surface's weights of uranium isotopes were calculated from their activities, After alpha spectrometry samples were analyzed by TOF-SIMS IV instrument in International Laser Centre in Bratislava. By the SIMS analysis intensities of uranium-238 were obtained. The interpretation of SIMS intensities vs. surface activity, or surface's weights of uranium isotopes indicates the possibility to use SIMS in quantitative analysis of surface contamination by uranium isotopes, especially 238 U. (author)

  19. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems

  20. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  1. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  2. Marcadores séricos e espectrometria de massa no diagnóstico do câncer Serum markers and mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão abrange as principais técnicas, limitações e utilidades da espectrometria de massa aplicada à análise de fluidos biológicos para buscar biomarcadores com potencialidade de diagnóstico médico. Atualmente esse método é capaz de discernir, em segundos, padrões moleculares diferencialmente expressos entre indivíduos controles e com câncer. Resultados da literatura apontam a espectrometria de massa como metodologia promissora no futuro do diagnóstico.This manuscript reviews mass spectrometry methods and limitations for analisys of biological fluids in the search for biomarkers that can aid medical diagnosis. Currently, mass spectrometry has the ability to discriminate differentially expressed molecular patterns among cancer patients and control subjects. Results in the literature point mass spectrometry as having a major role in the future of medical diagnosis.

  3. Primary structure of a 14 kDa basic structural protein (Lm-76) from the cuticle of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P

    1993-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a 14 kDa structural protein (LM-76) isolated from pharate cuticle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, was determined by Edman degradation of the intact protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Plasma desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry was used as a...

  4. Os limites da competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rattner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Costuma-se destacar os aspectos aparentemente positivos e as vantagens hipotéticas da concorrência e da competitividade entre empresas e também entre nações. Não se pode negar que a concorrência nos mercados tenha exercido uma função central e fundamental na gênese e na expansão do sistema de produção capitalista. Ela contribuiu para a geração e acumulação de riquezas materiais. Também estimulou e fortaleceu as aspirações de seus principais atores sociais, os empreendedores, de exigir uma organização política mais democrática em oposição ao regime feudal ou absolutista, em determinado período da história do mundo ocidental.

  5. Engenharia da mente

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Tânia Cristina D'Agostini

    2005-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Na era da informação digitalizada, pesquisadores de diferentes áreas do conhecimento enfrentam uma nova questão: a organização semântica dos dados. A matéria tornou-se importante pelo fato das informações digitalmente disponíveis estarem dispostas, em sua maioria, como dados não-estruturados. Todavia, sabe-se que a estruturação de dados é um problema complexo ...

  6. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  7. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Controladoria tem sido alvo de estudos e destaque de análises e reflexões dos estudiosos das ciências que têm como foco o campo gerencial das organizações como a da Administração e Contabilidade. É importante observar a contribuição da Controladoria à governança pública, fundamento de uma gestão democrática e participativa. Nesse contexto, insere-se o objetivo deste estudo, refletir sobre atuação da controladoria pública da cidade de Salvador, observando a contribuição efetiva na governança nesse município. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos na Secretaria da Fazenda (SEFAZ do município a quem Controladoria vincula-se. Com caráter exploratório, essa investigação descritiva envolveu pesquisa de campo, análise de documentos e relatórios emitidos pela SEFAZ e pelo Tribunal de Contas do Município (TCM. Verificou-se o organograma da SEFAZ, seu orçamento e os pareceres do TCM. Os resultados expressam a importância da Controladoria e denotam a impressão de que, na instituição estudada, essa área não esteja cumprindo bem seu papel. 

  8. Ocorrência da ferrugem da videira em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelica Aparecida Xavier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da videira causada por Phakopsora euvitis Ono constitui-se numa ameaça às regiões produtoras de uva em função do potencial destrutivo da planta. A doença foi detectada no Brasil, pela primeira vez, em 2001. Atualmente, ela ocorre no Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Espírito Santo e Santa Catarina. Em abril de 2010, observaram-se na estação experimental da Unimontes, Janaúba, Minas Gerais, plantas da cv. Niágara rosada com sintomas típicos da doença. A análise dos sintomas e a caracterização dos urediniósporos sésseis, levemente equinulados, com formato oval, ou elipsoide formado em urédias subepidérmicas na origem, inrompentes e com paráfises circundantes dorsalmente, levaram à diagnose de Phakopsora euvitis como o agente causal da doença. Este é o primeiro relato da doença no Estado de Minas Gerais.

  9. Historicidade da filosofia em Hegel e Heidegger

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Iber

    2017-01-01

    Gostaria de discutir, em forma de teses, a temática da historicidade da filosofia em contraste e na sua divergência em Hegel e Heidegger. Diferente do historicismo, que não soluciona o problema da historicidade da filosofia, porque ele dissolve tendencialmente a filosofia na história da filosofia e não coloca em especial a questão da verdade, Hegel e Heidegger desenvolvem uma teoria genuinamente filosófica da história da filosofia do interesse filosófico pela verdade. Esse interesse genuiname...

  10. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS): what, how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is one of the oldest mass spectrometric techniques, which has been used for determining the isotopic composition and concentration of different elements using isotope dilution. In spite of the introduction of many other inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the TIMS technique plays the role of a definitive analytical methodology and still occupies a unique position in terms of its capabilities with respect to precision and accuracy as well as sensitivity

  11. Modelo para sistemas da qualidade como base da estrategia competitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Vários autores propõem a empresa como um sistema em transformação, sendo que esse enfoque sistêmico parece oferecer um meio efetivo de prover as capacidades estratégicas que são valorizadas pelos mercados atuais. Por outro lado, vem crescendo a consciência para o enfoque da qualidade como base da estratégia competitiva, onde esta é associada à lucratividade e incluída no processo de planejamento estratégico, tornando-se um instrumento eficaz de concorrência que, para fazer frente à di...

  12. Dimensão da maturidade à luz da logoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardi, Tadeu Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema da maturidade humana à luz da logoterapia, fundada por Viktor Emil Frankl. Nos dias de hoje, existe a frustração existencial, não mais a sexual, como analisada por Freud. Cada ser humano, como pessoa livre e responsável e tendo como meta a busca da maturidade, vai percorrendo seu próprio caminho, que o leva à ceitação de si, de seus limites e potencialidades e ao relacionamento social e religioso, capacitando-o ao confronto com o sofrimento humano

  13. Simultaneous determination of creatinine and creatine in human serum by double-spike isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Añón Álvarez, M Elena; Rodríguez, Felix; Menéndez, Francisco V Álvarez; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2015-04-07

    This work describes the first multiple spiking isotope dilution procedure for organic compounds using (13)C labeling. A double-spiking isotope dilution method capable of correcting and quantifying the creatine-creatinine interconversion occurring during the analytical determination of both compounds in human serum is presented. The determination of serum creatinine may be affected by the interconversion between creatine and creatinine during sample preparation or by inefficient chemical separation of those compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE). The methodology is based on the use differently labeled (13)C analogues ((13)C1-creatinine and (13)C2-creatine), the measurement of the isotopic distribution of creatine and creatinine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the application of multiple linear regression. Five different lyophilized serum-based controls and two certified human serum reference materials (ERM-DA252a and ERM-DA253a) were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the proposed double-spike LC-MS/MS method. The methodology was applied to study the creatine-creatinine interconversion during LC-MS/MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and the separation efficiency of the SPE step required in the traditional gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) reference methods employed for the determination of serum creatinine. The analysis of real serum samples by GC-MS showed that creatine-creatinine separation by SPE can be a nonquantitative step that may induce creatinine overestimations up to 28% in samples containing high amounts of creatine. Also, a detectable conversion of creatine into creatinine was observed during sample preparation for LC-MS/MS. The developed double-spike LC-MS/MS improves the current state of the art for the determination of creatinine in human serum by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), because corrections are made for all the possible errors

  14. Biomarker research for moyamoya disease in cerebrospinal fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruwaka, Mikio; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Sho; Araki, Yoshio; Sumitomo, Masaki; Kawamura, Akino; Yokoyama, Kinya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by steno-occlusive change in bilateral internal carotid arteries with unknown etiology. To discover biomarker candidates in cerebrospinal fluid from MMD patients, proteome analysis was performed by the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three peptides, 4473Da, 4475Da, and 6253Da, were significantly elevated in MMD group. A positive correlation between 4473Da peptide and postoperative angiogenesis was determined. Twenty MMD patients were enrolled in this pilot study, including 11 pediatric cases less than 18 years of age (mean age, 8.67 years) and 9 adult MMD patients (mean age, 38.1 years). This study also includes 17 control cases with the mean age of 27.9 years old. In conclusion, 4473Da peptide is supposed to be a reliable biomarker of MMD. 4473Da peptide showed higher intensity peaks especially in younger MMD patients, and it was proved to be highly related to postoperative angiogenesis. Further study is needed to show how 4473Da peptide is involved with the etiology and the onset of MMD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Auger spectrometry of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of Auger spectrometry at synchrotron radiation centers. First, he explains how a high energy photon source such as the APS (Advanced Photon Source) could be used to help provide missing spectral information about the shell structure of some elements. The missing data occurs mainly at higher energies in the 1--10 keV ranges as for the K-shells of Z = 30 to 60 elements and the L-shells for Z = 30 to 100 elements. He explains how even though Auger electron spectrometry does not depend on synchrotron radiation it can greatly benefit from this variable photon source as it allows one to select the Auger line group that is most suitable for a specific purpose. Most significantly, a continuous photon source becomes indispensable when one is interested in threshold effects. Lastly, he discusses coherence effects between different inner-shell vacancy states by way of some recent work done at Daresbury

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the analytical technique of choice for the detection of long-lived radionuclides which cannot be practically analysed with decay counting or conventional mass spectrometry. The main use of AMS has been in the analysis of radiocarbon and other cosmogenic radionuclides for archaeological, geological and environmental applications. In addition, AMS has been recently applied in biomedicine to study exposure of human tissues to chemicals and biomolecules at attomole levels. There is also a world-wide effort to analyse rare nuclides of heavier masses, such as long-lived actinides, with important applications in safeguards and nuclear waste disposal. The use of AMS is limited by the expensive accelerator technology required and there are several attempts to develop smaller and cheaper AMS spectrometers. 5 refs.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the analytical technique of choice for the detection of long-lived radionuclides which cannot be practically analysed with decay counting or conventional mass spectrometry. The main use of AMS has been in the analysis of radiocarbon and other cosmogenic radionuclides for archaeological, geological and environmental applications. In addition, AMS has been recently applied in biomedicine to study exposure of human tissues to chemicals and biomolecules at attomole levels. There is also a world-wide effort to analyse rare nuclides of heavier masses, such as long-lived actinides, with important applications in safeguards and nuclear waste disposal. The use of AMS is limited by the expensive accelerator technology required and there are several attempts to develop smaller and cheaper AMS spectrometers. 5 refs.

  18. [Sample preparation and bioanalysis in mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Wagner, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of compounds of clinical interest of low molecular weight (sample preparation. Sample preparation is a crucial part of chemical/biological analysis and in a sense is considered the bottleneck of the whole analytical process. The main objectives of sample preparation are the removal of potential interferences, analyte preconcentration, and converting (if needed) the analyte into a more suitable form for detection or separation. Without chromatographic separation, endogenous compounds, co-eluted products may affect a quantitative method in mass spectrometry performance. This work focuses on three distinct parts. First, quantitative bioanalysis will be defined, different matrices and sample preparation techniques currently used in bioanalysis by mass spectrometry of/for small molecules of clinical interest in biological fluids. In a second step the goals of sample preparation will be described. Finally, in a third step, sample preparation strategies will be made either directly ("dilute and shoot") or after precipitation.

  19. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevestam, Goeran; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas; Tagziria, Hamid; Vanhavere, Filip; Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm -2 s -1 , where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm -2 s -1 , again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved

  20. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevestam, Goeran [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: goeran.loevestam@ec.europa.eu; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tagziria, Hamid [EC-JRC-Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); Vanhavere, Filip [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved.

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Protein Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shiyong; Downard, Kevin M; Wong, Jason W H

    2017-01-01

    Through advances in molecular biology, comparative analysis of DNA sequences is currently the cornerstone in the study of molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Nevertheless, protein mass spectrometry offers some unique opportunities to enable phylogenetic analyses in organisms where DNA may be difficult or costly to obtain. To date, the methods of phylogenetic analysis using protein mass spectrometry can be classified into three categories: (1) de novo protein sequencing followed by classical phylogenetic reconstruction, (2) direct phylogenetic reconstruction using proteolytic peptide mass maps, and (3) mapping of mass spectral data onto classical phylogenetic trees. In this chapter, we provide a brief description of the three methods and the protocol for each method along with relevant tools and algorithms.

  2. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  3. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing [Daly City, CA; Yang, Peidong [Kensington, CA; Kim, Woong [Seoul, KR; Fan, Rong [Pasadena, CA

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  4. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry - From DNA to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is presented. The present work touches on a few technical aspects and recent developments of AMS, and describes two specific applications of AMS, the dating of human DNA with the 14 C bomb peak and the search for superheavy elements in nature. Since two extended general reviews on technical developments in AMS [1] and applications of AMS [2] will appear in 2013, frequent reference to these reviews is made. (authors)

  6. Polymer and Additive Mass Spectrometry Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The use of mass spectrometry in fields related to polymers has increased significantly over the past three decades and will be explored in this literature review. The importance of this technique is highlighted when exploring how polymers degrade, verifying purchased materials, and as internal requirements change. The primary focus will be on four ionization techniques and the triple quadrupole and quadrupole / time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The advantages and limitations of each will also be explored.

  7. A mass spectrometry proteomics data management platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vagisha; Eng, Jimmy K; Maccoss, Michael J; Riffle, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in biomedical research. These experiments typically generate a large volume of highly complex data, and the volume and complexity are only increasing with time. There exist many software pipelines for analyzing these data (each typically with its own file formats), and as technology improves, these file formats change and new formats are developed. Files produced from these myriad software programs may accumulate on hard disks or tape drives over time, with older files being rendered progressively more obsolete and unusable with each successive technical advancement and data format change. Although initiatives exist to standardize the file formats used in proteomics, they do not address the core failings of a file-based data management system: (1) files are typically poorly annotated experimentally, (2) files are "organically" distributed across laboratory file systems in an ad hoc manner, (3) files formats become obsolete, and (4) searching the data and comparing and contrasting results across separate experiments is very inefficient (if possible at all). Here we present a relational database architecture and accompanying web application dubbed Mass Spectrometry Data Platform that is designed to address the failings of the file-based mass spectrometry data management approach. The database is designed such that the output of disparate software pipelines may be imported into a core set of unified tables, with these core tables being extended to support data generated by specific pipelines. Because the data are unified, they may be queried, viewed, and compared across multiple experiments using a common web interface. Mass Spectrometry Data Platform is open source and freely available at http://code.google.com/p/msdapl/.

  8. Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry: background and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukens, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the advent of radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) many studies have been conducted to understand the background from mass spectrometric processes and the origins of contamination associated with the ion source and sample preparation. By studying the individual contributions a better understanding of these processes has been obtained and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to date samples reliably up to 60 000 BP. (orig.)

  9. Optimization Of A Mass Spectrometry Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Jose; Alegria, F. Correa; Redondo, Luis; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Rocha, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a system developed in order to optimize the mass spectrometry process of an ion implanter. The system uses a PC to control and display the mass spectrum. The operator interacts with the I/O board, that interfaces with the computer and the ion implanter by a LabVIEW code. Experimental results are shown and the capabilities of the system are discussed.

  10. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  11. O carnaval da turba futurista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Freitas de Andrade

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da repercussão do futurismo italiano no Brasil, a partir da análise de crônicas de Menotti Del Picchia publicadas no Correio Paulistano, entre 1920 e 1922. Nessa época o escritor participou da polêmica sobre a vanguarda italiana veiculada na imprensa paulistana, publicando uma série de crônicas que, ao promover ideias futuristas e criticar a literatura passadista, estabelecem a formulação de um futurismo compósito, adaptado à realidade brasileira; e esboçam as principais teses do movimento modernista.

  12. Evapotranspiração da cultura da cebola

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    G. M. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da quantidade de água necessária para as culturas é um dos principais fatores para o correto planejamento, dimensionamento e manejo de qualquer sistema de irrigação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo, comparar medida da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc da cebola com estimativa obtida a partir da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo determinada por diferentes métodos e Kc proposto na literatura. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental do Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciências Sociais da Universidade do Estado da Bahia - UNEB, em Juazeiro, no período de junho a setembro de 2011. As medidas da ETc foram obtidas em evapotranspirômetros e as estimativas, a partir de ETo determinada pelos métodos: Penman-Monteith (padrão FAO, Penman-Monteith modificado por Villa Nova et al. (2004, Hargreaves & Samani, Makkink e Jensen & Haise e Kc proposto por Marouelli et al. (2005, para a cultura da cebola. É fundamental a avaliação de métodos de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência antes de sua aplicação, pois erros consideráveis podem ser cometidos na determinação da quantidade de água a ser aplicada a uma cultura, o que repercutirá certamente, na produtividade.Evapotranspiration crop onionAbstract: The determination of the amount of water needed for crops is a major factor for the correct planning, sizing and management of any irrigation system. This study aimed to compare measure of crop evapotranspiration (ETc onion with estimates obtained from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo determined by different methods and Kc proposed in the literature. The experiment was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Technology and Social Sciences, University of the State of Bahia, in Juazeiro, from June to September 2011. The ETc measurements were obtained in evapotranspirometers and estimates, from ETo determined by the methods: Penman-Monteith (FAO standard, Penman-Monteith modified

  13. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-06-01

    As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.

  14. Spectrometry of degraded neutrons with SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalani, Deepak; Kumar, S.; Jodha, A.S.; Reddy, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Considerable interest has grown during the last decade in the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for routine neutron monitoring and dosimetry work. In addition, using these detectors neutron spectrometry has also been undertaken by some investigators. In spectrometry the energy of neutrons was determined either from minor axis of proton tracks observed on the surface of detector or from the use of polyethylene radiators of selected thickness with varying etching time. Using this latter method in the present work fast neutron spectrometry is made. The method involves the measurement of etch induction time, thickness of removed critical layer for constant radiator thickness with varying etching time. Besides a computer programme has been developed for the calculation of neutron sensitivity at different critical removal layers. The degraded neutron spectra of 252 Cf with shield materials of different thickness but of same composition and shield materials of same thickness but of different compositions have been obtained. The study shows that SSNTD films can be used for recording the transmitted neutron spectra from different shield materials. This spectrometric capability added to the technique advantages of SSNTDs such as integrating nature and small size make them important for nuclear engineering applications. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  16. Analysis of electrocautery generated smoke by chromatographic-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Jefferson; Pessine, Francisco B T; Fidelis, Carlos H V; Menezes, Fabio H; Palma, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the chemical components of the smoke from electrocautery from coagulating muscle and liver tissues of pigs. we collected smoke produced by electrocautery applied to porcine tissue in previously evacuated bottles, with qualitative and quantitative analysis of the compounds present through the hyphenated technique gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. there was a majority of decanal aldehyde in the fumes from the subcutaneous, muscle and liver tissues. Fumes of subcutaneous and muscular tissues also showed the presence of hexanal and phenol. In the fumes of subcutaneous and liver tissues we also found toluene and limonene and, finally, nonanal smoke was present in the muscle and liver tissues. there is increasing evidence showing that smoke from electrocautery used in subcutaneous, muscle and liver tissue is harmful to human health. Thus, there is need to reduce exposure to it or wear masks with filters capable of retaining these particles. analisar quimicamente os componentes da fumaça do eletrocautério, provenientes da coagulação de tecidos, muscular e hepático de suino. coleta de fumaça produzida por eletrocauterização de tecido porcino em frascos previamente evacuados com análise qualitativa e quantitativa dos compostos presentes, através de técnica hifenada, cromatografia a gás/espectrometria de massas. houve presença majoritária do aldeído decanal nas fumaças provenientes dos tecidos subcutâneo, muscular e hepático. Fumaças dos tecidos subcutâneo e muscular mostraram também a presença de hexanal e fenol. Nas fumaças dos tecidos subcutâneo e hepático foram encontrados ainda tolueno e limoneno e, por fim, nonanal estava presente nas fumaças dos tecidos muscular e hepático. há número crescente de evidências mostrando que fumaça proveniente de eletrocauterização de tecidos subcutâneo, muscular e hepático é nociva à saúde de seres humanos. Portanto, há necessidade de reduzir a exposição a ela ou usar máscara com

  17. Dos Males da Medida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Moritz Schwarcz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objeto a difícil percepção da "diferença". Tema polêmico, o debate sobre as variedades culturais foi transformado, em meados do século XIX, em uma questão racial e, nesse sentido, vinculado às regularidades da biologia. Tecendo comparações entre os teóricos raciais brasileiros e os impasses mais contemporâneos, sobre a aferição de inteligência e capacidade, esse ensaio pretende provocar. Em pauta estarão as contradições que têm se destacado, mais recentemente, quando se opõem de um lado as etnicidades locais, de outro a tão propalada globalização. Tal qual dois lados de uma mesma moeda, a afirmação de identidades tem se mostrado tão evidente como o próprio estreitamento das relações internacionais. Mudam os termos do debate - de raça, para etnia -, mas, de alguma maneira, continuamos presos a uma lógica positiva de estabelecimento de hierarquias ontológicas.This article has as its objective the difficult perception of "difference". A controversial theme, in the nineteenth century, this debate on cultural varieties, became a racial issue and in this sense, bonded to the regularities of biology. In such a context, this essay intends to provoke comparisons about the standard measure of intelligence and capacity, between Brazilian racial theorists and the impasse of more contemporary times. Appointed here will be the contradictions which have, more recently grown in importance, and have opposed through one aspect, local ethnic groups and through another the greatly publicized globalization. As are the two sides of a coin, the affirmation of identities has shown itself as evident as the tightening of international relations. The terms of the debate change from race to ethnicism, but in some way, we are still tied to a positivist logic which establishes ontologic hierarchies.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  19. SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA ARQUITETURA DA INFORMAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfram Roberto Rodrigues de Albuquerque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Expõe-se o estado atual da disciplina Arquitetura da Informação quanto a problemática terminológica da definição do campo de estudo, apresentando-se argumentos para uma definição de Arquitetura da Informação de uma forma ampla na qual os usos correntes dessa expressão sejam vistos como especializações. Defende-se uma definição com a utilização de um conjunto de propriedades mínimas cujas interações levam a uma terminologia formal e cuja abstração leva a uma definição formal do conceito que emprega a linguagem de morfismos da Teoria das Categorias. Trata-se de um recorte de alguns dos resultados obtidos na tese de doutoramento de um dos autores, defendida em setembro de 2010. O contexto da pesquisa é exposto e alguns dos resultados obtidos são delineados.

  20. O sentido da espiritualidade na transitoriedade da vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Arrieira

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Compreender o sentido da espiritualidade para a pessoa em cuidados paliativos. Métodos: Abordagem qualitativa, fundamentada na fenomenologia existencialista e referencial de Viktor Frankl. Os participantes foram nove pessoas em cuidados paliativos atendidas no domicílio. Informações coletadas por meio da observação e de entrevista realizadas no período de junho a outubro de 2014, gravadas, transcritas e transformadas em texto interpretado com a abordagem fenomenológica hermenêutica. Resultados: Surgiram as seguintes categorias: sentido de continuidade da vida; sentido de alívio do sofrimento; sentido de naturalidade da morte e sentido de valorização do viver. Conclusão: Para a integralidade da atenção faz-se necessário a inclusão da espiritualidade na prática do cuidado em saúde. A espiritualidade proporciona o encontro existencial entre a pessoa em cuidados paliativos e os profissionais que a cuidam em sua integralidade.

  1. O uso da aromaterapia na melhora da autoestima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar se a inalação dos óleos essenciais de rosa e de ylang-ylang alteram a percepção da autoestima e comparar a eficácia dos mesmos. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Hospital da Universidade de São Paulo. Participaram 43 funcionários dos setores de Higienização e da Central de Materiais e Esterilização durante os meses de maio a julho de 2009. Os sujeitos foram randomizados em três grupos: dois que receberem os óleos essenciais e outro que recebeu placebo (essência de rosa. A avaliação da autoestima foi feita através de uma escala já validada no Brasil, sendo aplicada antes do uso dos aromas, depois de 30 dias de uso e ao completar 60 dias. Dentre os resultados, verificou-se que a amostra era constituída por 88,6% de indivíduos com média e alta autoestima e que os óleos essenciais em questão não alteraram de forma significativa a percepção da autoestima.

  2. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem.Método:revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013.Resultados:cinco artigos fizeram alusão à Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, quatro citaram Ausubel como autor dessa teoria e apenas dois seguiram a estrutura para a aplicação da teoria completamente. Há escassez de estudos sobre o tema e os que o abordam não o correlacionam com a teoria de Ausubel.Conclusão:faz-se necessário romper com a dicotomia entre teoria e prática e promover a articulação dos conteúdos com a ação, introduzindo o aluno como autor de seu próprio conhecimento.

  3. Rapid species diagnosis for invasive candidiasis using mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Marinach-Patrice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS allows the identification of most bacteria and an increasing number of fungi. The potential for the highest clinical benefit of such methods would be in severe acute infections that require prompt treatment adapted to the infecting species. Our objective was to determine whether yeasts could be identified directly from a positive blood culture, avoiding the 1-3 days subculture step currently required before any therapeutic adjustments can be made. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using human blood spiked with Candida albicans to simulate blood cultures, we optimized protocols to obtain MALDI TOF-MS fingerprints where signals from blood proteins are reduced. Simulated cultures elaborated using a set of 12 strains belonging to 6 different species were then tested. Quantifiable spectral differences in the 5000-7400 Da mass range allowed to discriminate between these species and to build a reference database. The validation of the method and the statistical approach to spectral analysis were conducted using individual simulated blood cultures of 36 additional strains (six for each species. Correct identification of the species of these strains was obtained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct MALDI TOF-MS analysis of aliquots from positive blood cultures allowed rapid and accurate identification of the main Candida species, thus obviating the need for sub-culturing on specific media. Subsequent to this proof-of-principle demonstration, the method can be extended to other clinically relevant yeast species, and applied to an adequate number of clinical samples in order to establish its potential to improve antimicrobial management of patients with fungemia.

  4. Da janela do meu quarto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Hamburger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o curta Da Janela do Meu Quarto de Cao Guimarães como contraponto a filmes brasileiros recentes que lidam com a desigualdade social brasileira na chave da violência. O texto contrasta o distanciamento imposto pelo posicionamento de câmera e efeitos de montagem e som nesse filme, com o uso de estratégias de pertencimento e apropriação presentes em filmes "de resultado".

  5. Da janela do meu quarto

    OpenAIRE

    Hamburger, Esther

    2008-01-01

    O texto aborda o curta Da Janela do Meu Quarto de Cao Guimarães como contraponto a filmes brasileiros recentes que lidam com a desigualdade social brasileira na chave da violência. O texto contrasta o distanciamento imposto pelo posicionamento de câmera e efeitos de montagem e som nesse filme, com o uso de estratégias de pertencimento e apropriação presentes em filmes "de resultado".

  6. Determination of plutonium isotopes in bilberry using liquid scintillation spectrometry and alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seferinoğlu, Meryem; Aslan, Nazife; Kurt, Aylin; Erden, Pınar Esra; Mert, Hülya

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents α-particle spectrometry and liquid scintillation spectrometry methods to determine plutonium isotopes in bilberry. The analytical procedure involves sample preparation steps for ashing, digestion of bilberry samples, radiochemical separation of plutonium radioisotopes and their measurement. The validity of the method was checked for coherence using the ζ test, z-test, relative bias and relative uncertainty outlier tests. The results indicated that the recommended procedures for both measurement systems could be successfully applied for the accurate determination of plutonium activities in bilberry samples. - Highlights: • Sample preparation methods for Pu using LSS and alpha spectrometry developed. • Complete separation of plutonium from interfering radionuclides. • Commercial bilberry was spiked with NPL 2011 (AH-B11144) proficiency test sample. • Results were checked using ζ test, z-test, rel. bias and rel. uncert. outlier tests. • Recommended procedures successfully applied to bilberry samples

  7. Study by Auger spectrometry and mass spectrometry of the chemisorption of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, E.; Chiarena, J.C.; Gillet, M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of Auger spectrometry and mass spectrometry was employed to study CO chemisorption on polycrystalline Mo surfaces at room temperature. Five adsorption states were observed and the binding parameters (E,n 0 ,tau 0 ) were calculated for the three important states. The results obtained by the two methods are in accord but the occurence of electronic desorption in Auger experiments was pointed out. Contamination effects by C atoms in such studies were investigated by repeated cycles of adsorption-desorption and a characteristic evolution of flash desorption was observed. The results are discussed in this point of view enhancing the importance of a control of the adsorption surface cleanness by a method of great sensibility like Auger spectrometry. (Auth.)

  8. The use of lasers as sources for Raman spectrometry, resonance Raman spectrometry, and light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitini, R.; Ceccaldi, M.; Leicknam, J.P.; Plus, R.

    1975-01-01

    The activity of the laboratory is principally centred on the determination of molecular structures and the study of molecular interactions in solution by infrared and Raman spectrometry. With the development of work on relatively large molecules, particularly biological molecules, it became necessary to complete information on the molecular weight and on the intra and intermolecular geometry and interactions of these bodies. In order to obtain these informations Rayleigh scattering and resonance Raman spectrometry were used. The advantages of using vibrational spectrometry, particularly Raman, in conjunction with the diffusion of light for these structural and molecular interaction studies is emphasized. It is shown that these two techniques could not have developed as they have done in the last few years without the use of lasers as light source [fr

  9. Quantitative analysis of modified proteins and their positional isomers by tandem mass spectrometry: human histone H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, James J; Mizzen, Craig A; Kelleher, Neil L

    2006-07-01

    Here we show that fragment ion abundances from dissociation of ions created from mixtures of multiply modified histone H4 (11 kDa) or of N-terminal synthetic peptides (2 kDa) correspond to their respective intact ion abundances measured by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Isomeric mixtures of modified forms of the same protein are resolved and quantitated with a precision of

  10. A novel 35 kDa frog liver acid metallophosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalewicz, A; Radomska, B; Strzelczyk, B; Kubicz, A

    1999-04-12

    The lower molecular weight (35 kDa) acid phosphatase from the frog (Rana esculenta) liver is a glycometalloenzyme susceptible to activation by reducing agents and displaying tartrate and fluoride resistance. Metal chelators (EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline) inactivate the enzyme reversibly in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The apoenzyme is reactivated by divalent transition metal cations, i. e. cobalt, zinc, ferrous, manganese, cadmium and nickel to 130%, 75%, 63%, 62%, 55% and 34% of the original activity, respectively. Magnesium, calcium, cupric and ferric ions were shown to be ineffective in this process. Metal analysis by the emission spectrometry method (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) revealed the presence of zinc, iron and magnesium. The time course of the apoenzyme reactivation, the stabilization effect and the relatively high resistance to oxidizing conditions indicate that the zinc ion is crucial for the enzyme activity. The presence of iron was additionally confirmed by the visible absorption spectrum of the enzyme with a shoulder at 417 nm and by the electron paramagnetic resonance line of high spin iron(III) with geff of 2.4. The active center containing only zinc or both zinc and iron ions is proposed. The frog liver lower molecular weight acid phosphatase is a novel metallophosphatase of lower vertebrate origin, distinct from the mammalian tartrate-resistant, purple acid phosphatases.

  11. Silver nanostructures in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekuła, Justyna; Nizioł, Joanna; Rode, Wojciech; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-09-21

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully applied as a matrix replacement for the laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS). Nanoparticles, producing spectra with highly reduced chemical background in the low m/z region, are perfectly suited for low-molecular weight compound analysis and imaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can efficiently absorb ultraviolet laser radiation, transfer energy to the analyte and promote analyte desorption, but also constitute a source of silver ions suitable for analyte cationisation. This review provides an overview of the literature on silver nanomaterials as non-conventional desorption and ionization promoters in LDI-MS and mass spectrometry imaging.

  12. Detection and differentiation of 22kDa and 20kDa Growth Hormone proteoforms in human plasma by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanmartín, Gerard Such; Bache, N.; Bosch, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human growth hormone (GH) is suspected to be widely and illegally used in sport to improve athletes' performance. For the detection of GH abuse, blood samples are screened for abnormal ratios between the 22 and 20kDa GH proteoforms that demonstrate the administration of the synthetic hormone....... Current detection methods are based on classical immunoassays as they provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection of GH proteoforms. These antibody based methods, however, suffer from unclear selectivity and potential cross-reactivity towards similar proteins. For unambiguous GH detection, we report...... a Mass Spectrometry ImmunoAssay (MSIA) that first enriches GH from plasma with an antibody of relatively low specificity, and subsequently quantifies the 22 and 20kDa proteoforms by Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) LC-MS/MS analysis. This method proved superior to an antibody-free strategy based on GH...

  13. Characterization of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2D imaging acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation; Caracterizacao de uma matriz detectora cintiladora para aquisicao de imagem 2D da regiao folicular da glandula tireoide por emissao radioativa usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da

    2007-05-15

    The image acquisition methods applied to nuclear medicine and radiobiology are a valuable research study for determination of thyroid anatomy to seek disorders associated to follicular cells. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has also been used in problems related to radiation detection in order to map medical images since the improvement of data processing compatible with personnel computers (PC). This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array that could be coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD) through a fiber optic plate in order to map the follicles of thyroid gland. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits the application suggested here with spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and good detector efficiency. The methodology results are useful to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A source - detector simulation is performed by using a MCNP4B (Monte Carlo for Neutron Photon transport) general code considering different source energies, detector materials and geometries including pixel sizes and reflector types. The results demonstrate that by using MCNP4B code is possible to searching for useful parameters related to the systems used in nuclear medicine, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology studies to acquiring thyroid follicles images. (author)

  14. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1; Emprego do MCNP no estudo dos TLDS 600 e 700 visando a implementacao da caracterizacao do feixe de irradiacao da instalacao de BNCT do IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of {sup 6}Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose response curves were obtained for the distinct types of TLDs for pure gamma and mixed fields. This work recommends the TLD 600/TLD 700 pair methodology for mixed field dosimetry, due to present a better precision than the one based on TLD 400, however one has to be careful to avoid gamma dose super estimation. (author)

  15. Metallogenetic characterization of granitoid rocks through geochemical prospection: the Lagoa Real example related to uranium mineralization in Bahia state, Brazil; Caracterizacao metalogenetica de corpos gratinoides atraves de prospeccao geoquimica: o exemplo da suite intrusiva Lagoa Real relacionada a mineralizacoes de uranio no Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.E., E-mail: cprmsa@bahianet.com.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (GEREMI/SUREG/SA/CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Within a broad metallogenetic evaluation program carried out by CPRM - Geological Survey of Brazil in covenant with the CBPM - Companhia Baiana de Pesquisa Mineral in the central part of the Sao Francisco Craton, the Lagoa Real granitoid rocks was one of the selected targets. The work included geochemical exploration supplemented by follow-in survey and integrated 1:200.000 scale geochemical cartography. The Lagoa Real granitoid was recognized with composition ranging from monzogranitic to alcaligranitic type. The geochemical surveying led to the definition of the metallogenetic specialization of the granitoid rock, with characteristic geochemical and mineralogic associations. These associations are related to uranium mineralization. The genetic model using stream sediment and pan concentrate data, show similarity with the metallogenetic model of zonal partitioning proposed by Routhier (1963), for plutonogenic lode deposits with potential for Sn, W, Nb, Be, REE, Au, and U. In this work emphasis is given to the importance of the integrated use of different prospective methods toward the evaluation of granitoid systems, particularly the combination of geochemical surveying methods with results for a better understanding of the geologic and metallogenetic settings. (author)

  16. GRAU DA PRÁXIS DA GESTÃO DA RESPONSABILIDADE AMBIENTAL PRATICADA POR USINAS SUCROALCOOLEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Longo

    2014-12-01

    gerencial (PCDA foi o Action que apresentou maior grau de aderência. Há uma concordância acentuada às características fundamentais do ciclo gerencial na Gestão da Responsabilidade Socioambiental.

  17. Performance Test of Alpha Spectrometry for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Youn; Yoon, Jong-Ho; Han, Ki-Tek; Ahn, Gil Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Environmental samples are analyzed by various methods such as, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometry), HRGS (high resolution gamma spectrometry) and alpha /beta particle analysis. In this study, we will described the result of performance test using alpha spectrometry for analyzing environmental samples. Measurement data of the U activity using SRM based on extraction chromatography with UTEVA resin. It should be effective way to separate of uranium isotope for the measurement of alpha spectrometry. But, the result of this measurement data is higher than another recovery data. Also concentration of U data is lack of consistency. We leave out of consideration many effect of factors about influence in the experiment process. In the future work, we will try to reduce the step of experiment process and reflect the uncertainty factors

  18. Papel da vitamina B12 na patogenia da mielose funicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a absorção da vitamina B12 radioativa em 29 casos de mielose funicular. O diagnóstico baseou-se na clássica sintomatologia neu- rológica e na presença de acloridria gástrica e eventuais alterações hemato-lógicas. As manifestações neurológicas foram avaliadas de modo semiquan-titativo e correlacionadas com os resultados do teste de excreção urinária da vitamina B12. Não foi verificada correlação significante da absorção da vitamina B12, quer com a sintomatologia nuerológica total, quer com as síndromes periférica e funicular dorsal. Contudo, foi encontrada significante correlação negativa entre a síndrome piramidal e a absorção da vitamina B12. Os resultados são confrontados com o papel desempenhado pela vitamina B12 na síntese das bainhas de mielina e do ácido ribonuclêico, sendo salientada a importância dêste último para a vida das células nervosas e dos longos axônios.

  19. Biomedical application of MALDI mass spectrometry for small-molecule analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J A; Burgers, Peter C; de Groot, Ronald; Gruters, Rob A; Luider, Theo M

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging analytical tool for the analysis of molecules with molar masses below 1,000 Da; that is, small molecules. This technique offers rapid analysis, high sensitivity, low sample consumption, a relative high tolerance towards salts and buffers, and the possibility to store sample on the target plate. The successful application of the technique is, however, hampered by low molecular weight (LMW) matrix-derived interference signals and by poor reproducibility of signal intensities during quantitative analyses. In this review, we focus on the biomedical application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules and discuss its favorable properties and its challenges as well as strategies to improve the performance of the technique. Furthermore, practical aspects and applications are presented. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Future In Situ Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, S. A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cornish, T.; Ecelberger, S. A.; Li, X.; Floyd, M. A. Merrill; Chanover, N.; Uckert, K.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) is a versatile, low-complexity instrument class that holds significant promise for future landed in situ planetary missions that emphasize compositional analysis of surface materials. Here we describe a 5kg-class instrument that is capable of detecting and analyzing a variety of analytes directly from rock or ice samples. Through laboratory studies of a suite of representative samples, we show that detection and analysis of key mineral composition, small organics, and particularly, higher molecular weight organics are well suited to this instrument design. A mass range exceeding 100,000 Da has recently been demonstrated. We describe recent efforts in instrument prototype development and future directions that will enhance our analytical capabilities targeting organic mixtures on primitive and icy bodies. We present results on a series of standards, simulated mixtures, and meteoritic samples.

  1. Profiling of plasma metabolites in canine oral melanoma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Mifumi; Baba, Yuta; Tamai, Reo; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Komori, Masayuki; Mori, Takashi; Takenaka, Shigeo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in the oral cavity of dog. The tumor has a poor prognosis, and methods for diagnosis and prediction of prognosis after treatment are required. Here, we examined metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for development of a discriminant model for evaluation of prognosis. Metabolite profiles were evaluated in healthy and melanoma plasma samples using orthogonal projection to latent structure using discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Cases that were predicted to be healthy using the OPLS discriminant model had no advanced lesions after radiation therapy. These results indicate that metabolite profiling may be useful in diagnosis and prediction of prognosis of canine malignant melanoma.

  2. The emergence of mass spectrometry in biochemical research

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The initial steps toward routinely applying mass spectrometry in the biochemical laboratory have been achieved. In the past, mass spectrometry was confined to the realm of small, relatively stable molecules; large or thermally labile molecules did not survive the desorption and ionization processes intact. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allow for the analysis of both small and large biomolecules through "mild" desorption...

  3. Mass spectrometry imaging: Towards a lipid microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Laprévote, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Biological imaging techniques are the most efficient way to locally measure the variation of different parameters on tissue sections. These analyses are gaining increasing interest since 20 years and allow observing extremely complex biological phenomena at lower and lower time and resolution scale. Nevertheless, most of them only target very few compounds of interest, which are chosen a priori, due to their low resolution power and sensitivity. New chemical imaging technique has to be introduced in order to overcome these limitations, leading to more informative and sensitive analyses for biologists and physicians. Two major mass spectrometry methods can be efficiently used to generate the distribution of biological compounds over a tissue section. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) needs the co-crystallization of the sample with a matrix before to be irradiated by a laser, whereas the analyte is directly desorbed by a primary ion bombardment for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) experiments. In both cases, energy used for desorption/ionization is locally deposited -some tens of microns for the laser and some hundreds of nanometers for the ion beam- meaning that small areas over the surface sample can be separately analyzed. Step by step analysis allows spectrum acquisitions over the tissue sections and the data are treated by modern informatics software in order to create ion density maps, i.e., the intensity plot of one specific ion versus the (x,y) position. Main advantages of SIMS and MALDI compared to other chemical imaging techniques lie in the simultaneous acquisition of a large number of biological compounds in mixture with an excellent sensitivity obtained by Time-of-Flight (ToF) mass analyzer. Moreover, data treatment is done a posteriori, due to the fact that no compound is selectively marked, and let us access to the localization of different lipid classes in only one complete acquisition. Copyright © 2010

  4. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using NSDAAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez B, M. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.

    2009-10-01

    The reconstruction of neutron spectra from count rates of a Bonner spheres spectrometric system is performed using various methods such as Monte Carlo methods, the parameterization and iterative methods. The weight of the Bonner spheres spectrometric system, the procedure for the reconstruction of the spectra, the need of an experienced user, the high consumer of time, the need of use a reconstruction code as the BUNKI, SAND, among others, and the resolution of the spectrum are some problems that this system presents. This has motivated the development of complementary procedures such as maximum entropy, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks. In previous work, has reported a new method called robust design methodology of artificial neural networks, to construct various network topologies capable of solving the problems of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, however, due to the newness of this technology, be noted that there are not tools to end-user that allow test and validate the designed networks. This paper presents a software for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, designed from the information extracted of an artificial neural network designed by robust design methodology of artificial neural networks. This tool has the following characteristics: was designed in a user graphical interface easy to use, requires not knowledge of neural networks or neutron spectrometry by the user; execution speed of the application; unlike the deconvolution codes are not required to select an initial spectrum for the spectrum reconstruction; as an additional element to this tool, besides the spectrum, the calculation is performed simultaneous to H(10), E, H p , s (10,θ) from just counting rates from a Bonner spheres spectrometric system. (author)

  6. Trends in tungsten coil atomic spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, George L.

    Renewed interest in electrothermal atomic spectrometric methods based on tungsten coil atomizers is a consequence of a world wide increasing demand for fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and portable analytical methods for trace analysis. In this work, tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometry (WCAAS) and tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES) are used to determine several different metals and even a non-metal at low levels in different samples. Improvements in instrumentation and new strategies to reduce matrix effects and background signals are presented. Investigation of the main factors affecting both WCAAS and WCAES analytical signals points to the importance of a reducing, high temperature gas phase in the processes leading to atomic cloud generation. Some more refractory elements such as V and Ti were determined for the first time by double tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (DWCAES). The higher temperatures provided by two atomizers in DWCAES also allowed the detection of Ag, Cu and Sn emission signals for the first time. Simultaneous determination of several elements by WCAES in relatively complex sample matrices was possible after a simple acid extraction. The results show the potential of this method as an alternative to more traditional, expensive methods for fast, more effective analyses and applications in the field. The development of a new metallic atomization cell is also presented. Lower limits of detection in both WCAAS and WCAES determinations were obtained due to factors such as better control of background signal, smaller, more isothermal system, with atomic cloud concentration at the optical path for a longer period of time. Tungsten coil-based methods are especially well suited to applications requiring low sample volume, low cost, sensitivity and portability. Both WCAAS and WCAES have great commercial potential in fields as diverse as archeology and industrial quality control. They are simple, inexpensive, effective

  7. Monte Carlo simulation applied to alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccouche, S.; Gharbi, F.; Trabelsi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Alpha particle spectrometry is a widely-used analytical method, in particular when we deal with pure alpha emitting radionuclides. Monte Carlo simulation is an adequate tool to investigate the influence of various phenomena on this analytical method. We performed an investigation of those phenomena using the simulation code GEANT of CERN. The results concerning the geometrical detection efficiency in different measurement geometries agree with analytical calculations. This work confirms that Monte Carlo simulation of solid angle of detection is a very useful tool to determine with very good accuracy the detection efficiency.

  8. Performance of gamma spectrometry counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Maziah Mahmud

    2007-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry counting system widely used as tool to measure qualitative and quantitative gamma-ray emitters in a sample. Container size, sample to detector distance, sample volume are well known factors that affecting the quality of measurement. However, factor such as the age of the system was not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out how the age factor affecting the quality of the measurement. From this study, it is found that when the age of the system increased, the system tends to have higher lower limit of detection and poorer linearity showing that age factor do affecting the quality of measurement. (Author)

  9. Mass spectrometry by means of tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1985-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based on an accelerator allows to measure rare cosmogenic isotopes found in natural samples with isotopic abundances up to 10E-15. The XTU Tandem of Legnaro National Laboratories can measure mean heavy isotopes (36Cl, 41Ca, 129I) in applications interesting cosmochronology and Medicine. The TTT-3 Tandem of the Naples University has been modified in view of precision studies of C14 in Archeology, Paleantology and Geology. In this paper a review is made of principles and methodologies and of some applicationy in the framework of the National Program for mass spectrametry research with the aid of accelerators

  10. Coherence in electron energy loss spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schattschneider, P.; Werner, W.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence effects in electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and in energy filtering are largely neglected although they occur frequently due to Bragg scattering in crystals. We discuss how coherence in the inelastically scattered wave field can be described by the mixed dynamic form factor (MDFF), and how it relates to the density matrix of the scattered electrons. Among the many aspects of 'inelastic coherence' are filtered high-resolution images, dipole-forbidden transitions, coherence in plasma excitations, errors in chemical microanalysis, coherent double plasmons, and circular dichroism

  11. Depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the solid body discreteness in the direction of the normal to the sample surface on the depth resolution of the secondary ion mass spectrometry method is analyzed. It is shown that for this case the dependence of the width at the semi-height of the delta profiles of the studied elements depth distribution on the energy and angle of incidence of the initial ions should have the form of the stepwise function. This is experimentally proved by the silicon-germanium delta-layers in the silicon samples [ru

  12. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  13. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  14. Mass spectrometry investigation of magnetron sputtering discharges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Musil, Jindřich; Lančok, Ján; Fitl, Přemysl; Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Vlček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2017), s. 438-443 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010490; GA ČR GA17-13427S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mass spectrometry * atoms * radicals and ions * RF discharge * contamination * metallic films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.530, year: 2016

  15. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  16. Mass spectrometry a versatile aid to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1976-01-01

    Several hundred publications have appeared in the last three years that deal with applications of Mass Spectrometry to inorganic analysis. Bulk and localized trace analysis, surface and thin film characterization and microstructure examination are currently performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Spark Source Mass Spectrometry and the newly developed Laser Probe Mass Spectrometry. Suitable experimental procedures allow insulators, biologic materials and microsamples to be analysed. In spite of the classification by techniques this review is essentially devoted to the most significant papers in analytical applications but instrumental and basic features are sometimes introduced to support the discussions

  17. Publicidade e ética: um estudo da construção da imagem da mulher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe uma reflexão sobre a ética da responsabilidade na publicidade veiculada nas revistas Claudia e Nova. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, resultante da leitura dos anúncios selecionados, subsidiada por teóricos da Análise do Discurso da linha francesa, que busca averiguar como a mulher é representada. Constatou-se que no contexto da sociedade contemporânea o retrato da mulher como sedutora ainda está presente, mesmo que em vários momentos ela apareça como protagonista de sua própria vida.

  18. Variedades da Democracia no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bizzarro

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste artigo apresentamos resultados coletados pelo projeto Variedades da Democracia para o Brasil. Descrevemos a evolução histórica da democracia brasileira entre 1900 e 2015 enfocando seus cinco principais componentes (eleitoral, liberal, participativo, deliberativo e igualitário e duas dimensões adjacentes ao regime (corrupção e partidos políticos. Por fim, nós comparamos os dados para o Brasil com resultados obtidos para outros países da América do Sul. A análise dos dados aponta: a. a existência de uma trajetória “em espiral” dos regimes políticos no Brasil, na qual novas experiências democráticas tendem a superar experiências anteriores em todos os quesitos; b. os avanços e limites da experiência democrática contemporânea em que se combinam bons resultados nos indicadores eleitoral, liberal e deliberativo da democracia, e resultados menos elevados nos componentes igualitário e participativo do regime, bem como em suas dimensões adjacentes.

  19. Identification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Lin, Chiann Tso; Kim, Jong Seo; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Wang, Jun; Qian, Weijun; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-04-20

    Paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate) is an active metabolite of the common insecticide parathion and is acutely toxic due to the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous systems. The Inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity by paraoxon is due to the formation of phosphorylated BChE adduct, and the detection of the phosphorylated BChE adduct in human plasma can serve as an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. In this study, we performed immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for identifying phosphorylated BChE in human plasma treated by paraoxon. BChE was captured by biotinylated anti-BChE polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody was effective to recognize both native and modified BChE with high specificity. The exact phosphorylation site of BChE was confirmed on Serine 198 by MS/MS with a 108 Da modification mass and accurately measured parent ion masses. The phosphorylated BChE peptide was also successfully detected in the immunoaffinity purified sample from paraoxon treated human plasma. Thus, immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry represents a viable approach for the detection of paraoxon-modified BChE and other forms of modified BChE as exposure biomarkers of organophosphates and nerve agents.

  20. Rapid species specific identification and subtyping of Yersinia enterocolitica by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Ziegler, Dominik; Pflüger, Valentin; Tonolla, Mauro; Ravasi, Damiana; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Hächler, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica are Gram-negative pathogens and known as important causes of foodborne infections. Rapid and reliable identification of strains of the species Y. enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia and the differentiation of the pathogenic from the non-pathogenic biotypes has become increasingly important. We evaluated here the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid species identification and subtyping of Y. enterocolitica. To this end, we developed a reference MS database library including 19 Y. enterocolitica (non-pathogenic biotype 1A and pathogenic biotypes 2 and 4) as well as 24 non-Y. enterocolitica strains, belonging to eleven different other Yersinia spp. The strains provided reproducible and unique mass spectra profiles covering a wide molecular mass range (2000 to 30,000 Da). Species-specific and biotype-specific biomarker protein mass patterns were determined for Y. enterocolitica. The defined biomarker mass patterns (SARAMIS SuperSpectrum™) were validated using 117 strains from various Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes in a blind-test. All strains were correctly identified and for all strains the mass spectrometry-based identification scheme yielded identical results compared to a characterization by a combination of biotyping and serotyping. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF-MS is a reliable and powerful tool for the rapid identification of Y. enterocolitica strains to the species level and allows subtyping of strains to the biotype level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass Spectrometry on Future Mars Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry investigations on the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the 2018 ExoMars missions will address core science objectives related to the potential habitability of their landing site environments and more generally the near-surface organic inventory of Mars. The analysis of complex solid samples by mass spectrometry is a well-known approach that can provide a broad and sensitive survey of organic and inorganic compounds as well as supportive data for mineralogical analysis. The science value of such compositional information is maximized when one appreciates the particular opportunities and limitations of in situ analysis with resource-constrained instrumentation in the context of a complete science payload and applied to materials found in a particular environment. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on ExoMars will thus benefit from and inform broad-based analog field site work linked to the Mars environments where such analysis will occur.

  2. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct mass. Indeed, a maximum entropy term in the objective function of MaxEnt, the most commonly used charge deconvolution algorithm, favors a deconvolved spectrum with many peaks over one with fewer peaks. Here we describe a new “parsimonious” charge deconvolution algorithm that produces fewer artifacts. The algorithm is especially well-suited to high-resolution native mass spectrometry of intact glycoproteins and protein complexes. Deconvolution of native mass spectra poses special challenges due to salt and small molecule adducts, multimers, wide mass ranges, and fewer and lower charge states. We demonstrate the performance of the new deconvolution algorithm on a range of samples. On the heavily glycosylated plasma properdin glycoprotein, the new algorithm could deconvolve monomer and dimer simultaneously and, when focused on the m/z range of the monomer, gave accurate and interpretable masses for glycoforms that had previously been analyzed manually using m/z peaks rather than deconvolved masses. On therapeutic antibodies, the new algorithm facilitated the analysis of extensions, truncations, and Fab glycosylation. The algorithm facilitates the use of native mass spectrometry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein assemblies. PMID:29376659

  3. Lipid imaging by mass spectrometry - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, David; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-03-07

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has proven to be extremely useful for applications such as the spatial analysis of peptides and proteins in biological tissue, the performance assessment of drugs in vivo or the measurement of protein or metabolite expression as tissue classifiers or biomarkers from disease versus control tissue comparisons. The most popular MSI technique is MALDI mass spectrometry. First invented by Richard Caprioli in the mid-1990s, it is the highest performing MSI technique in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity for intact biomolecules and application range today. The unique ability to identify and spatially resolve numerous compounds simultaneously, based on m/z values has inter alia been applied to untargeted and targeted chemical mapping of biological compartments, revealing changes of physiological states, disease pathologies and metabolic faith and distribution of xenobiotics. Many MSI applications focus on lipid species because of the lipids' diverse roles as structural components of cell membranes, their function in the surfactant cycle, and their involvement as second messengers in signalling cascades of tissues and cells. This article gives a comprehensive overview of lipid imaging techniques and applications using established MALDI and SIMS methods but also other promising MSI techniques such as DESI.

  4. Impact of automation on mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Victoria; Rockwood, Alan

    2015-10-23

    Mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS and LC-MS/MS) is an analytical technique that has rapidly grown in popularity in clinical practice. In contrast to traditional technology, mass spectrometry is superior in many respects including resolution, specificity, multiplex capability and has the ability to measure analytes in various matrices. Despite these advantages, LC-MS/MS remains high cost, labor intensive and has limited throughput. This specialized technology requires highly trained personnel and therefore has largely been limited to large institutions, academic organizations and reference laboratories. Advances in automation will be paramount to break through this bottleneck and increase its appeal for routine use. This article reviews these challenges, shares perspectives on essential features for LC-MS/MS total automation and proposes a step-wise and incremental approach to achieve total automation through reducing human intervention, increasing throughput and eventually integrating the LC-MS/MS system into the automated clinical laboratory operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been... conditions) while the aeroplane was parked. All DA 40 and DA 42 aeroplanes have a system installed that...

  7. 76 FR 27861 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been... conditions) while the aeroplane was parked. All DA 40 and DA 42 aeroplanes have a system installed that...

  8. Development of methodology for characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 using the Monte Carlo method; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para caracterizacao do filtro cuno do reator IEA-R1 utilizando o Metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila

    2014-07-01

    The Cuno filter is part of the water processing circuit of the IEA-R1 reactor and, when saturated, it is replaced and becomes a radioactive waste, which must be managed. In this work, the primary characterization of the Cuno filter of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN was carried out using gamma spectrometry associated with the Monte Carlo method. The gamma spectrometry was performed using a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe). The germanium crystal represents the detection active volume of the HPGe detector, which has a region called dead layer or inactive layer. It has been reported in the literature a difference between the theoretical and experimental values when obtaining the efficiency curve of these detectors. In this study we used the MCNP-4C code to obtain the detector calibration efficiency for the geometry of the Cuno filter, and the influence of the dead layer and the effect of sum in cascade at the HPGe detector were studied. The correction of the dead layer values were made by varying the thickness and the radius of the germanium crystal. The detector has 75.83 cm{sup 3} of active volume of detection, according to information provided by the manufacturer. Nevertheless, the results showed that the actual value of active volume is less than the one specified, where the dead layer represents 16% of the total volume of the crystal. A Cuno filter analysis by gamma spectrometry has enabled identifying energy peaks. Using these peaks, three radionuclides were identified in the filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 60}Co. From the calibration efficiency obtained by the Monte Carlo method, the value of activity estimated for these radionuclides is in the order of MBq. (author)

  9. Ensino da música

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    O papel da Igreja Católica no desenvolvimento do ensino da música em Portugal é inquestionável. Neste texto descreve-se como a música e o seu ensino antecederam a própria fundação da nacionalidade no território que é hoje Portugal, e como a Igreja Católica teve um papel preponderante, até aos nossos dias, no desenvolvimento desse ensino e na criação de estruturas pedagógicas que permitiram a aprendizagem musical ao longo dos séculos. Primeiro nas escolas monacais, depois nas sés catedrais, e ...

  10. O LUGAR DA MORADIA SOCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela das Neves Alvarenga; Paulo Romano Reschilian

    2017-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este artigo analisar o processo de segregação socioespacial nas cidades industriais europeias, com olhar na localização da moradia operária no espaço urbano. A partir desta análise, parte-se para a construção do cenário no Brasil, apontando as origens da habitação social nas cidades industriais, com enfoque na inserção urbana da moradia produzida pela iniciativa privada e pelo Estado até os dias atuais, culminando na produção de interesse social vinculada ao programa habitaci...

  11. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social

    OpenAIRE

    Ito,Lígia M; Roso,Miréia C; Tiwari,Shilpee; Kendall,Philip C; Asbahr,Fernando R

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Este artigo revisa aspectos relevantes da fobia social e os estágios de tratamento através da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em crianças, adolescentes e adultos. MÉTODO: A partir do banco de dados Medline, realizou-se revisão da literatura publicada a respeito do tratamento da fobia social por meio da terapia cognitivo-comportamental. RESULTADOS: Revisão da literatura sugere que a fobia social é uma condição prevalente e crônica, caracterizada por inibição social e timidez excessi...

  12. O panorama das Drogas no México: da margem da sociedade ao centro da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca o percurso das manifestações culturais ligadas ao tráfico de drogas no México, de um lugar marginal, de subcultura, na sociedade mexicana das décadas de 1970 e 1980, expressas principalmente através dos narcocorridos e do narcocine, para um lugar no mainstream cultural mexicano, desde o início do século 21, com destaque especial para a narcoliteratura. O aumento da violência, provocado pela guerra ao narcotráfico, produz uma proliferação da temática nos meios de comunicação e se reflete em áreas da cultura como as artes plásticas e a literatura, produzindo um novo tipo de expressão artística ou narrativa, que tanto pode ser oportunista e contribuir para a banalização da violência do narcotráfico como ser crítica e narrar o impacto individual e coletivo do tráfico de drogas, narrar a desenfreada e violenta realidade mexicana sem cair no estilo da imprensa marrom, do folclore ou dos lugares comuns dos romances de ação.

  13. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia.

  14. CILADAS DA DIFERENÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar os efeitos perversos da apropriação pela esquerda de um tema definidor das tradições de direita, a saber, a diferença. Com base no caso Sears (EUA e no caso Le Pen (França, o autor aponta para as armadilhas racistas e sexistas presentes nos discursos que focalizam e enfatizam a diferença, sobretudo num período histórico de reemergência dos conservadorismos que, por sua vez, se apropriam do argumento da diferença, dirigindo-o contra os próprios movimentos de esquerda.

  15. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Cultura da Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas e pesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  16. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  17. Efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Licínio C. de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversos relatos da utilização da urina de vaca em hortaliças, todavia sua eficácia carece de comprovação. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface. O experimento foi constituído de 12 tratamentos, esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as vias de aplicação (solo ou foliar e nas subparcelas as concentrações das soluções (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25% v/v. Aplicou-se 60 mL de solução/planta, divididos em cinco aplicações de 5; 5; 10; 20 e 20 mL/planta, aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 após o transplante, respectivamente. Durante o ciclo avaliou-se o índice SPAD e na colheita a massa da matéria seca de cabeça (MSCA e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu e B na matéria seca das folhas (MSF, caule (MSC e raízes (MSR. Em ambas as vias de aplicação o índice SPAD apresentou incremento linear às concentrações e resposta quadrática ao longo do tempo. A MSCA teve comportamento linear às concentrações, com aumento de 25,9 e 35,4% nas aplicações via foliar e solo, respectivamente. Não houve efeito de concentrações sobre teores de nutrientes na MSF e MSC. Na MSR, via solo, os teores de P e K apresentaram pontos de máximo enquanto Fe e Mn de mínimo; o Na apresentou incremento linear às concentrações via foliar. Os efeitos da urina sobre o crescimento da alface provavelmente são devidos a fatores outros que não somente a quantidade de nutrientes veiculados nas soluções.

  18. Multiplatform Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach Identifies Extracellular Glycolipids of the Yeast Rhodotorula babjevae UCDFST 04-877.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajka, Tomas; Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-10-28

    A multiplatform mass spectrometry-based approach was used for elucidating extracellular lipids with biosurfactant properties produced by the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula babjevae UCDFST 04-877. This strain secreted 8.6 ± 0.1 g/L extracellular lipids when grown in a benchtop bioreactor fed with 100 g/L glucose in medium without addition of hydrophobic substrate, such as oleic acid. Untargeted reversed-phase liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) detected native glycolipid molecules with masses of 574-716 Da. After hydrolysis into the fatty acid and sugar components and hydrophilic interaction chromatography-QTOFMS analysis, the extracellular lipids were found to consist of hydroxy fatty acids and sugar alcohols. Derivatization and chiral separation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified these components as d-arabitol, d-mannitol, (R)-3-hydroxymyristate, (R)-3-hydroxypalmitate, and (R)-3-hydroxystearate. In order to assemble these substructures back into intact glycolipids that were detected in the initial screen, potential structures were in-silico acetylated to match the observed molar masses and subsequently characterized by matching predicted and observed MS/MS fragmentation using the Mass Frontier software program. Eleven species of acetylated sugar alcohol esters of hydroxy fatty acids were characterized for this yeast strain.

  19. Statistical methods for mass spectrometry-based clinical proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakourou, A.

    2018-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on methods for the construction of diagnostic rules based on clinical mass spectrometry proteomic data. Mass spectrometry has become one of the key technologies for jointly measuring the expression of thousands of proteins in biological samples.

  20. Time domain optical spectrometry with fiber optic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrometers which use optical fibers to obtain time domain spectral dispersion are reviewed. Pulse transmission through fiber optic waveguides is discussed and the basic requirements for sources and detectors are given. Multiplex spectrometry and time-of-flight spectrometry are then discussed. Resolution, fiber requirements, instrumentation and specific spectrometers are presented

  1. High-efficiency thermal ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Jose A.

    1996-01-01

    A version of the thermal ionization cavity (TIC) source developed specifically for use in mass spectrometry is presented. The performance of this ion source has been characterized extensively both with the use of an isotope separator and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A detailed description of the TIC source for mass spectrometry is given along with the performance characteristics observed

  2. Applications of accelerator mass spectrometry to nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhiyu; Zhang Chuan

    2002-01-01

    As an ultra high sensitive analyzing method, accelerator mass spectrometry is playing an important role in the studies of nuclear physics and astrophysics. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications in searching for violation of Pauli exclusion principle and study on supernovae are discussed as examples

  3. Analysis of posttranslational modifications of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Trelle, Morten B; Thingholm, Tine E

    2006-01-01

    -temporal distribution in cells and tissues. Most PTMs can be detected by protein and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), either as a mass increment or a mass deficit relative to the nascent unmodified protein. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides a series of analytical features that are highly useful...

  4. New developments in glow discharge optical emission and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Volker; Dorka, Roland; Wilken, Ludger; Wetzig, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes new developments in flow discharge optical emission (GD-OES) and mass spectrometry (GD-MS) at IFW and presents corresponding new applications (analysis of microelectronic multi-layer system by radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (RF-GD-OES) and analysis of pure iron by a new Grimm-type GD-MS source)

  5. Atomic Absorption, Atomic Fluorescence, and Flame Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, Gary

    1984-01-01

    This review is presented in six sections. Sections focus on literature related to: (1) developments in instrumentation, measurement techniques, and procedures; (2) performance studies of flames and electrothermal atomizers; (3) applications of atomic absorption spectrometry; (4) analytical comparisons; (5) atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and (6)…

  6. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Herbig, J.; Beauchamp, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), 027101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  7. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for trace analysis of arsenic (As) in natural herbal products (NHPs). Method: Arsenic analysis in natural herbal products and standard reference ...

  8. X-ray spectrometry for preventive conservation of cultural heritage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytical chemistry does play a key role in the chemical characterization of the environment and it appears that X-ray spectrometry, in its many forms, is one of the most relevant analytical techniques in preventive conservation, as it is in cultural heritage research in general. X-ray spectrometry has indeed been the method ...

  9. Cs+ ion source for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, B.L.; Weiss, H.; Liebl, H.

    1981-12-01

    Various types of cesium ionization sources currently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry are briefly reviewed, followed by a description of the design and performance of a novel, thermal surface ionization Cs + source developed in this laboratory. The source was evaluated for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications using the COALA ion microprobe mass analyzer. (orig.)

  10. Probing the Composition, Assembly and Activity of Protein Molecular Machines using Native Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waterbeemd, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Native mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry in general, are powerful analytical tools for studying proteins and protein complexes. Native mass spectrometry may provide accurate mass measurements of large macromolecular assemblies enabling the investigation of their composition and stoichiometry.

  11. Characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosemeters for photon dosimetry using OSL technique; Caracterizacao de dosimetros de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C para dosimetria de fotons utilizando a tecnica OSL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villani, D.; Almeida, S.B.; Campos, L.L., E-mail: dvillani@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The optically stimulated dosimetry (OSL) has gained prominence in clinical and academic applications in Brazil. In this paper, we present results of the characterization OSL dosimeters Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C (TLD-500) manufactured by Rexon™ Components and TLD Systems in a RISØ reader, model TL/OSL-DA-20 for dosimetry of high-energy photon beams. All reader parameters, and its variations were evaluated. (author)

  12. Diffusive transfer to membranes as an effective interface between gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Mitchell, Charles; Stevenson, Tracy I.; Loo, Joseph A.; Andrews, Philip C.

    1997-12-01

    Diffusive transfer was examined as a blotting method to transfer proteins from polyacrylamide gels to membranes for ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The method is well-suited for transfers from isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels. Spectra have been obtained for 11 pmol of 66 kDa albumin loaded onto an IEF gel and subsequently blotted to polyethylene. Similarly, masses of intact carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin were obtained from 14 and 20 pmol loadings. This methodology is also compatible with blotting high molecular weight proteins, as seen for 6 pmol of the 150 kDa monoclonal antibody anti-[beta]-galactosidase transferred to Goretex. Polypropylene, Teflon, Nafion and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) also produced good spectra following diffusive transfer. Only analysis from PVDF required that the membrane be kept wet prior to application of matrix. Considerations in mass accuracy for analysis from large-area membranes with continuous extraction and delayed extraction were explored, as were remedies for surface charging. Vapor phase CNBr cleavage was applied to membrane-bound samples for peptide mapping.

  13. Surface ionization mass spectrometry of opiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmanov, D.T.

    2009-07-01

    Key words: surface ionization, adsorption, heterogeneous reactions, surface ionization mass spectrometry, thermodesorption surface ionization spectroscopy, thermoemitter, opiates, extracts of biosamples. Subjects of study. The mass - spectrometric study of thermal - ion emission: surface ionization of opiates by on the surface of oxidized refractory metals. Purpose of work is to establish the regularities of surface ionization (SI) of multi-atomic molecule opiates and their mixtures develop the scientific base of SI methods for high sensitive and selective detection and analysis of these substances in the different objects, including biosamples. Methods of study: surface ionization mass spectrometry, thermodesorption surface ionization spectroscopy. The results obtained and their novelty. For the first time, SI of molecule opiates on the oxidized tungsten surface has been studied and their SI mass-spectra and temperature dependences of ion currents have been obtained, the characteristic heterogeneous reactions of an adsorbed molecules and the channels of monomolecular decays vibrationally-excited ions on their way in mass-spectrometry have been revealed, sublimation energy has been defined, the activation energy of E act , of these decays has been estimated for given period of time. Additivity of the SI mass-spectra of opiate mixtures of has been established under conditions of joint opiate adsorption. High selectivity of SI allows the extracts of biosamples to be analyzed without their preliminary chromatographic separation. The opiates are ionized by SI with high efficiency (from 34 C/mol to 112 C/mol), which provides high sensitivity of opiate detection by SI/MS and APTDSIS methods from - 10 -11 g in the samples under analysis. Practical value. The results of these studies create the scientific base for novel SI methods of high sensitive detection and analysis of the trace amounts of opiates in complicated mixtures, including biosamples without their preliminary

  14. Characterizing the lipid and metabolite changes associated with placental function and pregnancy complications using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-12-01

    Successful pregnancy is dependent upon discrete biological events, which include embryo implantation, decidualization, and placentation. Problems associated with each of these events can cause infertility or conditions such as preeclampsia. A greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with these complex processes is necessary to aid in identifying treatments for each condition. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies have been used to identify metabolites and lipids associated with pregnancy-related complications. However, due to limitations associated with conventional implementations of both techniques, novel technology developments are needed to more fully understand the initiation and development of pregnancy related problems at the molecular level. In this perspective, we describe current analytical techniques for metabolomic and lipidomic characterization of pregnancy complications and discuss the potential for new technologies such as ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular changes that affect the placenta and pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annesley, Thomas M.; Cooks, Robert G.; Herold, David A.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.

    2016-01-04

    Each year the journal Clinical Chemistry publishes a January special issue on a topic that is relevant to the laboratory medicine community. In January 2016 the topic is mass spectrometry, and the issue is entitled “Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine”. One popular feature in our issues is a Q&A on a topic, clearly in this case mass spectrometry. The journal is assembling a panel of 5-6 experts from various areas of mass spectrometry ranging from instrument manufacturing to practicing clinical chemists. Dick Smith is one of the scientist requested to participate in this special issue Q&A on Mass Spectrometry. The Q&A Transcript is attached

  16. A identidade à flor da pele: etnografia da prática da tatuagem na contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lissett Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, realiza-se uma descrição etnográfica da prática da tatuagem na contemporaneidade, a partir de uma perspectiva que prioriza as noções da prática, das interações e das experiências vividas durante o processo de ser tatuado. A reflexão tenta reconstruir uma visão total da prática da tatuagem que abrange o mundo subjetivo e as dinâmicas sociais como partes constitutivas desse ato. Entre as idéias conclusivas estão, de um lado, o surgimento de uma nova normalidade estética e vivencial no seio da sociedade ocidental e, de outro, a configuração de uma nova subjetividade, a dos "tatuados", como um processo interativo, inovador, emotivo e reflexivo, em que o corpo se converte em uma forma de expressão e construção do sujeito.This article provides a descriptive account of contemporary tattooing, based on a perspective that prioritizes the notion of practice, as well as the interactions and experiences involved in the process of being tattooed. The analysis attempts to rebuild a holistic view of tattooing, combining subjective processes and social dynamics as equally constitutive parts of this activity. Among the conclusions reached are: (a the emergence of tattooing as a new aesthetic norm and a lived experience at the heart of the western society; and (b the configuration of a new subjectivity, the ‘tattooed,’ as an interactive, innovative, emotional and reflexive process in which the body is converted into a form of expressing and constructing the subject.

  17. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  18. Tratamento da dor em queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  19. Šmakuláda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ireinová, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2017), s. 189-191 ISSN 0027-8203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04648S Keywords : šmakuláda * šmak * Czech National Corpus * database Neomat * etymology Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics

  20. Smart AD and DA Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van A.H.M.; Hegt, J.A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Radulov, G.I.; Zanikopoulos, A.; Doris, K.; Quinn, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a concept is proposed to solve the problems related to the embedding of AD and DA converters in system-on-chips, FPGAs or other VLSI solutions. Problems like embedded testing, yield, reliability and reduced design space become crucial bottlenecks in the integration of high-performance

  1. O LUGAR DA MORADIA SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela das Neves Alvarenga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este artigo analisar o processo de segregação socioespacial nas cidades industriais europeias, com olhar na localização da moradia operária no espaço urbano. A partir desta análise, parte-se para a construção do cenário no Brasil, apontando as origens da habitação social nas cidades industriais, com enfoque na inserção urbana da moradia produzida pela iniciativa privada e pelo Estado até os dias atuais, culminando na produção de interesse social vinculada ao programa habitacional Minha Casa, Minha Vida (MCMV. Por fim, será feita uma análise comparativa da localização das vilas operárias em São José dos Campos, com a inserção urbana dos empreendimentos produzidos pelo Estado.

  2. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  3. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  4. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Steve; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  5. High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E; Moritz, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that separates gas-phase ions by their behavior in strong and weak electric fields. FAIMS is easily interfaced with electrospray ionization and has been implemented as an additional separation mode between liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) in proteomic studies. FAIMS separation is orthogonal to both LC and MS and is used as a means of on-line fractionation to improve the detection of peptides in complex samples. FAIMS improves dynamic range and concomitantly the detection limits of ions by filtering out chemical noise. FAIMS can also be used to remove interfering ion species and to select peptide charge states optimal for identification by tandem MS. Here, the authors review recent developments in LC-FAIMS-MS and its application to MS-based proteomics.

  6. Contribution of photoelectron spectrometry and infrared spectrometry to the study of various oxidised forms of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feve, L.

    1985-03-01

    Securate knowledge of internal surface of primary coolant circuits of PWR is required for an estimation of dissolution of used materials and for estimation of decontamination efficiency. The binding energies of various electron levels of chromium were determined by photoelectron spectrometry (ESCA), both for the metal and for certain compounds. Because of the intensities of the signals obtained the 2 p 3/2 level alone can be used for analytical purposes. Owing to a possible interference between this level due to hexavalent chromium and a satellite peak caused by trivalent chromium the method is not able to show up small amounts of chromium VI in chromium III. Simultaneous detection of the hexavalent and trivalent forms was achieved by infrared spectrometry. The problem of revealing traces of chromium VI in surface layers of trivalent chromium oxide has thus been solved [fr

  7. Programmer for automatic gamma spectrometry; Ordonnateur de sequence pour spectrometrie gamma automatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanetti, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-04-01

    With this apparatus, which is constructed of logical integrated circuits, it is possible both to synchronize an automatic gamma spectrometry assembly and to record the spectra on punched cards. An IBM terminal will make it possible with the help of analysis by the least squares method and by a direct dialogue with an IBM 360 computer to obtain analytical results almost instantaneously. (author) [French] Cet appareil, realise en circuits integres logiques, permet d'une part de synchroniser un ensemble automatique de spectrometrie gamma et d'autre part d'enregistrer les spectres sur cartes perforees. Un terminal IBM permettra, a l'aide d'un programme d'analyse par la methode des moindres carres et par un dialogue direct avec un ordinateur IBM 360, de disposer presque intanstanement des resultats des analyses. (auteur)

  8. High Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that separates gas-phase ions by their behavior in strong and weak electric fields. FAIMS is easily interfaced with electrospray ionization and has been implemented as an additional separation mode between liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) in proteomic studies. FAIMS separation is orthogonal to both LC and MS and is used as a means of on-line fractionation to improve detection of peptides in complex samples. FAIMS improves dynamic range and concomitantly the detection limits of ions by filtering out chemical noise. FAIMS can also be used to remove interfering ion species and to select peptide charge states optimal for identification by tandem MS. Here, we review recent developments in LC-FAIMS-MS and its application to MS-based proteomics. PMID:23194268

  9. Modulation Spectrometry Of Neutrons With Diffractometry Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiismaki, P.

    1997-01-01

    Modulation spectrometry of neutrons refers to a measuring principle, characterized by classification of neutron histories in a probabilistic way, not the usual deterministic way. In order to accomplish this, neutron beams entering the sample are modulated by high-transmission, white-beam selectors of the multislit type, such as Fourier or statistical choppers or high-frequency-modulated spin-flippers. In this scheme it is impossible to decide in a unique way through which particular slit any single neutron passed, but the distribution of histories for a large population of neutrons can nevertheless be correctly obtained, by classifying each conceivable history either as a high-probability or as a low-probability event,based on the actual observed state of the neutron selector. So far the principle has been successfully applied to powder diffraction, but it seems to offer extra degrees of freedom if applied to measuring dispersion curves of coherent excitations, such as phonons in single crystals

  10. Low Cost silicon photodiodes for alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.; Lopes, A.; Hazin, C.; Lira, C.B.; Silva, E. da

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the suitability of using commercially available photodiodes for alpha spectrometry, since the principle on which both operate are similar. Photodiodes are low priced compared to the commonly used semiconductor detectors making them potentially useful for research and teaching purposes. Very thin calibrated alpha sources of 2 41 A m, 2 44 C m and 2 35 U , produced at the Metrology Laboratory of IRD/CNEN, were used to test the performance of three photodiodes. The results showed that the responses of the photodiodes were linear with the alpha particle energy and that the energy resolution varied between 0,79% and 0,45%, with an efficiency of 8%. The resolution and efficiency presented by the photodiodes tested are similar to those obtained with other semiconductor detectors, evidencing that they can be used successfully as alpha detectors

  11. New possibilities in prompt gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B; Barrandon, J N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Lab. du cyclotron; Pinault, J L [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    1977-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray spectrometry has been used as an analytical tool for many years. The high level of background noise does, however, remain a major problem with this technique. From simple theoretical consideration, conditions (particle, energy) were determined to reduce significantly the background noise under irradiation. Alpha particles of 3.5 MeV were chosen. Some fifty elements were studied, of which 24 gave interesting results. The detection limits obtained for a sample of niobium were as follows: approximately 1 ppm (10/sup -6/g/g) for the light elements Li, B, F and Na, and between 50 ppm and 1% for the others. Numerous applications may be envisaged in the geo- and cosmo-sciences.

  12. Computational mass spectrometry for small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The identification of small molecules from mass spectrometry (MS) data remains a major challenge in the interpretation of MS data. This review covers the computational aspects of identifying small molecules, from the identification of a compound searching a reference spectral library, to the structural elucidation of unknowns. In detail, we describe the basic principles and pitfalls of searching mass spectral reference libraries. Determining the molecular formula of the compound can serve as a basis for subsequent structural elucidation; consequently, we cover different methods for molecular formula identification, focussing on isotope pattern analysis. We then discuss automated methods to deal with mass spectra of compounds that are not present in spectral libraries, and provide an insight into de novo analysis of fragmentation spectra using fragmentation trees. In addition, this review shortly covers the reconstruction of metabolic networks using MS data. Finally, we list available software for different steps of the analysis pipeline. PMID:23453222

  13. Inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price Russ, G. III

    1993-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a relatively new (5 y commercial availability) technique for simultaneously determining the concentration and isotopic composition of a large number of elements at trace levels. The principle advantages of ICP-MS are the ability to measure essentially all the metallic elements at concentrations as low as 1 part in 10 12 by weight, to analyse aqueous samples directly, to determine the isotopic composition of essentially all the metallic elements, and to analyse samples rapidly (minutes). The history of the development of ICP-MS and discussions of a variety of applications have been discussed in detail in Date and Gray (1988). Koppenaal (1988, 1990) has reviewed the ICP-MS literature. In that ICP-MS is a relatively new and still evolving technique, this chapter will discuss potential capability more than proven performance. (author). 24 refs

  14. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  15. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  16. Application of Nanodiamonds in Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Cheng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanodiamond (ND with biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS makes rapid, sensitive detection of biopolymers from complex biosamples feasible. Due to its chemical inertness, optical transparency and biocompatibility, the advantage of NDs in MS study is unique. Furthermore, functionalization on the surfaces of NDs expands their application in the fields of proteomics and genomics for specific requirements greatly. This review presents methods of MS analysis based on solid phase extraction and elution on NDs and different application examples including peptide, protein, DNA, glycan and others. Owing to the quick development of nanotechnology, surface chemistry, new MS methods and the intense interest in proteomics and genomics, a huge increase of their applications in biomolecular MS analysis in the near future can be predicted.

  17. [Application of mass spectrometry in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Melero, Inmaculada; Peláez, Teresa; Rezusta López, Antonio; Garcia-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-06-01

    MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming an essential tool in most microbiology laboratories. At present, by using a characteristic fungal profile obtained from whole cells or through simple extraction protocols, MALDI-TOF MS allows the identification of pathogenic fungi with a high performance potential. This methodology decreases the laboratory turnaround time, optimizing the detection of mycoses. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the detection of human clinical fungal pathogens in the laboratory and discusses the future applications of this technology, which will further improve routine mycological diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiocarbon positive-ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Stewart P.H.T.; Shanks, Richard P.; Donzel, Xavier; Gaubert, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Proof-of-principle of a new mass spectrometric technique for radiocarbon measurement is demonstrated. Interfering nitrogen and hydrocarbon molecules are largely eliminated in a charge-exchange cell operating on non-metallic gas. The positive-to-negative ion conversion is the reverse of that conventionally used in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and is compatible with plasma ion sources that may be significantly more efficient and capable of greater output than are AMS sputter ion sources. The Nanogan electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source employed exhibited no sample memory and the >50 kyrs age range of AMS was reproduced. A bespoke prototype new instrument is now required to optimise the plasma and cell physics and to realise hypothetical performance gains over AMS.

  19. Liulin-type spectrometry-dosimetry instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachev, T.; Dimitrov, P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Y.; Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.; Brabcova, K.; Jadrnickova, I.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of Liulin-type spectrometry-dosimetry instruments (LSDIs) is cosmic radiation monitoring at the workplaces. An LSDI functionally is a low mass, low power consumption or battery-operated dosemeter. LSDIs were calibrated in a wide range of radiation fields, including radiation sources, proton and heavy-ion accelerators and CERN-EC high-energy reference field. Since 2000, LSDIs have been used in the scientific programmes of four manned space flights on the American Laboratory and ESA Columbus modules and on the Russian segment of the International Space Station, one Moon spacecraft and three spacecraft around the Earth, one rocket, two balloons and many aircraft flights. In addition to relative low price, LSDIs have proved their ability to qualify the radiation field on the ground and on the above-mentioned carriers. (authors)

  20. Radiocarbon positive-ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Stewart P.H.T.; Shanks, Richard P. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Donzel, Xavier; Gaubert, Gabriel [Pantechnik S.A., 13 Rue de la Résistance, 14400 Bayeux (France)

    2015-10-15

    Proof-of-principle of a new mass spectrometric technique for radiocarbon measurement is demonstrated. Interfering nitrogen and hydrocarbon molecules are largely eliminated in a charge-exchange cell operating on non-metallic gas. The positive-to-negative ion conversion is the reverse of that conventionally used in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and is compatible with plasma ion sources that may be significantly more efficient and capable of greater output than are AMS sputter ion sources. The Nanogan electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source employed exhibited no sample memory and the >50 kyrs age range of AMS was reproduced. A bespoke prototype new instrument is now required to optimise the plasma and cell physics and to realise hypothetical performance gains over AMS.

  1. Calibration samples for accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, R.L.; Flynn, D.S.; Gabbard, F.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive samples with precisely known numbers of atoms are useful as calibration sources for lifetime measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry. Such samples can be obtained in two ways: either by measuring the production rate as the sample is created or by measuring the decay rate after the sample has been obtained. The latter method requires that a large sample be produced and that the decay constant be accurately known. The former method is a useful and independent alternative, especially when the decay constant is not well known. The facilities at the University of Kentucky for precision measurements of total neutron production cross sections offer a source of such calibration samples. The possibilities, while quite extensive, would be limited to the proton rich side of the line of stability because of the use of (p,n) and (α,n) reactions for sample production

  2. Subattomole sensitivity in biological accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Bryhni, Helge

    2008-05-15

    The Uppsala University 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has been used to study (14)C-labeled biological samples utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technology. We have adapted a sample preparation method for small biological samples down to a few tens of micrograms of carbon, involving among others, miniaturizing of the graphitization reactor. Standard AMS requires about 1 mg of carbon with a limit of quantitation of about 10 amol. Results are presented for a range of small sample sizes with concentrations down to below 1 pM of a pharmaceutical substance in human blood. It is shown that (14)C-labeled molecular markers can be routinely measured from the femtomole range down to a few hundred zeptomole (10 (-21) mol), without the use of any additional separation methods.

  3. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  4. Neutron Spectrometry for Radiation Protection Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the dose equivalent is required for radiation protection purposes, however such a determination is quite difficult for neutron radiation. In order to perform accurate dosimetric determinations, it is necessary to acquire information about the neutron fluence spectrum in the workplace as well as the reference radiations used to calibrate dosimetric instruments. This information can then be used to select the appropriate dosimetric instrument, the optimum calibration condition or to establish correction factors that account for the differences in calibration and workplace conditions. For quite some time, neutron spectrometry has been used for these purposes. A brief review of the applications of spectrometers in radiation protection and some recommendations for further development are given here

  5. Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection purposes

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, J C; Alberts, W G

    2002-01-01

    Determination of the dose equivalent is required for radiation protection purposes, however such a determination is quite difficult for neutron radiation. In order to perform accurate dosimetric determinations, it is advantageous to acquire information about the neutron fluence spectrum in the workplace as well as the reference radiations used to calibrate dosimetric instruments. This information can then be used to select the appropriate dosimetric instrument, the optimum calibration condition or to establish correction factors that account for the differences in calibration and workplace conditions. For quite some time, neutron spectrometry has been used for these purposes. A brief review of the applications of spectrometers in radiation protection and some recommendations for further development are given here.

  6. Radiocarbon dating with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has two great advantages over conventional dating: 1) much smaller samples can be handled and 2) counting time is significantly shorter. Three examples are given for Holocene-age material from east-central Ellesmere Island. The results demonstrate the potential use of this technique as a powerful research tool in studies of Quaternary chronology. Individual fragments of marine shells as small as 0.1 g have been dated successfully at the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. In the case of an aquatic moss from a lake sediment core, an increment 0.5 cm thick could be used instead of a 5 cm-thick slice, thus allowing a much more precise estimate of the onset of organic sedimentation

  7. Analysis of barium by isotope mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Kaiming; Jia Baoting; Liu Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios for barium at sub-microgram level are analyzed by thermal surface ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Rhenium trips used for sample preparation are firstly treated to eliminate possible barium background interference. During the preparation of barium samples phosphoric acid is added as an emitting and stabilizing reagent. The addition of phosphoric acid increases the collection efficiency and ion current strength and stability for barium. A relative standard deviation of 0.02% for the isotopic abundance ratio of 137 Ba to 138 Ba is achieved when the 138 Ba ion current is (1-3) x 10 -12 A. The experimental results also demonstrate that the isotope fractionation effect is negligibly small in the isotopic analysis of barium

  8. Intercomparison of alpha particle spectrometry software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Software has reached an important level as the 'logical controller' at different levels, from a single instrument to an entire computer-controlled experiment. This is also the case for software packages in nuclear instruments and experiments. In particular, because of the range of applications of alpha-particle spectrometry, software packages in this field are often used. It is the aim of this intercomparison to test and describe the abilities of four such software packages. The main objectives of the intercomparison were the ability of the programs to determine the peak areas and the peak area uncertainties, and the statistical control and stability of reported results. In this report, the task, methods and results of the intercomparison are presented in order to asist the potential users of such software and to stimulate the development of even better alpha-particle spectrum analysis software

  9. Composite mapping experiences in airborne gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, B.

    2014-01-01

    During an international intercomparison exercise of airborne gamma spectrometry held in Switzerland 2007 teams from Germany, France and Switzerland were proving their capabilities. One of the tasks was the composite mapping of an area around Basel. Each team was mainly covering the part of its own country at its own flying procedures. They delivered the evaluated data in a data format agreed in advance. The quantities to be delivered were also defined in advance. Nevertheless, during the process to put the data together a few questions raised: Which dose rate was meant? Had the dose rate to be delivered with or without cosmic contribution? Activity per dry or wet mass? Which coordinate system was used? Finally, the data could be put together in one map. For working procedures in case of an emergency, quantities of interest and exchange data format have to be defined in advance. But the procedures have also to be proved regularly. (author)

  10. Enantioselectivity of mass spectrometry: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas

    2013-01-01

    With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Serum metabolic profiling of human gastric cancer based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hu; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Zu-Li; Liu, Huan-Liang; Zeng, Yi-Ke; Shi, Xian-Ping; Lu, Bi-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis plays an important role in diagnosing and treating gastric cancer. Metabolic profiling may offer the opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and help to non-invasively identify the potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of human gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to explore the underlying metabolic mechanisms of gastric cancer and to identify biomarkers associated with morbidity. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the serum metabolites of 30 Chinese gastric cancer patients and 30 healthy controls. Diagnostic models for gastric cancer were constructed using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Acquired metabolomic data were analyzed by the nonparametric Wilcoxon test to find serum metabolic biomarkers for gastric cancer. The OPLS-DA model showed adequate discrimination between cancer and non-cancer cohorts while the model failed to discriminate different pathological stages (I-IV) of gastric cancer patients. A total of 44 endogenous metabolites such as amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and steroids were detected, of which 18 differential metabolites were identified with significant differences. A total of 13 variables were obtained for their greatest contribution in the discriminating OPLS-DA model [variable importance in the projection (VIP) value >1.0], among which 11 metabolites were identified using both VIP values (VIP >1) and the Wilcoxon test. These metabolites potentially revealed perturbations of glycolysis and of amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol, and nucleotide metabolism of gastric cancer patients. These results suggest that gastric cancer serum metabolic profiling has great potential in detecting this disease and helping to understand its metabolic mechanisms

  12. Hanna Krall e os caminhos tortos da memória e da identidade

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kilanowski

    2013-01-01

    Neste artigo apresentamos a escritora polonesa de origem judaica Hanna Krall por meio da análise literária do seu romance Sublokatorka (A sublocatária).  O romance, com elementos autobiográficos, apresenta a personalidade cindida de uma menina sobrevivente do Holocausto e discute o tema da identidade polonesa, judaica e judaico-polonesa. Através da observação da memória e do processo de criação da memória, a autora mostra a construção da identidade falsa e a repressão da verdadeira, o comport...

  13. A PROBLEMÁTICA DA BIOPIRATARIA: REFLEXÕES A PARTIR DA GEOPOLÍTICA E DOS DIREITOS DA SOCIOBIODIVERSIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Denise Silva; UFSM; Tybusch, Jerônimo Siqueira; UFSM

    2013-01-01

    O bioimperialismo configura-se como uma característica da geopolítica da atualidade, com alicerces nas estruturas da globalização e do capitalismo. Nesse contexto, a problemática da pesquisa consiste na violação dos direitos dos povos locais e a exploração do meio ambiente, em que o atual sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual contribui para a biopirataria dos recursos naturais, por meio da infiltração, em áreas ricas em diversidade biológica, das grandes corporações, multinacionais...

  14. Euclides da Cunha nas vascas da modernidade // Euclides da Cunha in the throes of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnice Nogueira Galvão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Euclides da Cunha embraced the role of posthumous champion of the backlanders slaughtered by the Brazilian army during the Canudos War. He claimed to have written an “avenging book”. Coming of age at the turn of the century, his work would bear witness to a Modernity that was both historical and aesthetic.

  15. Da ordem. Da cidade. Da literatura: personagens à beira do "ruim do mundo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Kuster

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As grandes cidades estão doentes. Seus sintomas: a quebra da sociabilidade e a irrupção rotineira da violência. Diante disso, ecoa na sociedade um clamor por ordem. No mesmo momento em que a polícia põe a tropa na rua, os literatos criam personagens que dão voz à sensação crescente de que a cidade está deixando de ser uma referência à constituição das identidades urbanas. É a partir da literatura, em especial da obra do escritor Rubem Fonseca, que iremos perscrutar as possibilidades apresentadas pela cidade para o convívio humano.The great cities are sick. Its indications: the sociability in addition and the routine irruption of the violence. Ahead of this, a outcry for order echoes in the society. At the same moment where the policy goes to the street, the writers create personages who give voice to the increasing sensation of that the city is leaving of being a reference to the constitution of the urban identities. It is from literature, in special of the writer Rubem Fonseca, that we will go to investigate the possibilities presented for the city for the human conviviality.

  16. Uso da fluoxetina no tratamento da tricotilomania felina

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Marlos Gonçalves; Ferreira,Lilian Stefanoni; Gerardi,Daniel Guimarães; Costa,Mirela Tinucci

    2004-01-01

    A tricotilomania ou alopecia psicogênica felina é uma dermatopatia de origem psicogênica, decorrente da lambedura compulsiva do pelame, realizada pelo gato em situações de estresse. Tal distúrbio decorre de alterações neuro-hormonais e pode associar-se à introdução de novos animais e/ou crianças no ambiente. Além de mudanças de manejo e atitude para com o animal, sugere-se o emprego de ansiolíticos no tratamento da doença. A fluoxetina foi utilizada no tratamento de cinco gatos domésticos com...

  17. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  18. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry rapid detection of carbapenamase activity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abouseada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbapenamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are an increasing threat in hospitals and Intensive Care Units. Accurate and rapid detection of carbapenamase producers has a great impact on patient improvement and aids in implementation of infection control measures. Aim: In this study, we describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS to identify carbapenamase-producing A. baumannii isolates in up to 3 h. Isolates and Methods: A total of 50 A. baumannii isolates (of which 39 were carabapenamase producers were tested using MALDI TOF MS. Isolates were incubated for 3 h with 0.25 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml of imipenem (IMP at 37°C. Supernatants were analysed by MALDI TOF to analyse peaks corresponding to IMP (300 Da and an IMP metabolite (254 Da using UltrafleXtreme (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany. Results: All carbapenamase-producing isolates were evidenced by the disappearance or reduction in intensity of the 300 Da peak of IPM and the appearance of a 254 Da peak of the IPM metabolite. In isolates that did not produce carbapenamase, the IPM 300 Da peak remained intact. Conclusion: MALDI TOF is a promising tool in the field of diagnostic microbiology that has the ability to transfer identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing time from days to hours.

  20. Imaging mass spectrometry in drug development and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2017-06-01

    During the last decades, imaging mass spectrometry has gained significant relevance in biomedical research. Recent advances in imaging mass spectrometry have paved the way for in situ studies on drug development, metabolism and toxicology. In contrast to whole-body autoradiography that images the localization of radiolabeled compounds, imaging mass spectrometry provides the possibility to simultaneously determine the discrete tissue distribution of the parent compound and its metabolites. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry features high molecular specificity and allows comprehensive, multiplexed detection and localization of hundreds of proteins, peptides and lipids directly in tissues. Toxicologists traditionally screen for adverse findings by histopathological examination. However, studies of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning toxicological and pathologic findings induced by candidate drugs or toxins are important to reach a mechanistic understanding and an effective risk assessment strategy. One of IMS strengths is the ability to directly overlay the molecular information from the mass spectrometric analysis with the tissue section and allow correlative comparisons of molecular and histologic information. Imaging mass spectrometry could therefore be a powerful tool for omics profiling of pharmacological/toxicological effects of drug candidates and toxicants in discrete tissue regions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of imaging mass spectrometry, with particular focus on MALDI imaging mass spectrometry, and its use in drug development and toxicology in general.

  1. Micellar copolymerization of poly(acrylamide-g-propylene oxide): rheological evaluation and solution characterization; Copolimerizacao micelar de poli(acrilamida-g-oxido de propileno): avaliacao reologica e caracterizacao de suas solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadicoff, Bianca L.; Brandao, Edimir M.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; Amorim, Marcia C.V. [Universidade Estadual, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2001-06-01

    Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and poly(propylene oxide) were synthesized by a micellar copolymerization technique. The rheological properties of the copolymers solutions were evaluated and compared with literature data for solutions of the same copolymers, synthesized by solution polymerization. The effect of hydrophobe content, salt addition and surfactant addition on the rheological properties were also investigated. Increasing hydrophobe content resulted in higher solution viscosities in the semi-dilute regime. Upon addition of salts, the hydrophobic groups associated to minimize their exposure to water. In the semi-dilute region, higher contents of surfactant added resulted in lower reduced viscosities of the polymer solutions. The copolymers were qualitatively characterized by infra-red spectrometry. (author)

  2. Characterization of ashes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for potential added in mass red ceramic; Caracterizacao de cinzas de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) para potencial adicao em massa de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.M.F.D.; Sales, K.A.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F., E-mail: diasilva.a@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2012-07-01

    This work is in characterizing ash from biomass grass (Pennisetum purpureums) for incorporation into red ceramic masses. The ashes of elephant grass were generated from burning this dry biomass in an industrial furnace of red ceramic. The morphology of the material generated was observed by an optical microscope. The chemical composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, and the identification of phases by X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving. Thermogravimetric analyzes were also conducted. The results indicate that these ashes are constituted of high quantities of SiO{sub 2}, MgO, CaO and K{sub 2}O, totaling approximately 75% of composition of matter. They have a particle size of 0.7 to 2.2mm featuring. The residue as a kind of coarse particles. Therefore, the results of this study can support future research to the addition of this residue in structural ceramics products (red ceramic)

  3. Physical and microstructural characterization of clay base ceramic product produced in Icoaraci (PA, Brazil); Caracterizacao fisica e microestrutural de produto ceramico de base argilosa produzido no Polo de Icoaraci (PA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, N.S.S.; Mendes, J.F.; Pamplona, V.M.S. [Universidade do Estado do Para (UEPA), PA (Brazil); Andrade, S.M.C. [Instituto Federal do Para (IFPA), PA (Brazil); Dias, C.G.B.T., E-mail: nubiatrib@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), PA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The pottery currently produced in the pole ceramist Icoaraci (PA) is an artistic legacy of indigenous peoples who inhabited the Amazon region. In the pole are produced artifacts such as vases and other decorative items, and household appliances. In this work characterizations were obtained from samples of the final product (after firing), using the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis by Fourier transform spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determining the density of the material. The objective was to evaluate the physical, microstructural and composition of the ceramics after firing. The results revealed the existence of pores and impurities, all of which can influence the quality of the final product, as well as the main elements that constitute mineralogical and chemical material. The photomicrographs showed a considerable degree of porosity, which agrees with the density results. (author)

  4. Teoria da adequação econômica da conduta: significado econômico da conduta em face da tutela penal antitruste

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz da Silva, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Essa tese tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento da teoria da adequação econômica da conduta no direito penal econômico. Vale-se de uma abordagem interdisciplinar abrangendo a Economia, o direito econômico e o direito penal. Para alcançar o desiderato a investigação analisou a intervenção do direito penal em face da atividade econômica e, em especial, os fundamentos da tutela penal antitruste, para fins de estabelecer os contornos teóricos necessários à aplicação das premissas fund...

  5. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  6. Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J.

    1995-08-01

    Mass spectrometry is routinely covered in undergraduate organic chemistry courses and a number of valuable laboratory experiments featuring its use have been discussed (1-7). Although such experiments work well at institutions with limited laboratory enrollments, we typically teach laboratories with enrollments of 160 or more in which it is difficult to allow each student to carry out a meaningful "hands on" mass spectrometry experiment. Since we feel that some practical experience with this technique is important, we have designed a simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/ms) exercise that allows each student to analyze the products of a simple synthesis that they have performed. The exercise starts with the microscale SN2 synthesis of 1-bromobutane from 1-butanol as described by Williamson (8). The students complete the synthesis and place one drop of the distilled product in a screw capped vial. The vials are then sealed, labeled with the students name and taken to the mass spectrometry laboratory by a teaching assistant. Students are instructed to sign up for a 20-min block of time over the next few days in order to analyze their sample. When the student arrives at the laboratory, he or she adds 1 ml CH2Cl2 to the sample and injects 0.3 microliters of the solution into the gas chromatograph. The samples typically contain the 1-butanol starting material and the 1-bromobutane product along with traces of dibutyl ether. The figure shows a mass chromatogram along with the mass spectra of the starting material and product from an actual student run. For this analysis to be applicable to large numbers of students, the gc separation must be as rapid as possible. We have been able to analyze each sample in 6 minutes on a 30 m DB-5 capillary column with the following temperature program: 70 oC for 1 min, 70-80 oC at 10 oC/min, 86-140 oC at 67.5 oC/min, 140-210 oC at 70 oC/min, and 210 oC for 1 min. A mass range of 20-200 amu is scanned with a solvent delay of 2

  7. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F... received information from Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH that the Models DA 40 and DA 40F airplanes have...

  8. [Advances in mass spectrometry-based approaches for neuropeptide analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianyue; Ma, Min; Peng, Xin; Jia, Chenxi; Ji, Qianyue

    2017-07-25

    Neuropeptides are an important class of endogenous bioactive substances involved in the function of the nervous system, and connect the brain and other neural and peripheral organs. Mass spectrometry-based neuropeptidomics are designed to study neuropeptides in a large-scale manner and obtain important molecular information to further understand the mechanism of nervous system regulation and the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. This review summarizes the basic strategies for the study of neuropeptides using mass spectrometry, including sample preparation and processing, qualitative and quantitative methods, and mass spectrometry imagining.

  9. Mass spectrometry for characterizing plant cell wall polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry is a selective and powerful technique to obtain identification and structural information on compounds present in complex mixtures. Since it requires only small sample amount it is an excellent tool for researchers interested in detecting changes in composition of complex carbohydrates of plants. This mini-review gives an overview of common mass spectrometry techniques applied to the analysis of plant cell wall carbohydrates. It presents examples in which mass spectrometry has been used to elucidate the structure of oligosaccharides derived from hemicelluloses and pectins and illustrates how information on sequence, linkages, branching and modifications are obtained from characteristic fragmentation patterns.

  10. [Latest development in mass spectrometry for clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has seen enormous growth in special clinical chemistry laboratories. It significantly increases the analytic potential in clinical chemistry, especially in the field of low molecular weight biomarker analysis. This review summarizes the state of the art in mass spectrometry and related techniques for clinical application with a main focus on recent developments in LC-MS. Current trends in ionization techniques, automated online sample preparation techniques coupled with LC-MS, and ion mobility spectrometry are discussed. Emerging mass spectrometric approaches complementary to LC-MS are discussed as well.

  11. Flow injection analysis in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosias, Maria F.G.G.

    1995-10-01

    The main features of flow injection analysis (FIA) as contribution to the inductively coupled plasma (Icp) spectrometry are described. A systematic review of researches using the combined FIA-Icp and the benefits of this association are presented. Flow systems were proposed to perform on-line Icp solution management for multielemental determination by atomic emission spectrometry (Icp-AES) or mass spectrometry. The inclusion of on-line ion exchangers in flow systems for matrix separation and/or analyte preconcentration are presented. Together with those applications the new advent of instruments with facilities for multielement detection on flow injection signals are described. (author). 75 refs., 19 figs

  12. Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazova, Rossitza; Seeley, Erin H

    2017-10-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging can be successfully used for skin cancer diagnosis, particularly for the diagnosis of challenging melanocytic lesions. This method analyzes proteins within benign and malignant melanocytic tumor cells and, based on their differences, which constitute a unique molecular signature of 5 to 20 proteins, can render a diagnosis of benign nevus versus malignant melanoma. Mass spectrometry imaging may assist in the differentiation between metastases and nevi as well as between proliferative nodules in nevi and melanoma arising in a nevus. In the difficult area of atypical Spitzoid neoplasms, mass spectrometry diagnosis can predict clinical outcome better than histopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray spectrometry with synchrotron radiation; Roentgenspektrometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Matthias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgen- und IR-Spektrometrie' ; Gerlach, Martin; Holfelder, Ina; Hoenicke, Philipp; Lubeck, Janin; Nutsch, Andreas; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Streeck, Cornelia; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Weser, Jan; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-12-15

    The X-ray spectrometry of the PTB at the BESSY II storage ring with radiation in the range from 78 eV to 10.5 keV is described. After a description of the instrumentation development reference-sample free X-ray fluorescence analysis, the determination of fundamental atomic parameters, X-ray fluorescence analysis under glance-angle incidence, highly-resolving absorption spectrometry, and emission spectrometry are considered. Finally liquid cells and in-situ measurement techniques are described. (HSI)

  14. Aspectos incomuns da paracoccidioidomicose infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achiléa Lisboa Bittencourt

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois casos de paracoccidioidomicose (PCM infantil. Em um deles, a principal manifestação da doença foi tumoração abdominal, simulando linfoma maligno não Hodgkin. O outro apresentou acentuado envolvimento articular, com ruptura da cápsula. Representam o segundo e terceiro casos de PCM infantil observados na Bahia, ambos procedentes de áreas urbanas.The authors present two cases of infantil para-coccidioidomycosis. In one case the main presentation was an abdominal mass that mimicked non- Hodgkin lymphoma. In the other case the child had a joint swelling with rupture of the capsule and the clinical diagnosis was piogenic arthritis. They represent the second and third cases of infantile paracoccidioidomycosis observed in the state of Bahia, all coming from urban areas.

  15. Investigating sub-2 μm particle stationary phase supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for chemical profiling of chamomile extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael D; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Jianping; Avonto, Cristina; Isaac, Giorgis; Meeker, Larry; Yu, Kate; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Smith, Norman; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-10-17

    Roman and German chamomile are widely used throughout the world. Chamomiles contain a wide variety of active constituents including sesquiterpene lactones. Various extraction techniques were performed on these two types of chamomile. A packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was designed for the identification of sesquiterpenes and other constituents from chamomile extracts with no derivatization step prior to analysis. Mass spectrometry detection was achieved by using electrospray ionization. All of the compounds of interest were separated within 15 min. The chamomile extracts were analyzed and compared for similarities and distinct differences. Multivariate statistical analysis including principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to differentiate between the chamomile samples. German chamomile samples confirmed the presence of cis- and trans-tonghaosu, chrysosplenols, apigenin diglucoside whereas Roman chamomile samples confirmed the presence of apigenin, nobilin, 1,10-epioxynobilin, and hydroxyisonobilin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 1992: a redescoberta da Natureza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Santos

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a presença do homem sobre a Terra, a natureza está, sempre, sendo redescoberta, com a criação da natureza social. É a história de uma rutura progressiva entre o homem e o entorno, acelerada pela mecanização. Mediante a tecnociência, a natureza artificializada alcança seu estágio supremo, onde a natureza e o homem tornam-se reciprocramente hostis. Com a globalização da economia, da política e da cultura, não há mais relações totalizantes entre a sociedade e o meio. A natureza tecnicizada se impõe como algo abstrato, exigindo um discurso. A questão do meio ambiente é um aspecto dessa evolução e reclama um estudo abrangente, para permitir uma correta interpretação. Para alcançar essa interpretação, a universidade deve fugir dos raciocínios técnicos e conformistas e enfrentar o entendimento do mundo como um todo.With man on Earth, Nature is being permanently rediscovered through the creation of social nature. The progressive rupture between man and his surrounding is quickened by mechanization. More recently, with globalization of economy, politics and culture, there are no longer totalizing relations between society and environment. Through technoscience, nature and man become reciprocally hostile. Tecnicized nature emerges as an abstraction that demands a discourse. Environmental problems are only an aspect of this evolution, and ask for a comprehensive approach, in order to reach its correct interpretation. University must fly away from technical and conformicist reasonning and face the understanding of the world as a whole.

  17. A travessia da escrita machadiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Silviano Brandão

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A narração machadiana constrói-se de uma maneira tal que se pode falar de determinadas posições do sujeito da enunciação em relação a seus fantasmas. Assim, é possível pensar num trajeto que se pode chamar de travessia exatamente pelas modificações ocorridas na escritade Machado de Assis até o Memorial de Aires.

  18. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Culturada Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas epesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  19. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (PDA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (PDA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (PDA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (PDA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (PDA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral interferences in atomic absorption spectrometry, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1979-01-01

    Spectral interferences were observed in trace element analysis of concentrated solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry. Molecular absorption and emission spectra for strontium chloride and nitrate, barium chloride and nitrate containing 12 mg/ml of metal ion in airacetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The absorption and emission spectra of SrO were centered near 364.6 nm. The absorption spectra of SrOH around 606.0, 671.0 and 682.0 nm were very strong. And, emission spectrum of BaOH in the wavelength range from 480 to 550 nm was stronger. But, the absorption of this band spectrum was very weak. In the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm, some unknown bands of absorption were observed for strontium and barium. Absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were observed in the argon-hydrogen flame. Also, in the carbon tube atomizer, the absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were detected clearly in the wavelength range from 185 to 400 nm. (author)

  1. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  2. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig

  3. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry SIMS XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, G.; Lareau, R.; Bennett, J.; Stevie, F.

    2003-05-01

    This volume contains 252 contributions presented as plenary, invited and contributed poster and oral presentations at the 11th International Conference on Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS XI) held at the Hilton Hotel, Walt Disney World Village, Orlando, Florida, 7 12 September, 1997. The book covers a diverse range of research, reflecting the rapid growth in advanced semiconductor characterization, ultra shallow depth profiling, TOF-SIMS and the new areas in which SIMS techniques are being used, for example in biological sciences and organic surface characterization. Papers are presented under the following categories: Isotopic SIMS Biological SIMS Semiconductor Characterization Techniques and Applications Ultra Shallow Depth Profiling Depth Profiling Fundamental/Modelling and Diffusion Sputter-Induced Topography Fundamentals of Molecular Desorption Organic Materials Practical TOF-SIMS Polyatomic Primary Ions Materials/Surface Analysis Postionization Instrumentation Geological SIMS Imaging Fundamentals of Sputtering Ion Formation and Cluster Formation Quantitative Analysis Environmental/Particle Characterization Related Techniques These proceedings provide an invaluable source of reference for both newcomers to the field and experienced SIMS users.

  4. Liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    2003-01-01

    The drugs represent mostly non-volatile and thermally labile solutes, often available only in small amounts like it is in case of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefor, the favourable separation techniques for such compounds are HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and also TLC 1. Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector (LC/MS) is especially powerful for their microanalysis. Mass spectrometry separating the ions in high vacuum was presumably used as detector for gas chromatography effluent but the on-line coupling with liquid eluant flow 0.1-1 mL/min is far more challenging. New types of ion sources were constructed for simultaneous removal of solvent and ionisation of solutes at atmospheric pressure (API). At present, a relatively wide choice of successfully designed commercial equipment is available either for small organic molecules and larger biomolecules (Perkin-Elmer, Agilent, Jeol, Bruker Daltonics, ThermoQuest, Shimadzu). The features of the LC/MS systems are presented. LC/MS as a new quality control tool for [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) radiopharmaceutical, which has became the most spread radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET), was proposed. Other applications of the LC/MS are reviewed. (author)

  5. New applications of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its invention in the late 70's, and reduction to near-routine practice by the mid-80's, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has become a powerful tool for archaeological and geochemical measurements in which cosmogenic isotopes such as 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl and 129 I are used as either tracers or chronometers. The utility of such measurements is demonstrated by the fact that most accelerators having AMS capabilities have significant backlogs of samples awaiting measurement. In designing and justifying a new accelerator facility in which AMS was to be a major feature, we sought to advance the field and increase the resources available for it by two steps: (1) development of new research applications in which intentionally added isotopic labels were used rather than just naturally present ones; and (2) enhancement of spectrometer throughout, making new classes of experiments possible by greatly increasing the number of samples that could be measured in individual experiments. Results of the effort to date suggest that development of a family of very small spectrometers optimized for just tritium and/or radiocarbon will be attractive in the near future

  6. Radiocarbon mass spectrometry for drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Schulze-Konig Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radiocarbon has a huge potential as a tracer for metabolism studies in humans. By using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for its detection, a unique sensitivity is reached reducing required radiation doses to a negligible level. Until recently, a widespread use of AMS in biomedical research was impeded by the high complexity of the instrument, time-consuming sample preparation, and a limited availability of measurement capacity. Over the last few years, tremendous progress has been achieved in the reduction of size and complexity of AMS instruments. It allowed designing a compact AMS system, dubbed BioMICADAS to address the needs of biomedical users. For more than two years, this system is in successful operation at a commercial service provider for the pharmaceutical industry. A further drastic simplification of radiocarbon mass spectrometers seems possible and could establish a regular usage of this technology in drug development. However, to reach this goal a better integration of AMS into the workflow of bioanalytical laboratories will be necessary. For this purpose, CO 2 accepting ion sources may be a key, since they enable an almost automated sample preparation. The status of radiocarbon AMS in biomedical research and its perspective will be discussed

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronk, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been used routinely for radiocarbon measurements for several years. This thesis describes theoretical work to understand the reasons for low accuracy and range and offers practical solutions. The production and transport of the ions used in the measurements are found to be the most crucial stages in the process. The theories behind ion production by sputtering are discussed and applied to the specific case of carbon sputtered by caesium. Experimental evidence is also examined in relation to the theories. The phenomena of space charge and lens aberrations are discussed along with the interaction between ion beams and gas molecules in the vacuum. Computer programs for calculating phase space transformations are then described; these are designed to help investigations of the effects of space charge and aberrations on AMS measurements. Calculations using these programs are discussed in relation both to measured ion beam profiles in phase space and to the current dependent transmission of ions through the Oxford radiocarbon accelerator. Improvements have been made to this accelerator and these are discussed in the context of the calculations. C - ions are produced directly from carbon dioxide at the Middleton High Intensity Sputter Source. Experiments to evaluate the performance of such a source are described and detailed design criteria established. An ion source designed and built specifically for radiocarbon measurements using carbon dioxide is described. Experiments to evaluate its performance and investigate the underlying physical processes are discussed. (author)

  8. 14C Accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macario, K.D.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Linares, R.; Queiroz, E.A.; Oliveira, F.M.; Cardozo, L.; Carvalho, C.R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of carbon isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. The possibility of dating or tracing rare or even compound specific carbon samples has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. The Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), in Brazil will soon be able to perform the complete 14 C-AMS measurement of samples. At the Nuclear Chronology Laboratory (LACRON) samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide. A stainless steel vacuum system was constructed for carbon dioxide purification and graphitization is performed in sealed tubes in a muffle oven. Graphite samples will be analyzed in a 250 kV Single Stage Accelerator produced by National Electrostatic Corporation which will be installed in the beginning of 2012. With the sample preparation laboratory at LACRON and the SSAMS system, the Physics Institute of UFF will be the first 14 C-AMS facility in Latin America. (author)

  9. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  10. Maximizing Ion Transmission in Differential Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bradley B.; Londry, Frank; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.; Kang, Yang; Covey, Thomas R.

    2017-10-01

    We provide modeling and experimental data describing the dominant ion-loss mechanisms for differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). Ion motion is considered from the inlet region of the mobility analyzer to the DMS exit, and losses resulting from diffusion to electrode surfaces, insufficient effective gap, ion fragmentation, and fringing field effects are considered for a commercial DMS system with 1-mm gap height. It is shown that losses due to diffusion and radial oscillations can be minimized with careful consideration of residence time, electrode spacing, gas flow rate, and waveform frequency. Fragmentation effects can be minimized by limitation of the separation field. When these parameters were optimized, fringing field effects at the DMS inlet contributed the most to signal reduction. We also describe a new DMS cell configuration that improves the gas dynamics at the mobility cell inlet. The new cell provides a gas jet that decreases the residence time for ions within the fringing field region, resulting in at least twofold increase in ion signal as determined by experimental data and simulations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry of small biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2008-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic ratio measurements. In the biomedical field, AMS can be used to measure femtomolar concentrations of labeled drugs in body fluids, with direct applications in early drug development such as Microdosing. Likewise, the regenerative properties of cells which are of fundamental significance in stem-cell research can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by AMS analysis of human DNA. However, AMS nominally requires about 1 mg of carbon per sample which is not always available when dealing with specific body substances such as localized, organ-specific DNA samples. Consequently, it is of analytical interest to develop methods for the routine analysis of small samples in the range of a few tens of microg. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator to study small biological samples using AMS. Different methods are presented and compared. A (12)C-carrier sample preparation method is described which is potentially more sensitive and less susceptible to contamination than the standard procedures.

  12. Neutron spectrometry with artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Mercado S, G.A.; Iniguez de la Torre Bayo, M.P.; Barquero, R.; Arteaga A, T.

    2005-01-01

    An artificial neural network has been designed to obtain the neutron spectra from the Bonner spheres spectrometer's count rates. The neural network was trained using 129 neutron spectra. These include isotopic neutron sources; reference and operational spectra from accelerators and nuclear reactors, spectra from mathematical functions as well as few energy groups and monoenergetic spectra. The spectra were transformed from lethargy to energy distribution and were re-bin ned to 31 energy groups using the MCNP 4C code. Re-binned spectra and UTA4 response matrix were used to calculate the expected count rates in Bonner spheres spectrometer. These count rates were used as input and the respective spectrum was used as output during neural network training. After training the network was tested with the Bonner spheres count rates produced by a set of neutron spectra. This set contains data used during network training as well as data not used. Training and testing was carried out in the Mat lab program. To verify the network unfolding performance the original and unfolded spectra were compared using the χ 2 -test and the total fluence ratios. The use of Artificial Neural Networks to unfold neutron spectra in neutron spectrometry is an alternative procedure that overcomes the drawbacks associated in this ill-conditioned problem. (Author)

  13. Compressed sensing in imaging mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Andreas; Dülk, Patrick; Trede, Dennis; Alexandrov, Theodore; Maaß, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique of analytical chemistry for spatially resolved, label-free and multipurpose analysis of biological samples that is able to detect the spatial distribution of hundreds of molecules in one experiment. The hyperspectral IMS data is typically generated by a mass spectrometer analyzing the surface of the sample. In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing approach to IMS which potentially allows for faster data acquisition by collecting only a part of the pixels in the hyperspectral image and reconstructing the full image from this data. We present an integrative approach to perform both peak-picking spectra and denoising m/z-images simultaneously, whereas the state of the art data analysis methods solve these problems separately. We provide a proof of the robustness of the recovery of both the spectra and individual channels of the hyperspectral image and propose an algorithm to solve our optimization problem which is based on proximal mappings. The paper concludes with the numerical reconstruction results for an IMS dataset of a rat brain coronal section. (paper)

  14. Neutron spectrometry using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Martin Hernandez-Davila, Victor; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Mercado Sanchez, Gema A.; Pilar Iniguez de la Torre, Maria; Barquero, Raquel; Palacios, Francisco; Mendez Villafane, Roberto; Arteaga Arteaga, Tarcicio; Manuel Ortiz Rodriguez, Jose

    2006-01-01

    An artificial neural network has been designed to obtain neutron spectra from Bonner spheres spectrometer count rates. The neural network was trained using 129 neutron spectra. These include spectra from isotopic neutron sources; reference and operational spectra from accelerators and nuclear reactors, spectra based on mathematical functions as well as few energy groups and monoenergetic spectra. The spectra were transformed from lethargy to energy distribution and were re-binned to 31 energy groups using the MCNP 4C code. The re-binned spectra and the UTA4 response matrix were used to calculate the expected count rates in Bonner spheres spectrometer. These count rates were used as input and their respective spectra were used as output during the neural network training. After training, the network was tested with the Bonner spheres count rates produced by folding a set of neutron spectra with the response matrix. This set contains data used during network training as well as data not used. Training and testing was carried out using the Matlab ( R) program. To verify the network unfolding performance, the original and unfolded spectra were compared using the root mean square error. The use of artificial neural networks to unfold neutron spectra in neutron spectrometry is an alternative procedure that overcomes the drawbacks associated with this ill-conditioned problem

  15. Tandem mass spectrometry: analysis of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Applications of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the analysis of complex mixtures results in increased specificity and selectivity by using a variety of reagent gases in both negative and positive ion modes. Natural isotopic abundance ratios were examined in both simple and complex mixtures using parent, daughter and neutral loss scans. MS/MS was also used to discover new compounds. Daughter scans were used to identify seven new alkaloids in a cactus species. Three of these alkaloids were novel compounds, and included the first simple, fully aromatic isoquinoline alkaloids reported in Cactaceae. MS/MS was used to characterize the chemical reaction products of coal in studies designed to probe its macromolecular structure. Negative ion chemical ionization was utilized to study reaction products resulting from the oxidation of coal. Possible structural units in the precursor coal were predicted based on the reaction products identified, aliphatic and aromatic acids and their anhydrides. The MS/MS method was also used to characterize reaction products resulting from coal liquefaction and/or extraction. These studies illustrate the types of problems for which MS/MS is useful. Emphasis has been placed on characterization of complex mixtures by selecting experimental parameters which enhance the information obtained. The value of using MS/MS in conjunction with other analytical techniques as well as the chemical pretreatment is demonstrated

  16. Composite mapping experiences in airborne gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, B

    2014-08-01

    During an international intercomparison exercise of airborne gamma spectrometry held in Switzerland 2007 teams from Germany, France and Switzerland were proving their capabilities. One of the tasks was the composite mapping of an area around Basel. Each team was mainly covering the part of its own country at its own flying procedures. They delivered the evaluated data in a data format agreed in advance. The quantities to be delivered were also defined in advance. Nevertheless, during the process to put the data together a few questions raised: Which dose rate was meant? Had the dose rate to be delivered with or without cosmic contribution? Activity per dry or wet mass? Which coordinate system was used? Finally, the data could be put together in one map. For working procedures in case of an emergency, quantities of interest and exchange data format have to be defined in advance. But the procedures have also to be proved regularly. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg -1 ; ICP-MS, 437ngg -1 ) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Da onda da gestão da qualidade a uma filosofia da qualidade da gestão: Balanced Scorecard promovendo mudanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cavalcanti Correia Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 80 a Gestão da Qualidade Total (GQT era apresentada como capaz de resolver todos os problemas e atender a todas as necessidades da gestão das organizações. Buscando solucionar problemas de gestão não equacionados pela GQT, muitas organizações começam a adotar o Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Uma questão ainda não discutida com profundidade no mundo acadêmico é a viabilidade de integração desses dois modelos. O presente artigo discute a possibilidade de integração dessas duas ferramentas, verificando as melhorias que podem alcançar, principalmente no gerenciamento da estratégia da organização. Assim sendo, realizou-se estudo de caso no Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza (CPHF, empresa que vêm adotando com sucesso os dois modelos. A pesquisa revela que é possível integrar os princípios da GQT com os do BSC, à medida que os fundamentos de ambos se complementam, sendo assim a utilização conjunta das ferramentas propicia melhor gerenciamento da estratégia da organização.In recent years, many organizations have been managed according to the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM, which became known around the globe in the 1980's, when looking for explanations for the so-called "Japanese miracle". TQM was presented as being capable of solving all problems and attending to all company management needs, a stage that seems outdated now. In the search for a model that would allow them to analyze and follow up the implementation of organizational strategies, without remaining limited to Quality indicators, many companies started to adopt the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Companies using TQM question whether it is viable together with the BSC. In order to contribute to a solution to this question, this article discusses the possibility of aligning these two tools. Therefore, a case study was carried out at the Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza, a company that implanted TQM in 1997 and started to adopt the BSC in 2000. The

  19. Microbial metabolomics with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.M.; Muilwijk, B.; Werf, M.J. van der; Hankemeier, T.

    2006-01-01

    An analytical method was set up suitable for the analysis of microbial metabolomes, consisting of an oximation and silylation derivatization reaction and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Microbial matrixes contain many compounds that potentially interfere with

  20. Applications of thermal lens spectrometry in food industry and agriculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, M.; Bicanic, D.; Gibkes, J.; Bremer, M.; Akkermans, E.

    1996-01-01

    Applications of CO laser dual beam thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) for detection and characterization of fatty acids, aldehydes, pesticides, and herbicides in liquid samples are described. Also reported is the first TLS measurement of thermal conductivity for oleic acid.

  1. Gamma ray spectrometry: applications in uranium prospecting and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    The experience in the use of gamma spectrometry for uranium prospecting and for the determination of natural radiation background is described. The basic principles of the techniques are also given. (author)

  2. Some deficiencies and solutions in gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.

    1998-01-01

    A number of problems in high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry as well as some deficiencies of existing computer programs for the quantitative evaluation of spectra are discussed and some practical solutions are proposed. (author)

  3. Sampling and analyte enrichment strategies for ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Ma, Wen; Li, Hongmei; Ai, Wanpeng; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-01-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry provides great convenience for fast screening, and has showed promising potential in analytical chemistry. However, its relatively low sensitivity seriously restricts its practical utility in trace compound analysis. In this review, we summarize the sampling and analyte enrichment strategies coupled with nine modes of representative ambient mass spectrometry (desorption electrospray ionization, paper vhspray ionization, wooden-tip spray ionization, probe electrospray ionization, coated blade spray ionization, direct analysis in real time, desorption corona beam ionization, dielectric barrier discharge ionization, and atmospheric-pressure solids analysis probe) that have dramatically increased the detection sensitivity. We believe that these advances will promote routine use of ambient mass spectrometry. Graphical abstract Scheme of sampling stretagies for ambient mass spectrometry.

  4. Analytical strategies in mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenqvist, Heidi; Ye, Juanying; Jensen, Ole N

    2011-01-01

    then discuss various tandem mass spectrometry approaches for phosphopeptide sequencing and quantification, and we consider aspects of phosphoproteome data analysis and interpretation. Efficient integration of these stages of phosphoproteome analysis is highly important to ensure a successful outcome of large...

  5. Biomarker discovery in high grade sarcomas by mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates a detailed biomarker discovery Mass Spectrometry Imaging workflow for histologically heterogeneous high grade sarcomas. Panels of protein and metabolite signatures were discovered either distinguishing different histological subtypes or stratifying high risk patients with poor survival.

  6. A theory of stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, J.F.; McPherson, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to perform quantitative analysis using stable isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, an equation is derived which describes the relationship between the relative proportions of natural and labelled material and measured isotope ratios

  7. Chemical ionisation mass spectrometry: a survey of instrument technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, R.E.; Todd, J.F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the innovations and improvements which have been made in both instrumentation and methodology in chemical ionization mass spectrometry in the past ten years. (Auth.)

  8. 13th International Mass Spectrometry Conference. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection contains abstracts of several hundred papers presented at the international conference on new research and development results and applications of mass spectrometry. Abstracts falling into the INIS scope were indexed separately in the INIS database. (Roboz, P.)

  9. OBT measurement of vegetation by mass spectrometry and radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, T.; Kakiuchi, H.; Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Baglan, N.; Uda, T.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out OBT (organically bound tritium) measurement by two different methods those are radiometry and mass spectrometry and compared the applicability of these methods for environmental tritium analysis. The dried grass sample was used for the experiments. To eliminate the exchangeable OBT, the sample was washed with tritium free water before analysis. Three times washing reduced the tritium activity in the labile sites below the detectable level. In radiometry the sample was combusted to convert the OBT as well as other hydrogen isotopes to. water and tritium activity in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). In mass spectrometry, the sample was kept in a glass container and 3 He produced by tritium decay was measured by mass spectrometry. The results were in good agreement suggesting applicability of these methods for environmental tritium analysis. The mass spectrometry is more suitable for environmental tritium research because of a lower detection limit than that of the LSC. (authors)

  10. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Zhu, Y.F.; Chung, C.N.; Allman, S.L.

    1997-03-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, the authors recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Snager`s enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. The preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possibly be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, the authors applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  11. Recent applications of mass spectrometry in forensic toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Rodger L.

    1992-09-01

    This review encompasses applications of mass spectrometry reported during the years 1989, 1990 and 1991 for the analysis of cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and their metabolites in physiological specimens.

  12. Dehydrodimerization of pterostilbene during electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Raji, Misjudeen; Amad, Maan H.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Pterostilbene is a member of the hydroxystilbene family of compounds commonly found in plants such as blueberry and grapes. During the analysis of this compound by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), an ion was observed

  13. 13th International Mass Spectrometry Conference. Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The collection contains abstracts of several hundred papers presented at the international conference on new research and development results and applications of mass spectrometry. Abstracts falling into the INIS scope were indexed separately in the INIS database. (Roboz, P.).

  14. RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory contains measured data used to identify and measure specific radioactive materials in the atmosphere at...

  15. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of Quassia undulata Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    The use of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) as a sensitive and specific technique ... cold flow properties and stability of the fuel to oxidation, peroxidation and polymerization .... determinants of both the physical and chemical ...

  16. Plutonium determination in urine by techniques of mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.; Yllera de Ll, A.

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an analytic method for quantification and plutonium reappraisal in plane tables of alpha spectrometry be means of the mass spectrometry technique of high resolution with plasma source inductively coupled and desolvator Aridus (Aridus-Hr-Icp-Ms) and mass spectrometry with accelerator (AMS). The obtained results were, the recovery percentage of Pu in the plane table was of ∼ 90% and activity minimum detectable obtained with Aridus-Hr-Icp-Ms and AMS was of ∼ 3 and ∼ 0.4 f g of 239 Pu, respectively. Conclusion, the results demonstrate the aptitude of the Aridus-Hr-Icp-Ms and AMS techniques in the Pu reappraisal in plane tables with bigger speed and precision, improving the values notably of the activity minimum detectable that can be obtained with the alpha spectrometry (∼ 50 f g of 239 Pu). (author)

  17. The allure of mass spectrometry: From an earlyday chemist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tőkés, László

    2017-07-01

    This reminiscing review article is an account of the author's fascination and involvements with mass spectrometry from the perspective of an organic chemist with an interest in natural product chemistry. It covers a period from 1961 through the mid 1990s as mass spectrometry evolved form a novelty technique to become a most widely used analytical technique. Following a brief synopsis of my pathway to mass spectrometry, my research efforts in this field are presented with a focus mainly on evolving principles and technologies which I had personal involvements with. To provide historical perspectives, discussions of these developments are accompanied by brief outlines of the relevant state-of-the-art, shedding light on the technical and conceptual challenges encountered during those early days in mass spectrometry. Examples are presented of my involvements with basic and applied research in mass spectrometry during graduate studies at Stanford University and close to three decade tenure in pharmaceutical research at Syntex Research. My basic research interests focused mainly on principles of electron ionization induced fragmentation mechanisms, with an emphasis on steroids and other model compounds. Extensive deuterium labeling evidence was used to determine the fragmentation mechanisms of the diagnostically significant ions in the spectra of numerous model compounds, uncovering examples of wide-ranging hydrogen transfers, skeletal rearrangements, methyl and phenyl migrations, stereoselective fragmentations and low and high energy fragmentation processes. Depiction of the industrial research phase of my career includes comments on the pivotal role mass spectrometry played on advancing modern pharmaceutical research. Examples are presented of involvements with instrumental developments and a few select cases of applied research, including studies of bile mechanisms in vertebrates, identification of bisphenol-A leaching from sterilized polycarbonate containers, high

  18. EM TORNO DA GUERRA E DO PACIFISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Bernardo Fuks

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta algumas das principais reflexões de Freud sobre os temas da guerra e do pacifismo.  Partindo do texto “Da guerra e morte. Temas da atualidade”, escrito  durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial,  a autora mostra de que modo  Freud estabeleceu a incursão da psicanálise no campo da política e de que modo esta conexão exige do analista  manter sua escuta voltada  para a singularidade contemporânea.  Conclui que  em relação a dimensão catastrófica do psiquismo, que podemos observar hoje, por exemplo, na passagem ao ato violento; na delinqüência; na toxicomania; no totalitarismo que se coloca acima da lei e no fundamentalismo como  instrumento da lei divina etc,  importa salientar que a existência desses  novos modos de expressão dos sintomas, põe à prova o devir da psicanálise.  Lança, por fim, a aposta: o futuro da psicanálise depende da responsabilidade do analista em manter seu trabalho voltado à dinâmica psíquica do sujeito, individual ou coletivo, sem abrir mão do rigor dos conceitos freudianos.

  19. Interpretation of Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MSMS) Spectra for Peptide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a short introduction to peptide analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) and interpretation of fragment mass spectra. Through examples and guidelines we demonstrate how to understand and validate search results and how to perform de novo sequencing based on the often...... very complex fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry (also referred to as MSMS). The focus is on simple rules for interpretation of MSMS spectra of tryptic as well as non-tryptic peptides....

  20. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

    2014-12-02

    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.