WorldWideScience

Sample records for spectrometer precision chambers

  1. Streamlined Calibration of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Precision Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, DS; The ATLAS collaboration; Dai, T; Diehl, EB; Ferretti, C; Hindes, JM; Zhou, B

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is comprised of nearly 1200 optically Monitored Drifttube Chambers (MDTs) containing 354,000 aluminum drift tubes. The chambers are configured in barrel and endcap regions. The momentum resolution required for the LHC physics reach (dp/p = 3% and 10% at 100 GeV and 1 TeV) demands rigorous MDT drift tube calibration with frequent updates. These calibrations (RT functions) convert the measured drift times to drift radii and are a critical component to the spectrometer performance. They are sensitive to the MDT gas composition: Ar 93%, CO2 7% at 3 bar, flowing through the detector at arate of 100,000 l hr−1. We report on the generation and application of Universal RT calibrations derived from an inline gas system monitor chamber. Results from ATLAS cosmic ray commissioning data are included. These Universal RTs are intended for muon track reconstuction in LHC startup phase.

  2. Drift chambers for a large-area, high-precision muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, C.; Bari, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Del Papa, C.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Perotto, E.; Prisco, G.; Willutsky, M.; Basile, M.; Contin, A.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.

    1987-01-01

    We have tested two prototypes of high-precision drift chamber for a magnetic muon spectrometer. Results of the tests are presented, with special emphasis on their efficiency and spatial resolution as a function of particle rate. (orig.)

  3. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroha, H., E-mail: kroha@mpp.mpg.de; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-11

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  4. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroha, H.; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  5. Construction and Test of New Precision Drift-Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00218480

    2017-02-11

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 ?micons have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new R...

  6. Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for precise measurement of muon trajectories in the ATLAS muon spectrometer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The basic detection component of the chamber is the cylindrical, aluminium, gas-filled MDT with its central tungsten rhenium wire. Each chamber is an assembly of two parallel multilayers of MDTs separated by a spacer frame. The chambers are pictured here in building 887 on the Prévessin site where they are being tested.

  7. Construction and test of high precision drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Kroha, Hubert; Schwegler, Philipp; Sforza, Federico

    2014-01-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in March 2014 new muon tracking chambers (sMDT) with drift-tubes of 15 mm diameter, half of the value of the standard ATLAS Monitored Drift-Tubes (MDT) chambers, and 10~$\\mu$m positioning accuracy of the sense wires have been constructed. The new chambers are designed to be fully compatible with the present ATLAS services but, with respect to the previously installed ATLAS MDT chambers, they are assembled in a more compact geometry and they deploy two additional tube layers that provide redundant rack information. The chambers are composed of 8 layers of in total 624 aluminium drift-tubes. The assembly of a chamber is completed within a week. A semi-automatized production line is used for the assembly of the drift-tubes prior to the chamber assembly. The production procedures and the quality control tests of the single components and of the complete chambers will be discussed. The wire position in the completed chambers have been measured by using a coordinate me...

  8. Construction and Test of New Precision Drift-Tube Chambers for Upgrades of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer in 2016/17

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00218480; Kortner, O.; Müller, F.; Nowak, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.

    2016-01-01

    Small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for the ATLAS muon detector upgrade. They possess an improved rate capability and a more compact design with respect to the existing chambers, which allows to equip detector regions uninstrument at present. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, while the sense wire positioning accuracy is improved to below ten microns. The chambers will be ready for installation in the winter shutdown 2016/17 of the Large Hadron Collider. The design and construction of the new sMDT chambers for ATLAS will be discussed as well as measurements of their precision and performance.

  9. Large-Scale Production of Monitored Drift Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F.; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck, S; Richter, R; Zhuravlov, V

    2016-01-01

    Precision drift tube chambers with a sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 20 microns are under construction for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 70% of the 88 large chambers for the outermost layer of the central part of the spectrometer have been assembled. Measurements during chamber construction of the positions of the sense wires and of the sensors for the optical alignment monitoring system demonstrate that the requirements for the mechanical precision of the chambers are fulfilled.

  10. Construction of monitored drift tube chambers for ATLAS end-cap muon spectrometer at IHEP (Protvino)

    CERN Document Server

    Bensinger, J; Borisov, A; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Goryatchev, S; Goryachev, V N; Gushchin, V; Hashemi, K S; Kojine, A; Kononov, A I; Larionov, A; Paramoshkina, E; Pilaev, A; Skvorodnev, N; Tchougouev, A; Wellenstein, H

    2002-01-01

    Trapezoidal-shaped Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers will be used in end-caps of ATLAS muon spectrometer. Design and construction technology of such chambers in IHEP (Protvino) is presented. X-ray tomography results confirm desirable 20 mum precision of wire location in the chamber.

  11. Precision proton spectrometers for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We plan to add high precision tracking- and timing-detectors at z = +/- 240 m to CMS to study exclusive processes p + p -- p + X + p at high luminosity. This enables the LHC to be used as a tagged photon-photon collider, with X = l+l- and W+W-, and as a "tagged" gluon-gluon collider (with a spectator gluon) for QCD studies with jets. A second stage at z = 240 m would allow observations of exclusive Higgs boson production.

  12. Wet drift chambers for precise luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.E.; Kennedy, B.W.; Ahmet, K.; Attree, D.J.; Barraclough, G.A.; Cresswell, M.J.; Hayes, D.A.; Miller, D.J.; Selby, C.; Sherwood, P.

    1994-01-01

    A set of high-precision compact drift chambers has been a vital component of the OPAL luminosity monitor since the start of data-taking at LEP. They were augmented in 1992 by the addition of Small Angle Reference Chambers with a very similar design to the original chamber. The performance of the chambers is reviewed, highlighting both the importance of using polyalkylene glycol (Breox) to maintain a uniform and parallel electric field and the construction techniques used to sustain the required field strength. We describe some of the operating problems, with their solutions, and show how the chambers have been used in achieving a systematic error of 0.41% on the luminosity measurement. ((orig.))

  13. Brookhaven National Laboratory's multiparticle spectrometer drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kramer, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A system of drift chambers is being built to replace the present spark chambers in the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Multiparticle Spectrometer. This system will handle a beam of approx. 3 million particles per second and have a resolution of 200 μm. A summary of the status of the chambers and the custom integrated circuits is presented. The data acquisition system is described. Prototype chambers have been built and tested with results that are consistent with the expected chamber properties

  14. Construction and test of a full-scale prototype of an ATLAS muon spectrometer tracking chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscossa, A.; Cambiaghi, M.; Conta, C.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Freddi, A.; Iuvino, G.; Lanza, A.; Livan, M.; Negri, A.; Polesello, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Vercellati, F.; Vercesi, V.; Bagnaia, P.; Bini, C.; Capradossi, G.; Ciapetti, G.; Creti, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Iannone, M.; Lacava, F.; Mattei, A.; Nisati, L.; Oberson, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Rosati, S.; Veneziano, S.; Zullo, A.; Daly, C.H.; Davisson, R.; Guldenmann, H.; Lubatti, H.J.; Zhao, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have built a full scale prototype of the precision tracking chambers (Monitored Drift Tubes, MDT) for the muon spectrometer of the Atlas Experiment at the LHC collider. This article describes in detail the procedures used in constructing the drift tubes and in assembling the chamber. It presents data showing that the required mechanical precision has been achieved as well as test beam results displaying the over all chamber performance. The article presents data demonstrating the derivation of the space-time relation of the drift tubes by the autocalibration procedure using real data from the tracks crossing the chamber. Autocalibration is the procedure which must be used during run time

  15. Construction and test of sMDT chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasugi, Eric; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the ATLAS muon spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs) are used for precise tracking measurements. In order to increase the geometric acceptance and rate capability, new chambers have been designed and are under construction to be installed in ATLAS during the winter shutdown of 2016/17 of the LHC. The new chambers have a drift tube diameter of 15 mm (compared to 30 mm of the other MDTs) and are therefore called sMDT chambers. This presentation reports on the progress of chamber construction and on the results of quality assurance tests.

  16. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  17. Upgrades Of The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer With sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Claudio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer demonstrated that they provide very precise and robust tracking over large areas. Goals of ATLAS muon detector upgrades are to increase the acceptance for precision muon momentum measurement and triggering and to improve the rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions when the LHC luminosity increases. Small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages with the MDTs, but have more than ten times higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, reducing cost and construction time considerably and improving the sense wire positioning accuracy to better than ten microns. Two sMDT chambers have been installed in 2014 to improve the mom...

  18. A solenoidal electron spectrometer for a precision measurement of the neutron β-asymmetry with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaster, B.; Carr, R.; Filippone, B.W.; Harrison, D.; Hsiao, J.; Ito, T.M.; Liu, J.; Martin, J.W.; Tipton, B.; Yuan, J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an electron spectrometer designed for a precision measurement of the neutron β-asymmetry with spin-polarized ultracold neutrons. The spectrometer consists of a 1.0-T solenoidal field with two identical multiwire proportional chamber and plastic scintillator electron detector packages situated within 0.6-T field-expansion regions. Select results from performance studies of the spectrometer with calibration sources are reported

  19. A solenoidal electron spectrometer for a precision measurement of the neutron {beta}-asymmetry with ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, B. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)], E-mail: plaster@pa.uky.edu; Carr, R.; Filippone, B.W. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Harrison, D. [Physics Department, University of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3B 2E9 (Canada); Hsiao, J. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ito, T.M. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Liu, J. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martin, J.W. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Physics Department, University of Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Tipton, B.; Yuan, J. [W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-10-11

    We describe an electron spectrometer designed for a precision measurement of the neutron {beta}-asymmetry with spin-polarized ultracold neutrons. The spectrometer consists of a 1.0-T solenoidal field with two identical multiwire proportional chamber and plastic scintillator electron detector packages situated within 0.6-T field-expansion regions. Select results from performance studies of the spectrometer with calibration sources are reported.

  20. Short description of BMS/BMF MDT chamber production for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Gongadze, I.B.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gus'kov, A.V.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Evtukhovich, P.G.; Elagin, A.L.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Kotova, T.I.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Krumshtejn, Z.V.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Lomidze, D.D.; Nikolaev, K.V.; Potrap, I.N.; Rudenko, T.O.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Shiyakova, M.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Podkladkin, S.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The method of assembly of the MDT chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is described. During 2000-2004 ∼ 25000 drift tubes were produced at the DLNP, JINR. The tubes were assembled into 84 muon chambers of BMS/BMF type, one of the six main types for the barrel part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. Particle momenta must be measured in the ATLAS spectrometer with very high precision (2% at 100 GeV/c and 10% at 1000 GeV/c), which required to produce the coordinate detectors with very high (∼80 μm) precision. We describe the method of assembly of large-scale 5-10 m 2 muon chambers with the signal wire mean deviation from the nominal position less than 20 μm

  1. On-chamber readout system for the ATLAS MDT Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J; Ball, R; Brandenburg, G; Hazen, E; Oliver, J; Posch, C

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS MDT Muon Spectrometer is a system of approximately 380,000 pressurized cylindrical drift tubes of 3 cm diameter and up to 6 meters in length. These Monitored Drift Tubes (MDTs) are precision- glued to form super-layers, which in turn are assembled into precision chambers of up to 432 tubes each. Each chamber is equipped with a set of mezzanine cards containing analog and digital readout circuitry sufficient to read out 24 MDTs per card. Up to 18 of these cards are connected to an on-chamber DAQ element referred to as a Chamber Service Module, or CSM. The CSM multiplexes data from the mezzanine cards and outputs this data on an optical fiber which is received by the off-chamber DAQ system. Thus, the chamber forms a highly self-contained unit with DC power in and a single optical fiber out. The Monitored Drift Tubes, due to their length, require a terminating resistor at their far end to prevent reflections. The readout system has been designed so that thermal noise from this resistor remains the domi...

  2. Precision templates for gluing wire holding pieces to chamber frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C; Cerrada, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns. In sizes of the order of 3 meters. has been achieved. (Author) 2 refs

  3. Precision templates for glueing wire holding pieces to chamber frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C.; Cerrada, M.

    1995-09-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns, in sizes of the order of 3 meters has been achieved

  4. Precision Muon Tracking at Future Hadron Colliders with sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Kortner, Oliver; Müller, Felix; Nowak, Sebastian; Richter, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN in view of expected rates at future high-energy hadron colliders. Results show that it fulfills the requirements over most of the acceptance of muon detectors. The optimization of the read-out electronics to further increase the rate capability of the detectors is discussed. Chambers of this type are under construction for upgrades of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at high LHC luminosities. Design and construction procedures have been optimized for mass production while providing a precision of better than 10 micrometers in the sense wire positions and the mechanical stability required to cover large areas.

  5. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  6. The Nab Spectrometer, Precision Field Mapping, and Associated Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jason; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Nab experiment will make precision measurements of a, the e- ν correlation parameter, and b, the Fierz interference term, in neutron beta decay, aiming to deliver an independent determination of the ratio λ =GA /GV to sensitively test CKM unitarity. Nab utilizes a novel, long asymmetric spectrometer to measure the proton TOF and electron energy. We extract a from the slope of the measured TOF distribution for different electron energies. A reliable relation of the measured proton TOF to a requires detailed knowledge of the effective proton pathlength, which in turn imposes further requirements on the precision of the magnetic fields in the Nab spectrometer. The Nab spectrometer, magnetometry, and associated systematics will be discussed.

  7. Feasibility of the Precise Energy Calibration for Fast Neutron Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaganov, V. V.; Usenko, P. L.; Kryzhanovskaja, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Computational studies aimed at improving the accuracy of measurements performed using neutron generators with a tritium target were performed. A measurement design yielding an extremely narrow peak in the energy spectrum of DT neutrons was found. The presence of such a peak establishes the conditions for precise energy calibration of fast-neutron spectrometers.

  8. Study of the performance of the Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237763; The ATLAS Muon collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Micromegas (MICRO MEsh GAseous Structure) chambers are Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors designed to provide a high spatial resolution in highly irradiated environments. In 2007 an ambitious long-term R&D activity was started in the context of the ATLAS experiment, at CERN: the Muon ATLAS Micromegas Activity (MAMMA). After years of tests on prototypes and technology breakthroughs, Micromegas chambers were chosen as tracking detectors for an upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. These novel detectors will be installed in 2018 and 2019 during the second long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider, and will serve as precision detectors in the innermost part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. Eight layers of Micromegas modules of unprecedented size, up to 3 $\\rm{{m^2}}$, will cover a surface of 150 $\\rm{{m^2}}$ for a total active area of about 1200 $\\rm{{m^2}}$. This upgrade will be crucial to ensure high quality performance for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer in view of the third run of the Large Hadron Collider and...

  9. Optimization and Calibration of the Drift-Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067746

    2000-01-01

    The final phase of preparations for the ATLAS experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has begun. In the last decade the collaboration has carried out various test-beam experiments to study and optimize prototypes of all subdetectors under more and more realistic conditions. To enhance the detector-physical understanding, these hardware activities were complemented by detailed simulations. In parallel the development of reconstruction software has made important progress. The present work focusses on some advanced aspects of optimizing the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT) for operation as precision chambers in the Muon Spectrometer. It will be shown how this system has been tuned for maximum performance in order to meet the ambitious goals defined by the objectives of LHC particle physics. After defining the basic detector parameters, the tubes' capability of running in ATLAS's high-rate gamma radiation background was verified. Both tasks necessitated several years of gathering experience in mu...

  10. High precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm straws were made of aluminized mylar strip with transparent longitudinal window. The X coordinate information has been taken from the cathode strips as induced charges and investigated via centroid method. The spatial resolution σ=120 μm has been obtained with signal/noise ratio about 60. The possible ways for improving the signal/noise ratio have been described. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  11. A high precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.; Zubarev, E.V.; Ivanov, A.B.; Lysiakov, V.N.; Makhankov, A.V.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm diameter straws were made of aluminized Mylar with transparent longitudinal window. The X-coordinate information has been taken from cathode strips as induced charges and investigated with the centroid method. The spatial resolution σ x =103 μm was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 70. The possible ways to improve the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Creation of the precision magnetic spectrometer SCAN-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasiev S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new JINR project [1] is aimed at studies of highly excited nuclear matter created in nuclei by a high-energy deuteron beam. The matter is studied through observation of its particular decay products - pairs of energetic particles with a wide opening angle, close to 180°. The new precision hybrid magnetic spectrometer SCAN-3 is to be built for detecting charged (π±, K±, p and neutral (n particles produced at the JINR Nuclotron internal target in dA collisions. One of the main and complex tasks is a study of low-energy ηA interaction and a search for η-bound states (η-mesic nuclei. Basic elements of the spectrometer and its characteristics are discussed in the article.

  13. Creation of the precision magnetic spectrometer SCAN-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, S. V.; Anisimov, Yu. S.; Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Dryablov, D. K.; Dubinchik, B. V.; Elishev, A. F.; Fateev, O. V.; Igamkulov, Z. A.; Krechetov, Yu. F.; Kudashkin, I. V.; Kuznechov, S. N.; Malakhov, A. I.; Smirnov, V. A.; Shimansky, S. S.; Kliman, J.; Matousek, V.; Gmutsa, S.; Turzo, I.; Cruceru, I.; Cruceru, M.; Constantin, F.; Niolescu, G.; Ciolacu, L.; Paraipan, M.; Vokál, S.; Vrláková, J.; Baskov, V. A.; Lebedev, A. I.; L'vov, A. I.; Pavlyuchenko, L. N.; Polyansky, V. V.; Rzhanov, E. V.; Sidorin, S. S.; Sokol, G. A.; Glavanakov, I. V.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Jomurodov, D. M.; Bekmirzaev, R. N.; Ibadov, R. M.; Sultanov, M. U.

    2017-03-01

    The new JINR project [1] is aimed at studies of highly excited nuclear matter created in nuclei by a high-energy deuteron beam. The matter is studied through observation of its particular decay products - pairs of energetic particles with a wide opening angle, close to 180°. The new precision hybrid magnetic spectrometer SCAN-3 is to be built for detecting charged (π±, K±, p) and neutral (n) particles produced at the JINR Nuclotron internal target in dA collisions. One of the main and complex tasks is a study of low-energy ηA interaction and a search for η-bound states (η-mesic nuclei). Basic elements of the spectrometer and its characteristics are discussed in the article.

  14. A Low-cost Environmental Control System for Precise Radial Velocity Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliski, David H.; Blake, Cullen H.; Halverson, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    We present an environmental control system (ECS) designed to achieve milliKelvin (mK) level temperature stability for small-scale astronomical instruments. This ECS is inexpensive and is primarily built from commercially available components. The primary application for our ECS is the high-precision Doppler spectrometer MINERVA-Red, where the thermal variations of the optical components within the instrument represent a major source of systematic error. We demonstrate ±2 mK temperature stability within a 0.5 m3 thermal enclosure using resistive heaters in conjunction with a commercially available PID controller and off-the-shelf thermal sensors. The enclosure is maintained above ambient temperature, enabling rapid cooling through heat dissipation into the surrounding environment. We demonstrate peak-to-valley (PV) temperature stability of better than 5 mK within the MINERVA-Red vacuum chamber, which is located inside the thermal enclosure, despite large temperature swings in the ambient laboratory environment. During periods of stable laboratory conditions, the PV variations within the vacuum chamber are less than 3 mK. This temperature stability is comparable to the best stability demonstrated for Doppler spectrometers currently achieving m s-1 radial velocity precision. We discuss the challenges of using commercially available thermoelectrically cooled CCD cameras in a temperature-stabilized environment, and demonstrate that the effects of variable heat output from the CCD camera body can be mitigated using PID-controlled chilled water systems. The ECS presented here could potentially provide the stable operating environment required for future compact “astrophotonic” precise radial velocity (PRV) spectrometers to achieve high Doppler measurement precision with a modest budget.

  15. A high-precision X-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS Muon Monitored Drift Tube Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, S; Banhidi, Z; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lampl, W; Marchesotti, M; Rangod, Stephane; Sbrissa, E; Smirnov, Y; Voss, Rüdiger; Woudstra, M; Zhuravlov, V

    2004-01-01

    A dedicated X-ray tomograph has been developed at CERN to control the required wire placement accuracy of better than 20mum of the 1200 Monitored Drift Tube Chambers which make up most of the precision chamber part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The tomograph allows the chamber wire positions to be measured with a 2mum statistical and 2mum systematic uncertainty over the full chamber cross-section of 2.2 multiplied by 0.6m**2. Consistent chamber production quality over the 4-year construction phase is ensured with a similar to 15% sampling rate. Measurements of about 70 of the 650 MDT chambers so far produced have been essential in assessing the validity and consistency of the various construction procedures.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS Precision Muon Chambers under LHC Operating Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, M.; Dubbert, J; Horvat, S; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, Robert; Staude, A

    2004-01-01

    For the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider (LHC), large drift chambers consisting of 6 to 8 layers of pressurized drift tubes are used for precision tracking covering an active area of 5000 m2 in the toroidal ?eld of superconducting air core magnets. The chambers have to provide a spatial resolution of 41 microns with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas mixture at an absolute pressure of 3 bar and gas gain of 2?104. The environment in which the chambers will be operated is characterized by high neutron and background with counting rates of up to 100 per square cm and second. The resolution and efficiency of a chamber from the serial production for ATLAS has been investigated in a 100 GeV muon beam at photon irradiation rates as expected during LHC operation. A silicon strip detector telescope was used as external reference in the beam. The spatial resolution of a chamber is degraded by 4 ?m at the highest background rate. The detection e?ciency of the drift tubes is unchanged under irradiation...

  17. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380308; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface area of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions (pseudo-rapidity coverage -- 1.3 $\\boldsymbol{< |\\eta| <}$ 2.7) of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels (NSW), which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic position resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be $\\boldsymbol{30{\\mu}m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\boldsymbol{80{\\mu}m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of $\\bold...

  18. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2×0.5 m2 have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents ...

  19. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 ◦ and provide a measurement of the...

  20. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lösel, Philipp; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about $\\mathbf{150~m^2}$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each layer covers more than $\\mathbf{2~m^2}$ for a total active area of $\\mathbf{1200~m^2}$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15$\\mathbf{\\%}$ transverse momentum resolution for $\\mathbf{1~TeV}$ muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as $\\mathbf{30~\\mu m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\mathbf{80~\\mu m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly ...

  1. The Read-Out Driver for the ATLAS MDT Muon Precision Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Boterenbrood, H; Kieft, G; König, A; Vermeulen, J C; Wijnen, T A M; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2006-01-01

    Some 200 MDT Read Out Drivers (MRODs) will be built to read out the 1200 MDT precision chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The MRODs receive event data via optical links (one per chamber, up to 8 per MROD), build event fragments at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, output these to the ATLAS data-acquisition system and take care of monitoring and error checking, handling and flagging. The design of the MROD-1 prototype (a 9U VME64 module in which this functionality is implemented using FPGAs and ADSP-21160 Digital Signal Processors programmed in C++) is described, followed by a presentation of results of performance measurements. Then the implications for the production version (called MROD-X) and the experience with pre-production modules of the MROD-X are discussed.

  2. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, James P., E-mail: james.tonks@awe.co.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Galloway, Ewan C., E-mail: ewan.galloway@awe.co.uk; King, Martin O. [AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Kerherve, Gwilherm [VACGEN Ltd, St. Leonards-On-Sea, East Sussex TN38 9NN (United Kingdom); Watts, John F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  3. Performance of drift chambers in a magnetic rigidity spectrometer for measuring the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, M.; Bremerich, M.; Menn, W.; Pfeifer, C.; Reimer, O.; Simon, M.; Mitchell, J.W.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.; Ormes, J.F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Golden, R.L.; Stochaj, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    A drift chamber tracking system was developed and flown as part of the IMAX balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer. The drift chamber uses a hexagonal drift-cell structure and is filled with pure CO 2 gas. It operated with high efficiency in the strong and inhomogenous field of a superconducting magnet, demonstrating a spatial resolution of better than 100 μm over most of the drift path for singly charged particles, as well as for helium and lithium nuclei. The drift chamber portion of the spectrometer achieved a maximum detectable rigidity of 175 and 250 GV/c for protons and helium respectively. ((orig.))

  4. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed fo r the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resol ution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical prec ision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 $\\mu$m along the precision coordi nate and 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the microm egas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis wi...

  5. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m{sup 2} of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m{sup 2} for a total active area of 1200 m{sup 2}. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS end-cap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2 x 0.5 m{sup 2} have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents the first example of a Micromegas quadruplet ever built, realized using the resistive-strip technology and decoupling the amplification mesh from the readout structure. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 deg. and provide a measurement of the second coordinate. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis will be given on the methods developed to achieve the challenging mechanical precision. Measurements of deformation on chamber prototypes as a function of thermal gradients, gas over-pressure and internal stress (mesh tension and module fixation on supports) will be also shown in comparison to simulation. These tests were essential in the development of the final design in order to minimize the

  6. Upgrades of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Claudio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    With half the drift-tube diameter of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers provide an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit. The chamber assembly time has been reduced by a factor of seven to one working day and the sense wire positioning accuracy improved by a factor of two to better than ten microns. Two sMDT chambers have been installed in ATLAS in 2014 to improve the momentum resolution in the barrel part of the spectrometer. The construction of additional twelve chambers covering the feet regions of the ATLAS detector has started. It will be followed by the replacement of the MDT chambers at the ends of the barrel inner layer by sMDTs improving the Performance at the high expected background rates and providing space for additional RPC trigger chambers.

  7. Upgrades of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with sMDT Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, C

    2016-01-01

    With half the drift-tube diameter of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers provide an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit. The chamber assembly time has been reduced by a factor of seven to one working day and the sense wire positioning accuracy improved by a factor of two to better than ten microns. Two sMDT chambers have been installed in ATLAS in 2014 to improve the momentum resolution in the barrel part of the spectrometer. The construction of an additional twelve chambers covering the feet regions of the ATLAS detector has started. It will be followed by the replacement of the MDT chambers at the ends of the barrel inner layer by sMDTs improving the Performance at the high expected background rates and providing space for additional RPC trigger chambers.

  8. Online precision gas evaluation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer during LHC RUN1

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, a six story structure embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, is constructed of nearly 1200 Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs) containing 354,000 aluminum drift tubes. The operating gas is 93% Ar + 7% CO2 with a small amount of water vapor at a pressure of 3 bar. The momentum resolution required for the LHC physics (dp/p = 2% at 100 GeV) demands that MDT gas gas quality and the associated gas dependent calibrations be determined with a rapid feedback cycle. During the LHC Run 1 more than 2 billion liters of gas flowed through the detector at a rate 100,000 l/hr. Online evauation of MDT gas in real time and the associated contribution to the determination of the time-to-space functions was conducted by the dedicated Gas Monitor Chamber. We report on the operation and results of the GMC over the first three years of LHC running. During this period, the GMC has operated with a nearly 100% duty cycle, providing hourly measurements of the MDT drift times with 1 ns precision, correspon...

  9. Online precision gas evaluation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer during LHC Run1

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092735; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, a six story structure embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, is constructed of nearly 1200 Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs) containing 354,000 aluminum drift tubes. The operating gas is 93% Ar + 7% CO${_2}$ with a small amount of water vapor at a pressure of 3 bar. The momentum resolution required for ATLAS physics demands that MDT gas quality and the associated gas dependent calibrations be determined with a rapid feedback cycle. During the LHC Run1, more than 2 billion liters of gas flowed through the detector at a rate 100,000 l/hr. Online evaluation of MDT gas in real time and the associated contribution to the determination of the time-to-space functions was conducted by the dedicated Gas Monitor Chamber (GMC). We report on the operation and results of the GMC over the first three years of LHC running. During this period, the GMC has operated with a nearly 100% duty cycle, providing hourly measurements of the MDT drift times with 1 ns precision, corresponding to minute ch...

  10. Precision templates for gluing wire holding pieces to chamber frames; Plantillas de precision para la construccion de detectores de muones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C; Cerrada, M.

    1995-07-01

    In the present report we describe the procedure which has been used in order to optimize the precision obtained when positioning forward backward muon chamber sensor wire planes of the L3 experiment at CERN. With templates produced at CIEMAT a precision of about 10 microns. In sizes of the order of 3 meters. has been achieved. (Author) 2 refs.

  11. High-precision spectrometer for studies of ion-induced and spontaneous fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batenkov, O.; Elmgren, K.; Majorov, M.; Blomgren, J.; Conde, H.; Hultqvist, S.; Olsson, N.; Rahm, J.; Ramstroem, E.; Smirnov, S.; Veshikov, A.

    1997-01-01

    A spectrometer has been designed and built to investigate the dynamics of spontaneous and ion-induced fission processes. It consists of 8 neutron detectors surrounding a low mass scattering chamber containing the fissionable targets and two fission fragment telescopes. The spectrometer measures neutron spectra, and energy and angular correlations of neutrons, as well as kinetic energy, mass, and relative angle of fission fragments. A 252 Cf fission reference source is used for calibration. (orig.)

  12. Outdoor chamber measurements of biological aerosols with a passive FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Francis M.; Emge, Darren K.; Roelant, Geoffrey J.

    2004-02-01

    Outdoor measurements of dry bacillus subtilis (BG) spores were conducted with a passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer using two types of chambers. One was a large open-ended cell, and the other was a canyon of similar dimensions. The canyon exposes the aerosol plume to downwelling sky radiance, while the open-ended cell does not. The goal of the experiments was to develop a suitable test methodology for evaluation of passive standoff detectors for open-air aerosol measurements. Dry BG aerosol particles were dispersed with a blower through an opening in the side of the chamber to create a pseudo-stationary plume, wind conditions permitting. Numerous trials were performed with the FTIR spectrometer positioned to view mountain, sky and mixed mountain-sky backgrounds. This paper will discuss the results of the FTIR measurements for BG and Kaolin dust releases.

  13. Streamlined calibrations of the ATLAS precision muon chambers for initial LHC running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, N. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Ball, R. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Benhammou, Y.; Ben Moshe, M. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Dai, T.; Diehl, E.B. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Dubbert, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Muenchen (Germany); Etzion, E., E-mail: erez@cern.ch [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Ferretti, C.; Gregory, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Haider, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hindes, J.; Levin, D.S.; Manilow, E.; Thun, R.; Wilson, A.; Weaverdyck, C.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Zhou, B. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); and others

    2012-04-11

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is designed to measure the momentum of muons with a resolution of dp/p=3% at 100 GeV and 10% at 1 TeV. For this task, the spectrometer employs 355,000 Monitored Drift Tubes (MDTs) arrayed in 1200 chambers. Calibration (RT) functions convert drift time measurements into tube-centered impact parameters for track segment reconstruction. RT functions depend on MDT environmental parameters and so must be appropriately calibrated for local chamber conditions. We report on the creation and application of a gas monitor system based calibration program for muon track reconstruction in the LHC startup phase.

  14. Streamlined Calibrations of the ATLAS Precision Muon Chambers for Initial LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, N; Benhammou, Y; Moshe, M Ben; Dai, T; Diehl, E B; Dubbert, J; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J; Haider, S; Hindes, J; Levin, D S; Thun, R; Wilson, A; Weaverdyck, C; Wu, Y; Yang, H; Zhou, B; Zimmermann, S

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is designed to measure the momentum of muons with a resolution of dp/p = 3% and 10% at 100 GeV and 1 TeV momentum respectively. For this task, the spectrometer employs 355,000 Monitored Drift Tubes (MDTs) arrayed in 1200 Chambers. Calibration (RT) functions convert drift time measurements into tube-centered impact parameters for track segment reconstruction. RT functions depend on MDT environmental parameters and so must be appropriately calibrated for local chamber conditions. We report on the creation and application of a gas monitor system based calibration program for muon track reconstruction in the LHC startup phase.

  15. Recent developments in high precision vertex chambers at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    Three detectors MARK II, MAC, AND HRS are using or planning small drift chambers placed as close as possible to the interaction print at PEP. There is also a program of development for a gaseous vertex detector for MARK II at SLC. All these programs are reviewed. 13 references

  16. High voltage pulse system for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksinenko, V.D.; Glagoleva, N.S.; Dement'ev, E.A.; Kaminskij, N.I.; Matyushin, A.T.; Matyushin, V.T.; Rozhnyatovskaya, S.A.; Ryakhovskij, V.N.; Nurgozhin, N.N.; Khusainov, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of development and testing of high voltage pulse system HVPS for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer are presented. HVPS consists of the following basic blocks: nanosecond pulse high voltage generator, high voltage charging supply, trigger generator, chamber parameter control devices, gas-oil vacuuming supply systems, auxiliary and fire-prevention devices. The system blocks are described. Experimental results of HVPC testing are presented. HVPC provides a reliable (10 5 operations) of streamer chamber supply with high voltage pulse parameters: amplitude - 500 kV, amplitude instability (0.5-1.5)%, pulse duration - 12 ns, delay time - 500 ns, delay instability (2.5-5)%, mean frequency of output a signals - 0.1 Hz

  17. Comparison of gap frame designs and materials for precision cathode strip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.A.; Pratuch, S.M.; Belser, F.C.

    1993-01-01

    Precision cathode strip chamber perimeter designs that incorporate either continuous or discrete-post gap frames are analyzed. The effects of ten design and material combinations on gravity sag, mass, stress, and deflected shape are evaluated. Procedures are recommended for minimizing mass in the chamber perimeter region while retaining structural integrity and electrical design latitude

  18. Characterizations of Cathode pad chamber as tracking detector for MUON Spectrometer of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sanjoy

    The present thesis gives an overview of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN with particular emphasis on the contribution of the Indian Collaboration to the Muon Spectrometer. The two major activities of the Indian Collaboration namely, the 2$^{nd}$ Tracking Station and MANAS chip, have been covered in detail. A full scale prototype chamber (0$^{th}$ chamber) for the 2$^{nd}$ station was tested at CERN with beams from PS and SPS. Detail analysis of his data was carried out by me to validate the design and fabrication procedure for these large area Cathode Pad Chambers. This analysis also determined the production specifications of the MANAS chip. The thesis present every step which led to timely production of the ten chambers (two spare) of the 2$^{nd}$ station. At every stage strict quality control measures were adopted and various tests were carried out to validate every production step. I have been closely associated with the chamber production and all the validation...

  19. Highly effective portable beta spectrometer for precise depth selective electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldiyarov, N.U.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Seytimbetov, A.M.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: More broad application of the nuclear-physical method of precise Depth Selective Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (DS EMS) is limited by insufficient accessibility of highly-effective beta spectrometers with acceptable resolution. It should be mentioned that the method DS EMS is realized at a combined installation that consists of a highly-effective beta spectrometer and a conventional portable nuclear gamma-resonance spectrometer. Yet few available beta spectrometers have sophisticated design and controlling; in most cases they are cumbersome. All the attempts to simplify beta spectrometers resulted in noticeable worsening of depth resolution for the DS EMS method making the measurements non precise. There is currently an obvious need in a highly-effective portable easily controlled beta spectrometer. While developing such portable beta spectrometer, it is more promising to use as basis a simpler spectrometer, which has ratio of sample size to spectrometer size of about five times. The paper presents an equal-arm version of a highly-effective portable beta spectrometer with transverse heterogeneous sector magnetic field that assures double focusing. The spectrometer is equipped with a large-area non-equipotential source (a sample under investigation) and a position-sensitive detector. This portable spectrometer meets all requirements for achievement of the DS EMS depth resolution close to the physical limit and demonstrates the following main characteristics: equilibrium orbit radius ρ 0 = 80 mm, instrumental energy resolution 0.6 % at solid angle 1 % of 4π steradian, area of non-equipotential source ∼ 80 mm 2 , registration by position-sensitive detector of ∼ 10 % of the energy interval. Highly-effective portable beta spectrometer assures obtaining Moessbauer data with depth resolution close to physical limit of the DS EMS method. So in measurements at conversion and Auger electrons with energies of about units of keV and above, the achieved

  20. α spectrometer of parallel plate grid ionization chamber of high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Boting; Wang Jianqing; Dong Mingli; Tang Peijia; Wang Xiaorong; Lin Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Parallel plate grid ionization chamber with cathode area of 300 cm 2 was developed and applied to detect minimum α-emitters. It consist of a vacuum system, a gas cycle system of the parallel plate grid ionization chamber, electronics (a high voltage supply, a pre-amplifier and a main amplifier) and a computer-multichannel analyzer. The energy resolution is 23 keV FWHM for the 244 Cm electrostatic precipitated source. The integral background is typically 10 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. The detector efficiency is 50%. The minimum detecting activity is 3 x 10 -4 Bq (3σ, 30 hours). This spectrometer is suitable for detecting various samples, such as samples of the soil, water, air, bion, food, structural material, geology, archaeology, α-emitters of after processing and measuring α activity of accounting for and control of nuclear material and monitoring the artificial radioactivity nuclides of environment samples around nuclear facilities. The spectrometer is equipped with apparatus for preparing large area α source by using vacuum deposition or ultrasonic pulverization. The operating program of preparing source is simple. The source thickness can be kept in 40-60 μm/cm 2

  1. Spherical ionization chamber of 14 liter for precise measurement of environmental radiation dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1991-05-01

    A spherical ionization chamber of 14 liter filled with 1 atm. nitrogen gas was arranged aiming at precise measurement of dose rate due to environmental gamma rays and cosmic rays. Ionization current-dose rate conversion factor for this ionization chamber was derived from careful consideration taking into account the attenuation by chamber wall, ionization current due to alpha particles and so on. Experiments at calibrated gamma ray fields and intercomparison with NaI(Tl) scintillation detector were also performed, which confirmed this ionization chamber using the conversion factor can measure the dose rate with an error of only a few percent. This ionization chamber will be used for measurement of environmental gamma ray and cosmic ray dose rate. (author)

  2. A high precision mass spectrometer for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.; Prahallada Rao, B.S.; Handu, V.K.; Satam, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    A high precision mass spectrometer with two ion collector assemblies and direct on line reduction facility (with uranium at 700 0 C) for water samples for hydrogen isotopic analysis has been designed and developed. The ion source particularly gives high sensitivity and at the same tike limits the H 3 + ions to a minimum. A digital ratiometer with a H 2 + compensator has also been developed. The overall precision obtained on the spectrometer is 0.07% 2sub(sigmasub(10)) value. Typical results on the performance of the spectrometer, which is working since a year and a half are given. Possible methods of extending the ranges of concentration the spectrometer can handle, both on lower and higher sides are discussed. Problems of memory between samples are briefly listed. A multiple inlet system to overcome these problems is suggested. This will also enable faster analysis when samples of highly varying concentrations are to be analyzed. A few probable areas in which the spectrometer will be shortly put to use are given. (auth.)

  3. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  4. Performance studies of resistive Micromegas chambers for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntekas, Konstantinos

    2018-02-01

    The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has endorsed the resistive Micromegas technology (MM), along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), for the high luminosity upgrade of the first muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) project. The NSW requires fully efficient MM chambers, up to a particle rate of ˜ 15 kHz/cm2, with spatial resolution better than 100 μm independent of the track incidence angle and the magnetic field (B ≤ 0.3 T). Along with the precise tracking the MM should be able to provide a trigger signal, complementary to the sTGC, thus a decent timing resolution is required. Several tests have been performed on small (10 × 10 cm2) MM chambers using medium (10 GeV/c) and high (150 GeV/c) momentum hadron beams at CERN. Results on the efficiency and position resolution measured during these tests are presented demonstrating the excellent characteristics of the MM that fulfil the NSW requirements. Exploiting the ability of the MM to work as a Time Projection Chamber a novel method, called the μTPC, has been developed for the case of inclined tracks, allowing for a precise segment reconstruction using a single detection plane. A detailed description of the method along with thorough studies towards refining the method's performance are shown. Finally, during 2014 the first MM quadruplet (MMSW) following the NSW design scheme, comprising four detection planes in a stereo readout configuration, has been realised at CERN. Test-beam results of this prototype are discussed and compared to theoretical expectations.

  5. Track chambers based on precision drift tubes housed inside 30 mm mylar pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A; Bozhko, N; Fakhrutdinov, R; Kozhin, A; Leontiev, B; Levin, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe drift chambers consisting of 3 layers of 30 mm (OD) drift tubes made of double sided aluminized mylar film with thickness 0.125 mm. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g tension of 50 microns sense wire located in the tube center with 10 microns precision with respect to end-plug outer surface. Such tubes allow to create drift chambers with small amount of material, construction of such chambers doesn't require hard frames. Twenty six chambers with working area from 0.8 × 1.0 to 2.5 × 2.0 m 2 including 4440 tubes have been manufactured for experiments at 70-GeV proton accelerator at IHEP(Protvino)

  6. Track chambers based on precision drift tubes housed inside 30 mm mylar pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Kozhin, A.; Leontiev, B.; Levin, A.

    2014-06-01

    We describe drift chambers consisting of 3 layers of 30 mm (OD) drift tubes made of double sided aluminized mylar film with thickness 0.125 mm. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g tension of 50 microns sense wire located in the tube center with 10 microns precision with respect to end-plug outer surface. Such tubes allow to create drift chambers with small amount of material, construction of such chambers doesn't require hard frames. Twenty six chambers with working area from 0.8 × 1.0 to 2.5 × 2.0 m2 including 4440 tubes have been manufactured for experiments at 70-GeV proton accelerator at IHEP(Protvino).

  7. Camtracker: a new camera controlled high precision solar tracker system for FTIR-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new system to very precisely couple radiation of a moving source into a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectrometer is presented. The Camtracker consists of a homemade altazimuthal solar tracker, a digital camera and a homemade program to process the camera data and to control the motion of the tracker. The key idea is to evaluate the image of the radiation source on the entrance field stop of the spectrometer. We prove that the system reaches tracking accuracies of about 10 arc s for a ground-based solar absorption FTIR spectrometer, which is significantly better than current solar trackers. Moreover, due to the incorporation of a camera, the new system allows to document residual pointing errors and to point onto the solar disk center even in case of variable intensity distributions across the source due to cirrus or haze.

  8. Compact, rugged in-chamber transmission spectrometers (7-28 keV) for the Sandia Z facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinars, D B; Wenger, D F; Pikuz, S A; Jones, B; Geissel, M; Hansen, S B; Coverdale, C A; Ampleford, D J; Cuneo, M E; McPherson, L A; Rochau, G A

    2011-06-01

    We describe a pair of time-integrated transmission spectrometers that are designed to survey 7-28 keV (1.9 to 0.43 Å) x-ray photons produced by experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed power facility. Each spectrometer uses a quartz 10-11 crystal in a Cauchois geometry with a slit to provide spatial resolution along one dimension. The spectrometers are located in the harsh environment of the Z vacuum chamber, which necessitates that their design be compact and rugged. Example data from calibration tests and Z experiments are shown that illustrate the utility of the instruments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Hermeticity control system for the BMS/BMF-MDT chambers of the muon spectrometer of ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Lomidze, D.D.; Nikolaev, K.V.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Description of hermeticity certification of the JINR made muon chambers for the ATLAS experiment is presented. A high precision stand was installed in the production area of the DLNP, JINR. The description of the stand and results of the measurements and the description and results of the second testing of the drift chambers carried out after transportation to CERN are presented

  10. Installation of the first of the big wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons

  11. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Codina, Estel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    For the forthcoming Phase-I upgrade to the LHC (2018/19), the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system, Small Wheel, needs to be replaced. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will have to operate in a high background radiation region while reconstructing muon tracks with high precision and providing information for the Level-1 trigger. In particular, the precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 μm, and the Level-1 trigger track segments have to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of approximately 1 mrad. The NSWs consist of eight layers each of Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), both providing trigger and tracking capabilities. The single sTGC planes of a quadruplet consists of an anode layer of 50μm gold plated tungsten wire sandwiched between two resistive cathode layers. Behind one of the resistive cathode layers, a PCB with precise machined strips (thus the name sTGC) spaced every 3.2mm allows to achieve a position resolution that ranges from 70...

  12. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  13. Gravity sag of sandwich panel assemblies as applied to precision cathode strip chamber structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between gravity sag of a precision cathode strip chamber and its sandwich panel structural design is explored parametrically. An algorithm for estimating the dominant component of gravity sag is defined. Graphs of normalized gravity sag as a function of gap frame width and material, sandwich core edge filler width and material, panel skin thickness, gap height, and support location are calculated using the gravity sag algorithm. The structural importance of the sandwich-to-sandwich ''gap frame'' connection is explained

  14. Precise focusing and diagnosis technology for laser beams in ICF target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qixiang

    1999-01-01

    The precise focusing and diagnosis experimental system for laser beams in ICF target chamber is introduced. The system is controlled by computer. In process of focusing a series data of displacement in axial direction and relative area of focus spots are acquired. According to the functional curvature the accurate position of focal plane is determined. The construction of the system is simple, the system is controlled conveniently and runs quickly

  15. A multiwire proportional chamber for precision studies of neutron β decay angular correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.M.; Carr, R.; Filippone, B.W.; Martin, J.W.; Plaster, B.; Rybka, G.; Yuan, J.

    2007-01-01

    A new multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) was designed and constructed for precision studies of neutron β decay angular correlations. Its design has several novel features, including the use of low pressure neopentane as the MWPC gas and an entrance window made of thin Mylar sheet reinforced with Kevlar fibers. In the initial off-line performance tests, the gas gain of neopentane and the position resolution were studied

  16. Elemental analysis of chamber organic aerosol using an aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Chhabra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of laboratory chamber secondary organic aerosol (SOA from glyoxal uptake, α-pinene ozonolysis, isoprene photooxidation, single-ring aromatic photooxidation, and naphthalene photooxidation is evaluated using Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer data. SOA O/C ratios range from 1.13 for glyoxal uptake experiments to 0.30–0.43 for α-pinene ozonolysis. The elemental composition of α-pinene and naphthalene SOA is also confirmed by offline mass spectrometry. The fraction of organic signal at m/z 44 is generally a good measure of SOA oxygenation for α-pinene/O3, isoprene/high-NOx, and naphthalene SOA systems. The agreement between measured and estimated O/C ratios tends to get closer as the fraction of organic signal at m/z 44 increases. This is in contrast to the glyoxal uptake system, in which m/z 44 substantially underpredicts O/C. Although chamber SOA has generally been considered less oxygenated than ambient SOA, single-ring aromatic- and naphthalene-derived SOA can reach O/C ratios upward of 0.7, well within the range of ambient PMF component OOA, though still not as high as some ambient measurements. The spectra of aromatic and isoprene-high-NOx SOA resemble that of OOA, but the spectrum of glyoxal uptake does not resemble that of any ambient organic aerosol PMF component.

  17. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221766; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon system upgrade to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2018/19, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW), is designed to cope with the increased instantaneous luminosity in LHC Run 3. The small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) will provide the NSW with fast trigger and high precision tracking. The construction protocol has been validated by test beam experiments on a full-size prototype sTGC detector, showing the performance requirements are met. The intrinsic spatial resolution for a single layer has been found to be about 50$\\mu$m at perpendicular incident angle, and the pads transition region has been measured to be about 4mm.

  18. Precision tracking at high background rates with the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hertenberger, Ralf; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since start of data taking the ATLAS muon spectrometer performs according to specification. End of this decade after the luminosity upgrade of LHC by a factor of ten the proportionally increasing background rates require the replacement of the detectors in the most forward part of the muon spectrometer to ensure high quality muon triggering and tracking at background hit rates of up to 15,kHz/cm$^2$. Square meter sized micromegas detectors together with improved thin gap trigger detectors are suggested as replacement. Micromegas detectors are intrinsically high rate capable. A single hit spatial resolution below 40,$mu$m has been shown for 250,$mu$m anode strip pitch and perpendicular incidence of high energy muons or pions. The ongoing development of large micromegas structures and their investigation under non-perpendicular incidence or in high background environments requires precise and reliable monitoring of muon tracks. A muon telescope consisting of six small micromegas works reliably and is presently ...

  19. Measurement of high-mass dilepton production with the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Shchelina, Ksenia

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of dilepton production in photon-photon fusion with the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) are presented. For the first time, exclusive dilepton production at high masses have been observed in the CMS detector while one or two outgoing protons are measured in CT-PPS using around 10~${\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of data accumulated in 2016 during high-luminosity LHC operation. These first results show a good understanding, calibration and alignment of the new CT-PPS detectors installed in 2016.

  20. The MEG positron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing an innovative spectrometer for the MEG experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. This experiment searches for a lepton flavour violating decay μ + →e + γ with a sensitivity of 10 -13 in order to explore the region predicted by supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The MEG positron spectrometer consists of a specially designed superconducting solenoidal magnet with a highly graded field, an ultimate low-mass drift chamber system, and a precise time measuring counter system. This innovative positron spectrometer is described here focusing on the drift chamber system

  1. The honeycomb strip chamber: A two coordinate and high precision muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolsma, H.P.T.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the construction and performance of the Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC). The HSC offers several advantages with respect to classical drift chambers and drift tubes. The main features of the HSC are: -The detector offers the possibility of simultaneous readout of two orthogonal coordinates with approximately the same precision. - The HSC technology is optimised for mass production. This means that the design is modular (monolayers) and automisation of most of the production steps is possible (folding and welding machines). - The technology is flexible. The cell diameter can easily be changed from a few millimetres to at least 20 mm by changing the parameters in the computer programme of the folding machine. The number of monolayers per station can be chosen freely to the demands of the experiment. -The honeycomb structure gives the detector stiffness and makes it self supporting. This makes the technology a very transparent one in terms of radiation length which is important to prevent multiple scattering of high energetic muons. - The dimensions of the detector are defined by high precision templates. Those templates constrain for example the overall tolerance on the wire positions to 20 μm rms. Reproduction of the high precision assembly of the detector is thus guaranteed. (orig.)

  2. The honeycomb strip chamber: A two coordinate and high precision muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolsma, H P.T.

    1996-04-19

    This thesis describes the construction and performance of the Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC). The HSC offers several advantages with respect to classical drift chambers and drift tubes. The main features of the HSC are: -The detector offers the possibility of simultaneous readout of two orthogonal coordinates with approximately the same precision. - The HSC technology is optimised for mass production. This means that the design is modular (monolayers) and automisation of most of the production steps is possible (folding and welding machines). - The technology is flexible. The cell diameter can easily be changed from a few millimetres to at least 20 mm by changing the parameters in the computer programme of the folding machine. The number of monolayers per station can be chosen freely to the demands of the experiment. -The honeycomb structure gives the detector stiffness and makes it self supporting. This makes the technology a very transparent one in terms of radiation length which is important to prevent multiple scattering of high energetic muons. - The dimensions of the detector are defined by high precision templates. Those templates constrain for example the overall tolerance on the wire positions to 20 {mu}m rms. Reproduction of the high precision assembly of the detector is thus guaranteed. (orig.).

  3. Dimethyl ether reviewed: New results on using this gas in a high-precision drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Rinaldi, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Spinetti, M.; Susinno, G.; Villa, F.; Voltano, L.; Zichichi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two years ago, dimethyl ether (DME) was presented, for the first time, as a suitable gas for high-precision drift chambers. In fact our tests show that resolutions can be obtained which are better by at least a factor of 2 compared to what one can get with conventional gases. Moreover, DME is very well quenched. The feared formation of whiskers on the wires has not occurred, at least after months of use with a 10 μCi 106 Ru source. (orig.)

  4. Monitoring the Resistive Plate Chambers in the Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Qahtani, Shaikha

    2017-01-01

    A software was developed to monitor the resistive plate chambers. The purpose of the program is to detect any weak or dead chambers and locate them for repair. The first use of the program was able to spot several chambers with problems to be investigated.

  5. Precise mass measurements of astrophysical interest made with the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.A.; Barber, R.C.; Blank, B.; Boudreau, C.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Gulick, S.; Hardy, J.C.; Heinz, A.; Lee, J.K.P.; Levand, A.F.; Moore, R.B.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Sharma, K.S.; Sprouse, G.D.; Trimble, W.; Vaz, J.; Wang, J.C.; Zhou, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The processes responsible for the creation of elements more massive than iron are not well understood. Possible production mechanisms involve the rapid capture of protons (rp-process) or the rapid capture of neutrons (r-process), which are thought to occur in explosive astrophysical events such as novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae. Mass measurements of the nuclides involved with uncertainties on the order of 100 keV or better are critical to determine the process 'paths', the energy output of the events, and the resulting nuclide abundances. Particularly important are the masses of 'waiting-point' nuclides along the rp-process path where the process stalls until the subsequent β decay of the nuclides. This paper will discuss the precise mass measurements made of isotopes along the rp-process and r-process paths using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer, including the mass of the critical waiting-point nuclide 68 Se

  6. Construction and manufacture of large size straw-chambers of the COMPASS spectrometer tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Gorbacheva, N.M.; Gusakov, Yu.V.

    2002-01-01

    We report the construction and preliminary testing of 3.6 and 3.2 m long straw tube drift chambers consisting of 672 and 864 channels, respectively. The design considerations, the development of several new techniques are described. The 15 two-layer straw drift chambers have been built for the experiment COMPASS at CERN

  7. Novel control modes to improve the performance of rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xinming; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Cheng'an; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-10-01

    The rectilinear ion trap (RIT) has gradually become one of the preferred mass analyzers for portable mass spectrometers because of its simple configuration. In order to enhance the performance, including sensitivity, quantitation capability, throughput, and resolution, a novel RIT mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers was designed and characterized. The studied system constituted a quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) in the first chamber and a RIT in the second chamber. Two control modes are hereby proposed: Storage Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (SQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used at high pressure for ion storage and isolation, and the RIT was used for analysis; and Analysis Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (AQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used for ion storage and cooling. Subsequently, synchronous scanning and analysis were carried out by QLIT and RIT. In SQLIT-RIT mode, signal intensity was improved by a factor of 30; the limit of quantitation was reduced more than tenfold to 50 ng mL-1, and an optimal duty cycle of 96.4% was achieved. In AQLIT-RIT mode, the number of ions coexisting in the RIT was reduced, which weakened the space-charge effect and reduced the mass shift. Furthermore, the mass resolution was enhanced by a factor of 3. The results indicate that the novel control modes achieve satisfactory performance without adding any system complexity, which provides a viable pathway to guarantee good analytical performance in miniaturization of the mass spectrometer.

  8. Search for Bound $\\overline{N}N$ States Using a Precision Gamma and Charged Pion Spectrometer at LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses a magnetic spectrometer to search for monoenergetic @g and @p@+ transitions between bound N&bar.N states. The spectrometer is instrumented with drift chambers (NDC, RDC and PDC), proportional wire chambers (A-E), and various thin scintillation counters (S,M,G,AH,V,Q,D,E and PH) f purposes, as shown in the accompanying drawing.\\\\ \\\\ Gamma-rays produced in the LH^2 target are materialized by a 10\\% converter located in the B chamber with an acceptance (@D@W/4@p) of @=2-6x10|-|3 (100-400 MeV) and 6x10|-|3 ($>$400 MeV). Trajectories of bent electron-positron pairs and @p@+ are measured in the A-E~chambers. Trajectories of less frequent high energy penetrating tracks, as well as the remaining associated charged annihilation products exiting the target, are measured in the drift chamber system. \\\\ \\\\ The resultant energy resolution (@DE/E) is better than 1,5\\% R.M.S. over the full range of energies studied. To illustrate the sensitivity of this experiment, a @g line at 300 MeV produced at t...

  9. Proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.H.; Kycia, T.F.

    1978-03-01

    A PWC system was developed and extensively used in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4 to 1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23 to 370 GeV/c). This ''electronic collimator'' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 nsec) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 msec) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hard-wired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events were read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure

  10. A proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.-H.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Mazur, P.O.; Michael, D.N.; Mockett, P.M.; Rahm, D.C.; Rubinstein, R.; Eartly, D.P.; Wehmann, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The authors have developed and extensively used a PWC system in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4-1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23-370 GeV/c). This 'electronic collimator' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 ns) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 ms) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hardwired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events was read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure. (Auth.)

  11. Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometer with an Environmental Chamber for Rapid Screening of New Precise Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-07

    12-Oct-2017 Publication Identifier: First Page #: Volume: Date Submitted: 10/7/17 12:00AM Authors: Eric J. Bailey, Philip J. Griffin, Vera ...Stevens, Manuel Marechal, Demi E . Moed, Hakima Mendil-Jakani, Patrice Rannou, Kenneth B. Wagener, and Karen I. Winey Distribution Statement: 1-Approved

  12. Aging studies of resistive bulk Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Katie Louise

    2017-01-01

    A long-term operation study is presented as a probe of the aging properties of two bulk-resistive Micromegas chambers installed at the GIF$^{++}$ Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. Trends in the instantaneous chamber current, recorded over $\\approx$ 500 days of sustained exposure to the GIF$^{++}$ high intensity photon source, are analysed as a function of time in order to identify any signs of detector aging. As part of the study, additional variations in the current due to the changing external conditions of the chambers must be corrected for in order to isolate any aging effects. These include the changing chamber positions with respect to the photon source and the temperature and pressure fluctuations of the detector gas medium. Due to a number of subsets of the total irradiation period in which the exact detector positions are unknown, the aging study at the present time remains inconclusive. As a result, an alternative long-term aging study utilising the instantaneous chamber dark currents is suggested...

  13. High precision measurements of carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane using a continuous flow mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Morimoto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision measurement system for the carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CH4 (δ^(13CH_4 was developed using a pre-concentration device for CH4 and a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS. The measurement system required 100 mlSTP of an atmospheric air sample, corresponding to approximately 0.18μlSTP of CH_4, to determine the δ^(13CH_4 value with a reproducibility of 0.07‰. Replicated analyses of a CH_4-in-air standard gas during the period from 2002 to 2008 indicated that the value of δ^(13CH_4 measured by this system was consistent within the measurement reproducibility. To evaluate the δ^(13CH_4 measurement system, thus developed, diurnal variations of the atmospheric CH_4 concentration and δ^(13CH_4 were observed in the northern part of the Tokyo metropolitan area. From the relationship between the CH_4 concentration and δ^(13CH_4, dominant sources of the observed CH4 fluctuations were identified.

  14. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  15. A lab-based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer with exchangeable analysis chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, John T., E-mail: jnewberg@udel.edu; Arble, Chris; Goodwin, Chris; Khalifa, Yehia; Broderick, Alicia [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Åhlund, John [Scienta AB, Box 15120, 750 15 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a powerful spectroscopy tool that is inherently surface sensitive, elemental, and chemical specific, with the ability to probe sample surfaces under Torr level pressures. Herein, we describe the design of a new lab-based APXPS system with the ability to swap small volume analysis chambers. Ag 3d(5/2) analyses of a silver foil were carried out at room temperature to determine the optimal sample-to-aperture distance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis spot size, relative peak intensities, and peak full width at half maximum of three different electrostatic lens modes: acceleration, transmission, and angular. Ag 3d(5/2) peak areas, differential pumping pressures, and pump performance were assessed under varying N{sub 2}(g) analysis chamber pressures up to 20 Torr. The commissioning of this instrument allows for the investigation of molecular level interfacial processes under ambient vapor conditions in energy and environmental research.

  16. Efficient differential Fourier-transform spectrometer for precision Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Paiva Novaes, Camila; Gervasi, Massimo; Zannoni, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Context. Precision measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in clusters of galaxies require excellent rejection of common-mode signals and wide frequency coverage. Aims: We describe an imaging, efficient, differential Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), optimized for measurements of faint brightness gradients at millimeter wavelengths. Methods: Our instrument is based on a Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) configuration. We combined two MPIs working synchronously to use the whole input power. In our implementation the observed sky field is divided into two halves along the meridian, and each half-field corresponds to one of the two input ports of the MPI. In this way, each detector in the FTS focal planes measures the difference in brightness between two sky pixels, symmetrically located with respect to the meridian. Exploiting the high common-mode rejection of the MPI, we can measure low sky brightness gradients over a high isotropic background. Results: The instrument works in the range ~1-20 cm-1 (30-600 GHz), has a maximum spectral resolution 1 / (2 OPD) = 0.063 cm-1 (1.9 GHz), and an unvignetted throughput of 2.3 cm2sr. It occupies a volume of 0.7 × 0.7 × 0.33 m3 and has a weight of 70 kg. This design can be implemented as a cryogenic unit to be used in space, as well as a room-temperature unit working at the focus of suborbital and ground-based mm-wave telescopes. The first in-flight test of the instrument is with the OLIMPO experiment on a stratospheric balloon; a larger implementation is being prepared for the Sardinia radio telescope.

  17. A straw drift chamber spectrometer for studies of rare kaon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, K.; Ambrose, D.; Arroyo, C.; Bachman, M.; Connor, D.; Eckhause, M.; Ecklund, K.M.; Graessle, S.; Hamela, M.; Hamilton, S.; Hancock, A.D.; Hartman, K.; Hebert, M.; Hoff, C.H.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Irwin, G.M.; Kane, J.R.; Kanematsu, N.; Kuang, Y.; Lee, R.; Marcin, M.; Martin, R.D.; McDonough, J.; Milder, A.; Molzon, W.R.; Ouimette, D.; Pommot-Maia, M.; Proga, M.; Riley, P.J.; Ritchie, J.L.; Rubin, P.D.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Ware, B.; Welsh, R.E.; Wojcicki, S.G.; Worm, S.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, readout, tests, and performance of planar drift chambers, based on 5-mm-diameter copperized Mylar and Kapton straws, used in an experimental search for rare kaon decays. The experiment took place in the high-intensity neutral beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory, using a neutral beam stop, two analyzing dipoles, and redundant particle identification to remove backgrounds

  18. Calibration of the ATLAS precision muon chambers and study of the decay {tau} {yields} {mu}{mu}{mu} at the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeben, Joerg Horst Jochen von

    2010-07-07

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide protons at centre-of-mass energies of up to 14 TeV. One of the two general purpose experiments at the LHC is ATLAS, built to probe a broad spectrum of physics processes of the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. ATLAS is equipped with a muon spectrometer comprising three superconducting air-core toroid magnets and 1150 precision drift tube (MDT) chambers measuring muon trajectories with better than 50 {mu}m position resolution. The accuracy of the space-to-drift-time relationships of the MDT chambers is one of the main contributions to the momentum resolution. In this thesis, an improved method for the calibration of the precision drift tube chambers in magnetic fields has been developed and tested using curved muon track segments. An accuracy of the drift distance measurement of better than 20 {mu}m is achieved leading to negligible deterioration of the muon momentum resolution. The second part of this work is dedicated to the study of the lepton flavour violating decay {tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu}. Lepton flavour violation is predicted by almost every extension of the Standard Model. About 10{sup 12}{tau} leptons are produced per year at an instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Simulated data samples have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment for {tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu} decays with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Taking theoretical and experimental systematic uncertainties into account an upper limit on the signal branching ratio of B({tau}{yields}{mu}{mu}{mu}) <5.9 x 10{sup -7} at 90% confidence level is achievable. This result represents the first estimation in ATLAS. (orig.)

  19. Common support and integration of the BMS/BMF type MDT/RPC chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gus'kov, A.V.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Krumshtejn, Z.V.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Lomidze, D.D.; Potrap, I.N.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Podkladkin, S.Yu.; Sekhniaidze, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    The common support system for muon BMS/BMF drift chambers with trigger RPC chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is described. The support systems are intended for the chambers integration into combined modules and for the subsequent installation in the experimental set-up. The technology of chambers integration is described. The sagging of the drift chambers was tested by tilting the modules at different angles. The measurements were performed by means of the RASNIK optical system. The normal operation of kinematic supports was confirmed. We also present the method of the sag regulation for the BMS/BMF chambers lying in the horizontal plane which provides the minimum difference between signal wire and detector tube body sags when the modules are later installed in their working positions

  20. Modeling and simulation of critical parameters of the first chamber of the dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guez, D.

    2003-10-01

    The Alice experiment that is dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, will take place in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment is devoted to the search of a new signature of the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The first chapter is dedicated to the physics notions linked to the study of QGP, a few signatures are proposed for the detection of QGP, particularly the signature concerning the production rate of quarkonium. The second chapter deals with particle detection involved in Alice experiment, the dimuon arm spectrometer is a detector dedicated to the track reconstruction of muons issued from the decay of heavy mesons from J/Ψ and Υ families. The third and the fourth chapters present the studies made to integrate a reliable model of the dimuon arm in the global simulation code of Alice (Aliroot). The fifth chapter presents the software TB 2 that has been developed within the framework of this thesis in order to check and control the output data when the detector is tested with a real particle beam. The sixth chapter presents the results of the tests that have been performed with a 7 GeV/c pion beam. These tests have shown that the electronic noise is coherent with the specifications of Alice experiment. A factor 1,8 between the highest and the weakest values of the gain has been measured in the chamber. The detection efficiency of the chamber has been estimated to 99% in the different cases studied. (A.C.)

  1. Software of data processing from the 2500-channel spectrometer with proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maznyj, G.L.; Sitnik, I.M.; Strokovskij, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    A set of programs is developed for data processing from a multipurpose Alfa system, which mainly consists of proportional chambers. The set is intended for a step-by-step processing with further reduction and recording of data on a secondary tape. The programs are written mainly in FORTRAN, but to speed up the processing and decoding, compressing and decompressing subroutines are written in assembly language. A system of subprograms plotting distribution curves is also analysed from the viewpoint of its structure. Distribution plotting programs and decoders are adapted to the ES-1040 computer; monodimensional distribution programs can be run on CDC-6500 computer

  2. Search for the best timing strategy in high-precision drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1983-06-01

    Computer simulated drift chamber pulses are used to investigate various possible timing strategies in the drift chambers. In particular, the leading edge, the multiple threshold and the flash ADC timing methods are compared. Although the presented method is general for any drift geometry, we concentrate our discussion on the jet chambers where the drift velocity is about 3 to 5 cm/μsec and the individual ionization clusters are not resolved due to a finite speed of our electronics

  3. A prototype experiment to study charmed particle production and decay using a Holographic High Resolution Hydrogen Chamber (HOLEBC) and the European Hybrid Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The high resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC has already been used in experiments at the SPS to detect particles with lifetime $\\geq 5 \\times 10^{-13}$s (NA13 & NA16). \\\\\\\\For this experiment, a new version of LEBC called HOLEBC, has been constructed. This chamber and the NA26 version of the spectrometer have been used with classical optics in the NA27 experiment. A significant improvement in resolution was achieved ($\\simeq$ 20 microns compared with $\\simeq$ 40 $\\mu$m in LEBC) and hence a good sensitivity to all (known) charmed particle decays. The development of holographic recording techniques with HOLEBC is in progress. \\\\\\\\The prototype NA26 experiment is designed to evaluate the feasibility of the high sensitivity, high resolution holographic hydrogen bubble chamber technique and evaluate various possible charm selective triggers using the information from the spectrometer.

  4. Time-resolved optical spectrometer based on a monolithic array of high-precision TDCs and SPADs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Davide; Markovic, Bojan; Di Sieno, Laura; Contini, Davide; Bassi, Andrea; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco

    2013-12-01

    We present a compact time-resolved spectrometer suitable for optical spectroscopy from 400 nm to 1 μm wavelengths. The detector consists of a monolithic array of 16 high-precision Time-to-Digital Converters (TDC) and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). The instrument has 10 ps resolution and reaches 70 ps (FWHM) timing precision over a 160 ns full-scale range with a Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) better than 1.5 % LSB. The core of the spectrometer is the application-specific integrated chip composed of 16 pixels with 250 μm pitch, containing a 20 μm diameter SPAD and an independent TDC each, fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. In front of this array a monochromator is used to focus different wavelengths into different pixels. The spectrometer has been used for fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: 5 nm spectral resolution over an 80 nm bandwidth is achieved. Lifetime spectroscopy of Nile blue is demonstrated.

  5. Precise mass measurements of exotic nuclei--the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Eliseev, S.; Hessberger, F.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Rauth, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Neidherr, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Neumayr, J.

    2007-01-01

    The SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer has been designed and constructed to measure the mass of short-lived, radioactive nuclei. The radioactive nuclei are produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated in flight with the velocity filter SHIP at GSI in Darmstadt. They are captured in a gas cell and transfered to a double Penning trap mass spectrometer. There, the cyclotron frequencies of the radioactive ions are determined and yield mass values with uncertainties ≥4.5·10 -8 . More than 50 nuclei have been investigated so far with the present overall efficiency of about 0.5 to 2%

  6. The engineering development of an actively controlled precise muon chamber for the SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, F.; Berk, E.; Gorman, J.; Govignon, J.; Sullivan, D.

    1992-01-01

    As the detector configuration for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) evolved, a number of concepts for MUON chambers were proposed and investigated. The Boston Group (Brandeis, Harvard and Tufts Universities, with Draper Laboratory) has developed a concept incorporating elliptical section drift tubes with field shaping and intermediate wire supports. This approach combines good single and multi-track resolution with a small channel count and modularity at the tube level. Other concepts have been developed which arise from differing interpretations of the fundamental physics and economic requirements. These include: Octagonal Drift Tubes, Unsupported Wires, No Field Shaping, U. Wisconsin; Round Tubes, Unsupported Wires, w or w/o Field Shaping, U. Washington; JFT Chambers (Multi-Wire, Intermediate Support, Field Shaping), KEK, Japan. This paper outlines the mechanical implementation of the Boston MUON chamber concept and discusses the rationale for several key design decisions imposed by the stringent mechanical tolerances. A prototype MUON chamber designed to verify design feasibility, performance, and cost is also described. A special section is devoted to the design and development of an optical alignment system within the chamber, which provides error signals driving the intermediate supports to true position. The Boston subgroup MUON chamber design is called the wine rack concept by virtue of its numerous (non-structural) drift tubes laid into a supporting chamber, which provides structural and handling capability. A number of individual θ,φ, and Stereo chambers is normally grouped into a supermodule, which in turn is assembled into a multi-layer supertower. Supertowers are the basic elements of the SDC MUON System, each comprising three supermodule layers in the barrel region and five in the forward regions

  7. Precision measurements with the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer of ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko; Ascher, Pauline; Borgmann, Christopher; Boehm, Christine; Eliseev, Sergey; Eronen, Tommi; George, Sebastian; Kisler, Dmitry; Naimi, Sarah [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beck, Dietrich; Herfurth, Frank; Litvinov, Yuri; Minaya Ramirez, Enrique; Neidherr, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Breitenfeldt, Martin [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200d - bus 2418, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Cakirli, Burcu [University of Istanbul, Department of Physics, 34134 Istanbul (Turkey); Cocolios, Thomas Elias [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Herlert, Alexander Josef [FAIR GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kowalska, Magdalena [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Kreim, Susanne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Lunney, David; Manea, Vladimir [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus, Bat. 104, 108 (France); Rosenbusch, Marco; Schweikhard, Lutz; Wienholtz, Frank; Wolf, Robert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Stanja, Juliane; Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The masses of exotic nuclides are among the most important input parameters for modern nuclear theory and astrophysical models. At the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-ToF-MS) in combination with a Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) can be used to achieve high-resolution isobar purification with mass-resolving powers of 105 in a few tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, the MR-ToF device can be used as a spectrometer to determine the masses of nuclides with very low yields and short half-lives, where a Penning-trap mass measurement becomes impractical due to the lower transport efficiency and decay losses during the purification and measurement cycles. Recent cross-check experiments show that the MR-ToF MS allows mass measurements with uncertainties in the sub-ppm range. In a first application the mass measurements of the nuclides 53,54Ca was performed, delivered with production rates as low as 10/s and half-lives of only 90(6) ms. The nuclides serve as important benchmarks for testing modern chiral effective theory with realistic 3-body forces. The contribution presents the on-line mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP focusing on the new applications, which became possible after the implementation of the MR-ToF MS into the current setup. In particular, the mass measurements of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes up to A=54 are discussed. In addition, measurements of the isotonic potassium isotopes are reported.

  8. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  9. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  10. A self-calibrating ionisation chamber for the precise intensity calibration of high-energy heavy-ion beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of a 136 Xe(600 A MeV) beam has been determined by simultaneously measuring the particle rate and the corresponding ionisation current with an ionisation chamber. The ionisation current of this self-calibrating device was compared at higher intensities with the current of a secondary-electron monitor and a calibration of the secondary-electron current was achieved with a precision of 2%. This method can be applied to all high-energy heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  11. Development of time projection chamber for precise neutron lifetime measurement using pulsed cold neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, N. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Igarashi, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Iwashita, Y. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ino, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Katayama, R. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kitaguchi, M. [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Kitahara, R. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, H.; Mishima, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Nagakura, N.; Oide, H. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Otono, H., E-mail: otono@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Centre for Advanced Particle Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakakibara, R. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Shima, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, H.M.; Sugino, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Sumi, N. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sumino, H. [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Taketani, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); and others

    2015-11-01

    A new time projection chamber (TPC) was developed for neutron lifetime measurement using a pulsed cold neutron spallation source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Managing considerable background events from natural sources and the beam radioactivity is a challenging aspect of this measurement. To overcome this problem, the developed TPC has unprecedented features such as the use of polyether-ether-ketone plates in the support structure and internal surfaces covered with {sup 6}Li-enriched tiles to absorb outlier neutrons. In this paper, the design and performance of the new TPC are reported in detail.

  12. High precision measurements of 16O12C17O using a new type of cavity ring down spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daëron, M.; Stoltmann, T.; Kassi, S.; Burkhart, J.; Kerstel, E.

    2016-12-01

    Laser absorption techniques for the measurement of isotopologue abundances in gases have been dripping into the geoscientific community over the past decade. In the field of carbon dioxide such instruments have mostly been restricted to measurements of the most abundant stable isotopologues. Distinct advantages of CRDS techniques are non-destructiveness and the ability to resolve isobaric isotopologues. The determination of low-abundance isotopologues is predominantly limited by the linewidth of the probing laser, laser jitter, laser drift and system stability. Here we present first measurements of 16O12C17O abundances using a new type of ultra-precise cavity ring down spectrometer. By the use of Optical Feedback Frequency Stabilization, we achieved a laser line width in the sub-kHz regime with a frequency drift of less than 20 Hz/s. A tight coupling with an ultra-stable ring down cavity combined with a frequency tuning mechanism which enables us to arbitrarily position spectral points (Burkart et al., 2013) allowed us to demonstrate a single-scan (2 minutes) precision of 40 ppm on the determination of the 16O12C17O abundance. These promising results imply that routine, direct, high-precision measurements of 17O-anomalies in CO2 using this non-destructive method are in reach. References:Burkart J, Romanini D, Kassi S; Optical feedback stabilized laser tuned by single-sideband modulation; Optical Letters 12:2062-2063 (2013)

  13. Studies of ageing effects of Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00425540; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased by up to seven times its design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019-2020. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. The basic sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55\\% of CO$_{2}$ and 45\\% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a 10~mCi~$^{90}$Sr source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height o...

  14. Studies of ageing effects of Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gignac, Matthew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019/20. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. The basic sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55% of CO_2 and 45% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a Sr-90 source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height of...

  15. The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Dusini, S; Dulach, B; Fanin, C; Felici, G; Corso, F D; Garfagnini, A; Grianti, F; Gustavino, C; Monacelli, P; Paoloni, A; Stanco, L; Spinetti, M; Terranova, F; Votano, L

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Final...

  16. The high-precision x-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Drakoulakos, D G; Maugain, J M; Rohrbach, F; Sedykh, Yu

    1997-01-01

    For the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the next millennium, a large general-purpose high-energy physics experiment, the ATLAS project, is being designed by a world-wide collaboration. One of its detectors, the ATLAS muon tracking detector, the MDT project, is on the scale of a very large industrial project: the design, the construction and assembly of twelve hundred large muon drift chambers are aimed at producing an exceptional quality in terms of accuracy, material reliability, assembly, and monitoring. This detector, based on the concept of very high mechanical precision required by the physics goals, will use tomography as a quality control platform. An X-ray tomograph prototype, monitored by a set of interferometers, has been developed at CERN to provide high-quality control of the MDT chambers which will be built in the collaborating institutes of the ATLAS project. First results have been obtained on MDT prototypes showing the validity of the X-ray tomograph approach for mechanical control of the detec...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Drift-Tube Chambers at High Background Rates and in Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00213689; Horvat, S.; Legger, F.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Richter, R.; Valderanis, Ch.; Rauscher, F.; Staude, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer uses drift-tube chambers for precision tracking. The performance of these chambers in the presence of magnetic field and high radiation fluxes is studied in this article using test-beam data recorded in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The measurements are compared to detailed predictions provided by the Garfield drift-chamber simulation programme.

  18. One of the three multiwire proportional chambers used in the photon tagging system at the Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The momentum of incoming electrons, generated by SPS beams, is determined by magnets before they are directed onto a foil. The tagging system, a magnet and the MWPCs then determines the electron momentum after the foil and the difference between the two measurements gives the momentum of the photon which is heading for the spectrometer. The MWPCs were built in Daresburyand coupled with new CERN read0ut electronics.

  19. Angle-resolving time-of-flight electron spectrometer for near-threshold precision measurements of differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, M.; Matsumoto, J.; Setiawan, A.; Panajotovic, R.; Harrison, J.; Lower, J. C. A.; Newman, D. S.; Mondal, S.; Buckman, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new type of low-energy crossed-beam electron spectrometer for measuring angular differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atomic and molecular targets. Designed for investigations at energies close to excitation thresholds, the spectrometer combines a pulsed electron beam with the time-of-flight technique to distinguish between scattering channels. A large-area, position-sensitive detector is used to offset the low average scattering rate resulting from the pulsing duty cycle, without sacrificing angular resolution. A total energy resolution better than 150 meV (full width at half maximum) at scattered energies of 0.5-3 eV is achieved by monochromating the electron beam prior to pulsing it. The results of a precision measurement of the differential cross section for electron-impact excitation of helium, at an energy of 22 eV, are used to assess the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer

  20. Development of a focal-plane drift chamber for low-energetic pions and experimental determination of an inverse transfer matrix for the short-orbit spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.

    2004-10-01

    The three-spectrometer facility at the Mainz microtron MAMI was supplemented by an additional spectrometer, which is characterized by its short path-length and therefore is called Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS). At nominal distance from target to SOS (66 cm) the particles to be detected cover a mean path-length between reaction point and detector of 165 cm. Thus for pion electroproduction close to threshold in comparison to the big spectrometers the surviving probability of charged pions with momentum 100 MeV/c raises from 15% to 73%. Consequently the systematic error (''myon contamination''), as for the proposed measurement of the weak form-factors G A (Q 2 ) and G P (Q 2 ), reduces significantly. The main subject of this thesis is the drift chamber for the SOS. Its small relative thickness (0.03% X 0 ), reducing multiple scattering, is optimized with regard to detecting low-energy pions. Due to the innovative character of the driftchamber geometry a dedicated software for track-reconstruction, efficiency-determination etc. had to be developed. A comfortable feature for calibrating the drift path-drift time-relation, represented by cubic splines, was implemented. The resolution of the track detector in the dispersive plane is 76 μaem for the spatial and 0.23 for the angular coordinate (most probable error) and, correspondingly, 110 μm and 0.29 in the non-dispersive plane. For backtracing the reaction quantities from the detector coordinates the inverse transfer-matrix of the spectrometer was determined. For this purpose electrons were scattered quasi-elastically from protons inside the 12 C-nucleus, thus defining the starting angles of the electrons by holes of a sieve collimator. The resulting experimental values for the angular resolution at the target amount to σ φ =1.3 mrad and σ θ =10.6 mrad resp. The momentum calibration of the SOS only can be achieved by quasi-elastic scattering (two-arm experiment). For this reason the contribution of the proton

  1. HISS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented

  2. Pb and Sr isotope measurements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: efficient time management for precision improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monna, F.; Loizeau, J.-L.; Thomas, B. A.; Guéguen, C.; Favarger, P.-Y.

    1998-08-01

    One of the factors limiting the precision of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is the counting statistics, which depend upon acquisition time and ion fluxes. In the present study, the precision of the isotopic measurements of Pb and Sr is examined. The time of measurement is optimally shared for each isotope, using a mathematical simulation, to provide the lowest theoretical analytical error. Different algorithms of mass bias correction are also taken into account and evaluated in term of improvement of overall precision. Several experiments allow a comparison of real conditions with theory. The present method significantly improves the precision, regardless of the instrument used. However, this benefit is more important for equipment which originally yields a precision close to that predicted by counting statistics. Additionally, the procedure is flexible enough to be easily adapted to other problems, such as isotopic dilution.

  3. Precision analysis of 15N-labelled samples with the emission spectrometer NOI-5 for nitrogen balance in field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.

    1984-01-01

    A technique was adapted for the preparation of samples with 15 N to be analyzed with the emission spectrometer NOI-5. This technique is based on methods of analyzing 15 N labelled gas samples in denitrification experiments. Nitrogen released from ammonium compounds by using hypobromite is injected into a repeatedly usable gaseous discharge tube where it is freed from water traces by means of the molecular sieve 5A. The described procedure of activating the molecular sieve allows to record spectra of reproducible quality thus promising an accuracy of analysis of +- 0.003 at% in the range of natural isotope frequency and the possibility of soil nitrogen analysis in field trials with fertilizers of low nitrogen content (3 to 6.5 at%; corresponding with 0.055 to 0.14% N/sub t/ of soils) without being dependent on mass spectrometers. (author)

  4. Microfluidic culture chamber for the long-term perfusion and precise chemical stimulation of organotypic brain tissue slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, H. H.; Vignes, M.; Brugg, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic perfusion-based culture system to study long-term in-vitro responses of organo-typic brain slices exposed to localized neurochemical stimulation. Using this microperfusion chamber we show that hip-pocampal organotypic brain slices cultures grown on nitrocellulose ...

  5. Precise determination of cosmogenic Ne in CREU-1 quartz standard, using the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D.; Honda, M.; Zhang, X.; Phillips, D.; Matchan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Helix-MC Plus multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer at the Australian National University is uniquely equipped with three high mass resolution collectors on H2, Axial and L2 positions. Their mass resolution and mass resolving power are as high as 1,800 and 8,000, respectively. The Helix-MC Plus can totally separate 20Ne+ from 40Ar++ isobaric interference and also partially separate 21Ne+ from 20NeH+ and 22Ne+ from 12C16O2++. By adjusting collector positions, we are able to measure interference-free Ne isotope intensities and have re-determined the 21Ne abundance in air [1]. Analyses by Honda et al. [1] demonstrated that 20Ne1H contributes approximately 2% to previously determined atmospheric 21Ne values [2], and a new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.002906 was calculated. Using the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer, we measured Ne abundances in the CREU-1 quartz standard [3] and determined cosmogenic concentrations by subtraction of atmospheric Ne with the new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne value. The average concentration of cosmogenic 21Ne determined from four repeated analyses is 338 ± 12 × 106 atom/g (2σ). This compares with the average concentration of 348 ± 10 × 106 atom/g (2σ) from 45 analyses determined by several laboratories [3], where Ne isotope analyses were undertaken by conventional low resolution mass spectrometers and atmospheric Ne was subtracted using the conventional atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne [2]. On this basis, for a sample with abundant cosmogenic Ne, like CREU-1 quartz, previously measured by low mass resolution mass spectrometers are likely valid and their geological implications are unaffected. However, for low 21Ne concentration samples, combining new generation of mass spectrometers as well as the new atmospheric ratio may have significance for cosmogenic 21Ne surface exposure dating. References: [1] Honda M., et. al., International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 387, 1 (2015). [2] Eberhardt P., et. al., Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, 20

  6. The first Module0 MicroMegas Chamber for the New Small Wheel Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer: Features and Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzo, Serena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the second long shutdown (LS2) in 2019-2020, the LHC luminosity will be increased up to 2-3$\\cdot$10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in Phase$-$1 and eventually to 7$\\cdot$10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in the High Luminosity LHC era. While high luminosity will provide more data, it is essential that the ATLAS detectors are still able to operate in the higher background environment maintaining their performances as good as that at lower luminosities. To obtain this, some of the detectors that are located nearest to the beam pipe have to be replaced. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer the present Small Wheel equipped with CSC, MDT and TGC chambers will be replaced the New Small Wheel. This will contain two new detector types: the MicroMegas (MM) and the small-strip TGC (sTGC). The first Module-0 of Micromegas quadruplet has been built by a consortium of several INFN groups in Italy and tested with high energy particles at the H8 SPS Test Beam experimental area at CERN in June 2016. The construction o...

  7. Study of properties of helium-based gas mixtures for use of low momentum and high precision measurement in drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chang; Zhang Qinjian; Ma Jimao; Huang Xiuping; Yi Kai; Zheng Shuchen

    1998-01-01

    Measured drift velocities using an uniform field drift chamber and multiplication factors obtained with proportional tubes in He-based gas mixtures He + CH 4 (80/20, 70/30) and He + iC 4 H 10 (85/15, 80/20, 70/30) are reported. The results are good agreement with calculations by Garfield Code. The Saturated drift velocity is V d ≅ 2.7 cm/μs and multiplication factor of M ≅ 10 4 -10 5 at certain working voltage is manageable in He/CH 4 (80/20) gas mixture, and it is good candidate of working gas for use of low momentum and high precision measurement in the drift chambers

  8. Quality control of ATLAS muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, Adrian

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼ 5500m2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5m to 15m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼ 0.5T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼ 1200 drift chambers. The performance of the MDT chambers is very much dependent on the mechanical quality of the chambers. The uniformity and stability of the performance can only be assured providing very high quality control during production. Gas tightness, high-voltage behaviour and dark currents are global parameters which are common to gas detectors. For all chambers, they will be tested immediately after the chamber assembly at every production site. Functional tests, for example radioactive source scans and cosmic-ray runs, will be performed in order to establish detailed performan...

  9. The challenge of building large area, high precision small-strip Thin Gap Trigger Chambers for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maleev, Victor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon endcap system must be upgraded in 2018 and 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Large area small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) up to 2 m2 in size and totaling an active area of 1200 m2 will be employed for fast and precise triggering. The precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 μm to allow the Level-1 trigger track segments to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of 1mrad. The upgraded detector will consist of eight layers each of Micromegas and sTGC’s detectors together forming the ATLAS New Small Wheels. The position of each strip must be known with an accuracy of 30 µm along the precision coordinate and 80 µm along the beam. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision is a key point and then must be controlled and monitored all along the process of construction and integrati...

  10. The Challenge of Building Large Area, High Precision Small-Strip Thin Gap Trigger Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maleev, Victor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon end-cap system must be upgraded in 2018 and 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Large area small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) up to 2 $m^2$ in size and totaling an active area of 1200 $m^2$ will be employed for fast and precise triggering. The precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 $\\mu m$ while the Level-1 trigger track segments need to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of 1 mrad. The upgraded detector will consist of eight layers each of Micromegas and sTGC’s detectors together forming the ATLAS New Small Wheels. The position of each strip must be known with an accuracy of 40 $\\mu m$ along the precision coordinate and 80 $\\mu m$ along the beam. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision is a key point and then must be controlled and monitored all along the process of cons...

  11. LOW PRESSURE CARBURIZING IN A LARGE-CHAMBER DEVICE FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE AND PRECISION THERMAL TREATMENT OF PARTS OF MECHANICAL GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wołowiec-Korecka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research of a short-pulse low pressure carburizing technology developed for a new large-chamber furnace for high-performance and precision thermal treatment of parts of mechanical gear. Sections of the article discuss the novel constructions of the device in which parts being carburized flow in a stream, as well as the low-pressure carburizing experiment. The method has been found to yield uniform, even and repeatable carburized layers on typical gear used in automotive industry.

  12. Precision mechanical design of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system with CDFDW optics at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D; Stoupin, S; Khachatryan, R; Goetze, K A; Roberts, T; Shvyd'ko, Y; Mundboth, K; Collins, S

    2013-01-01

    There are many scientific applications, especially involving topics related to the equilibrium atomic-scale dynamics of condensed matter, that require both a narrower and a steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than are currently available. To meet these important scientific needs, a prototype of a novel ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system has been designed and constructed at undulator-based beamline 30-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This prototype is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for performing so-called CDFDW angular-dispersive x-ray crystal optics, which include a central ultra-thin CFW crystal and a pair of dispersing elements. The abbreviation CDFDW stands for: C – collimating crystal, D – dispersing-element crystal (two D-crystals are used in each CDFDW), F – anomalous transmission filter, and W – wavelength-selector crystal [1]. The mechanical design of the ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer, as well as the preliminary test results of its precision positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  13. Alignment of the ATLAS central muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, F

    2008-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is one of the largest detectors ever built. At the LHC, new physics signs could appear through high momenta muons (1 TeV). Identification and precise momentum measurement of such muons are two of the main challenges of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. In order to get a good resolution for high energy muons (i.e. 10% at 1 TeV), the accuracy on the alignment of precision chambers must be of the order of 50 microns. Several procedures have been developed to reach such a precision. This document describes complementary techniques used to align the muon sub-detectors, and their results : the optical system, the muon cosmic rays and the straight tracks coming from collisions.

  14. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  15. Precision mass measurements of very short-lived, neutron-rich Na isotopes using a radiofrequency spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lunney, M D; Doubre, H; Henry, S; Monsanglant, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C; Toader, C F; Borcea, C; Bollen, G

    2001-01-01

    Mass measurements of high precision have been performed on sodium isotopes out to $^{30}$Na using a new technique of radiofrequency excitation of ion trajectories in a homogeneous magnetic field. This method, especially suited to very short-lived nuclides, has allowed us to significantly reduce the uncertainty in mass of the most exotic Na isotopes: a relative error of 5x10$^{-7}$ was achieved for $^{28}$Na having a half-life of only 30.5 ms and 9x10$^{-7}$ for the weakly produced $^{30}$Na. Verifying and minimizing binding energy uncertainties in this region of the nuclear chart is important for clarification of a long standing problem concerning the strength of the $N$=20 magic shell closure. These results are the fruit of the commissioning of the new experimental program Mistral.

  16. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  17. VOXES: a high precision X-ray spectrometer for diffused sources with HAPG crystals in the 2–20 keV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordo, A.; Curceanu, C.; Miliucci, M.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, F.; Zmeskal, J.

    2018-04-01

    Bragg spectroscopy is one of the best established experimental methods for high energy resolution X-ray measurements and has been widely used in several fields, going from fundamental physics to quantum mechanics tests, synchrotron radiation and X-FEL applications, astronomy, medicine and industry. However, this technique is limited to the measurement of photons produced from well collimated or point-like sources and becomes quite inefficient for photons coming from extended and diffused sources like those, for example, emitted in the exotic atoms radiative transitions. The VOXES project's goal is to realise a prototype of a high resolution and high precision X-ray spectrometer, using Highly Annealed Pyrolitic Graphite (HAPG) crystals in the Von Hamos configuration, working also for extended sources. The aim is to deliver a cost effective system having an energy resolution at the level of eV for X-ray energies from about 2 keV up to tens of keV, able to perform sub-eV precision measurements with non point-like sources. In this paper, the working principle of VOXES, together with first results, are presented.

  18. Superconducting-Magnet-Based Faraday Rotation Spectrometer for Real Time in Situ Measurement of OH Radicals at 106 Molecule/cm3 Level in an Atmospheric Simulation Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weixiong; Fang, Bo; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Yanbo; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Wenge; Chen, Zhiyou; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Weidong

    2018-03-20

    Atmospheric simulation chambers play vital roles in the validation of chemical mechanisms and act as a bridge between field measurements and modeling. Chambers operating at atmospheric levels of OH radicals (10 6 -10 7 molecule/cm 3 ) can significantly enhance the possibility for investigating the discrepancies between the observation and model predications. However, few chambers can directly detect chamber OH radicals at ambient levels. In this paper, we report on the first combination of a superconducting magnet with midinfrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) for real time in situ measurement of the OH concentration in an atmospheric simulation chamber. With the use of a multipass enhanced FRS, a detection limit of 3.2 × 10 6 OH/cm 3 (2σ, 4 s) was achieved with an absorption path length of 108 m. The developed FRS system provided a unique, self-calibrated analytical instrument for in situ direct measurement of chamber OH concentration.

  19. Drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yosuke

    1977-01-01

    Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. High Precision, Absolute Total Column Ozone Measurements from the Pandora Spectrometer System: Comparisons with Data from a Brewer Double Monochromator and Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria A.; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  1. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  2. Local tracking in the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Primor, David; Mikenberg, Giora

    2007-01-01

    The LHC, the largest hadron collider accelerator ever built, presents new challenges for scientists and engineers. With the anticipated luminosity of the LHC, it is expected to have as many as one billion total collisions per second, of which at most 10 to 100 per second might be of potential scientific interest. One of the two major, general-purpose experiments at LHC is called ATLAS. Since muons are one of the important signs of new physics, the need of their detection has lead to the construction of a stand- alone Muon Spectrometer. This system is located in a high radiation background environment (mostly neutrons and photons) which makes the muon tracking a very challenging task. The Muon Spectrometer consists of two types of precision chambers, the Monitor Drift Tube (MDT) chambers, and the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC). In order to detect the muon and estimate its track parameters, it is very important to detect and precisely estimate its local tracks within the CSC and MDT chambers. Using advanced signa...

  3. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  4. High precision mass measurements of thermalized relativistic uranium projectile and fission fragments with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayet San Andres, Samuel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, a relativistic beam of {sup 238}U at 1GeV/u was used to produce fission and projectile fragments on a beryllium target. The ions were separated in-flight at the FRS, thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell and transferred to a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) where high precision mass measurements were performed. The masses of several fission and projectile fragments were measured (including short-lived nuclei with half-lives down to 18 ms) and the possibility of tailoring an isomerically clean beam for other experiments was demonstrated. With the demonstrated performance of the MR-TOF-MS and the expected production rates of exotic nuclei far from stability at the next-generation facilities such as FAIR, novel mass measurements of nuclei close to the neutron drip line will be possible and key information for understanding the r-process will be available. The results from the last experiment and an outlook of possible future mass measurements close to the neutron drip line at FAIR with the MR-TOF-MS are presented.

  5. Surface Assembly of the End Cap Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Palestini

    Before the final installation in the ATLAS detector, the chambers of the inner and middle forward stations of the Muon spectrometer are integrated and assembled on large support structures. Work on the sectors of the Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) Big Wheels (trigger chambers) and of the Muon Drift Tube (MDT) Big Wheels (precision tracking chambers) started early this year, and has recently expanded to all the foreseen working areas, covering most the surface of building 180. Several operations are performed, often in parallel, by different teams: final integration of the detectors, assembly of the support structures, installation and test of services, installation of chambers, and final tests. Control of the geometry is performed frequently both on assembly tooling and on complete sectors. The final tests verify the response of the detectors and of the electronics, including read-out and trigger electronics, the alignment system, and the detector control. The sectors are designed as a unit that can be fully commis...

  6. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Electronique Physique; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Institut de Physique Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  7. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E.; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  8. Modeling and simulation of critical parameters of the first chamber of the dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment; Modelisation et simulation de parametres critiques de la premiere station du spectrometre dimuons d'ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guez, D

    2003-10-01

    The Alice experiment that is dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, will take place in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment is devoted to the search of a new signature of the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The first chapter is dedicated to the physics notions linked to the study of QGP, a few signatures are proposed for the detection of QGP, particularly the signature concerning the production rate of quarkonium. The second chapter deals with particle detection involved in Alice experiment, the dimuon arm spectrometer is a detector dedicated to the track reconstruction of muons issued from the decay of heavy mesons from J/{psi} and {upsilon} families. The third and the fourth chapters present the studies made to integrate a reliable model of the dimuon arm in the global simulation code of Alice (Aliroot). The fifth chapter presents the software TB{sup 2} that has been developed within the framework of this thesis in order to check and control the output data when the detector is tested with a real particle beam. The sixth chapter presents the results of the tests that have been performed with a 7 GeV/c pion beam. These tests have shown that the electronic noise is coherent with the specifications of Alice experiment. A factor 1,8 between the highest and the weakest values of the gain has been measured in the chamber. The detection efficiency of the chamber has been estimated to 99% in the different cases studied. (A.C.)

  9. Study of dimuon spectrometer tracking chambers of the ALICE experiment at LHC; Etude des chambres de trajectoire du spectrometre dimuons de l'experience ALICE aupres du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharmandarian, Liliane [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3, Universite Paris - Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1999-12-16

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment will study ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN as of 2005. An extensive R and D programme has been carried out on the dimuon spectrometer tracking chambers at the Nuclear Physics Institute in Orsay. Three multiwire proportional chamber prototypes with segmented cathodes, including a full-scale 1 m{sup 2} version, were constructed. In this thesis, the experimental tests are presented along with the simulations used to understand and optimize the detectors' performances. The prototypes were tested several times at the PS and SPS accelerators. The aims were to validate the choices made in terms of mechanical construction, geometrical parameters, gas mixture and read-out electronics. Analysis of the large amount of data collected has shown that the performances of this type of detector fulfill the required specifications. The results concerning the detectors' characteristics, spatial resolution efficiency, gain and homogeneity are given. Spatial resolutions of less than thirty microns were obtained. In parallel with the in-beam tests, several simulations have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of the detectors' response. They allowed, in particular, to define the segmentation of the cathode plane, to study the position reconstruction algorithm and to establish the future electronics specifications. (author)

  10. Direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds into the spray chamber of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Sensitivity enhancement for selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The effect of signal enhancement of elements with ionization potentials in the range from 9 to 11 eV by carbon-containing compounds is a well-known phenomenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). It has traditionally been exploited through the addition of organic solvents to the sample matrix or to the mobile phase to improve sensitivity. In the present work, aqueous solutions of volatile carbon compounds (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) were directly introduced into the thermostatted spray chamber rather than being added to the sample matrix. It is presumed that no aerosol is produced from these solutions and only vapors of organic compounds are swept into the plasma together with the sample aerosol. When a 0.40 mol l -1 aqueous solution of acetone was introduced directly into the spray chamber, the signals for arsenic and selenium were enhanced by a factor of 4.2. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated through the achievement of lower instrumental detection limits for selenium at m/z 82 (0.1 ng ml -1 ) compared to the system without direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds (0.5 ng ml -1 ). The method was successfully applied in the determination of traces of selenium in natural water, urine and bovine liver reference material

  11. Performance Validation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, Katharina

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is scheduled to begin operation in the year 2007, providing experiments with proton-proton collisions. The center-of-mass energy of 14TeV and the design luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1 will allow to explore many new aspects of fundamental physics. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer aims at a momentum resolution better than 10% for transverse momentum values ranging from pT = 6 GeV to pT = 1TeV. Precision tracking will be performed by Ar-CO2-gas filled Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs), with a single wire resolution of < 100 μm. In total, about 1 200 chambers, arranged in a large structure, will allow muon track measurements over distances up to 15m in a magnetic field of 0.5 T. Given the large size of the spectrometer it is impossible to keep the shape of the muon chambers and their positions stable within the requested tracking accuracy of 50 μm. Therefore the concept of an optical alig...

  12. The Big-Wheel TGC-1 being moved against the Barrel Muon Spectrometer. The 216 trigger chambers are supported by a thin structure of 22 m diameter and 0.4 m thickness, weighting 44 tons and supported on two rails.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The Big-Wheel TGC-1 being moved against the Barrel Muon Spectrometer. The 216 trigger chambers are supported by a thin structure of 22 m diameter and 0.4 m thickness, weighting 44 tons and supported on two rails.

  13. An electrodeless drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)

  14. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Combining selection valve and mixing chamber for nanoflow gradient generation: Toward developing a liquid chromatography cartridge coupled with mass spectrometer for protein and peptide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Gu, Congying; Zhang, Min; Lynch, Kyle B; Liu, Shaorong

    2015-08-05

    Toward developing a micro HPLC cartridge, we have recently built a high-pressure electroosmotic pump (EOP). However, we do not recommend people to use this pump to deliver an organic solvent directly, because it often makes the pump rate unstable. We have experimented several approaches to address this issue, but none of them are satisfactory. Here, we develop an innovative approach to address this issue. We first create an abruption (a dead-volume) within a fluid conduit. We then utilize an EOP to withdraw, via a selection valve, a train of eluent solutions having decreasing eluting power into the fluid conduit. When these solutions are further aspirated through the dead-volume, these solutions are partially mixed, smoothening concentration transitions between two adjacent eluent solutions. As these solutions are pushed back, through the dead-volume again, a smooth gradient profile is formed. In this work, we characterize this scheme for gradient formation, and we incorporate this approach with a high-pressure EOP, a nanoliter injection valve, and a capillary column, yielding a micro HPLC system. We then couple this micro HPLC with an electrospray ionization - mass spectrometer for peptide and protein separations and identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a nano-tesla magnetic field shielded chamber and highly precise AC-susceptibility measurement coil at μK temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Om; Ramakrishanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    A special sample measurement chamber has been developed to perform experiments at ultralow temperatures and ultralow magnetic field. A high permeability material known as cryoperm 10 and Pb is used to shield the measurement space consisting of the signal detecting set-up and the sample. The detecting setup consists of a very sensitive susceptibility coil wound on OFHC Cu bobbin.

  17. Precision Muon Tracking Detectors for High-Energy Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, Philipp; Kroha, Hubert; Richter, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers with 15 mm tube diameter are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking over large areas at high background rates as expected at future high-energy hadron colliders including HL-LHC. The chamber design and construction procedures have been optimized for mass production and provide sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 ?m. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. It exceeds the one of the ATLAS muon drift tube (MDT) chambers, which are operated at unprecedentedly high background rates of neutrons and gamma-rays, by an order of magnitude, which is sufficient for almost the whole muon detector acceptance at FCC-hh at maximum luminosity. sMDT operational and construction experience exists from ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrades which are in progress or under preparation for LHC Phase 1 and 2.

  18. Enhancement of precision and accuracy by Monte-Carlo simulation of a well-type pressurized ionization chamber used in radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryeziu, D.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test and validate the Monte-Carlo (MC) ionization chamber simulation method in calculating the activity of radioactive solutions. This is required when no or not sufficient experimental calibration figures are available as well as to improve the accuracy of activity measurements for other radionuclides. Well-type or 4π γ ISOCAL IV ionization chambers (IC) are widely used in many national standard laboratories around the world. As secondary standard measuring systems these radionuclide calibrators serve to maintain measurement consistency checks and to ensure the quality of standards disseminated to users for a wide range of radionuclide where many of them are with special interest in nuclear medicine as well as in different applications on radionuclide metrology. For the studied radionuclides the calibration figures (efficiencies) and their respective volume correction factors are determined by using the PENELOPE MC computer code system. The ISOCAL IV IC filled with nitrogen gas at approximately 1 MPa is simulated. The simulated models of the chamber are designed by means of reduced quadric equation and applying the appropriate mathematical transformations. The simulations are done for various container geometries of the standard solution which take forms of: i) sealed Jena glass 5 ml PTB standard ampoule, ii) 10 ml (P6) vial and iii) 10 R Schott Type 1+ vial. Simulation of the ISOCAL IV IC is explained. The effect of density variation of the nitrogen filling gas on the sensitivity of the chamber is investigated. The code is also used to examine the effects of using lead and copper shields as well as to evaluate the sensitivity of the chamber to electrons and positrons. Validation of the Monte-Carlo simulation method has been proved by comparing the Monte-Carlo simulation calculated and experimental calibration figures available from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) England which are deduced from the absolute activity

  19. Study of a particle detector with very high spatial precision (drift chambers), and analysis of the physical phenomena governing the operation of this detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Guy.

    1976-01-01

    The physical principles of drift chambers are studied and various measurements which can be performed with these chambers are described. The laws governing the passage of particles through matter are first reviewed and different transport coefficients, (velocity, scattering coefficient, characteristic energy ...) of the electrons under the influence of an electric field for different gases (argon, CO 2 , isobutane, methane, methylal) are studied. The theoretical predictions are then compared with the experimental results. The different amplification processes in the gas and the space charge effect of the positive ions on electron multiplication for large particle fluxes are also studied as well as the mobility of positive ions in different gases. After these results, the operating characteristics (efficiency, linearity of the space-time ratio, spatial resolution), with and without an external magnetic field are determined [fr

  20. Application of FIGAERO (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to field and chamber organic aerosol: Implications for carboxylic acid formation and gas-particle partitioning from monoterpene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase carboxylic acid containing compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. A prototype operated with acetate negative ion proton transfer chemistry was deployed on the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study a-pinene oxidation, and a modified version was deployed at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and SOAS, in Brent Alabama. We focus here on results from JPAC and Hyytiälä, where we utilized the same ionization method most selective towards carboxylic acids. In all locations, 100's of organic acid compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same composition acids detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. Particulate organics detected by FIGAERO are highly correlated with organic aerosol mass measured by an AMS, providing additional volatility and molecular level information about collected aerosol. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. Moreover the detailed structure in the thermal desorption signals reveals a contribution from thermal decomposition of large molecular weight organics and or oligomers with implications for partitioning measurements and model validation

  1. The drift chamber system of the MEG experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Malte, E-mail: malte.hildebrandt@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-11-01

    The MEG experiment searches for the lepton flavour violating decay {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and is aiming for a sensitivity of 10{sup -13} in the branching ratio in order to probe new physics beyond the standard model. The experiment is located at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland, where one of the world's most intensive surface muon beams is located. Physics data taking started in September 2008. The drift chamber system is part of the innovative positron spectrometer of the MEG experiment and consists of 16 drift chamber modules. The system is designed to ensure precision measurement of 52.8 MeV/c positrons. Design, construction, geometrical alignment and performance of the drift chamber system are presented.

  2. Construction and Test of Muon Drift Tube Chambers for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Schwegler, Philipp; Dubbert, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on 20 November 2009, the instantaneous luminosity is steadily increasing. The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the LHC is instrumented with trigger and precision tracking chambers in a toroidal magnetic field. Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers are employed as precision tracking chambers, complemented by Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) in the very forward region where the background counting rate due to neutrons and γ's produced in shielding material and detector components is too high for the MDT chambers. After several upgrades of the CERN accelerator system over the coming decade, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to be raised to about five times the LHC design luminosity. This necessitates replacement of the muon chambers in the regions with the highest background radiation rates in the so-called Small Wheels, which constitute the innermost layers of the muon spectrometer end-caps, by new detectors with higher rate cap...

  3. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  4. Certification and commissioning of barrel stations for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, S

    2006-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment, which is scheduled to commence data taking at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC at CERN in 2007, comprises more than a thousand muon stations, which have the double purpose of triggering on high-p/sub t/ muon tracks as well as providing precise trajectory reconstruction. While monitored drift tube chambers are used for track reconstruction in all of the muon spectrometer except for a region close to the beam pipe in forward direction, two different technologies are used for triggering, resistive plate chambers in the barrel region and thin gap chambers in the end-caps. Both have in common that the ATLAS geometry allows only limited accessibility after chambers are installed in the detector. A thorough testing and certification prior to installation is therefore crucial. This paper reviews the test procedure at CERN for barrel chambers of type BO and BM, i.e. of stations for which a drift chamber is coupled with one or two resistive plate chambers. The final certific...

  5. Possible physics program with a large acceptance hyperon spectrometer at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    We are going to construct a large acceptance hyperon spectrometer (HypTPC) at J-PARC primarily to search for H-dibaryon. The HypTPC consists of a superconducting Helmholtz magnet and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The short-life hyperons can be detected with high precision as well as any charged particles. Here, we discuss possible physics programs other than H-dibaryon which can be done with this spectrometer, such as a nucleon resonance spectroscopy experiment, systematic study of Λ(1405) and spectroscopy of Ξ and Ω - resonances. (author)

  6. Dielectron analysis in p-p collisions at 3.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. ω-meson line shape and a new electronics readout for the multi-wire drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantola Peloni, Attilio

    2011-06-01

    The HADES (High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer) is an experimental apparatus installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of the HADES experiment is the measurement of e + e - pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c 2 in heavy-ion collisions as well as in pion and proton-induced reactions. The HADES physics program is focused on in-medium properties of the light vector mesons ρ(770), ω(783) and φ(1020), which decay with a small branching ratio into dileptons. Dileptons are penetrating probes which allow to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, in heavy-ion collisions, the measurement of such lepton pairs is difficult because they are rare and have a very large combinatorial background. Recently, HADES has been upgraded with new detectors and new electronics in order to handle higher intensity beams and reactions with heavy nuclei up to Au. HADES will continue for a few more years its rich physics program at its current place at SIS-18 and then move to the upcoming international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator complex. In this context the physics results presented in this work are important prerequisites for the investigation of in-medium vector meson properties in p + A and A+A collisions. This work consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the physics motivation and a review of recent physics results. In the second chapter, the HADES spectrometer is described and its sub-detectors are presented. Chapter three deals with the issue of lepton identification and the reconstruction of the dielectron spectra in p + p collisions is presented. Here, two reactions are characterized: inclusive and exclusive dilepton production reactions. From the spectra obtained, the corresponding cross sections are presented with the respective statistical and systematical errors. A comparison with theoretical models is included as well. Conclusions are given in chapter

  7. Dielectron analysis in p-p collisions at 3.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. {omega}-meson line shape and a new electronics readout for the multi-wire drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola Peloni, Attilio

    2011-06-15

    The HADES (High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer) is an experimental apparatus installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of the HADES experiment is the measurement of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c{sup 2} in heavy-ion collisions as well as in pion and proton-induced reactions. The HADES physics program is focused on in-medium properties of the light vector mesons {rho}(770), {omega}(783) and {phi}(1020), which decay with a small branching ratio into dileptons. Dileptons are penetrating probes which allow to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, in heavy-ion collisions, the measurement of such lepton pairs is difficult because they are rare and have a very large combinatorial background. Recently, HADES has been upgraded with new detectors and new electronics in order to handle higher intensity beams and reactions with heavy nuclei up to Au. HADES will continue for a few more years its rich physics program at its current place at SIS-18 and then move to the upcoming international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator complex. In this context the physics results presented in this work are important prerequisites for the investigation of in-medium vector meson properties in p + A and A+A collisions. This work consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the physics motivation and a review of recent physics results. In the second chapter, the HADES spectrometer is described and its sub-detectors are presented. Chapter three deals with the issue of lepton identification and the reconstruction of the dielectron spectra in p + p collisions is presented. Here, two reactions are characterized: inclusive and exclusive dilepton production reactions. From the spectra obtained, the corresponding cross sections are presented with the respective statistical and systematical errors. A comparison with theoretical models is included as well

  8. Performance assessment of a cavity ring-down laser spectrometer: achieving better precision and accuracy in the measurement of δ18O and δ2H in liquid water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado-Pérez, A J; Rodríguez-Arévalo, J; Díaz-Teijeiro, M F

    2014-01-01

    The development of new isotopic laser-based analyzers currently represents a clear alternative to conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometers. However, this analytical technique also suffers some disadvantages such as the memory effect, problems related to the overall stability of the equipment and other issues associated with the injection system, essentially regarding the syringe's longevity. This paper aims to minimize these disadvantages in order to increase the overall performance, in terms of precision and accuracy, of these kinds of analyzers. The main results of the experiments carried out in this paper have shown that: (i) the minimum number of discarded injections needed to eliminate the memory effect can be determined just considering the expected isotopic signature difference between two consecutive samples; (ii) both accuracy and precision of the isotopic measurements increase with increasing injection volume up to 2.1–2.2 µL; (iii) it is possible to extend the syringe lifetime by almost a factor of 6 by using n-methyl 2-pyrrolidone as a lubricant. Besides, it has been concluded that, by using the appropriate procedure, the main disadvantages associated with CRDS laser spectroscopy analyzers can be minimized, achieving measurement accuracy and precision of the order of ±0.05 ‰ for δ 18 O and ±0.3 ‰ for δ 2 H. (paper)

  9. Large-format, high-speed, X-ray pnCCDs combined with electron and ion imaging spectrometers in a multipurpose chamber for experiments at 4th generation light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strueder, Lothar; Epp, Sascha; Rolles, Daniel; Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Soltau, Heike; Eckart, Rouven; Reich, Christian; Heinzinger, Klaus; Thamm, Christian; Rudenko, Artem; Krasniqi, Faton; Kuehnel, Kai-Uwe; Bauer, Christian; Schroeter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robert; Techert, Simone; Miessner, Danilo; Porro, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Fourth generation accelerator-based light sources, such as VUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FEL), deliver ultra-brilliant (∼10 12 -10 13 photons per bunch) coherent radiation in femtosecond (∼10-100 fs) pulses and, thus, require novel focal plane instrumentation in order to fully exploit their unique capabilities. As an additional challenge for detection devices, existing (FLASH, Hamburg) and future FELs (LCLS, Menlo Park; SCSS, Hyogo and the European XFEL, Hamburg) cover a broad range of photon energies from the EUV to the X-ray regime with significantly different bandwidths and pulse structures reaching up to MHz micro-bunch repetition rates. Moreover, hundreds up to trillions of fragment particles, ions, electrons or scattered photons can emerge when a single light flash impinges on matter with intensities up to 10 22 W/cm 2 . In order to meet these challenges, the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) within the Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL) has designed the CFEL-ASG MultiPurpose (CAMP) chamber. It is equipped with specially developed photon and charged particle detection devices dedicated to cover large solid-angles. A variety of different targets are supported, such as atomic, (aligned) molecular and cluster jets, particle injectors for bio-samples or fixed target arrangements. CAMP houses 4π solid-angle ion and electron momentum imaging spectrometers ('reaction microscope', REMI, or 'velocity map imaging', VMI) in a unique combination with novel, large-area, broadband (50 eV-25 keV), high-dynamic-range, single-photon-counting and imaging X-ray detectors based on the pnCCDs. This instrumentation allows a new class of coherent diffraction experiments in which both electron and ion emission from the target may be simultaneously monitored. This permits the investigation of dynamic processes in this new regime of ultra-intense, high-energy radiation-matter interaction. After an introduction into the salient features of the CAMP chamber and

  10. Evidence for proton-tagged, central semi-exclusive production of high-mass muon pairs at 13 TeV with the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The process $pp \\rightarrow p \\mu^+\\mu^- p^{(*)}$ has been observed at the LHC for dimuon masses larger than $110~\\mathrm{GeV}$ in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$. Here $p^{(*)}$ indicates that the second proton is undetected, and either remains intact or dissociates into a low-mass state $p^{*}$. The scattered proton has been measured in the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS), which operated for the first time in 2016. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity of approximately $10~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in regular, high-luminosity fills. A total of 12 candidates with $m(\\mu\\mu) > 110~\\mathrm{GeV}$, and matching forward proton kinematics, is observed. This corresponds to an excess of more than four standard deviations over the background. The spectrometer and its operation are described, along with the data and background estimation. The present results constitute the first evidence of this process at such masses. They also demonstrate that CT-PPS performs as expect...

  11. Aligning the CMS Muon Chambers with the Muon Alignment System during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the CMS detector comprises three independent subsystems of optical and analog position sensors. It aligns muon chambers with respect to each other and to the central silicon tracker. System commissioning at full magnetic field began in 2008 during an extended cosmic ray run. The system succeeded in tracking muon detector movements of up to 18 mm and rotations of several milliradians under magnetic forces. Depending on coordinate and subsystem, the system achieved chamber alignment precisions of 140-350 microns and 30-200 microradians. Systematic errors on displacements are estimated to be 340-590 microns based on comparisons with independent photogrammetry measurements.

  12. The RISC-spectrometer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Gy.

    1981-01-01

    The RISC (Relativistic Ionising Streamer Chamber) spectrometer (situated at Protvino, joining the accelerator) is discussed, and the experiment carried out in international cooperation is presented. The beam monitor, the trigger system and the control and data recording system as well as the streamer spark chamber are detailed (the latter is the largest of our time). Examples of the main experiments as well as the work carried out in Budapest are discussed briefly. (Sz.J.)

  13. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  14. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  15. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  16. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  17. Measurement of N2O and CH4 soil fluxes from garden, agricultural and natural soils using both closed and open chamber systems coupled with high-precision CRDS analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yonggang; Jacobson, Gloria; Alexander, Chris; Fleck, Derek; Hoffnagel, John; Del Campo, Bernardo; Rella, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Studying the emission and uptake of greenhouse gases from soil is essential for understanding, adapting to and ultimately mitigating the effects of climate change. To-date, majority of such studies have been focused on carbon dioxide (CO2 ) , however, in 2006 the EPA estimated that "Agricultural activities currently generate the largest share, 63 percent, of the world's anthropogenic non-carbon dioxide (non-CO2) emissions (84 percent of nitrous oxide [N2O] and 52 percent of methane[CH4]), and make up roughly 15 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions" (Prentice et al., 2001). Therefore, enabling accurate N2O and CH4 flux measurements in the field are clearly critical to our ability to better constrain carbon and nitrogen budgets, characterize soil sensitivities, agricultural practices, and microbial processes like denitrification and nitrification. To aide in these studies, Picarro has developed a new analyzer based on its proven, NIR technology platform, which is capable of measuring both N2O and CH4 down to ppb levels in a single, field-deployable analyzer. This analyzer measures N2O with a 1-sigma, precision of 3.5 ppb and CH4 with a 1-sigma precision of 3ppb on a 5 minute average. The instrument also has extremely low drift to enable accurate measurements with infrequent calibrations. The data rate of the analyzer is on the order of 5 seconds in order to capture fast, episodic emission events. One of the keys to making accurate CRDS measurements is to thoroughly characterize and correct for spectral interfering species. This is especially important for closed system soil chambers used on agricultural soils where a variety of soil amendments may be applied and gases not usually present in ambient air could concentrate to high levels. In this work, we present the results of analyzer interference testing and corrections completed for the interference of carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, and water on N2O. In addition, we

  18. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  19. On the calibration of continuous, high-precision delta18O and delta2H measurements using an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Caylor, Kelly K; Dragoni, Danilo

    2009-02-01

    The (18)O and (2)H of water vapor serve as powerful tracers of hydrological processes. The typical method for determining water vapor delta(18)O and delta(2)H involves cryogenic trapping and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Even with recent technical advances, these methods cannot resolve vapor composition at high temporal resolutions. In recent years, a few groups have developed continuous laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) approaches for measuring delta(18)O and delta(2)H which achieve accuracy levels similar to those of lab-based mass spectrometry methods. Unfortunately, most LAS systems need cryogenic cooling and constant calibration to a reference gas, and have substantial power requirements, making them unsuitable for long-term field deployment at remote field sites. A new method called Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) has been developed which requires extremely low-energy consumption and neither reference gas nor cryogenic cooling. In this report, we develop a relatively simple pumping system coupled to a dew point generator to calibrate an ICOS-based instrument (Los Gatos Research Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA) DLT-100) under various pressures using liquid water with known isotopic signatures. Results show that the WVIA can be successfully calibrated using this customized system for different pressure settings, which ensure that this instrument can be combined with other gas-sampling systems. The precisions of this instrument and the associated calibration method can reach approximately 0.08 per thousand for delta(18)O and approximately 0.4 per thousand for delta(2)H. Compared with conventional mass spectrometry and other LAS-based methods, the OA-ICOS technique provides a promising alternative tool for continuous water vapor isotopic measurements in field deployments. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, M.

    1999-09-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼5500 m 2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5 m to 15 m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼0.5 T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼1200 drift chambers. The LHC physics discovery range indicates the need for a momentum resolution of ∼10 % for muons with a transverse momentum of p T =1 TeV/c. Following a detailed engineering optimisation of the magnetic-field strength versus the chamber resolution, the ATLAS collaboration opted for a drift-chamber system with very high spatial resolution, σ 2 93/7). Measurements performed in a high-background environment - similar to the ATLAS operational environment - gave us a complete understanding of the individual effects which deteriorate the spatial resolution at high rates. Four effects responsible for a resolution deterioration have been identified: two electronics effects which depend on the count rate of a tube (baseline shift and baseline fluctuations), and two space-charge effects that depend on the local count rate (gain drop and field fluctuations). The understanding of these effects had a major impact on the choice of the drift gas and the front-end electronics. The strong dependence of the drift velocity on the drift field is one major disadvantage of the baseline gas. In this work the full set of effects which lead to systematic errors to the track-position measurement in one tube (e.g. variations of the background rate) was investigated and quantified for realistic LHC operating conditions. For the biggest effects analytical corrections are presented. Finally, the muon-system performance was investigated and a calibration method for the absolute mass scale developed. By means of simulation it was shown that the energy

  1. Small angle single arm spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A study is given of an experiment described in the 1975 Summer Study to review the adequacy of the apparatus for its physics goals, equipment needs, logistic needs, vacuum chambers, compatibility with other experiments and to summarize its impacts on ISABELLE. The spectrometer is designed to study single particle inclusive spectra near x = 1 with particle identification and good momentum resolution

  2. Tracking and Level-1 triggering in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, B; Dubbert, J; Kroha, H; Richter, R; Schwegler, P

    2012-01-01

    In the endcap region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer (η > 1) precision tracking and Level-1 triggering are performed by different types of chambers. Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDT) and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) are used for precision tracking, while Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) form the Level-1 muon trigger, selecting muons with high transverse momentum (p T ). When by 2018 the LHC peak luminosity of 10 34 cm −2 s −1 will be increased by a factor of ∼ 2 and by another factor of ∼ 2–2.5 in about a decade from now (''SLHC''), an improvement of both systems, precision tracking and Level-1 triggering, will become mandatory in order to cope with the high rate of uncorrelated background hits (''cavern background'') and to stay below the maximum trigger rate for the muon system, which is in the range of 10–20 % of the 100 kHz rate, allowed for ATLAS. For the Level-1 trigger of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer this means a stronger suppression of sub-threshold muons in the high-p T trigger as well as a better rejection of tracks not coming from the primary interaction point. Both requirements, however, can only be fulfilled if spatial resolution and angular pointing accuracy of the trigger chambers, in particular of those in the Inner Station of the endcap, are improved by a large factor. This calls for a complete replacement of the currrently used TGC chambers by a new type of trigger chambers with better performance. In parallel, the precision tracking chambers must be replaced by chambers with higher rate capability to be able to cope with the intense cavern background. In this article we present concepts to decisively improve the Level-1 trigger with newly developed trigger chambers, being characterized by excellent spatial resolution, good time resolution and sufficiently short latency. We also present new types of precision chambers, designed to maintain excellent tracking efficiency and spatial resolution in the presence of high levels of uncorrelated

  3. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  4. arXiv Observation of proton-tagged, central (semi)exclusive production of high-mass lepton pairs in pp collisions at 13 TeV with the CMS-TOTEM precision proton spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS and TOTEM Collaborations; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Medina Jaime, Miguel; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Tholen, Heiner; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Zhemchugov, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Baldenegro Barrera, C.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Druzhkin, D.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Isidori, T.; Ivanchenko, V.; Janda, M.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lindsey, C.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Malawski, M.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Novák, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Siroky, J.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Stefanovitch, R.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Tcherniaev, E.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Williams, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zich, J.; Zielinski, K.

    2018-01-01

    The process pp$\\to\\ell^+\\ell^-$p$^{(*)}$, with $\\ell^+\\ell^-$ a muon or an electron pair produced at midrapidity with mass larger than 110 GeV, has been observed for the first time at the LHC in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV. One of the two scattered protons is measured in the CMS-TOTEM precision proton spectrometer (CT-PPS), which operated for the first time in 2016. The second proton either remains intact or is excited and then dissociates into a low-mass state p$^{*}$, which is undetected. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb$^{-1}$ collected during standard, high-luminosity LHC operation. A total of 12 $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and 8 e$^+$e$^-$ pairs with $m(\\ell^{+}\\ell^{-}) >$ 110 GeV, and matching forward proton kinematics, are observed, with expected backgrounds of 1.49 $\\pm$ 0.07 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.53 (syst) and 2.36 $\\pm$ 0.09 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.47 (syst), respectively. This corresponds to an excess of more than five standard deviations over the expected background. The present result co...

  5. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  6. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  7. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  8. Precision of the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Woudstra, M J

    2002-01-01

    The 'Standard Model' of elementary particles has been a very successful theory for the last few decades and has met every experimental test. It incorporates the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory of electroweak interactions and the quantum chromodynamics theory of the strong interactions, and thereby includes all known forces between elementary particles except gravity. The Standard Model includes the 'Higgs' mechanism to endow the particles with mass. This mechanism, however, requires the existence of the 'Higgs boson'. This is the only particle of the Standard Model that has escaped experimental observation, despite many efforts of the last four decades. Current indirect measurements from the experiments at the LEP accelerator at CERN indicate that the mass of the Standard Model Higgs particle falls in the range 114 - 196 GeV / c2 with a probability of 90%. The LEP accelerator and its detectors are currently being dismantled to be replaced by the more powerful LHC accelerator and its four new experiments (called...

  9. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  12. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  13. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  14. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  15. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  20. The OPAL vertex drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.R.; Elcombe, P.A.; Hill, J.C.; Roach, C.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Estabrooks, P.; Hemingway, R.; Karlen, D.; McPherson, A.; Pinfold, J.; Roney, J.M.; Routenburg, P.; Waterhouse, J.; Hargrove, C.K.; Klem, D.; Oakham, F.G.; Carter, A.A.; Jones, R.W.L.; Lasota, M.M.B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Pritchard, T.W.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A high precision vertex drift chamber has been installed in the OPAL experiment at LEP. The design of the chamber and the associated readout electronics is described. The performance of the system has been studied using cosmic ray muons and the results of these studies are presented. A space resolution of 50 μm in the drift direction is obtained using the OPAL central detector gas mixture at 4 bar. (orig.)

  1. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert

    2011-08-04

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  2. ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrades for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valderanis, Chrysostomos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrades for the High Luminosity LHC The luminosity of the LHC will increase up to 2x10^34 cm-2s-1 after the long shutdown in 2019 (phase-1 upgrade) and up to 7x10^34 cm-2s-1 after the long shutdown in 2025 (phase-2 upgrade). In order to cope with the increased particle fluxes, upgrades are envisioned for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At phase-1, the current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon endcap tracking system (the Small Wheels) will be upgraded with 2x4-layer modules of Micromega detectors, sandwiched by two 4 layer modules of small strip Thin Gap Chambers on either side. Each 4-layer module of the so-called New Small Wheels covers a surface area of approximately 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2 each for the two technologies. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision (30 \\mu m along the precision coordinate and 80 \\mu m along the beam) is a key point and must be controlled and monitored along the process of construction and integration. The design and re...

  3. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  4. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  5. Design and construction of Micromegas detectors for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sessa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to significant technological improvements, developed during a intensive R&D; activity carried out in the last years, large-area Micromegas (MM) will be employed, for the first time, in the High Energy Physics field. Starting from 2019, they will cover a large surface of about 150m2 in the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer. In this paper, the performances of MM chambers and, in particular, the spatial resolution and the efficiency, obtained using data from different test beam campaigns, will be described. Moreover, it will be shown the present status of the Micromegas chambers construction from the Italian INFN groups, focusing, especially, on the construction procedures and the methodologies developed to obtain the challenging required mechanical precision.

  6. Wide-aperture magnetic spectrometer with face position of MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Avetisyan, A.Eh.; Ajvazyan, R.B.; Asaturyan, R.A.; Dallakyan, K.R.; Kizogyan, O.S.; Matevosyan, Eh.M.; Sukiasyan, Yu.Z.; Taroyan, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    A pair magnetic spectrometer with automated wire chambers for studying electron and positron interactions with monocrystals at the Erevan synchrotron is described. As a working gas the argon-methane mixture with methylal vapor addition is used. Results of modelling and experiments with spectrometer are presented. 2 refs.; 6 figs

  7. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  8. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  9. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  10. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 μm in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed

  11. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  12. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  13. Design of the Bevalac heavy ion spectrometer system and its performance in studying /sup 12/C fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelage, J; Crawford, H J; Flores, I; Baumgartner, M E; Beleal, E; Bieser, F; Bronson, M; Greiner, D E; Greiner, L; Lindstrom, P J

    1989-05-01

    A description is given of the design and operation of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac. The general characteristics of the apparatus, which include a large superconducting magnet with drift chambers before and after for precise angle and momentum analysis of high multiplicity events and a large scintillation array for charge and velocity measurements, are explained. The performance of each part as measured in a /sup 12/C fragmentation experiment is discussed in detail. The main feature of the data-acquisition and apparatus-monitoring systems and of the off-line event reconstruction are given.

  14. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  15. Rotating double arm spectrometer to study hard scattering interactions at Serpukhov accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.V.; Baldin, B.Yu.; Buzulutskov, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The double arm magnetic spectrometer designed to study high P T particle production with intense proton and pion beams is described. Particle trajectories are measured by the drift and proportional chambers. Particles are identified by Cherenkov ring spectrometer and muon identifier. The spectrometer can be rotated around the target up to 160 mrad. 2 tabs.; 13 figs

  16. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  17. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  18. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  19. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  20. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  1. Precision Measurement of the Helium Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays of Rigidities 1.9 GV to 3 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Korkmaz, M. A.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, Hu; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Willenbrock, M.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, S. D.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. A precise measurement of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1.9 GV to 3 TV based on 50 million events is presented and compared to the proton flux. The detailed variation with rigidity of the helium flux spectral index is presented for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at rigidities larger than 100 GV. The rigidity dependence of the helium flux spectral index is similar to that of the proton spectral index though the magnitudes are different. Remarkably, the spectral index of the proton to helium flux ratio increases with rigidity up to 45 GV and then becomes constant; the flux ratio above 45 GV is well described by a single power law.

  2. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Levi, G.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at high rigidities.

  3. Electroweak precision tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, St.

    2009-12-01

    This document aims at summarizing a dozen of years of the author's research in High Energy Physics, in particular dealing with precision tests of the electroweak theory. Parity violating asymmetries measurements at LEP with the ALEPH detector together with global consistency checks of the Kobayashi-Maskawa paradigm within the CKM-fitter group are gathered in the first part of the document. The second part deals with the unpublished instrumental work about the design, tests, productions and commissioning of the elements of the Pre-Shower detector of the LHCb spectrometer at LHC. Physics perspectives with LHCb are eventually discussed as a conclusion. (author)

  4. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  5. Understand ATLAS NSW Thin Gap Chamber from Garfield Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J; Diehl, E; Feng, H; Guan, L; Mikenberg, G; Smakhtin, V; Yu, J M; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zhao, Z

    2014-01-01

    The LHC will be upgraded in several phases with the goal of obtaining an instantaneous lumi- nosity of 5-7 x 10^34 cm-2s-s at the center of mass energy of 14 TeV and integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. In order to profit from the high luminosity and high energy runs of the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration plans to upgrade the present endcap small wheel muon spectrometer to im- prove the muon triggering as well as precision tracking. The proposed New Small Wheel (nSW) will be composed of two four-layer Micromegas detectors (MM) detector sandwiched between two four-layer small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) quadruplets, where MM for precision tracking and sTGC for Level-1 triggering. In this paper, we focus on the Garfield [ 1 ] simulation of the sTGC detector to understand its timing performance and charge production. We also stud- ied the sTGC timing under different magnetic fields and high voltages. These studies provide important guide lines for the sTGC detector and electronics development.

  6. Precision Measurement of the ($e^+ + e^−$) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray ($e^+ + e^−$) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million ($e^+ + e^−$) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=−3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  7. Precision Measurement of the (e++e-) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e++e-) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e++e-) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ =-3.170 ±0.008 (stat+syst)±0.008 (energy scale) .

  8. Precision Measurement of the (e^{+}+e^{-}) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-11-28

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e^{+}+e^{-}) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e^{+}+e^{-}) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=-3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  9. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  11. Why precision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  12. Multichannel analyzer for the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojter, A.P.; Slyisenko, V.Yi.; Doronyin, M.Yi.; Maznij, Yi.O.; Vasil'kevich, O.A.; Golyik, V.V.; Koval'ov, O.M.; Kopachov, V.Yi.; Savchuk, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    New multichannel time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of the energy and angular distributions of neutrons from the WWWR-M reactor is considered. This spectrometer has been developed for the replacement of the previous one to increase the number of channels and measurement precision, reduce the time of channel tuning and provide the automatic monitoring during the experiment.

  13. Theoretical resolving power of a radiofrequency mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, A.; Le Gac, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiofrequency mass spectrometers of L.G. Smith's type can reach a resolving power of 10 6 -10 7 and a precision of 10 -9 -10 -10 . The resolving power, shape of peaks and limitations are described. As an example, the spectrometer to be used in an experiment aimed at measuring the anti p/p mass ratio is considered. (orig.)

  14. Thermal Design for a Diffraction-Limited Doppler Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Univ. of Notre Dame is building a new high-resolution spectrometer named “iLocater” to achieve unprecedented radial velocity (RV) precision for stellar Doppler...

  15. Glove box chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.E.; Cox, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An environmental chamber is described which enables an operator's hands to have direct access within the chamber without compromising a special atmosphere within such chamber. A pair of sleeves of a flexible material are sealed to the chamber around associated access apertures and project outwardly from such chamber. Each aperture is closed by a door which is openable from within the sleeve associated therewith so that upon an operator inserting his hand and arm through the sleeve, the operator can open the door to have access to the interior of the chamber. A container which is selectively separable from the remainder of the chamber is also provided to allow objects to be transferred from the chamber without such objects having to pass through the ambient atmosphere. An antechamber permitting objects to be passed directly into the chamber from the ambient atmosphere is included. (auth)

  16. High energy hadron physics with the FNAL Hybrid bubble chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Hadron physics at high energy is described. The kinematic variables and some of the language used in this field, the Fermilab Hybrid Spectrometer, and some results obtained from the Hybrid Spectrometer at about 150 GeV are discussed. Two basic facts underlie hadronic interactions. The transverse momentum of particles produced in one interaction is limited. The number of particles produced in one interaction is far less than that possible from the available energy. Due to these two facts of hadronic nature, the longitudinal momentum of particles produced in one interaction plays a key role in describing an event. Because of this role of the longitudinal momentum, the rapidity variable y and the Feynman scaling variable x will be used for the discussion. Limiting fragmentation and scaling, the finite correlation length hypothesis, and the Mueller-Regge analysis are discussed. The Fermilab Hybrid Spectrometer consists of electronic detectors and a hydrogen bubble chamber to improve the measuring capability of fast particles and the precision of measurement of slower particles. Good test of the target fragmentation hypothesis is performed. The indication of the validity of the hypothesis is obtained. Average multiplicity in the reactions (a + b to X) and (a + b to C + X) is discussed. The charge transferred across a rapidity gap is examined as a function of the gap length. Self-consistent checks are made on the data, based on the Random Charge Model, the Extreme Charge Model, and the Leading Charge Model. (Kato, T.)

  17. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  18. Application of quadrupole mass spectrometer to the 40Ar-39Ar geochronological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Yutaka; Nishijima, Tadashi; Koike, Toshio; Okuma, Kouichi.

    1984-01-01

    A Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) has commonly been used for qualitative analyses of gases in organic chemistry or for monitoring the vacuum conditions in industrial machines. No attempt has been made, however, to apply it to geochronological studies because of its disadvantages such as the difficulty in obtaining precise isotope ratios due to triangular peak shapes and poor reproducibility. On the other hand, there are advantages that a QMS is relatively inexpensive and gives a shorter scanning time for analysis compared with a sector type mass spectrometer. The latter characteristics is useful for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronological studies, since it gives a lower background in the QMS and the possibility to obtain many more data from one sample in a limited time. In this study, we have tried to improve a commercial QMS at many parts, such as rf-generator, quadrupole, ionization chamber, source magnet, and so on, in order to meet the requirements to use it for geochronological studies. With the use of the improved QMS equipped with an on-line microcomputer, we could obtain Ar isotope data which are sufficiently precise for the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronological studies. (author)

  19. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  20. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  1. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  2. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  3. Intensive irradiation studies, monitoring and commissioning data analysis on the ATLAS MDT chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071390; Susinno, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS MDT chambers have been extensively studied, starting from irradiation test to commissioning activities. First, a detailed description of high rate and high background tests is given. These tests have been carried out on a small ATLAS-like MDT chamber, by the Cosenza and Roma TRE groups. The precision tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer, in fact, have to operate for more than 10 years in the harsh LHC background, due mainly to low energy neutrons and photons. Aging effects, such as the deterioration of the tube themselves can appear and difficulties in pattern recognition and tracking may occur. Moreover an upgrade to Super-LHC is foreseen. Then, there is an accurate description of the MDTGnam package, the official software for the on-line monitoring of MDT performances. When dealing with a complex apparatus, such as the ATLAS experiment, an on-line monitoring system is a fundamental tool. The GNAM project, developed by Cosenza, Pavia, Pisa and Napoli groups, is a monitoring framework to be us...

  4. Improvements in the injection system of the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Savard, G; Seweryniak, D; Sharma, K S; Sprouse, G; Vaz, J; Wang, J C; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is designed to make precise mass measurements on a variety of stable and short-lived isotopes. Modifications to the injection system of the CPT have been implemented in recent months, the purpose being to more efficiently collect and transfer weakly-produced reaction products from the target to the Penning trap. These include a magnetic triplet situated after the target chamber to increase the acceptance of the Enge spectrograph, a velocity filter to more effectively separate the beam from the reaction products and the replacement of the Paul trap with a linear trap resulting in more efficient capture and accumulation of ions from the ion cooler. This paper will discuss these recent modifications and how they have increased our ability in making mass measurements on isotopes of low abundance, including those from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission source.

  5. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  6. Double chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uman, M.F.; Winnard, J.R.; Winters, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ion source is comprised of two discharge chambers one of which is provided with a filament and an aperture leading into the other chamber which in turn has an extraction orifice. A low voltage arc discharge is operated in an inert gas atmosphere in the filament chamber while an arc of higher voltage is operated in the second ionization chamber which contains a vapor which will give the desired dopant ion species. The entire source is immersed in an axial magnetic field parallel to a line connecting the filament, the aperture between the two chambers and the extraction orifice. (author)

  7. Resolution and Efficiency of the ATLAS Muon Drift-Tube Chambers at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, M.; Horvat, S.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Manz, A.; Mohrdieck-Mock, S.; Rauscher, F.; Richter, Robert; Staude, A.; Stiller, W.

    2016-01-01

    The resolution and efficiency of a precision drift-tube chamber for the ATLAS muon spectrometer with final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN in a 100 GeV muon beam and at photon irradiation rates of up to 990 Hz/square cm which corresponds to twice the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. A silicon strip detector telescope was used as external reference in the beam. The pulse-height measurement of the read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections which lead to an improvement of the average drift-tube resolution from 104 microns to 82 microns without irradiation and from 128 microns to 108 microns at the maximum expected rate. The measured drift-tube efficiency agrees with the expectation from the dead time of the read-out electronics up to the maximum expected rate.

  8. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers: a comparison of wavelength and energy dispersive instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.

    1977-11-01

    Wavelength dispersive and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometers are compared. Separate sections are devoted to principles of operation, sample excitation, spectral resolution, and x-ray detection. Tabulated data from the literature are cited in the comparison of accuracy, precision, and detection limits. Spectral interferences and distortions are discussed. Advantages and limitations are listed for simultaneous wavelength dispersive spectrometers, sequential wavelength dispersive spectrometers, and Si(Li) energy dispersive spectrometers. Accuracy, precision, and detection limits are generally superior for wavelength dispersive spectrometers

  10. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  11. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  12. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions

  13. Determination of the bending field integral of the LEP spectrometer dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritin, R.; Cornuet, D.; Dehning, B.; Hidalgo, A.; Hildreth, M.; Kalbreier, W.; Leclere, P.; Mugnai, G.; Palacios, J.; Roncarolo, F.; Torrence, E.; Wilkinson, G.

    2005-01-01

    The LEP spectrometer performed calibrations of the beam energy in the 2000 LEP run, in order to provide a kinematical constraint for the W boson mass measurement. The beam was deflected in the spectrometer by a steel core dipole, and the bending angle was measured by Beam-Position Monitors on either side of the magnet. The energy determination relies on measuring the change in bending angle when ramping the beam from a reference point at 50GeV to an energy within the LEP W physics regime, typically 93GeV. The ratio of integrated bending fields at these settings (approximately 1.18Tm/0.64Tm) must be known with a precision of a few 10 -5 . The paper reports on the field mapping measurements which were conducted to determine the bending integral under a range of excitation currents and coil temperatures. These were made in the laboratory before and after spectrometer operation, using a test-bench equipped with a moving arm, carrying an NMR probe and Hall probes, and in the LEP tunnel itself, with a mapping trolley inside the vacuum chamber. The mapping data are related to local readings supplied by fixed NMR probes in the dipole, and a predictive model developed which shows good consistency for all datasets within the estimated uncertainty, which is 14x10 -5 for the moving arm, and 3x10 -5 for the mapping trolley. Measurements are also presented of the field gradient inside the dipole, and of the environmental magnetic fields in the LEP tunnel. When applied to the spectrometer energy calibrations, the bending field model calculates the ratio of integrated fields with an estimated uncertainty of 1.5x10 -5

  14. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer (R807)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    In this view of the Axial Field Spectrometer at I8, the vertical uranium/scintillator hadron calorimeter (just left of centre) is retracted to give access to the cylindrical central drift chamber. The yellow iron structure served as a filter to identify muons, with MWPCs and the array of Cherenkov counters to the right.

  15. Design and construction of a magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaqua, R.S.; Ludwig, G.O.; Montes, A.

    1991-08-01

    In this work we describe the design and construction of a sector magnetic mass spectrometer. The main parts of the instrument are: ion source, grids (extraction, energy analysis and ion acceleration), electrostatic lens, magnetic sector and detector. All these components are kept inside a vacuum chamber evacuated by a turbomolecular pump. (author)

  16. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  17. An improved data acquisition system for isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, T.K.; Reddy, B.; Nazare, C.K.; Handu, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic ratio mass spectrometers designed and fabricated to measure the isotopic ratios with a precision of better than 0.05%. In order to achieve this precision, the measurement system consisting of ion signal to voltage converters, analog to digital converters, and data acquisition electronics should be at least one order better than the overall precision of measurement. Using state of the art components and techniques, a data acquisition system, which is an improved version of the earlier system, has been designed and developed for use with multi-collector isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

  18. Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  19. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  20. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  1. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  2. The SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Collatz, R; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Folger, H; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Blunt, D; Durell, JL; Varley, BJ; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; JONES, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Amzal, N; Meliani, Z; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Passoja, A; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    The main features of nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers used in nuclear spectroscopic investigations involving in-beam multi-e-gamma spectrometers are discussed. The relative importance of the F-ray background due to the accelerated ion-target and the recoil-ion-target

  4. Design and performance of the large HERMES drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuther, S.; Boettcher, H.; Ferstl, M.; Gute, A.; Harder, U.; Krause, B.; Meissner, F.; Nowak, W.D.; Schmidt, F.; Schwind, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    Big planar drift chambers built for the downstream tracking system of the HERMES spectrometer are described. Using the fast non-flammable gas mixture Ar/CO 2 /CF 4 (90/5/5) average spatial resolutions of about 180 μm per plane at efficiencies above 96% have been obtained from test run data analysis. (orig.)

  5. The muon spectrometer of the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the construction of the muon spectrometer of the L3 detector is described, one of the four detectors presently being prepared for experimentation at LEP. This accelerator is built at CERN, Geneva, and is due to start operation in July 1989. One of the unique features of the L3 experiment is the measurement of the momentum of the muons produced in the e + e - collisions iwht an independent muon spectrometer. This makes it possible to study final states involving muons, with high accuracy (δP/P = 2% at 45 GeV). The muon spectrometer consists of 80 large drift chambers, arranged in 16 modules or 'octants', that fill a cylindrical volume of 12 m in length, 5 m inner diameter and 12 m outer diameter. The design of the drift chambers, the construction, the alignment procedure and the test results for the complete octants are described. 51 refs.; 57 figs.; 16 tabs

  6. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  7. He leak testing of Indus-2 dipole vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindal, B.K.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Shukla, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Centre for Advanced Technology is developing its second synchrotron radiation source INDUS-2 which is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. Dipole vacuum chambers are the vital components of Indus-2 vacuum system. Each of these chambers is approx. 3.6 m long and 0.67 m wide with 24 nos. of ports of various sizes. The dipole chambers were made by machining two halves and they are then lip welded together. The dipole chamber has approx. 14 m of total weld length and it was leak tested for leak tightness of the order of 10 -10 mbar 1/s. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector (HMSLD) was utilized for the leak testing. Subsequently the leaks of various orders in welding joints were repaired and leak tightness achieved. This paper describes the experiences during leak testing of 20 nos. of aluminum dipole chambers for INDUS-2

  8. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  9. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  10. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  11. Precision Airdrop (Largage de precision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    NAVIGATION TO A PRECISION AIRDROP OVERVIEW RTO-AG-300-V24 2 - 9 the point from various compass headings. As the tests are conducted, the resultant...rate. This approach avoids including a magnetic compass for the heading reference, which has difficulties due to local changes in the magnetic field...Scientifica della Difesa ROYAUME-UNI Via XX Settembre 123 Dstl Knowledge Services ESPAGNE 00187 Roma Information Centre, Building 247 SDG TECEN / DGAM

  12. The LASS [Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid] spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K + and K - interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K - p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly

  13. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  14. A new thermal ionisation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, C.; Merren, T.O.; Unsworth, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Isomass 54E, a new thermal ionisation mass spectrometer for precise measurements of isotopic composition is described in detail. It combines the fruits of three development pro ects, viz. automation, energy filters and extended geometry with existing micromass expertise and experience. The hardware and software which are used for the automation as well as the energy filter used, are explained. The 'extended geometry' ion optical system adopted for better performance is discussed in detail. (K.B.)

  15. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  16. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  17. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  18. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  19. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  20. SIMS device with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szigethy, D.; Riedel, M.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) has been designed and constructed. The device is applicable for dinamic and static SIMS investigations. The sputtering and ionisation can be studied simultaneously. Oil diffusion pumps and an auxiliary ion-getter pump are used. A commercial ion gun is used in the working chamber. The secondary ion optics assures the preliminary filtering of fast ions, and the collection of sputtered ions for a separate microprobe analysis. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated with examples. (R.J.)

  1. The Omega spectrometer in the West Hall.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Inside the hut which sits on top of the superconducting magnet are the TV cameras that observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet gap below. On the background the two beam lines feeding the spectrometer target, for separated hadrons up to 40 GeV, on the right, for 80 GeV electrons, on the left, respectively. The latter strikes a radiator thus sending into Omega tagged photons up to 80 GeV. On the foreground, the two sections of the large gas Cerenkov counter working at atmospheric pressure, used for trigger purpose.

  2. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  3. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  4. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R.C.; Imel, G.R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  5. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  6. Precision Studies of Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    This grant covers the period Sept. 1, 1994 to Aug. 31, 1996 with an extension to Dec. 31, 1996. The main activities funded by this research grant include work on the TJNAF (formerly CEBAF) Hall A data analysis software project and other projects in Hall A worked on by my graduate students. All of these projects are necessary for the functioning of Hall A and are therefore directly related to my Hall A research program. The Hall A experimental equipment is still in the commissioning phase with the first experiment expected to be performed in May of 1997. My effort has focused on software development, in particular on analyzing and calibrating the vertical drift chambers (VDCs) which will be used for particle tracking in the high resolution spectrometers. I have written a standalone program to determine calibration constants needed to obtain the ultimate position and angle resolution. High resolution performance will be paramount for much of the Hall A experimental program. In particular, I am spokesman on an experiment to separate the response functions in the d(e,eprimep)n reaction. In order to make meaningful comparisons with theory, this experiment requires accurate determination of the cross sections and it will therefore be crucial to obtain the ultimate performance from the VDCs

  7. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  8. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements

  9. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J., E-mail: hwoerner@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brown, M. A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bokhoven, J. A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  10. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J.; Brown, M. A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van

    2015-01-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup

  11. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Brown, M. A.; van Bokhoven, J. A.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  12. 4D space access neutron spectrometer 4SEASONS (SIKI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Mitsutaka

    2010-01-01

    The 4D Space Access Neutron Spectrometer (4SEASONS) is a high-intensity Fermi-chopper spectrometer. It is intended to provide high counting rate for thermal neutrons with medium resolution (ΔE/E i -6% at E=0) to efficiently collect weak inelastic signals from novel spin and lattice dynamics especially in high-T c superconductors and related materials. To achieve this goal, the spectrometer equips advanced instrumental design such as an elliptic-shaped converging neutron guide coated with high-Q c (m=3-4) supermirror, and long-length (2.5 m) 3 He position sensitive detectors (PSDs) arranged cylindrically inside the vacuum scattering chamber. Furthermore, the spectrometer is ready for multi-incident-energy measurements by the repetition rate multiplication method, which greatly improves the measurement efficiency. (author)

  13. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  14. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  15. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  17. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  18. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  19. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  20. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  1. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  2. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  3. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradner, H.; Solmitz, F.

    1958-01-01

    Since its invention by Glaser in 1953, the bubble chamber has become a most valuable tool in high-energy physics. It combines a number of advantages of various older methods of particle detection: it offers high spatial resolution, rapid accumulation of data, some time resolution, and some choice of the nucleus whose interaction one wants to study (bubble chambers have been made to operate with a large number of different liquids, including H 2 , D 2 , He, Xe, and several hydrocarbons). In order to exploit the advantages of spatial resolution and rapid data accumulation, high-speed high-precision analysis procedures must be developed. In this article they discuss some of the problems posed by such analysis. The discussion is based largely on experience gained in performing hydrogen bubble chamber experiments with the University of California's Bevatron (6-Bev proton synchrotron)

  4. A cylindrical drift chamber for radiative muon capture experiments at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.S.; Dawson, R.J.; Azuelos, G.; Robertson, B.C.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahamad, S.; Gorringe, T.P.; Serna-Angel, A.; Blecher, M.; Wright, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    In the Standard Model, the weak interaction is purely V-A in character. However in semileptonic reactions the strong force induces additional couplings. Radiative muon capture (RMC), μ - Z → ν(Z-1)γ, is a process which is particularly sensitive to the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g p , which is still very poorly determined experimentally. Due to the extremely small branching ratio (∼ 6 x 10 -8 ), the elementary reaction μ - p → νnγ has never been measured. Effort to date has concentrated on nuclear RMC where the branching ratio is much larger, but the interpretation of these results is hindered by nuclear structure uncertainties. A measurement is being carried out at TRIUMF to determine the rate of RMC on hydrogen to a precision of 8% leading to a determination of g p with an error of 10%. The detection system is based on a large volume cylindrical drift chamber, in an axial magnetic field, acting as an e + e - pair spectrometer with a solid angle of ≅ 2 π. The design, construction and performance of the cylindrical drift chamber are discussed

  5. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  6. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  7. A combination drift chamber/pad chamber for very high readout rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, L.; Cataldi, G.; Elia, V.; Mazur, P.; Murphy, C.T.; Smith, R.P.; Yang, W.; Alexopoulos, T.; Durandet, C.; Erwin, A.; Jennings, J.; Antoniazzi, L.; Introzzi, G.; Lanza, A.; Liguori, G.; Torre, P.; Arenton, M.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Dukes, E.; Golovatyuk, V.; Hanlet, P.; McManus, A.; Nelson, K.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Sun, J.; Ballagh, C.; Bingham, H.; Kaeding, T.; Lys, J.; Misawa, S.; Blankman, A.; Borodin, S.; Kononenko, W.; Newcomer, M.; Selove, W.; Trojak, T.; VanBerg, R.; Zhang, S.N.; Block, M.; Corti, G.; LeCompte, T.; Rosen, J.; Yao, T.; Boden, A.; Cline, D.; Ramachandran, S.; Rhoades, J.; Tokar, S.; Budagov, J.; Tsyganov, E.; Cao, Z.L.; He, M.; Wang, C.; Wei, C.; Zhang, N.; Chen, T.Y.; Yao, N.; Clark, K.; Jenkins, M.; Cooper, M.; Creti, P.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M.; Fortney, L.; Kowald, W.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Turnbull, L.; Wagoner, D.; Lau, K.; Mo, G.; Trischuk, J.

    1991-11-01

    Six medium-sized (∼1 x 2 m 2 ) drift chambers with pad and stripe readout have been constructed for and are presently operating in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment E-771. Each chamber module actually represents a pair of identical planes: two sets of anode wires, two sets of stripes, and two sets of pads. The wire planes are read out separately and represent X measurements in the coordinate system of the experiment. The twin stripe and pad planes are internally paired within the chamber modules; stripe signals represent Y measurements and pad signals combination X and Y measurements. Signals which develop on the stripes and pads are mirror (but inverted) images of what is seen on the wires. In addition to being used in the off-line pattern recognition, pad signals are also used as inputs to an on-line high transverse momentum (pt) trigger processor. While the techniques involved in the design and construction of the chambers are not novel, they may be of interest to experiments contemplating very large area, high rate chambers for future spectrometers

  8. A combination drift chamber/pad chamber for very high readout rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, L.; Cataldi, G.; Elia, V.; Mazur, P.; Murphy, C.T.; Smith, R.P.; Yang, W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Alexopoulos, T.; Durandet, C.; Erwin, A.; Jennings, J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)); Antoniazzi, L.; Introzzi, G.; Lanza, A.; Liguori, G.; Torre, P. (Pavia Univ. (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)); Arenton, M.; Conetti, S.

    1991-11-01

    Six medium-sized ({approx}1 {times} 2 m{sup 2}) drift chambers with pad and stripe readout have been constructed for and are presently operating in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment E-771. Each chamber module actually represents a pair of identical planes: two sets of anode wires, two sets of stripes, and two sets of pads. The wire planes are read out separately and represent X measurements in the coordinate system of the experiment. The twin stripe and pad planes are internally paired within the chamber modules; stripe signals represent Y measurements and pad signals combination X and Y measurements. Signals which develop on the stripes and pads are mirror (but inverted) images of what is seen on the wires. In addition to being used in the off-line pattern recognition, pad signals are also used as inputs to an on-line high transverse momentum (pt) trigger processor. While the techniques involved in the design and construction of the chambers are not novel, they may be of interest to experiments contemplating very large area, high rate chambers for future spectrometers.

  9. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  10. Physics with the single arm spectrometer at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.

    1978-01-01

    The single arm spectrometer is fully instrumented for high-energy counter/wire chamber experiments. After a brief description of the spectrometer, data are shown for the inclusive reactions a + p → a + X and a + p → b + X, where a = π +- , K +- , p, or p-bar, and b is different from a. Considerable attention is devoted to the impact analysis of elastic scattering, although inelastic results are also discussed. Cross sections for a number of interactions are compared. Anticipated experiments are outlined. 16 figures, 2 tables

  11. Performance of a proton irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Borsato, E.; Dal Corso, F.; Fazzi, A.; Gonella, F.; Introini, M.V.; Lippi, I.; Lorenzoli, M.; Modenese, L.; Montecassiano, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Pola, A.; Varoli, V.; Zotto, P.

    2012-01-01

    A Proton Irradiation Chamber aiming to perform radiation tests of electronic components was developed. The precision on the measurement of the ion currents was pushed beyond the resolution of the picoammeter by means of a series of collimators on the beam showing a linear correlation among the currents measured on them and the smaller, not measurable, current on the target. As an example of the obtained results the tests done on a Si microdosimeter and a power p-MOS are reported.

  12. Performance of a proton irradiation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Borsato, E. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dal Corso, F. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Fazzi, A. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Gonella, F. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Introini, M.V. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Lippi, I. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lorenzoli, M. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Modenese, L.; Montecassiano, F.; Pegoraro, M. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pola, A.; Varoli, V. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Zotto, P., E-mail: pierluigi.zotto@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    A Proton Irradiation Chamber aiming to perform radiation tests of electronic components was developed. The precision on the measurement of the ion currents was pushed beyond the resolution of the picoammeter by means of a series of collimators on the beam showing a linear correlation among the currents measured on them and the smaller, not measurable, current on the target. As an example of the obtained results the tests done on a Si microdosimeter and a power p-MOS are reported.

  13. Multi-spectrometer calibration transfer based on independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Hao; Xia, Zhenzhen; Gong, Zhiyong

    2018-02-26

    Calibration transfer is indispensable for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy due to the need for precise and consistent measurements across different spectrometers. In this work, a method for multi-spectrometer calibration transfer is described based on independent component analysis (ICA). A spectral matrix is first obtained by aligning the spectra measured on different spectrometers. Then, by using independent component analysis, the aligned spectral matrix is decomposed into the mixing matrix and the independent components of different spectrometers. These differing measurements between spectrometers can then be standardized by correcting the coefficients within the independent components. Two NIR datasets of corn and edible oil samples measured with three and four spectrometers, respectively, were used to test the reliability of this method. The results of both datasets reveal that spectra measurements across different spectrometers can be transferred simultaneously and that the partial least squares (PLS) models built with the measurements on one spectrometer can predict that the spectra can be transferred correctly on another.

  14. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  15. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  16. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  17. Microprocessor monitored Auger spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Ghaleb, Dominique; Pernot, Bernard.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of an Auger spectrometer, used for studying surface impurity diffusion, has been fully automatized with the help of a microprocessor. The characteristics, performance and practical use of the system are described together with the main advantage for the experimentator [fr

  18. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  19. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  20. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  1. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The huge superconducting magnet (3 m inside coil diameter, 2 m gap, 18 kGauss) contains a large number of optical spark chambers partly surrounding a hydrogen target which is hit by the beam entering from behind. The half cylindrical aluminium hut houses eight television cameras viewing the spark chambers from the top. The big gas Cerenkov counter in front of the picture (6 m x 4 m x 3 m) which identifies fast forward particles was constructed at Saclay as a contribution of one of the Omega.

  2. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  3. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  4. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  5. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P-barANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD-bar decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed. (paper)

  6. Resistive Micromegas for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Iodice, Mauro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large size resistive Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The current innermost stations of the muon endcap system, the Small Wheel, will be upgraded in 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) the “New Small Wheel” will be equipped with eight layers of Micromegas (MM) detectors arranged in multilayers of two quadruplets, for a total of about 1200 m$^2$ detection planes. All quadruplets have trapezoidal shapes with surface areas between 2 and 3 m$^2$. The Micromegas system will provide both trigger and tracking capabilities. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction for each plane of the assembled modules, with an alig...

  7. Resistive Micromegas for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215987; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large size resistive micromegas detectors (MM) will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The current innermost stations of the muon endcap system, the Small Wheel, will be upgraded in 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) the ``New Small Wheel'' will be equipped with eight layers of MM detectors arranged in multilayers of two quadruplets, for a total of about 1200 m$^2$ detection planes. All quadruplets have trapezoidal shapes with surface areas between 2 and 3 m$^2$. The MM system will provide both trigger and tracking capabilities. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction for each plane of the assembled modules, with an alignment of the reado...

  8. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  9. Drift chamber system for use in a high rate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A system of short drift distance (0.125'') drift chambers is described. This system is being built for use in the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer. These chambers will be able to handle beam rates of several million/pulse and give a spatial resolution of the order of 150 μm. Cathode readout will provide unique 3-dimensional points for each crack. The readout will utilize three custom built integrated circuits, a four channel amplifier-shaper, a four channel discriminator and a four channel shift register delay and time digitizer. A summary of test results on a prototype is also given

  10. The alignment system of the ATLAS muon end-cap spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schricker, A.

    2002-08-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will offer an unparalleled opportunity to probe fundamental physics at an energy scale well beyond that reached by current experiments. The ATLAS detector is being designed to fully exploit the potential of the LHC for revealing new aspects of the fundamental structure of nature. The muon spectrometer itself must measure with a momentum resolution of s10 % for muons with a transverse momentum of p T =1TeV, to fully exploit the advantages offered by the open superconducting air core muon toroid magnet system. At this level of momentum resolution the muon spectrometer relies heavily on the ability to master the alignment of the large muon chambers spaced far apart. The overall contribution of the alignment to the total sagitta error must be less than 30 μm r.m.s. In order to meet the stringent alignment requirements the positions of the muon chambers are constantly monitored with optical alignment technologies. The end-caps of this spectrometer are therefore embedded in an alignment grid that must allow for an absolute position measurement of the chambers. This alignment grid employs up to 9.6m long precision rulers (alignment bars) which have to provide the position and orientation of all alignment sensors permeating the end-caps. Simulation studies have shown that the shape of these bars must be known to 30 μm r.m.s. and the length must be known to 20 μm r.m.s. The principles of alignment and survey techniques used to do this are introduced and the current activities concerning the alignment strategy for the ATLAS muon end-cap spectrometer are presented. After consideration of the motivation and requirements, the measurement strategy and the design of the alignment bars is given. An optical and thermal in-bar instrumentation is used to provide shape information of discrete points on the bar. The strategy to calibrate the in-bar instrumentation and to measure an initial bar shape with a large coordinate measuring machine, leads

  11. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  12. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  13. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  14. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Production of cathode pad chambers for 2nd muon tracking station of ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish Azmi, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, I.A.; Bose, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Datta, P.; Dutt-Mazumder, A.K.; Jana, S.; Pal, S.; Paul, L.; Roy, P.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The second tracking station of dimuon spectrometer of ALICE comprises of 8 cathode pad chambers whose inner radius is 23.7 cm and outer radius is 117 cm. The anode to cathode separation is 2.5 cm and the operating voltage of these chambers is around 1675 volt at an atmospheric pressure of 80% Ar + 20% CO 2 . At this operating point, the gain of the chamber is around 10 5 . In this report the quality control tests on the first production chamber have been reported

  16. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  17. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  18. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  19. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  20. The magnetic spectrometer of the PAMELA satellite experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gabbanini, A.; Grandi, M.; Papini, P.; Ricciarini, S.B.; Spillantini, P.; Straulino, S.; Taccetti, F.; Tesi, M.; Vannuccini, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of the magnetic spectrometer of the PAMELA experiment, that will be launched during 2003 to do a precise measurement of the energy spectra of the antimatter components in cosmic rays. This paper will mainly focus on the detailed description of the tracking system and on the solutions adopted to deal with the technical challenges that are required to build a very precise detector to be used in the hostile space environment

  1. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  2. An approximately 4π tracking magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A tracking magnetic spectrometer based on large Time Projection Chambers (TPC) is proposed to measure the momentum of charged particles emerging from the RHIC beam pipe at angles larger than four degrees and to identify the particle type for those beyond fifteen degrees with momenta up to 700 MeV/c, which is a large fraction of the final charged particles emitted by a low rapidity quark-gluon plasma

  3. Experimental and calculated calibration of ionization chambers with air circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Peetermans, A

    1972-01-01

    The reports describes the method followed in order to calibrate the different ionization chambers with air circulation, used by the 'Health Physics Group'. The calculations agree more precisely with isotopes cited previously (/sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O, /sup 41 /Ar, /sup 14/O, /sup 38/Cl) as well as for /sup 85/Kr, /sup 133/Xe, /sup 14/C and tritium which are used for the experimental standardisation of different chambers.

  4. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  5. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  6. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events

  7. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  8. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  9. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  10. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  11. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  12. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  13. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  14. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  15. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  16. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  17. The HARP resistive plate chambers: Characteristics and physics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.; Boyko, I.; Chelkov, G.; Dedovitch, D.; Dumps, R.; Dydak, F.; Elagin, A.; Gapienko, V.; Gostkin, M.; Guskov, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Koreshev, V.; Linssen, L.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nikolaev, K.; Semak, A.; Sviridov, Yu.; Usenko, E.; Wotschack, J.; Zaets, V.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The HARP Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) system was designed for time-of-flight measurement in the large-angle acceptance region of the HARP spectrometer. It comprised 46 four-gap glass RPCs covering an area of ∼8m 2 . The design of the RPCs, their operation, intrinsic properties, and system performance are described. The intrinsic time resolution of the RPCs is better than 130ps leading to a system time resolution of ∼175ps

  18. Study on a drift chamber for high energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Maria Augusta Constante

    1993-01-01

    This work deals with the studies of a multiwire gaseous detector operating as a drift chamber, which will be part of the SELEX spectrometer of the experiment Fermilab E781. A prototype was designed to be built and tested at IFUSP. Results are shown of the analysis of data taken with another similar detector whose construction and test were done at Fermilab, with the aim of studying its characterization and performance. (author)

  19. R607 drift chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The experiment R607 was set-up by the Aachen-Amsterdam (NIKHEF)-CERN-Munich- Northwestern-Riverside Collaborartion to search for diffraction production of charmed particles and correlations at high longitudinal momentum. It consisted of identical septum magnet spectrometers on both downstream arms of intersection 6, each having a series of three gas Cerenkov counters for particle identification. (see also photo 7702599X)

  20. ''VECTON-1'' two-arm spectrometer for rho--meson photoproduction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, M.V.; Kanetsyan, A.R.; Kukarev, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    A two-arm spectrometer for registering p - mesons according to a charged pion and one of the neutral pion disintegration photons has been designed. The spectrometer arm which registers charged pion comprises a deflecting magnet, dual wide-gap spark chambers and dual scintillation counters. The spectrometer arm for registering the disintegration photon comprises a scintillation counter, a dual wide-gap spark chamber and a shower detector. The principal characteristics of the spectrometer components are listed. The functional diagram of the useful events selection unit is discussed. It is shown that the experimental results obtained with the aid of the ''VEKTON-1'' set-up are in good agreement with the earlier results: P - meson rest energy is 731+-30 MeV, the resonant range width is 195+-58 MeV

  1. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.

    1986-01-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed in fall 1983 to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. The chamber had to be placed within the existing central drift chamber, making access for repairs difficult and costly. Therefore for detector elements thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes (straws) were used because of their simplicity and robustness. The diameter of the drift tubes was 6.9 mm. The radial extent of the proposed chamber was from 3 cm to 10 cm, the inner wall of the central drift. It was clear that radiation levels, from synchrotron x-rays and overfocussed electrons, were potentially high. Since the drift distance is short in the straws, it was desirable to operate them at the highest possible gas gain, to achieve the best spatial resolution. There was a likelihood of drawing large currents in the chamber and thus causing radiation damage. Therefore a study of radiation hardness under the conditions of their proposed design was undertaken. In tests, argon-hydrocarbon mixtures consistently became unusable at ∼0.05 C/cm collected charge, due to anode buildup. Argon-CO 2 mixtures, while underquenched, were operational to 0.25 C/cm, at which point loss of cathode material became intolerable. Argon-xenon-CO 2 proved to be quenched as well as argon-hydrocarbons, but was limited by cathode damage. The MAC vertex chamber has operated at a distance of 4.6 cm from the e + e - interaction point at PEP for two years and has shown no aging effects

  2. Drift velocity monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented.

  3. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  4. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  5. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  6. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons

  7. HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1980-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame but, instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. The beam can be brought into the magnet at a variable position and the magnet can be rotated

  8. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzacco, D [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1992-08-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4{pi} detector array for advanced {gamma}-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4{pi} calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs.

  9. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzacco, D.

    1992-01-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4π detector array for advanced γ-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4π calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs

  10. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  11. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  12. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  13. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  14. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  15. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  16. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  17. Argus drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P

    1983-11-15

    The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.

  18. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  19. A multiple sampling time projection ionization chamber for nuclear fragment tracking and charge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Chance, J.C.; Christie, W.F.; Gilkes, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Romero, J.L.; Sann, H.; Tull, C.E.; Warren, P.

    1997-01-01

    A detector has been developed for the tracking and charge measurement of the projectile fragment nuclei produced in relativistic nuclear collisions. This device, MUSIC II, is a second generation Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), and employs the principles of ionization and time projection chambers. It provides unique charge determination for charges Z≥6, and excellent track position measurement. MUSIC II has been used most recently with the EOS (equation of state) TPC and other EOS collaboration detectors. Earlier it was used with other systems in experiments at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the ALADIN spectrometer at GSI. (orig.)

  20. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  1. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Stephen; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production (ship effect), (a, n) reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  2. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  3. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  4. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  5. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hauschild, K. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-06-15

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  6. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.; Hauschild, K.

    2015-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  7. Adaptation of multiwire chambers to some recent experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, G.

    1977-01-01

    Three realizations of gas multiplication detectors are presented in the field of multiwire chambers. Le 'NEUTRINO' experiment is intended for investigating neutrino interactions at energies as high as possible with using drift chambers. The 'LEZARD' experiment is intended for investigating lepton and hadron production at high transverse momentum in hadron-nucleon collisions up to the higher energies attainable at SPS (use of a multiwire proportional chamber), the apparatus has the performance of a spectrometer. A spark chamber equipped with memories has been developed for controlling bubble chamber experiments. Emphasis is put on the evolution towards detectors associated with 'another thing' to obtain a more specific operation: such as the plasma memory and spark chamber association, some possible association with function gaps is pointed out (delay function, homothetic function) [fr

  8. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  9. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  10. CHIRON – A new high resolution spectrometer for CTIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy G.W.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Small telescopes can play an important role in the search for exoplanets because they offer an opportunity for high cadence observations that are not possible with large aperture telescopes. However, there is a shortage of high resolution spectrometers for precision Doppler planet searches. We report on an innovative design for CHIRON, an inexpensive spectrometer that we are building for the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO in Chile. The resolution will be R >80.000, the spectral format spanning 410 to 880 nm. The total throughput of the telescope and spectrometer will be better than 12%, comparable with the efficiency of state-of-the-art spectrometers. The design is driven by the requirements for precision Doppler searches for exoplanets using an iodine cell. The optical layout is a classical echelle with 140 mm beam size. The bench-mounted spectrometer will be fibre-fed followed by an image slicer. An apochromatic refractor is used as the camera. Image quality and throughput of the design are excellent over the full spectral range. Extensive use of commercially available components and avoidance of complicated custom optics are key for quick and resource-efficient implementation.

  11. Optimisation of the Read-out Electronics of Muon Drift-Tube Chambers for Very High Background Rates at HL-LHC and Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Gadow, Philipp; Ecker, Katharina; Fink, David; Fras, Markus; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Müller, Felix; Richter, Robert; Schmid, Clemens; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Zhao, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    In the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and sMDT chambers with half of the tube diameter of the MDTs are used for precision muon track reconstruction. The sMDT chambers are designed for operation at high counting rates due to neutron and gamma background irradiation expected for the HL-LHC and future hadron colliders. The existing MDT read-out electronics uses bipolar signal shaping which causes an undershoot of opposite polarity and same charge after a signal pulse. At high counting rates and short electronics dead time used for the sMDTs, signal pulses pile up on the undershoot of preceding background pulses leading to a reduction of the signal amplitude and a jitter in the drift time measurement and, therefore, to a degradation of drift tube efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to further increase the rate capability of sMDT tubes, baseline restoration can be used in the read-out electronics to suppress the pile-up effects. A discrete bipolar shaping circuit with baseline...

  12. X-ray crystal spectrometer upgrade for ITER-like wall experiments at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumack, A. E., E-mail: amy.shumack@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Rzadkiewicz, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Karpinski, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowska, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Scholz, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Byszuk, A.; Cieszewski, R.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Dominik, W. [Faculty of Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Conway, N. J.; Dalley, S.; Tyrrell, S.; Zastrow, K.-D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Figueiredo, J. [EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

    2014-11-15

    The high resolution X-Ray crystal spectrometer at the JET tokamak has been upgraded with the main goal of measuring the tungsten impurity concentration. This is important for understanding impurity accumulation in the plasma after installation of the JET ITER-like wall (main chamber: Be, divertor: W). This contribution provides details of the upgraded spectrometer with a focus on the aspects important for spectral analysis and plasma parameter calculation. In particular, we describe the determination of the spectrometer sensitivity: important for impurity concentration determination.

  13. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of 3 He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors

  14. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices

  15. Temperature uniformity in the CERN CLOUD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets experiment at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research investigates the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions and their activation into cloud droplets. A key feature of the CLOUD experiment is precise control of the experimental parameters. Temperature uniformity and stability in the chamber are important since many of the processes under study are sensitive to temperature and also to contaminants that can be released from the stainless steel walls by upward temperature fluctuations. The air enclosed within the 26 m3 CLOUD chamber is equipped with several arrays (strings of high precision, fast-response thermometers to measure its temperature. Here we present a study of the air temperature uniformity inside the CLOUD chamber under various experimental conditions. Measurements were performed under calibration conditions and run conditions, which are distinguished by the flow rate of fresh air and trace gases entering the chamber at 20 and up to 210 L min−1, respectively. During steady-state calibration runs between −70 and +20 °C, the air temperature uniformity is better than ±0.06 °C in the radial direction and ±0.1 °C in the vertical direction. Larger non-uniformities are present during experimental runs, depending on the temperature control of the make-up air and trace gases (since some trace gases require elevated temperatures until injection into the chamber. The temperature stability is ±0.04 °C over periods of several hours during either calibration or steady-state run conditions. During rapid adiabatic expansions to activate cloud droplets and ice particles, the chamber walls are up to 10 °C warmer than the enclosed air. This results in temperature differences of ±1.5 °C in the vertical direction and ±1 °C in the horizontal direction, while the air returns to its equilibrium temperature with a time constant of about 200 s.

  16. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  17. BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed

  18. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  19. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  20. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  2. Stability of Streamer Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi

    1982-08-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result.

  3. Stability of streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result. (author)

  4. MEMS based digital transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Yariv; Ramani, Mouli

    2005-09-01

    Earlier this year, a new breed of Spectrometers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) engines has been introduced to the commercial market. The use of these engines combined with transform mathematics, produces powerful spectrometers at unprecedented low cost in various spectral regions.

  5. COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Gerstl, S; Grau, A W; Hagelstein, M; Saez de Jauregui, D; Boffo, C; Sikler, G; Baglin, V; Cox, M P; Schouten, J C; Cimino, R; Commisso, M; Spataro, B; Mostacci, A; Wallen, E J; Weigel, R; Clarke, J; Scott, D; Bradshaw, T; Jones, R; Shinton, I

    2011-01-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconducting insertion devices is the understanding of the beam heat load. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the beam heat load mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics is under construction. The following diagnostics will be implemented: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. The inner vacuum chamber will be removable in order to test different geometries and materials. This will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG will be built to fit in a short straight section at ANKA. A first installation at the synchrotron light source Diamond is foreseen in June 2011. Here we describe the technical design report of this device and the planned measurements with beam.

  6. Drift chamber vertex detectors for SLC/LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.G.

    1987-03-01

    The short but measurable lifetimes of the b and c quarks and the tau lepton have motivated the development of high precision tracking detectors capable of providing information on the decay vertex topology of events containing these particles. This paper reviews the OPAL, L3, and MARK II experiments vertex drift chambers

  7. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  8. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretzki, G.

    1981-01-01

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Precision determination of pion mass using X-ray CCD spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelms, N; Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G; Chatellard, D; Daum, M; Egger, J P; Gotta, D; Hauser, P; Indelicato, P J; Jeannet, E; Kirch, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M; Wells, A

    2002-01-01

    An experiment is described which aims to determine the charged pion mass to 1 ppm or better, from which a new determination of the upper limit of the muon neutrino mass is anticipated. The experimental approach uses a high-intensity negative pion beam (produced at the PSI 590 MeV proton cyclotron), injected into a cyclotron trap and stopped inside a gas-filled target chamber, to form highly excited exotic atoms of pionic nitrogen and muonic oxygen. The energy of photons, emitted during de-excitation, is directly proportional to the mass of the pion or muon. These soft X-ray emission spectra are measured using a high-precision crystal spectrometer, with an array of six, high quantum efficiency X-ray position resolving CCDs at the focus. To achieve sub-ppm accuracy, simultaneous calibration of the pionic nitrogen line is provided by measurement of an adjacent muonic oxygen line, whose energy is known to 0.3 ppm. The high precision of the experiment offers a new opportunity to determine the pion mass to the leve...

  10. Design of a Trigger Data Serializer ASIC for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Forward Muon Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhong; Guan, Liang; Chapman, J. W.; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    The small-strip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC) will be used for both triggering and precision tracking purposes in the upgrade of the ATLAS forward muon spectrometer. Both sTGC pad and strip detectors are readout by a Trigger Data Serializer (TDS) ASIC in the trigger path. This ASIC has two operation modes to prepare trigger data from pad and strip detectors respectively. The pad mode (pad-TDS) collects the firing status for up to 104 pads from one detector layer and transmits the data at 4.8 Gbps to the pad trigger extractor every 25 ns. The pad trigger extractor collects pad-TDS data from eight detector layers and defines a region of interest along the path of a muon candidate. In the strip mode (strip-TDS), the deposited charges from up to 128 strips are buffered, time-stamped, and a trigger matching procedure is performed to read out strips underneath the region of interest. The strip-TDS output is also transmitted at 4.8 Gbps to the following FPGA processing circuits. Details about the ASIC design and test results are presented in this paper.

  11. Some aspects of the applications of wire chambers in high energy physics experiments at large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turala, M.

    1982-01-01

    An application of proportional and drift chambers in four large spectrometers at the accelerators of IHEP Serpukhov and CERN Geneva is described. An operation of wire chambers at high intensities and high multiplicities of particles is discussed. The results of investigations of their efficiencies, spatial resolution (for one and two-dimensional readout) and long term stability are presented. Problems of preselection of a given class of events are discussed. The systems for preselection of defined multiplicities or a scattering angle of particles, in which proportional chambers have been used, are described and the results of their application in the real experiments are presented. (author)

  12. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

  13. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  14. Evaluation of the operational characteristics of a CT ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Ana F.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The most common ionization chamber used in computed tomography dosimetry is the 'pencil ionization chamber'. It is a special cylindrical dosimeter developed for attending computed tomography beams particularities. In this study, a Victoreen pencil ionization chamber was submitted to a set of tests for a detailed evaluation of its operational characteristics. Such as many kinds of detectors, especially field instruments, this ionization chamber had originally a preamplifier to keep it electrically more stable. In this study, the performance of the chamber was analyzed with the original preamplifier and after its removal, and the results were compared. The objective of the preamplifier removal was to enable connecting the chamber to other kinds of electrometers available in laboratories. The behavior of the pencil ionization chamber before and after the removal of the preamplifier was very similar, and the results obtained were always within the limits of international recommendations. The results obtained in both situations allow, if necessary, the preamplifier removal of the system without lack of precision in the measurements

  15. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  16. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  17. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  18. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  19. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)

  20. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  1. Simulation of chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The description of the system of computer simulation of experiments conducted by means of track detectors with film data output is given. Considered is the principle of organization of computer model of the chamber experiment comprising the following stages: generation of events, generation of measurements, ge-- neration of scanning results, generation of distorbions, generated data calibration, filtration, events reconstruction, kinematic identification, total results tape formation, analysis of the results. Generation programs are formed as special RAM-files, where the RAM-file is the text of the program written in FORTRAN and divided into structural elements. All the programs are a ''part of the ''Hydra'' system. The system possibilities are considered on the base of the CDSC-6500 computer. The five-beam event generation, creation data structure for identification and calculation by the kinematic program take about 1s of CDC-6500 computer time [ru

  2. Nucleation in bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harigel, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various sources and mechanisms for bubble formation in superheated liquids are discussed. Bubble chambers can be filled with a great variety of liquids, such as e.g. the cryogenic liquids hydrogen, deuterium, neon, neon/hydrogen mixtures, argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen mixtures, or the warm liquids propane and various Freon like Freon-13B1. The superheated state is normally achieved by a rapid movement of an expansion piston or membrane, but can also be produced by standing ultrasonic waves, shock waves, or putting liquids under tension. Bubble formation can be initiated by ionizing particles, by intense (laser) light, or on rough surfaces. The creation of embryonic bubbles is not completely understood, but the macroscopic growth and condensation can be calculated, allowing to estimate the dynamic heat load [fr

  3. Development of a cooling system and vacuum chamber for the pion tracker for HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Joana [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe; Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    One of the future experiments planned at SIS18 with the HADES spectrometer in GSI Darmstadt envisages the employment of pion beam colliding on LH2 or nuclear target. Due to the fact that secondary pion beam has high momentum spread, since the precise knowledge of pion momentum is mandatory to carry out the planned exclusive measurements, we have to measure the momentum for each individual pion. For this purpose our group is developing a pion beam tracking system, which consists of two silicon detectors. Both detectors are located in the beamline and therefore have to cope the high-intensity secondary beam. Cooling of a silicon detector strongly improves its radiation hardness and performance. It reduces the leakage current and thus the noise, which is important for the detection of MIPs like pions. We have designed and built a complete prototype system of vacuum chamber and detector cooling. With use of the Finite Element Method we simulated the mechanical and thermal properties of the prototype. The proposed poster shows the current status and performance of the cooling system for a test-detector, focusing on the reduction of the leakage current and the noise.

  4. The automatic test system for the L3 muon drift chamber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bove, A.; Caiazzo, L.; Lanzano, S.; Manna, F.; Manto, G.; Parascandolo, L.; Parascandolo, P.; Parmentola, A.; Paternoster, G.

    1987-01-01

    We describe the system we developed to test the linearity of wire chambers amplifiers of the muon spectrometer presently in construction for the L3 experiment at LEP. The system, controlled by an Apple II computer, is capable of localizing both defective components and faults in the printed board. It will be used to perform the large scale quality control of the amplifier cards

  5. Peltier-based cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nar, Sevda Yeliz; Cakir, Altan

    2018-02-01

    Particles produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation and reactions can be identified through various methods. One of these methods that has been effective in the last century is the cloud chamber. The chamber makes visible cosmic particles that we are exposed to radiation per second. Diffusion cloud chamber is a kind of cloud chamber that is cooled by dry ice. This traditional model has some application difficulties. In this work, Peltier-based cloud chamber cooled by thermoelectric modules is studied. The new model provided uniformly cooled base of the chamber, moreover, it has longer lifetime than the traditional chamber in terms of observation time. This gain has reduced the costs which spent each time for cosmic particle observation. The chamber is an easy-to-use system according to traditional diffusion cloud chamber. The new model is portable, easier to make, and can be used in the nuclear physics experiments. In addition, it would be very useful to observe Muons which are the direct evidence for Lorentz contraction and time expansion predicted by Einsteins special relativity principle.

  6. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Filippo; Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies {<=}0.2 A. An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a stepping-motor controlled sine drive, an accuracy of {approx}0.25 A has been demonstrated. With the addition of a high resolution (0.075 arc sec) optical encoder on the grating stage, greater precision ({approx}0.005 A) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements within {approx}0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  7. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gautard, V.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F.M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Gopfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gossling, C.; Gottfert, T.; Goggi, V.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L.S.; Goncalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gordon, H.A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.P.; Goussiou, A.G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafstrom, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Groh, M.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haefner, P.; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.M.; Harrison, K; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Hemperek, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A.M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Henss, T.; Hernandez Jimenez, Y.; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Higon-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, J.C.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J.L.; Homma, Y.; Horazdovsky, T.; Hori, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howe, T.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Hsu, S.C.; Huang, G.S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issakov, V.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J.N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.K.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jared, R.C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jez, P.; Jezequel, S.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.J.; Jorge, P.M.; Joseph, J.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L.V.; Kalinowski, A.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V.A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kar, D.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz Unel, M.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R.D.; Kastanas, A.; Kastoryano, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M.S.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V.A.; Kazarinov, M.Y.; Keates, J.R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P.T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Kelly, M.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.S.; Kim, P.C.; Kim, S.H.; Kind, O.; Kind, P.; King, B.T.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G.P.; Kirsch, L.E.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E.B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P.F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Klute, M.; Kluth, S.; Knecht, N.S.; Kneringer, E.; Ko, B.R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koblitz, B.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Koneke, K.; Konig, A.C.; Koenig, S.; Kopke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kolos, S.; Kolya, S.D.; Komar, A.A.; Komaragiri, J.R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konovalov, S.P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Koperny, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E.V.; Korotkov, V.A.; Kortner, O.; Kostka, P.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V.M.; Kotov, K.Y.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, H.; Kowalski, T.Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A.S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasny, M.W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, N.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Kruger, H.; Krumshteyn, Z.V.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Kurochkin, Y.A.; Kus, V.; Kwee, R.; La Rotonda, L.; Labbe, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V.R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C.L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lane, J.L.; Lankford, A.J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J.F.; Lari, T.; Larner, A.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A.B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; Le Vine, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebel, C.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J.S.H.; Lee, S.C.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; LeGeyt, B.C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lellouch, J.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K.J.C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leonhardt, K.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J-R.; Lester, C.G.; Leung Fook Cheong, A.; Leveque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L.J.; Leyton, M.; Li, H.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lichtnecker, M.; Lie, K.; Liebig, W.; Lilley, J.N.; Lim, H.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S.C.; Linnemann, J.T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipinsky, L.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T.M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A.M.; Liu, C.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.B.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Lloyd, S.L.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W.S.; Lockwitz, S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C.W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, R.E.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Loureiro, K.F.; Lovas, L.; Love, J.; Love, P.A.; Lowe, A.J.; Lu, F.; Lubatti, H.J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, D.; Ludwig, I.; Luehring, F.; Luisa, L.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L.L.; Macana Goia, J.A.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macek, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R.J.; Mader, W.F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mattig, P.; Mattig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P.J.; Magradze, E.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makouski, M.; Makovec, N.; Malecki, Pa.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V.P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Mandelli, L.; Mandic, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P.S.; Manjavidze, I.D.; Manning, P.M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J.F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C.P.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, Z.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F.F.; Martin, J.P.; Martin, T.A.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martini, A.; Martyniuk, A.C.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Massa, I.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mc Donald, J.; Mc Kee, S.P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R.L.; McCubbin, N.A.; McFarlane, K.W.; McGlone, H.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T.M.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B.R.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F.S.; Messina, A.M.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A.S.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T.C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R.P.; Migas, S.; Mijovic, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, D.W.; Mills, W.J.; Mills, C.M.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D.A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A.A.; Minano, M.; Minashvili, I.A.; Mincer, A.I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L.M.; Mirabelli, G.; Misawa, S.; Miscetti, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V.A.; Miyagawa, P.S.; Mjornmark, J.U.; Mladenov, D.; Moa, T.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Monig, K.; Moser, N.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Mock, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R.W.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llacer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morley, A.K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morozov, S.V.; Morris, J.D.; Moser, H.G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S.V.; Moyse, E.J.W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Muller, T.A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Garcia, R.; Murray, W.J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A.G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N.R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S.K.; Neal, H.A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T.K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M.S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R.M.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F.M.; Nickerson, R.B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Nicquevert, B.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nozicka, M.; Nugent, I.M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D.C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F.G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S.H.; Ohm, C.C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olchevski, A.G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Ottersbach, J.P; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parker, S.I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pasztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L.S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M.I.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E.; Perez Garcia-Estan, M.T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommes, K.; Ponsot, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, JEM; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider has collected several hundred million cosmic ray events during 2008 and 2009. These data were used to commission the Muon Spectrometer and to study the performance of the trigger and tracking chambers, their alignment, the detector control system, the data acquisition and the analysis programs. We present the performance in the relevant parameters that determine the quality of the muon measurement. We discuss the single element efficiency, resolution and noise rates, the calibration method of the detector response and of the alignment system, the track reconstruction efficiency and the momentum measurement. The results show that the detector is close to the design performance and that the Muon Spectrometer is ready to detect muons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  8. Rapid monitoring of gaseous radionuclides using a portable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.; Tsai, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    A field gamma ray spectrometer, consisting of a portable high purity germanium detector, portable multichannel analyser, and a notebook computer, was used to conduct in situ rapid scanning of radioactive Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes in the air around a nuclear facility. The portable gamma ray spectrometer was calibrated using Ar, Kr, and Xe radioisotopes, activated in a research reactor and released in a sealed chamber. The unit was further tested inside the reactor containment to monitor the concentration of 41 Ar. In a typical one hour field measurement, the detection limits for some rare gas radionuclides corresponded to dose rates around 0.1 nSv.h -1 , which is far less than the dose rate induced by derived air concentrations imposed by the authority. The dose rate due to ground level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides dispersed from a source, such a nuclear facility or nuclear test, can be monitored in a short period using the portable unit. (Author)

  9. The CHAOS spectrometer for pion physics at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.; Amaudruz, P.A.; Brack, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    The Canadian high acceptance orbit spectrometer (CHAOS) is a unique magnetic spectrometer system recently commissioned for studies of pion induced reactions at TRIUMF. It is based on a cylindrical dipole magnet producing vertical magnetic fields up to 1.6 T. The scattering target is located in the center of the magnet. Charged particle tracks produced by pion interactions there are identified using four concentric cylindrical wire chambers surrounding the target. Particle identification and track multiplicity are determined by cylindrical layers of scintillation counters and lead glass Cerenkov counters, which also provide a first level trigger. A sophisticated second level trigger system permits pion fluxes in excess of 5 MHz to be employed. The detector subtends 360 o in the horizontal plane, and ±7 o out of this plane for a solid angle coverage approximately 10% of 4π sr. The momentum resolution delivered by the detector system is 1% (σ). (author). 16 refs., 12 figs

  10. Software for mass spectrometer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Anghel, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Trancota, Dan; Kaucsar, Martin; Oprea, Cristiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a software application for the MAT 250 mass spectrometer control, which was refurbished. The spectrometer was bring-up-to-date using a hardware structure on its support where the software application for mass spectrometer control was developed . The software application is composed of dedicated modules that perform given operations. The instructions that these modules have to perform are generated by a principal module. This module makes possible the change of information between the modules that compose the software application. The use of a modal structure is useful for adding new functions in the future. The developed application in our institute made possible the transformation of the mass spectrometer MAT 250 into a device endowed with other new generation tools. (authors)

  11. The Lise spectrometer at Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE is available at the french national heavy ion accelerator GANIL. Experimental results, obtained in radioactive beam production and search for new exotic nuclei are briefly reported

  12. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  13. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  14. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  15. The Calibration Home Base for Imaging Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Simon Brachmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Calibration Home Base (CHB is an optical laboratory designed for the calibration of imaging spectrometers for the VNIR/SWIR wavelength range. Radiometric, spectral and geometric calibration as well as the characterization of sensor signal dependency on polarization are realized in a precise and highly automated fashion. This allows to carry out a wide range of time consuming measurements in an ecient way. The implementation of ISO 9001 standards in all procedures ensures a traceable quality of results. Spectral measurements in the wavelength range 380–1000 nm are performed to a wavelength uncertainty of +- 0.1 nm, while an uncertainty of +-0.2 nm is reached in the wavelength range 1000 – 2500 nm. Geometric measurements are performed at increments of 1.7 µrad across track and 7.6 µrad along track. Radiometric measurements reach an absolute uncertainty of +-3% (k=1. Sensor artifacts, such as caused by stray light will be characterizable and correctable in the near future. For now, the CHB is suitable for the characterization of pushbroom sensors, spectrometers and cameras. However, it is planned to extend the CHBs capabilities in the near future such that snapshot hyperspectral imagers can be characterized as well. The calibration services of the CHB are open to third party customers from research institutes as well as industry.

  16. New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-D 2 doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The second is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic-focusing instrument in which exceptionally high ion intensities (> 1 x 10 -9 A) result in high signal to noise ratios. A containment facility with sample inlet systems and a standard distribution system was built to permit testing with tritium mixtures. The characteristics of the mass spectrometers under a variety of operating conditions will be presented. Factors to be discussed include: sample equilibration and its elimination; linearity; trimer formation; gas interference; stability; signal to noise ratio; mass discrimination; and anticipated precision and accu sublimed molybdenum collector of Converter No. 262; and (3) demonstration of tungsten CVD onto molybdenum flange using a reuseable graphite mandrel

  17. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  18. Construction and QA/QC of the Micromegas Pavia Readout Panels for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to cope with the required precision tracking and trigger capabilities from Run III onwards in the ATLAS experiment, the innermost layer of the Muon Spectrometer endcap (Small Wheels) will be upgraded. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will be equipped with eight layers of MicroMegas (MM) detectors and eight layers of small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), both arranged in two quadruplets. MM detectors of large size (up to 3 m$^2$) will be employed for the first time in HEP experiments. Four different types of MM quadruplets modules (SM1, SM2, LM1, LM2), built by different Institutes, will compose the NSW. The Italian INFN is responsible for the construction of the SM1 modules. The construction is shared among different INFN sites, Pavia being responsible for the readout panel construction. Due to the challenging mechanical specifications (with precisions of tens microns over meters), the construction procedure has been optimized to obtain the required strip alignment precision in the panel. A number of data q...

  19. Construction and QA/QC of the MicroMegas Pavia Readout Panels for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to cope with the required precision tracking and trigger capabilities during Run III in ATLAS experiment, the innermost layer of the Muon Spectrometer endcap (Small Wheels) will be upgraded. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will be equipped with eight layers of MicroMegas (MM) detectors and eight layers of small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), both arranged in two quadruplets. MM detectors of large size (up to 2 $m^{2}$) will be employed for the first time in HEP experiments. Four different types of MM quadruplets modules (SM1, SM2, LM1, LM2), built by different Institutes, will compose the NSW. Italian INFN is responsible for the construction of the SM1 modules. The construction is shared among different INFN sites. In particular, readout panels are built in Pavia. Due to the challenging mechanical specifications (with precisions of tens microns over meters), the construction procedure has been optimized to obtain the required strip alignment precision in the panel. A number of data quality checks on both ...

  20. Automated x-ray spectrometer for mixed oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.C.; Goheen, M.W.; Urie, M.W.; Wynhoff, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer for the rapid, automated, close-coupled analysis of solid mixed plutonium--uranium oxide fuel pellets. Reasons are given for the system design, which is intended to give a relative precision (RSD) of +-0.3% in a total analysis time of three minutes. The principal problems in an EDX system are in maximizing the plutonium count rates

  1. The little holographic bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, A.

    1983-01-01

    The lifetime study of the charmed particles has readvanced the idea to use holography for the little fast-cycle bubble chambers. A pilot experiment has been realised in 1982 with a little bubble chamber filled up with freon-115. 40000 holograms have been recorded [fr

  2. Large solid-angle spectrometers for studies of double-differential charged-particle and neutron emission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, M.; Matsuyama, S.; Sanami, T.; Soda, D.; Matsuyama, I.; Ohkubo, T.; Iwasaki, S.; Hirakawa, N.

    1995-01-01

    The large solid-angle spectrometer developed for studies of double-differential cross sections of (n, charged particle) and (n, xn') reactions using a gas-filled gridded-ionization chamber and an 80-cm long liquid scintillator is described. The charged particle spectrometer is a twin gas-filled gridded-ionization chamber with solid angle close to 4 π designed to achieve high stopping power and background suppression. The neutron spectrometer is a long NE213 liquid scintillation detector having position sensitivity. It is used as a large single spectrometer or a position sensitive detector covering wide scattering angle. The facility design, performance and examples of application are discussed. The conclusion is made that the facility provides a useful mean for studies in particular for reactions with small cross sections and/or for neutron sources with low intensity. 15 refs., 15 figs

  3. Instruction manual for ORNL tandem high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Chrisite, W.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    This manual describes the physical characteristics of the tandem mass spectrometer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Specific requirements met include ability to run small samples, high abundance sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and adequate sample throughput. The instrument is capable of running uranium samples as small as 10 -12 g and has an abundance sensitivity in excess of 10 6 . Precision and accuracy are enhanced by a special sweep control circuit. Sample throughput is 6 to 12 samples per day. Operating instructions are also given

  4. Implement of a magnetic spectrometer at the CERN intersecting stockage rings (900 spectrometer in the R608 experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyrolle, M.

    1985-01-01

    By adding a new spectrometer at 90 0 in the R608 experiment at CERN (ISR) we can search correlations between some systems of particles fully measured in the forward and transverse directions. The corresponding new electronic trigger, which selects events with momentum above a chosen threshold, is mixed or not to the forward trigger, in order to record correlated or inclusive data from the collisions p-p, p-anti-p, α-α. In the 90 0 spectrometer, we build drift chambers, set before the dipolar magnet. We studied the spatial resolution and the methods to associate tracks before and after this magnet. We developed the method to determine the momenta, by taking account of the variations of the deflecting power: the accuracy of this method is better than O.3%, and the global resolution is about 0.01 P 2 . We proposed also how to identify the particles from time of flight measurements and aerogel cerenkov counters [fr

  5. A laser particulate spectrometer for a space simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Richmond, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate contaminants. Detection of the particulates is achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meters/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high-vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  6. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) measures the size distribution of aerosols ranging from 10 nm up to 1000 nm. The SMPS uses a bipolar aerosol charger to keep particles within a known charge distribution. Charged particles are classified according to their electrical mobility, using a long-column differential mobility analyzer (DMA). Particle concentration is measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC). The SMPS is well-suited for applications including: nanoparticle research, atmospheric aerosol studies, pollution studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials synthesis, filter efficiency testing, nucleation/condensation studies, and rapidly changing aerosol systems.

  7. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  8. Photoelectron spectrometer for high-resolution angular resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, A.C.; Southworth, S.H.; Dehmer, J.L.; Holland, D.M.P.

    1982-01-01

    We report on a new electron spectrometer system designed for use on storage-ring light sources. The system features a large (76 cm dia. x 92 cm long) triply magnetically shielded vacuum chamber and two 10.2 cm mean radius hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. One of the analyzers is fixed and the other is rotatable through about 150 0 . The chamber is pumped by a cryopump and a turbomolecular pump combination so as to enable experiments with a variety of gases under different conditions. The light detection includes both a direct beam monitor and polarization analyzer. The electron detection is accomplished with either a continuous-channel electron multiplier or with multichannel arrays used as area detectors

  9. Automatically controlled correlation spectrometer with a bounded positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grone, R.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrometer consists of a frame which carries a fixed arm with collimating slits and a pair of scintillator units positioned against each other, and a movable arm which moves in the horizontal plane and also holds collimating slits and two scintillator units positioned against each other. In the centre of the frame is a shielding cover with a chamber housing a slidable positron source. The end of the cover is fitted with a replaceable diaphragm against which a sample holder is positioned. The chamber with a bounded positron beam can be employed to measure a sample at preselected sites and thus gain information concerning various parts of the sample surface and its inhomogeneity. (M.D.). 3 figs

  10. The CERES/NA45 radial drift Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Pechenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-08-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of the first radial drift Time Projection Chamber (TPC) are presented. The TPC was built and installed at the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS in the late nineties, with the objective to improve the momentum resolution of the spectrometer. The upgraded experiment took data twice, in 1999 and in 2000. After a detailed study of residual distortions a spatial resolution of 340 μm in the azimuthal and 640 μm in the radial direction was achieved, corresponding to a momentum resolution of Δp/p=√{(1%·p/GeV)2+(2%)2}.

  11. The CERES/NA45 radial drift Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073202; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Campagnolo, R; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Dubitzky, W; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Mikowiec, D; Musa, L; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pechenova, O; Petretracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, J; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienoldh, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of the first radial drift Time Projection Chamber (TPC) are presented. The TPC was built and installed at the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS in the late nineties, with the objective to improve the momentum resolution of the spectrometer. The upgraded experiment took data twice, in 1999 and in 2000. After a detailed study of residual distortions a spatial resolution of 340 um in the azimuthal and 640 um in the radial direction was achieved, corresponding to a momentum resolution of Dp/p = sqrt{(1% * p/GeV)^2 + (2%)^2}.

  12. Large proportional chambers for muon detection in the CELLO experiment at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Bouchez, J.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Durand, A.; Francinet, G.; Gaidot, A.; Heitzmann, J.; Martin, H.; Maillet, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the muon detector in the CELLO experiment. This detector is composed of one layer of proportional chambers placed after a total of 5 interaction lengths of matter. These chambers have cathode read-out, thus enabling the unambiguous determination of coordinates. A total of 32 chambers has been built in order to cover 95% of the total solid angle. The read-out electronics use the FILAS intergrated chips made by EFCIS. Data concentration is done by a multiplexing system which addresses only those chambers which have some information. The precision is poor, but sufficient for muon detection: sigma = +-6 mm. (orig.)

  13. Saturation curves of Tandem ionization chambers for Hp(10) measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2005-01-01

    It is very important that the radiation detectors measure doses with high precision and accuracy. The verification of the standard dosemeters such as ionization chambers is a very important step in quality control programs of calibration laboratories and in radioprotection procedures. In this work the polarity effect and ionic recombination of two ionization chambers were studied. Saturation curves were obtained using two identical in shape, parallel-plate ionization chambers developed at IPEN (radioprotection level), with collecting electrodes made of different materials (to obtain different energy dependences of their responses) in standard X radiation beams of low and medium energies. The tests were performed following international standard recommendations (IEC 60731). The results show that both ionization chambers were approved in the tests; the variation on the readings were lower than 1%, for bias voltage between - 400V and + 400V. The results of the polarity tests of the ionization chambers show that the response variation is within the standard IEC 60731 limits. The determined ionic recombination agrees with the recommendation of IAEA (TRS 398). Therefore, the ionization chambers tested in this work were approved. (author)

  14. Photon pair spectrometers in a μ → eγ decay search with the MEGA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzemidzic, M.

    1993-01-01

    The MEGA experiment at LAMPF is conducting a search for the lepton family number violating decay μ + →e + γ with a branching ratio sensitivity of a few parts in 10 -13 . The detectors are contained in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field. Positrons are confined to the central region and are measured by a set of cylindrical MWPCs. Photons are converted into e + e - pairs by one of three pair spectrometers in the outer region. Each pair spectrometer consists of an inner layer of plastic scintillator, two lead converters separated by a MWPC and three layers of drift chambers. The MEGA collaboration successfully concluded 1992 data taking with a set of positron MWPCs and two pair spectrometers. A brief overview of the pair spectrometer design and performance will be followed by a presentation of results to date of the data analysis

  15. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.; Voutta, R.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Sikler, G.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2014-10-01

    For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  16. An Integration of MICROMEGAS Based Muon Tracking Chambers in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Cussonneau, J P; CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    A global solution for the muon tracking chambers of ALICE based on the detector MICROMEGAS [1], is investigated at SUBATECH. A technical design of the structures of the MICROMEGAS modules is presented as well as their assemblies in individual chamber and their final integration in the five tracking stations required for the muon spectrometer. The whole concept is based on only 3 kinds of MICROMEGAS units. Within these stand-alone modules, the 2D location is achieved by taking advantage of charge division with resistive strips. Including the support frames for the mosaic of detectors, the average station thickness will stay below 3% of Xo. The whole electronics features about 1.3 106 channels. Preliminary considerations on the MICROMEGAS FEE and its on-board integration are discussed. A first estimation of the total cost of this option stays well inside the assigned budget of the technical proposal.

  17. Magnetic field calculations for the technical proposal of the TESLA spectrometer magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, N.A.; Schreiber, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The TESLA electron-positron linear collider is under consideration at DESY (Hamburg). The realization of the physical program at this collider requires the knowledge of the beam energy of both beams (e + and e - ) with a precision of ΔE/E ≤ 10 -4 . The magnetic spectrometer was proposed as an energy measuring device. The report describes calculations for the preliminary conceptual design of this type of the spectrometer. The 2D calculations of the magnetic field for the spectrometer magnet have been performed by POISSON SUPERFISH computer code. The basic technical parameters of the magnet have been determined. These data will serve as a basis for the technical design of the spectrometer magnet and discuss its integration in the spectrometer

  18. A new TXRF vacuum chamber with sample changer for chemical analysis using silicon drift chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Several TXRF spectrometers for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis are commercially available. But there is no one available for chemical analysis offering the possibility to measure the samples in vacuum conditions. Vacuum of 10 -2 mbar in the sample environment helps to reduce the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits as well as to reduce the absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements and extend the elemental range to be measured and removes the Ar lines from the spectrum. The x-ray group of the Atominstitut designed and fabricated a new vacuum chamber for TXRF equipped with a 12 position sample changer from Italstructures, Riva, Italy. The detector used was a 10 mm 2 silicon drift detector (KETEK, Munich, Germany), offering the advantage of electrically cooling, so no LN2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing, e.g. with a fine focus Mo-x-ray tube and uses a multilayer monochromator. Spectra are stored by a small AMTEK MCA and control between sample changer and MCA communication is done by a modified AMPTEK software. The performance is expressed in detection limits of 1 pg Rb for Mo Ka excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s lifetime, obtained from a sample containing 600 pg Rb as single element standard. Details on performance, reproducibility and light element excitation and detection are presented. (author)

  19. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  20. Molecular beam sampling from a rocket-motor combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseman, John; Young, W.S.

    1974-01-01

    A molecular-beam mass-spectrometer sampling apparatus has been developed to study the reactive species concentrations as a function of position in a rocket-motor combustion chamber. Unique design features of the sampling system include (a) the use of a multiple-nozzle end plate for preserving the nonuniform properties of the flow field inside the combustion chamber, (b) the use of a water-injection heat shield, and (c) the use of a 300 CFM mechanical pump for the first vacuum stage (eliminating the use of a huge conventional oil booster pump). Preliminary rocket-motor tests have been performed using the highly reactive propellants nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine (N 2 O 4 /N 2 H 4 ) at an oxidizer/fuel ratio of 1.2 by weight. The combustion-chamber pressure is approximately 60psig. Qualitative results on unreacted oxidizer/fuel ratio, relative abundance of oxidizer and fuel fragments, and HN 3 distribution across the chamber are presented

  1. A plant chamber system with downstream reaction chamber to study the effects of pollution on biogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timkovsky, J; Gankema, P; Pierik, R; Holzinger, R

    2014-01-01

    A system of two plant chambers and a downstream reaction chamber has been set up to investigate the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and possible effects of pollutants such as ozone. The system can be used to compare BVOC emissions from two sets of differently treated plants, or to study the photochemistry of real plant emissions under polluted conditions without exposing the plants to pollutants. The main analytical tool is a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) which allows online monitoring of biogenic emissions and chemical degradation products. The identification of BVOCs and their oxidation products is aided by cryogenic trapping and subsequent in situ gas chromatographic analysis.

  2. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  3. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  4. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  5. Development of a mcirocontroller to the positioning control of an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrini, Francisco A.L.; Rocha, Cristina S.C.; Reis, Renato J.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2007-01-01

    It was developed a microcontroller to positioning of ionization chamber with high precision. Considering the high sensitivity of intensity of radiation with the distance source-detector is necessary to develop an eletronics able to control position the detector with high precision. The project was based on microcontroller AT 89S8252 of Atmel company. (author)

  6. Precision Mass Measurement of Argon Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Lunney, D

    2002-01-01

    % IS388\\\\ \\\\ A precision mass measurement of the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{32,33,34}$Ar is proposed. Mass values of these isotopes are of importance for: a) a stringent test of the Isobaric-Multiplet- Mass-Equation, b) a verification of the correctness of calculated charge-dependent corrections as used in super-allowed $\\beta$- decay studies aiming at a test of the CVC hypothesis, and c) the determination of the kinematics in electron-neutrino correlation experiments searching for scalar currents in weak interaction. The measurements will be carried out with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer.

  7. Technical Design Report for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector will be significantly upgraded during the Phase-II upgrade in LS3 in order to cope with the operational conditions at the HL-LHC in Run 4 and beyond. A large fraction of the frontend and on- and off-detector readout and trigger electronics for the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), Thin Gap Chambers (TGC), and Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers will be replaced to make them compatible with the higher trigger rates and longer latencies necessary for the new level-0 trigger. The MDT chambers will be integrated into the level-0 trigger in order to sharpen the momentum threshold. Additional RPC chambers will be installed in the inner barrel layer to increase the acceptance and robustness of the trigger, and some chambers in high-rate regions will be refurbished. Some of the MDT chambers in the inner barrel layer will be replaced with new small-diameter MDTs. New TGC triplet chambers in the barrel-endcap transition region will replace the current TGC doublets to suppress t...

  8. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  9. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  10. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  11. Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Schmidt, W.; Geick, R.

    1997-01-01

    After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a mulitplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument. Despite these instrument merits its individual beam position at ISIS has only an unsatisfactorily weak flux, thus hindering this instrument yet to become fully competitive with other high-performance neutron spectrometers based at high-flux reactors. However, we strongly recommend a ROTAX-type instrument to be emphasized when the instrumentation suite of the future European spallation source ESS will come under scrutiny. (orig.)

  12. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.P.; Barbosa, F.J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B.L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brooks, W.K.; Burkert, V.D.; Carman, D.S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S.B.; Cole, P.L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R.C.; Degtyarenko, P.V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G.E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W.S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R.J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Giovanetti, K.L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F.W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R.S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R.A.; Major, W.; Manak, J.J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S.K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J.W.C.; Mestayer, M.D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L.Y.; Mutchler, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Nozar, M.; O' Brien, J.T.; Opper, A.K.; O' Meara, J.E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S.A.; Polli, E.; Price, J.W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L.M.; Raue, B.A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B.G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R.A.; Serov, V.S.; Sharabian, Y.G.; Smith, E.E.S. E-mail: elton@jlab.org; Smith, L.C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D.I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W.M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L. [and others

    2003-05-11

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10{sup 34} nucleon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  13. The high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer HADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakichiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Lehnert, J.; Lichtblau, C.; Lins, E.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Novotny, R.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Petri, M.; Ritman, J.; Salz, C.; Schaefer, D.; Skoda, M.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Toia, A.; Agodi, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Vassiliev, D.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez, C.; Fuentes, B.; Garzon, J.A.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Rodriguez-Prieto, G.; Sabin-Fernandez, J.; Sanchez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Atkin, E.; Volkov, Y.; Badura, E.; Bertini, D.; Bielcik, J.; Bokemeyer, H.; Dahlinger, M.; Daues, H.W.; Galatyuk, T.; Garabatos, C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Hehner, J.; Heinz, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Kopf, U.; Lang, S.; Leinberger, U.; Magestro, D.; Muench, M.; Niebur, W.; Ott, W.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schicker, R.M.; Schoen, H.; Schoen, W.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Senger, P.; Simon, R.S.; Stelzer, H.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Zovinec, D.; Zumbruch, P.; Balanda, A.; Kozuch, A.; Przygoda, W.; Bassi, A.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Bartolotti, A.; Brambilla, S.; Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Belyaev, A.V.; Chepurnov, V.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.V.; Ierusalimov, A.P.; Smykov, L.; Troyan, A.Yu.; Zanevsky, Y.V.; Benovic, M.; Hlavac, S.; Turzo, I.; Boehmer, M.; Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Gilg, H.; Homolka, J.; Jurkovic, M.; Kastenmueller, A.; Kienle, P.; Koerner, H.J.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Maier-Komor, P.; Sailer, B.; Schroeder, S.; Ulrich, A.; Wallner, C.; Weber, M.; Wieser, J.; Winkler, S.; Zeitelhack, K.; Boyard, J.L.; Genolini, B.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J.C.; Moriniere, E.; Pouthas, J.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Sudol, M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Diaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dressler, R.; Enghardt, W.; Heidel, K.; Hutsch, J.; Kanaki, K.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Sobiella, M.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zhou, P.; Dybczak, A.; Jaskula, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kidon, L.; Korcyl, K.; Kulessa, R.; Malarz, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Ploskon, M.; Prokopowicz, W.; Salabura, P.; Szczybura, M.; Trebacz, R.; Walus, W.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Froehlich, I.; Lippmann, C.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Rosenkranz, K.; Stroebele, H.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Wang, Y.; Zentek, A.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Lapidus, K.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Shileev, K.; Tiflov, V.; Grosse, E.; Kaempfer, B.; Iori, I.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Marek, T.; Novotny, J.; Pleskac, R.; Pospisil, V.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Suk, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tikhonov, A.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V.; Mousa, J.; Parpottas, Y.; Tsertos, H.; Nekhaev, A.; Smolyankin, V.; Palka, M.; Roche, G.; Schmah, A.; Stroth, J.

    2009-01-01

    HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion-induced collisions. Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and event characterization. A two-stage trigger system enhances events containing electrons. The physics program is focused on the investigation of hadron properties in nuclei and in the hot and dense hadronic matter. The detector system is characterized by an 85% azimuthal coverage over a polar angle interval from 18 to 85 , a single electron efficiency of 50% and a vector meson mass resolution of 2.5%. Identification of pions, kaons and protons is achieved combining time-of-flight and energy loss measurements over a large momentum range (0.1< p< 1.0 GeV/c). This paper describes the main features and the performance of the detector system. (orig.)

  14. [Precision and personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Sándor

    2016-10-01

    The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.

  15. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  16. Forward spectrometers at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Most of SSC phase space and a great deal of physics potential is in the forward/backward region (absolute value of theta < 100 mrad). Comprehensive open-geometry spectrometers are feasible and very cost effective. Examples of such devices are sketched. Because such spectrometers are very long and may operate at high β and longer bunch spacing, they impact now on SSC interaction - region design. The data acquisition load is as heavy as for central detectors, although there may be less emphasis on speed and more emphasis on sophisticated parallel and/or distributed processing for event selection, as well as on high-capacity buffering

  17. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  18. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  19. Advances on fission chamber modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, Philippe; Jammes, Christian; Geslot, Benoit; Veenhof, Rob

    2013-06-01

    In-vessel, online neutron flux measurements are routinely performed in mock-up and material testing reactors by fission chambers. Those measurements have a wide range of applications, including characterization of experimental conditions, reactor monitoring and safety. Depending on the application, detectors may experience a wide range of constraints, of several magnitudes, in term of neutron flux, gamma-ray flux, temperature. Hence, designing a specific fission chamber and measuring chain for a given application is a demanding task. It can be achieved by a combination of experimental feedback and simulating tools, the latter being based on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics. A computation route that simulates fission chambers, named CHESTER, is presented. The retrieved quantities of interest are the neutron-induced charge spectrum, the electronic and ionic pulses, the mean current and variance, the power spectrum. It relies on the GARFIELD suite, originally developed for drift chambers, and makes use of the MAGBOLTZ code to assess the drift parameters of electrons within the filling gas, and the SRIM code to evaluate the stopping range of fission products. The effect of the gamma flux is also estimated. Computations made with several fission chambers exemplify the possibilities of the route. A good qualitative agreement is obtained when comparing the results with the experimental data available to date. In a near future, a comprehensive experimental programme will be undertaken to qualify the route using the known neutron sources, mock-up reactors and wide choice of fission chambers, with a stress on the predictiveness of the Campbelling mode. Depending on the results, a refinement of the modelling and an effort on the accuracy of input data are also to be considered. CHESTER will then make it possible to predict the overall sensitivity of a chamber, and to optimize the design for a given application. Another benefit will be to increase the

  20. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  1. PEP quark search proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S I; Harris, F; Karliner, I; Yount, D [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Ely, R; Hamilton, R; Pun, T [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Guryn, W; Miller, D; Fries, R [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Proportional chambers are used in the PEP Free Quark Search to identify and remove possible background sources such as particles traversing the edges of counters, to permit geometric corrections to the dE/dx and TOF information from the scintillator and Cerenkov counters, and to look for possible high cross section quarks. The present beam pipe has a thickness of 0.007 interaction lengths (lambdasub(i)) and is followed in both arms each with 45/sup 0/ <= theta <= 135/sup 0/, ..delta..phi=90/sup 0/ by 5 proportional chambers, each 0.0008 lambdasub(i) thick with 32 channels of pulse height readout, and by 3 thin scintillator planes, each 0.003 lambdasub(i) thick. Following this thin front end, each arm of the detector has 8 layers of scintillator (one with scintillating light pipes) interspersed with 4 proportional chambers and a layer of lucite Cerenkov counters. Both the calculated ion statistics and measurements using He-CH/sub 4/ gas in a test chamber indicate that the chamber efficiencies should be >98% for q=1/3. The Landau spread measured in the test was equal to that observed for normal q=1 traversals. One scintillator plane and thin chamber in each arm will have an extra set of ADC's with a wide gate bracketing the normal one so timing errors and tails of earlier pulses should not produce fake quarks.

  2. Proton Transfer Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) measures gas-phase compounds in ambient air and headspace samples before using chemical ionization to produce positively charged molecules, which are detected with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. This ionization method uses a gentle proton transfer reaction method between the molecule of interest and protonated water, or hydronium ion (H3O+), to produce limited fragmentation of the parent molecule. The ions produced are primarily positively charged with the mass of the parent ion, plus an additional proton. Ion concentration is determined by adding the number of ions counted at the molecular ion’s mass-to-charge ratio to the number of air molecules in the reaction chamber, which can be identified according to the pressure levels in the reaction chamber. The PTRMS allows many volatile organic compounds in ambient air to be detected at levels from 10–100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). The response time is 1 to 10 seconds.

  3. Possibilities of magnet prism β-spectrometer application in on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, K.M.; Arynov, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main attention is paid to works with particle beam in up-to-date nuclear investigations. The application of magnet prism β-spectrometer for works in 'on-line' experiments is considered in this article. The source chamber and detector chamber are distanted from each other on great distance (4 m) and are out of operation field of spectrometer. There is a reliable defence of operating field of device from external parasitic fields by the magnetic screens system. The additional advantage is a factor that source (target) and detector could replacing in specific directions about few centimetres during the device operating. The main β-spectroscopic performances of device are compared with Grenoble spectroscopic complex. The liner depression of prism spectrometer account for from 3,6 up to 6 m; light force - from 2·10 -4 up to 6·10 -4 up to 4π; operating resolving power - 0,02-0,05% by impulse. Investigation range is from several keV up to 3 MeV. There are all opportunities for installing of the on-line magnetic prism spectrometer on the U-150 accelerator and the WWR-K reactor. Spectrometer application in 'on-line' experiments gives possibility to obtain more wide information. 4 refs

  4. Prototype for the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This is a prototype endplate piece constructed during R&D for the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC). ALEPH was one of 4 experiments at CERN's 27km Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) that ran from 1989 to 2000. ALEPH's TPC was a large-volume tracking chamber, 4.4 metres long and 3.6 metres in diameter - the largest TPC in existance at the time. This object is one of the endplates of a “Kind” sector, the smallest of the three types of sectors. The patterns etched into the copper form the cathode pads that measured particle track coordinates in the r-phi direction. It included a laser calibration system, a gating system to prevent space charge buildup, and a new radial pad geometry to improve resolution. the ALEPH TPC allowed for precise momentum measurements of the high-momentum particles from W and Z decays. The following institutes participated: CERN, Athens, Glasgow, Mainz, MPI Munich, INFN-Pisa, INFN-Trieste, Wisconsin.

  5. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate

  6. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  7. An optical sensor for the alignment of the Atlas Muon Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, J.-Ch.; Cloue, O.; Duboue, B.; Gautard, V.; Graffin, P.; Guyot, C.; Perrin, P.; Ponsot, P.; Reinert, Y.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schune, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    In the Atlas muon spectrometer (ATLAS Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC/94-43, 15 December 1994, ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Technical Design Report, CERN/LHCC/97-22, 31 May 1997 and http://atlasinfo.cern.ch:80/Atlas/Welcome.html) the alignment system should control the spatial position of the muon chambers with an accuracy of 30 μm and 200 μrad for a range of ±5 mm and ±10 mrad. The alignment device described in this paper, called Praxial, fulfills these requirements

  8. Detector system of the first focal plane of the spectrometer SMART at RIKEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Izshida, S.; Sakamoto, N.; Otsu, H.; Uesaka, T.; Wakasa, T.; Satou, Y.; Sakai, H.; Ichihara, T.

    1998-01-01

    A detector system of the first focal plane of SMART, the 135 MeV/u high-resolution spectrometer at RIKEN accelerator research facility, is described. It consists of a pair of multi-wire drift chambers and a trigger scintillator hodoscope contained in a He-filled detector box. A major subject using this system is the measurement of the (d, 2 He) reaction making the most of its large angular and momentum acceptances. Without seriously sacrificing the detection efficiency, reasonably good energy and angular resolutions for 2 He, 460 keV and 9 mrad (FWHM), respectively, have been achieved after optimizing the optics property of the spectrometer. (orig.)

  9. Computation of the magnetic field of a spectrometer in detectors region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Yuldasheva, M.B.; Yudin, I.P.; Yuldashev, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    Computed results of the 3D magnetic field of a spectrometer intended for investigation of hadron production of charmed particles and the indication of the narrow resonances in neutron-nucleus interactions are presented. The methods used in computations: finite element method and finite element method with suggested new infinite elements are described. For accuracy control the computations were carried out on a sequence of three-dimensional meshes. Special attention is devoted to behaviour of the magnetic field in the basic detector (proportional chambers) region. The performed results can be used for the field behaviour estimate of similar spectrometer magnets. (orig.)

  10. At the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) for the experiment NA27

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The experiment NA27 was intended to measure accurately the lifetime of Charm particles and to study their hadronic production and decay particles. The vertex detector was the hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC. The aim was to collect several hundreths of fully reconstructed D0 and D+-, and several tens of F+- and Lambda_c decays as produced by 360 GeV/c negative pions and 400 GeV/c protons. The photo gives a side view of a section of the spectrometer, with a 12 m long gas Cerenkov counter at the centre. The spectrometer axis enters the photo at bottom, left corner. See photo 8311661, 8311662X, 8311660X.

  11. Computation of the Magnetic Field of a Spectrometer in Detectors Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Yuldasheva, M.B.; Yudin, I.P.; Yuldashev, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    Computed results of the 3D magnetic field of a spectrometer intended for investigation of hadron production of charmed particles and the indication of the narrow resonances in neutron-nucleus interaction are presented. The methods, used in computations - finite element method and finite element method with suggested new infinite elements are described. For accuracy control the computations were carried out on a sequence of three-dimensional meshes. Special attention is devoted to the behaviour of the magnetic field in the basic detectors (proportional chambers) region. The performed results can be used for the field behaviour estimate of similar spectrometer magnets. 12 refs., 16 figs

  12. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  13. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid 4 He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer

  14. The story of a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.; Uhrberg, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development and design of a photoelectron spectrometer for use by researchers using synchrotron radiation. Originally developed for a new beam line at the MAXI Synchrotron at Lund in Sweden, the device has many research applications where its high level of performance is required. (UK)

  15. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  16. Inside the ETH spectrometer magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The ETH spectrometer magnet being prepared for experiment S134, which uses a frozen spin polarized target to study the associated production of a kaon and a lambda by negative pions interacting with protons (CERN-ETH, Zurich-Helsinki-Imperial College, London-Southampton Collaboration). (See Photo Archive 7406316)

  17. Directional muon jet chamber for a muon collider (Groovy Chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1996-10-01

    A directional jet drift chamber with PAD readout is proposed here which can select vertex originated muons within a given time window and eliminate those muons which primarily originate upstream, using only a PAD readout. Drift time provides the Z-coordinate, and the center of gravity of charge distribution provides the r-ψ coordinates. Directionality at the trigger level is obtained by the timing measurement from the PAD hits within a given time window. Because of the long drift time between the bunch crossings, a muon collider enables one to choose a drift distance in the drift chamber as long as 50 cm. This is an important factor in reducing cost of drift chambers which have to cover relatively large areas

  18. An environmental chamber for investigating the evaporation of volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, H K; Rumph, P F

    1998-03-01

    An inexpensive test chamber has been constructed that provides an environment appropriate for testing the effects of temperature and chemical interactions on gaseous emissions from test solutions. Temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation rate can be controlled and a well-mixed atmosphere can be maintained. The system is relatively simple and relies on heated tap water or ice to adjust the temperature. Temperatures ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C have been maintained. At an average temperature of 15.1 degrees C, temperatures at any location within the chamber vary by no more than 0.5 degree C, and the temperature of the test solution within the chamber varies by no more than 0.1 degree C. The temperatures within the chamber are stable enough to generate precise steady-state concentrations. The wind velocities within the chamber are reproducible from run to run. Consequently, the effect of velocity on the rate of evaporation of a test chemical is expected to be uniform from run to run. Steady-state concentrations can be attained in less than 1 hour at an air exchange rate of about 5 per hour.

  19. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  20. Search for impurities of counting gases in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, T.

    1992-03-01

    In order to reach for the gas detectors applied at the ALADIN spectrometer of the GSI an as good as possible and timely remaining gas purity, a study on the kind and effects of impurities in different counting gases was performed. The gas purity was observed via the signal height of an α source after a drift path of the electrons of 50 cm. A steady decrease of the α-signals was measures, the steepness of which decreases slowly as function of the time. The half-life lies in the range of weeks, which lets conclude on a slow outgassing from the materials of the arrangement. By a gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy these impurities could be determined. Beside impurities by polar molecules as water and oxygen from the atmosphere, which are deposed in microscopical capillaries of the chamber materials and then outgassed in the samples after several days so-called softeners could be observed. Because these impurities in the arrangement at the ALADIN spectrometer cannot be avoided, a purification system in the flow-through operation was constructed and its effect tested. The gas quality can by this over several days be kept in the mean constant. In this dynamical process the fluctuations of the signal heights lie at ±0.7%. A ionization chamber as monitor for the gas purity was constructed and tested with different gas mixtures concerning observables like signal height and drift time. By this calibrated monitor in the experiment at the ALADIN spectrometer the gas quality can be independently determined. (orig.) [de