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Sample records for spectral response

  1. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  2. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  3. Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin FEM: Spectral Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, R; Omidi, O; Clarke, P L

    2014-01-01

    Materials in nature demonstrate certain spectral shapes in terms of their material properties. Since successful experimental demonstrations in 2000, metamaterials have provided a means to engineer materials with desired spectral shapes for their material properties. Computational tools are employed in two different aspects for metamaterial modeling: 1. Mircoscale unit cell analysis to derive and possibly optimize material's spectral response; 2. macroscale to analyze their interaction with conventional material. We compare two different approaches of Time-Domain (TD) and Frequency Domain (FD) methods for metamaterial applications. Finally, we discuss advantages of the TD method of Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (FEM) for spectral analysis of metamaterials

  4. Spectral entropy and haemodynamic response to surgery during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Spectral entropy and haemodynamic response to surgery during sevoflurane anaesthesia. Introduction. Apart from somatic responses, surgery also evokes autonomic responses, including haemodynamic responses. Spectral entropy has been validated as a means to monitor the hypnotic state during sevoflurane ...

  5. Spectral response analysis of PVDF capacitive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ramírez, B.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the spectral response to ultrasound waves in water of low-noise capacitive sensors based on PVDF polymer piezoelectric films. First, we analyze theoretically the mechanical-to-electrical transduction as a function of the frequency of ultrasonic signals and derive an analytic expression of the sensor's transfer function. Then we present experimental results of the frequency response of a home-made PDVF in water to test signals from 1 to 20 MHz induced by a commercial hydrophone powered by a signal generator and compare with our theoretical model.

  6. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    -of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the output of all detection channels for radiation propagated through a continuously scanned polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. As there is no on-board spectrometer......, dust emission, Sunyaev Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers have already described the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI...

  7. Relative spectral response calibration using Ti plasma lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, FEI; Congyuan, PAN; Qiang, ZENG; Qiuping, WANG; Xuewei, DU

    2018-04-01

    This work introduces the branching ratio (BR) method for determining relative spectral responses, which are needed routinely in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Neutral and singly ionized Ti lines in the 250–498 nm spectral range are investigated by measuring laser-induced micro plasma near a Ti plate and used to calculate the relative spectral response of an entire LIBS detection system. The results are compared with those of the conventional relative spectral response calibration method using a tungsten halogen lamp, and certain lines available for the BR method are selected. The study supports the common manner of using BRs to calibrate the detection system in LIBS setups.

  8. Detector response artefacts in spectral reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Christensen, Erik D.; Khalil, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Energy resolved detectors are gaining traction as a tool to achieve better material contrast. K-edge imaging and tomography is an example of a method with high potential that has evolved on the capabilities of photon counting energy dispersive detectors. Border security is also beginning to see...... instruments taking advantage of energy resolved detectors. The progress of the field is halted by the limitations of the detectors. The limitations include nonlinear response for both x-ray intensity and x-ray spectrum. In this work we investigate how the physical interactions in the energy dispersive...

  9. Spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1994-10-01

    A theoretical study of the spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon n-p junction solar cell is presented. The case of a fibrously oriented grain structure, involving grain boundary recombination velocity and grain size effects is discussed. The contribution of the base region on the internal quantum efficiency Q int is computed for different grain sizes and grain boundary recombination velocities in order to examine their influence. Suggestions are also made for the determination of base diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells using the spectral response method. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  10. Accurate and independent spectral response scale based on silicon trap detectors and spectrally invariant detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Jarle

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to establish an independent high accuracy spectral response scale over a broad spectral range based on standard laboratory equipment at a moderate cost. This had to be done by a primary method, where the responsivity of the detector is linked to fundamental constants. Summary, conclusion and future directions: In this thesis it has been demonstrated that an independent spectral response scale from the visual to the IR based on simple relative measurements can be established. The accuracy obtained by the hybrid self-calibration method demonstrates that state of the art accuracy is obtained with self-calibration principles. A calculable silicon trap detector with low internal losses over a wide spectral range is needed to establish the scale, in addition to a linear, spectrally independent detector with a good signal to noise ratio. By fitting the parameters in the responsivity model to a purely relative measurement we express the spectral response in terms of fundamental constants with a known uncertainty This is therefore a primary method. By applying a digital filter on the relative measurements of the InGaAs detectors in the infrared reduces the standard deviation by 30 %. In addition, by optimising the necessary scaling constant converting the relative calibration to absolute values, we have managed to establish an accurate and cost efficient spectral response scale in the IR. The full covariance analysis, which takes into account the correlation in the absolute values of the silicon detector, the correlation caused by the filter and the scaling constant, shows that the spectral response scale established in the infrared with InGaAs detectors is done with high accuracy. A similar procedure can be used in the UV, though it has not been demonstrated here. In fig. 10 the responsitivities of the detectors (a) and their associated uncertainties (b) at the 1 sigma level of confidence is compared for the three publications. We see that the responsivity

  11. Spectral response of THM grown CdZnTe crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Harris, F.

    2008-01-01

    The spectral response of several crystals grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM) were investigated. An energy resolution of 0.98% for a Pseudo Frisch-Grid of 4 × 4 × 9 mm3 and 2.1% FWHM for a coplanar-grid of size 11 × 11 × 5 mm3 were measured using 137Cs-662 keV. In addition a 4% FWHM at 122...

  12. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  13. Spectral responsivity-based calibration of photometer and colorimeter standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2013-08-01

    Several new generation transfer- and working-standard illuminance meters and tristimulus colorimeters have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [1] to measure all kinds of light sources with low uncertainty. The spectral and broad-band (illuminance) responsivities of the photometer (Y) channels of two tristimulus meters were determined at both the Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources (SIRCUS) facility and the Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) [2]. The two illuminance responsivities agreed within 0.1% with an overall uncertainty of 0.2% (k = 2), which is a factor of two improvement over the present NIST photometric scale. The first detector-based tristimulus color scale [3] was realized. All channels of the reference tristimulus colorimeter were calibrated at the SIRCUS. The other tristimulus meters were calibrated at the SCF and also against the reference meter on the photometry bench in broad-band measurement mode. The agreement between detector- and source-based calibrations was within 3 K when a tungsten lamp-standard was measured at 2856 K and 3100 K [4]. The color-temperature uncertainty of tungsten lamp measurements was 4 K (k = 2) between 2300 K and 3200 K, which is a factor of two improvement over the presently used NIST source-based color temperature scale. One colorimeter was extended with an additional (fifth) channel to apply software implemented matrix corrections. With this correction, the spectral mismatch caused color difference errors were decreased by a factor of 20 for single-color LEDs.

  14. Assessing Cd-induced stress from plant spectral response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Georgiev, Georgi

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing plays a significant role in local, regional and global monitoring of land covers. Ecological concerns worldwide determine the importance of remote sensing applications for the assessment of soil conditions, vegetation health and identification of stress-induced changes. The extensive industrial growth and intensive agricultural land-use arise the serious ecological problem of environmental pollution associated with the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Soil contamination is a reason for degradation processes and temporary or permanent decrease of the productive capacity of land. Heavy metals are among the most dangerous pollutants because of their toxicity, persistent nature, easy up-take by plants and long biological half-life. This paper takes as its focus the study of crop species spectral response to Cd pollution. Ground-based experiments were performed, using alfalfa, spring barley and pea grown in Cd contaminated soils and in different hydroponic systems under varying concentrations of the heavy metal. Cd toxicity manifested itself by inhibition of plant growth and synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Multispectral reflectance, absorbance and transmittance, as well as red and far red fluorescence were measured and examined for their suitability to detect differences in plant condition. Statistical analysis was performed and empirical relationships were established between Cd concentration, plant growth variables and spectral response Various spectral properties proved to be indicators of plant performance and quantitative estimators of the degree of the Cd-induced stress.

  15. Spectral responses of gravel beaches to tidal signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2017-01-01

    Tides have been recognized as a major driving forcing affecting coastal aquifer system, and deterministic modeling has been very effective in elucidating mechanisms caused by tides. However, such modeling does not lend itself to capture embedded information in the signal, and rather focuses on the primary processes. Here, using yearlong data sets measured at beaches in Alaska Prince William Sound, we performed spectral and correlation analyses to identify temporal behavior of pore-water pressure, temperature and salinity. We found that the response of the beach system was characterized by fluctuations of embedded diurnal, semidiurnal, terdiurnal and quarterdiurnal tidal components. Hydrodynamic dispersion of salinity and temperature, and the thermal conductivity greatly affected pore water signals. Spectral analyses revealed a faster dissipation of the semi-diurnal component with respect to the diurnal components. Correlation functions showed that salinity had a relatively short memory of the tidal signal when inland freshwater recharge was large. In contrast, the signature of the tidal signal on pore-water temperature persisted for longer times, up to a week. We also found that heterogeneity greatly affected beach response. The response varied from a simple linear mapping in the frequency domain to complete modulation and masking of the input frequencies.

  16. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  17. Scaling plant ultraviolet spectral responses from laboratory action spectra to field spectral weighting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF) play a key role in calculating the increase of biologically effective solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-BBE) due to ozone reduction, assessing current latitudinal gradients of UV-B BE . and comparing solar UV-B BE with that from lamps and filters in plant experiments. Plant UV action spectra (usually determined with monochromatic radiation in the laboratory with exposure periods on the order of hours) are often used as BSWF. The realism of such spectra for plants growing day after day in polychromatic solar radiation in the field is questionable. We tested the widely used generalized plant action spectrum since preliminary data from an action spectrum being developed with monochromatic radiation for a cultivated oat variety indicate reasonable agreement with the generalized spectrum. These tests involved exposing plants to polychromatic radiation either from a high-pressure xenon arc lamp in growth chambers or in the field under solar radiation with supplemental UV-B lamps. Different broad-spectrum combinations were achieved by truncating the spectrum at successively longer UV wavelengths with various filters. In the growth chamber experiments, the generalized plant spectrum appeared to predict plant growth responses at short (<310nm) wavelengths but not at longer wavelengths. The field experiment reinforced these conclusions, showing (in addition to the expected direct UV-B effects) both direct UV-A effects and UV-A mitigation of UV-B effects. (author)

  18. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  19. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral response variation of a negative-electron-affinity photocathode in the preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Du Yujie; Chang Benkang; Yunsheng Qian

    2006-01-01

    In order to research the spectral response variation of a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode in the preparation process, we have done two experiments on a transmission-type GaAs photocathode.First, an automatic spectral response recording system is described, which is used to take spectral response curves during the activation procedure of the photocathode. By this system, the spectral response curves of a GaAs:Cs-Ophotocathode measured in situ are presented. Then, after the cathode is sealed with a microchannel plate and a fluorescence screen into the image tube, we measure the spectral response of the tube by another measurement instrument. By way of comparing and analyzing these curves, we can find the typical variation in spectral-responses.The reasons for the variation are discussed. Based on these curves, spectral matching factors of a GaAs cathode for green vegetation and rough concrete are calculated. The visual ranges of night-vision goggles under specific circumstances are estimated. The results show that the spectral response of the NEA photocathode degraded in the sealing process, especially at long wavelengths. The variation has also influenced the whole performance of the intensifier tube

  1. Effect of gold photocathode contamination on a flat spectral response X-ray diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Huang, Xian-bin; Ren, Xiao-dong; Dan, Jia-kun; Xu, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    A detector with an approximately flat spectral response is important for diagnosing intense thermal X-ray flux. A flat-spectral-response X-ray diode (FSR-XRD) utilizes a gold photocathode X-ray diode and a specially configured gold filter to give rise to a nearly flat spectral response in the photon energy range of 100-4000 eV. It has been observed that the spectral responses of several FSR-XRDs changed after a few shots of z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand facility. This paper presents an analysis of the changes by fitting the spectral responses of the gold photocathodes using a model with a free parameter which characterizes the thickness of the contamination. The spectral responses of FSR-XRDs were calibrated with synchrotron radiation, and several cleaning methods were tested with the calibration. Considering the results of model and cleaning, it may be anticipated that contamination was the major reason of the response changing. Contamination worsened the flatness of the spectral response of the FSR-XRD and decreased the averaged response, hence it is important to avoid contamination. Current results indicate a requirement of further study of the contamination.

  2. Spectrally adjustable quasi-monochromatic radiance source based on LEDs and its application for measuring spectral responsivity of a luminance meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Juha-Matti; Poikonen, Tuomas; Vaskuri, Anna; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    A spectrally adjustable radiance source based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been constructed for spectral responsivity measurements of radiance and luminance meters. A 300 mm integrating sphere source with adjustable output port is illuminated using 30 thermally stabilized narrow-band LEDs covering the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. The functionality of the measurement setup is demonstrated by measuring the relative spectral responsivities of a luminance meter and a photometer head with cosine-corrected input optics. (paper)

  3. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  4. Measured Polarized Spectral Responsivity of JPSS J1 VIIRS Using the NIST T-SIRCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jeff; Young, James B.; Moyer, David; Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Recent pre-launch measurements performed on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources (T-SIRCUS) monochromatic source have provided wavelength dependent polarization sensitivity for select spectral bands and viewing conditions. Measurements were made at a number of input linear polarization states (twelve in total) and initially at thirteen wavelengths across the bandpass (later expanded to seventeen for some cases). Using the source radiance information collected by an external monitor, a spectral responsivity function was constructed for each input linear polarization state. Additionally, an unpolarized spectral responsivity function was derived from these polarized measurements. An investigation of how the centroid, bandwidth, and detector responsivity vary with polarization state was weighted by two model input spectra to simulate both ground measurements as well as expected on-orbit conditions. These measurements will enhance our understanding of VIIRS polarization sensitivity, improve the design for future flight models, and provide valuable data to enhance product quality in the post-launch phase.

  5. Artifact Interpretation of Spectral Response Measurements on Two-Terminal Multijunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells promise higher power-conversion efficiency than the single-junction. With respect to two-terminal devices, an accurate measurement of the spectral response requires a delicate adjustment of the light- and voltage-biasing; otherwise it can result in artifacts in the data and

  6. Spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors using continuous-wave supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.

  7. A differential spectral responsivity measurement system constructed for determining of the spectral responsivity of a single- and triple-junction photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametoglu, Ferhat; Celikel, Oguz; Witt, Florian

    2017-10-01

    A differential spectral responsivity (DSR) measurement system has been designed and constructed at National Metrology Institute of Turkey (TUBITAK UME) to determine the spectral responsivity (SR) of a single- or a multi-junction photovoltaic device (solar cell). The DSR setup contains a broad band light bias source composed of a constructed Solar Simulator based on a 1000 W Xe-arc lamp owning a AM-1.5 filter and 250 W quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp, a designed and constructed LED-based Bias Light Sources, a DC voltage bias circuit, and a probe beam optical power tracking and correction circuit controlled with an ADuC847 microcontroller card together with an embedded C based software, designed and constructed in TUBITAK UME under this project. By using the constructed DSR measurement system, the SR calibration of solar cells, the monolitic triple-junction solar cell GaInP/GaInAs/Ge and its corresponding component cells have been performed within the EURAMET Joint Research Project SolCell.

  8. Impact of spectral nudging and domain size in studies of RCM response to parameter modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Separovic, Leo; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre pour l' Etude et la Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale (ESCER), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Montreal, QC (Canada); Elia, Ramon de [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre pour l' Etude et la Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale (ESCER), Montreal, QC (Canada); Consortium Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The paper aims at finding an RCM configuration that facilitates studies devoted to quantifying RCM response to parameter modification. When using short integration times, the response of the time-averaged variables to RCM modification tend to be blurred by the noise originating in the lack of predictability of the instantaneous atmospheric states. Two ways of enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio are studied in this work: spectral nudging and reduction of the computational domain size. The approach followed consists in the analysis of the sensitivity of RCM-simulated seasonal averages to perturbations of two parameters controlling deep convection and stratiform condensation, perturbed one at a time. Sensitivity is analyzed within different simulation configurations obtained by varying domain size and using the spectral nudging option. For each combination of these factors multiple members of identical simulations that differ exclusively in initial conditions are also generated to provide robust estimates of the sensitivities (the signal) and sample the noise. Results show that the noise magnitude is decreased both by reduction of domain size and the spectral nudging. However, the reduction of domain size alters some sensitivity signals. When spectral nudging is used significant alterations of the signal are not found. (orig.)

  9. Spectral characterization of plastic scintillation detector response as a function of magnetic field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiele, E.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Ankerhold, U.; Culberson, W.; DeWerd, L.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize intensity and spectral response changes in a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) as a function of magnetic field strength. Spectra measurements as a function of magnetic field strength were performed using an optical spectrometer. The response of both a PSD and PMMA fiber were investigated to isolate the changes in response from the scintillator and the noise signal as a function of magnetic field strength. All irradiations were performed in water at a photon beam energy of 6 MV. Magnetic field strengths of (0, ±0.35, ±0.70, ±1.05, and  ±1.40) T were investigated. Four noise subtraction techniques were investigated to evaluate the impact on the resulting noise-subtracted scintillator response with magnetic field strength. The noise subtraction methods included direct spectral subtraction, the spectral method, and variants thereof. The PMMA fiber exhibited changes in response of up to 50% with magnetic field strength due to the directional light emission from \\breve{C} erenkov radiation. The PSD showed increases in response of up to 10% when not corrected for the noise signal, which agrees with previous investigations of scintillator response in magnetic fields. Decreases in the \\breve{C} erenkov light ratio with negative field strength were observed with a maximum change at  ‑1.40 T of 3.2% compared to 0 T. The change in the noise-subtracted PSD response as a function of magnetic field strength varied with the noise subtraction technique used. Even after noise subtraction, the PSD exhibited changes in response of up to 5.5% over the four noise subtraction methods investigated.

  10. Investigation of JI and DI CMOS FXR response at different spectral energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnold, V.R.; Goldberg, M.; Schreiner, W.A.; Witteles, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The transient response of both junction isolated (JI) and dielectrically isolated (DI) CMOS circuits has been investigated in three FXR environments of differing energy spectrums. The offset recovery times have been measured and analyzed for both structures. It is shown that while the DI circuit (HD4007) did not exhibit a four layer type latchup action, its transient response persisted for a time longer than is expected for this type of device. A possible mechanism for this observed response is developed and discussed. JI circuits (CD4007) exposed under the same conditions exhibited four layer device action and one sample at low spectral energies latched-up. The conditions for the latchup to occur including the four layer device paths are discussed. Finally, the dependence of the x-ray transient response on the spectral energy is considered. For the lower energy FXR source, latchup was observed in a CD4007 sample. This latchup was not observed at more than double the dose rate when a high energy FXR was used. This result is attributed to dose enhancement, and a device enhancement factor may also be involved. The dose enhancement factor is estimated from the work of Long, and points up the importance of accounting for the spectral energy content in simulating a given nuclear threat spectrum

  11. Predicting the effective response of bulk polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics via improved spectral phase field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, A.; Tan, W. L.; Kochmann, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the electromechanical response of bulk polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics requires scale-bridging approaches. Recent advances in fast numerical methods to compute the homogenized mechanical response of materials with heterogeneous microstructure have enabled the solution of hitherto intractable systems. In particular, the use of a Fourier-based spectral method as opposed to the traditional finite element method has gained significant interest in the homogenization of periodic microstructures. Here, we solve the periodic, electro-mechanically-coupled boundary value problem at the mesoscale of polycrystalline ferroelectrics in order to extract the effective response of barium titanate (BaTiO3) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) under applied electric fields. Results include the effective electric hysteresis and the associated butterfly curve of strain vs. electric field for mean stress-free electric loading. Computational predictions of the 3D polycrystalline response show convincing agreement with our experimental electric cycling and strain hysteresis data for PZT-5A. In addition to microstructure-dependent effective physics, we also show how finite-difference-based approximations in the spectral solution scheme significantly reduce instability and ringing phenomena associated with spectral techniques and lead to spatial convergence with h-refinement, which have been major challenges when modeling high-contrast systems such as polycrystals.

  12. On the photosynthetic and devlopmental responses of leaves to the spectral composition of light

    OpenAIRE

    Hogewoning, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: action spectrum, artificial solar spectrum, blue light, Cucumis sativus, gas-exchange, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), light interception, light quality, non-photosynthetic pigments, photo-synthetic capacity, photomorphogenesis, photosystem excitation balance, quantum yield, red light. A wide range of plant properties respond to the spectral composition of irradiance, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, phototropism and photonastic movements. These responses affect plant pr...

  13. WE-FG-207B-02: Material Reconstruction for Spectral Computed Tomography with Detector Response Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J; Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Different from the conventional computed tomography (CT), spectral CT based on energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is able to provide the unprecedented material composition. However, an important missing piece for accurate spectral CT is to incorporate the detector response function (DRF), which is distorted by factors such as pulse pileup and charge-sharing. In this work, we propose material reconstruction methods for spectral CT with DRF. Methods: The polyenergetic X-ray forward model takes the DRF into account for accurate material reconstruction. Two image reconstruction methods are proposed: a direct method based on the nonlinear data fidelity from DRF-based forward model; a linear-data-fidelity based method that relies on the spectral rebinning so that the corresponding DRF matrix is invertible. Then the image reconstruction problem is regularized with the isotropic TV term and solved by alternating direction method of multipliers. Results: The simulation results suggest that the proposed methods provided more accurate material compositions than the standard method without DRF. Moreover, the proposed method with linear data fidelity had improved reconstruction quality from the proposed method with nonlinear data fidelity. Conclusion: We have proposed material reconstruction methods for spectral CT with DRF, whichprovided more accurate material compositions than the standard methods without DRF. Moreover, the proposed method with linear data fidelity had improved reconstruction quality from the proposed method with nonlinear data fidelity. Jiulong Liu and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000), and the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program (#14PJ1404500).

  14. Simulation and Analysis of Spectral Response Function and Bandwidth of Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation method for acquiring spectrometer’s Spectral Response Function (SRF based on Huygens Point Spread Function (PSF is suggested. Taking into account the effects of optical aberrations and diffraction, the method can obtain the fine SRF curve and corresponding spectral bandwidth at any nominal wavelength as early as in the design phase. A prism monochromator is proposed for illustrating the simulation procedure. For comparison, a geometrical ray-tracing method is also provided, with bandwidth deviations varying from 5% at 250 nm to 25% at 2400 nm. Further comparison with reported experiments shows that the areas of the SRF profiles agree to about 1%. However, the weak scattered background light on the level of 10−4 to 10−5 observed by experiment could not be covered by this simulation. This simulation method is a useful tool for forecasting the performance of an underdesigned spectrometer.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime

  17. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  18. Modeling Climate Responses to Spectral Solar Forcing on Centennial and Decadal Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R.; Rind, D.; Jonas, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Harder, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of experiments to explore clima responses to two types of solar spectral forcing on decadal and centennial time scales - one based on prior reconstructions, and another implied by recent observations from the SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) SIM (Spectral 1rradiance Monitor). We apply these forcings to the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global/Middle Atmosphere Model (GCMAM). that couples atmosphere with ocean, and has a model top near the mesopause, allowing us to examine the full response to the two solar forcing scenarios. We show different climate responses to the two solar forCing scenarios on decadal time scales and also trends on centennial time scales. Differences between solar maximum and solar minimum conditions are highlighted, including impacts of the time lagged reSponse of the lower atmosphere and ocean. This contrasts with studies that assume separate equilibrium conditions at solar maximum and minimum. We discuss model feedback mechanisms involved in the solar forced climate variations.

  19. The effect of spectral filters on VEP and alpha-wave responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeford, Kevin T; Fimreite, Vanessa; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Spectral filters are used to treat light sensitivity in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the effect of these filters on normal visual function has not been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to determine the effect of spectral filters on objectively-measured visual-evoked potential (VEP) and alpha-wave responses in the visually-normal population. The full-field (15°H×17°V), pattern-reversal VEP (20' check size, mean luminance 52cd/m(2)) was administered to 20 visually-normal individuals. They were tested with four Intuitive-Colorimeter-derived, broad-band, spectral filters (i.e., gray/neutral density, blue, yellow, and red), which produced similar luminance values for the test stimulus. The VEP N75 and P100 latencies, and VEP amplitude, were recorded. Power spectrum analysis was used to derive the respective powers at each frequency, and peak frequency, for the selected 9-11Hz components of the alpha band. Both N75 and P100 latencies increased with the addition of each filter when compared to baseline. Additionally, each filter numerically reduced intra-session amplitude variability relative to baseline. There were no significant effects on either the mean VEP amplitude or alpha wave parameters. The Intuitive Colorimeter filters significantly increased both N75 and P100 latencies, an effect which is primarily attributable (∼75%) to luminance, and in some cases, specific spectral effects (e.g., blue and red). VEP amplitude and alpha power were not significantly affected. These findings provide an important reference to which either amplitude or power changes in light-sensitive, younger clinical groups can be compared. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The Covalent Binding of Photosensitive Dyes to Monocrystalline Silicon Surface and Their Spectral Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志新; 郝纪祥; 张祖训; 曹子祥

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method is proposed to bond photo-sensitive dyes directly to the surface of polished monocrystalline silicon. A methincyanine dye and a trimethincyanine dye have been bonded covalently onto silicon surface through Si—N bond, which are characterized by XPS technique and laser Raman spectra. Photovoltaic effect has been observed with the In/dye/n-Si sandwich devices composed of the dye-bonded n-Si wafers. Significant spectral response shows the characteristic absorptance maxima of the bonded dyes.

  1. Spectral-Amplitude-Coded OCDMA Optimized for a Realistic FBG Frequency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penon, Julien; El-Sahn, Ziad A.; Rusch, Leslie A.; Larochelle, Sophie

    2007-05-01

    We develop a methodology for numerical optimization of fiber Bragg grating frequency response to maximize the achievable capacity of a spectral-amplitude-coded optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) system. The optimal encoders are realized, and we experimentally demonstrate an incoherent SAC-OCDMA system with seven simultaneous users. We report a bit error rate (BER) of 2.7 x 10-8 at 622 Mb/s for a fully loaded network (seven users) using a 9.6-nm optical band. We achieve error-free transmission (BER < 1 x 10-9) for up to five simultaneous users.

  2. The spectral response of Buxus sempervirens to different types of environmental stress - A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Hoogenboom, Priscilla; Nijland, Wiebe

    2012-11-01

    The European Mediterranean regions are expected to encounter drier summer conditions and warmer temperatures for the winter of +2 °C and of +5 °C for the summer in the next six decennia. As a result the natural vegetation will face harsher conditions due to lower water availability, longer summer droughts and higher temperatures resulting in plant stress conditions. To monitor vegetation conditions like stress and leaf area index dynamics in our study area in Mediterranean France we use earth observation techniques like imaging spectroscopy. To assist image analysis interpretation we carried out a laboratory experiment to investigate the spectral and visible response of Buxus sempervirens, a common Mediterranean species, to five different types of stress: drought, drought-and-heat, light deprivation, total saturation and chlorine poisoning. For 52 days plants were subjected to stress. We collected data on the visible and spectral signs, and calculated thirteen vegetation indices. The plant's response time to different stress types varied from 10 to 32 days. Spectroscopic techniques revealed plant stress up to 15 days earlier than visual inspection. Visible signs of stress of the plants included curling and shrinking of the leaves, de-colouring of the leaves, leaves becoming breakable, opening up of the plant's canopy and sagging of the branches. Spectral signs of stress occurred first in the water absorption bands at 1450 and 1940 nm, followed by reduced absorption in the visible wavelengths, and next by reduced reflectance in near infrared. Light deprivation did not result in any stress signs, while drought, drought and heat and chlorine poisoning resulted in significant stress. The spectral response did not show differences for different stress types. Analysis of the vegetation indices identified the Carter-2 (R695/R760), the Red-Green Index (R690/R550) and the Vogelman-2 (R734 - R747)/(R715 + R726) as the best performing ones to identify stress. The lab

  3. PILOT STUDY: Report on the CCPR Pilot Comparison: Spectral Responsivity 10 nm to 20 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank; Vest, Robert; Saito, Terubumi

    2010-01-01

    The CCPR Pilot Comparison on spectral responsivity in the 10 nm to 20 nm spectral range was carried out within the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by three laboratories: PTB (Germany), NIST (USA), and NMIJ/AIST (Japan) with PTB acting as the central and reporting laboratory. All participating laboratories used monochromatized synchrotron radiation. PTB and NIST used a cryogenic radiometer as the primary standard detector and NMIJ, an ionization chamber with extrapolation by a wavelength-independent detector. The aim of the pilot comparison was to check the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectral responsivity in the short wavelength EUV spectral range which has recently gained in technological importance. The wavelengths of measurement were from 11.5 nm to 20 nm in 0.5 nm steps and additionally 12.2 nm. The comparison was carried out through the calibration of a group of transfer standard detectors. Two sets of three diodes of types AXUV and SXUV from International Radiation Detectors, Inc. were used for the comparison. The comparison had the form of a star comparison: Pilot-lab A-pilot-lab B-pilot, PTB acting as the pilot laboratory. All results were communicated directly to the pilot laboratory. The report describes in detail the measurements made at PTB and summarizes the reports submitted by the participants. Measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the detectors proved that the stability of the detectors was sufficient for the comparison. For the type AXUV detectors, however, changes in their responsivity contributed to the uncertainty of the comparison. Measurement results from participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation. The uncertainty contributions were separated, as to whether they are wavelength dependent or not. All bilateral DoE are well within the respective k = 2 expanded uncertainty

  4. Interactions among spectral components of radiation in the growth responses of rice, tomato and strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of spectral components and their ratios of radiation on simultaneous growth responses were investigated with rice, tomato and strawberry plants exposed to lights with a high fluence rate (350 or 408 μmol m -2 s -1 , 400-700 nm) during every daytime. Both elongation growth and Ieaf area development in rice and strawberry were promoted by red (R) but inhibited by blue (B) component depending on the each fluence rate. However, leaf area in tomato responded in opposite direction to these. The elongation growth was remarkably increased with the fluence rate of far-red (FR) in tomato and strawberry, but not in rice. These responses were lineary increased, except FR and UV effects, with logarithmic R/B ratio in rice and strawberry but not in tomato. A very low R/FR ratio caused a strong promotion of both elongation and leaf area in tomato, while it promoted petiole elengation but inhibited leaf area development in strawberry. The elongation and leaf area development responded to R/FR in reverse way between rice and strawberry. Chlorophyll content of leaves was generally decreased with the increase of logarithmic R/B ratio in all the species. Areal weight of leaf and dry weight increment/leaf area were more or less increased with R/B and R/ FR ratios, Dry weight increment varied with the spectral ratios in almost the same way as leaf area, suggesting that spectral dependence of photosynthetic production was not much different between the species. Some discussions were made on the photoreceptor pigments involved in the elongation growth and leaf area development, and on the selection of light quantity to ensure a normal growth of each plant species

  5. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  6. Simulating charge transport to understand the spectral response of Swept Charge Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiray, P. S.; Sreekumar, P.; Narendranath, S.; Gow, J. P. D.

    2015-11-01

    Context. Swept Charge Devices (SCD) are novel X-ray detectors optimized for improved spectral performance without any demand for active cooling. The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) experiment onboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft used an array of SCDs to map the global surface elemental abundances on the Moon using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The successful demonstration of SCDs in C1XS spurred an enhanced version of the spectrometer on Chandrayaan-2 using the next-generation SCD sensors. Aims: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate validation of a physical model developed to simulate X-ray photon interaction and charge transportation in a SCD. The model helps to understand and identify the origin of individual components that collectively contribute to the energy-dependent spectral response of the SCD. Furthermore, the model provides completeness to various calibration tasks, such as generating spectral matrices (RMFs - redistribution matrix files), estimating efficiency, optimizing event selection logic, and maximizing event recovery to improve photon-collection efficiency in SCDs. Methods: Charge generation and transportation in the SCD at different layers related to channel stops, field zones, and field-free zones due to photon interaction were computed using standard drift and diffusion equations. Charge collected in the buried channel due to photon interaction in different volumes of the detector was computed by assuming a Gaussian radial profile of the charge cloud. The collected charge was processed further to simulate both diagonal clocking read-out, which is a novel design exclusive for SCDs, and event selection logic to construct the energy spectrum. Results: We compare simulation results of the SCD CCD54 with measurements obtained during the ground calibration of C1XS and clearly demonstrate that our model reproduces all the major spectral features seen in calibration data. We also describe our understanding of interactions at

  7. Spectral response characterization of CdTe sensors of different pixel size with the IBEX ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, P.; Radicci, V.; Trueb, P.; Disch, C.; Rissi, M.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Broennimann, C.

    2018-06-01

    We characterized the spectral response of CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes - namely 75, 150 and 300 μm - bonded to the latest generation IBEX single photon counting ASIC developed at DECTRIS, to detect monochromatic X-ray energy in the range 10-60 keV. We present a comparison of pulse height spectra recorded for several energies, showing the dependence on the pixel size of the non-trivial atomic fluorescence and charge sharing effects that affect the detector response. The extracted energy resolution, in terms of full width at half maximum or FWHM, ranges from 1.5 to 4 keV according to the pixel size and chip configuration. We devoted a careful analysis to the Quantum Efficiency and to the Spectral Efficiency - a newly-introduced measure that quantifies the impact of fluorescence and escape phenomena on the spectrum integrity in high- Z material based detectors. We then investigated the influence of the photon flux on the aforementioned quantities up to 180 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 and 50 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 for the 150 μm and 300 μm pixel case, respectively. Finally, we complemented the experimental data with analytical and with Monte Carlo simulations - taking into account the stochastic nature of atomic fluorescence - with an excellent agreement.

  8. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-01-01

    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 deg. C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar

  9. Processing Pipeline of Sugarcane Spectral Response to Characterize the Fallen Plants Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Agustín; Hadad, Alejandro; Kemerer, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in agronomic systems it is possible to make a variable management of inputs to improve the efficiency of agronomic industry and optimize the logistics of the harvesting process. In this way, it was proposed for sugarcane culture the use of remote sensing tools and computational methods to identify useful areas in the cultivated lands. The objective was to use these areas to make variable management of the crop. When at the moment of harvesting the sugarcane there are fallen stalks, together with them some strange material (vegetal or mineral) is collected. This strange material is not millable and when it enters onto the sugar mill it causes important looses of efficiency in the sugar extraction processes and affects its quality. Considering this issue, the spectral response of sugarcane plants in aerial multispectral images was studied. The spectral response was analyzed in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Then, the aerial images were segmented to obtain homogeneous regions useful for producers to make decisions related to the use of inputs and resources according to the variability of the system (existence of fallen cane and standing cane). The obtained segmentation results were satisfactory. It was possible to identify regions with fallen cane and regions with standing cane with high precision rates. (paper)

  10. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  11. Objective assessment of spectral ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners using cortical evoked responses to an oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Valdes, Alejandro; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Viani, Laura; Walshe, Peter; Smith, Jaclyn; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Reilly, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can partially restore functional hearing in deaf individuals. However, multiple factors affect CI listener's speech perception, resulting in large performance differences. Non-speech based tests, such as spectral ripple discrimination, measure acoustic processing capabilities that are highly correlated with speech perception. Currently spectral ripple discrimination is measured using standard psychoacoustic methods, which require attentive listening and active response that can be difficult or even impossible in special patient populations. Here, a completely objective cortical evoked potential based method is developed and validated to assess spectral ripple discrimination in CI listeners. In 19 CI listeners, using an oddball paradigm, cortical evoked potential responses to standard and inverted spectrally rippled stimuli were measured. In the same subjects, psychoacoustic spectral ripple discrimination thresholds were also measured. A neural discrimination threshold was determined by systematically increasing the number of ripples per octave and determining the point at which there was no longer a significant difference between the evoked potential response to the standard and inverted stimuli. A correlation was found between the neural and the psychoacoustic discrimination thresholds (R2=0.60, p<0.01). This method can objectively assess CI spectral resolution performance, providing a potential tool for the evaluation and follow-up of CI listeners who have difficulty performing psychoacoustic tests, such as pediatric or new users.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of the spectral response of beta-particle emitters in LSC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, F.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.; Rodriguez, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to evaluate the counting efficiency and the effective spectra at the output of any dynodic stage, for any pure beta-particle emitter, measured in a liquid scintillation counting system with two photomultipliers working in sum-coincidence mode. The process is carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation procedure that gives the electron distribution, and consequently the counting efficiency, at any dynode, in response to the beta particles emitted, as a function of the figure of merit of the system and the dynodic gains. The spectral outputs for 3 H and 14 C have been computed and compared with experimental data obtained with two sets of quenched radioactive standards of these nuclides. (orig.)

  13. Analytic models of spectral responses of fiber-grating-based interferometers on FMC theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangkai; Wei, Lai; Pan, Yingjun; Liu, Shengping; Shi, Xiaohui

    2012-02-13

    In this paper the analytic models (AMs) of the spectral responses of fiber-grating-based interferometers are derived from the Fourier mode coupling (FMC) theory proposed recently. The interferometers include Fabry-Perot cavity, Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometers, which are constructed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings and long-period fiber gratings, and also by Gaussian-apodized ones. The calculated spectra based on the analytic models are achieved, and compared with the measured cases and those on the transfer matrix (TM) method. The calculations and comparisons have confirmed that the AM-based spectrum is in excellent agreement with the TM-based one and the measured case, of which the efficiency is improved up to ~2990 times that of the TM method for non-uniform-grating-based in-fiber interferometers.

  14. Temporal and spectral profiles of stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Qi; Zheng, Ya; Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Xun

    2014-04-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflict is an essential function of cognitive control. Laboratory studies often use stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) tasks to examine conflict processing in order to elucidate the mechanism and modular organization of cognitive control. Inspired by two influential theories regarding cognitive control, the conflict monitoring theory (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001) and dimensional overlap taxonomy (Kornblum, Hasbroucq, & Osman, 1990), we explored the temporal and spectral similarities and differences between processing of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts with event related potential (ERP) and time-frequency measures. We predicted that processing of S-S conflict starts earlier than that of S-R conflict and that the two types of conflict may involve different frequency bands. Participants were asked to perform two parallel SRC tasks, both combining the Stroop task (involving S-S conflict) and Simon task (involving S-R conflict). ERP results showed pronounced SRC effects (incongruent vs. congruent) on N2 and P3 components for both S-S and S-R conflicts. In both tasks, SRC effects of S-S conflict took place earlier than those of S-R conflict. Time-frequency analysis revealed that both types of SRC effects modulated theta and alpha bands, while S-R conflict effects additionally modulated power in the beta band. These results indicated that although S-S and S-R conflict processing shared considerable ERP and time-frequency properties, they differed in temporal and spectral dynamics. We suggest that the modular organization of cognitive control should take both commonality and distinction of S-S and S-R conflict processing into consideration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Response Spectral Ground Motion Prediction Equations from Empirical Models for Fourier Spectra and Duration of Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, S. S.; Scherbaum, F.; Kuehn, N. M.; Stafford, P.; Edwards, B.

    2014-12-01

    In a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) framework, it still remains a challenge to adjust ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for application in different seismological environments. In this context, this study presents a complete framework for the development of a response spectral GMPE easily adjustable to different seismological conditions; and which does not suffer from the technical problems associated with the adjustment in response spectral domain. Essentially, the approach consists of an empirical FAS (Fourier Amplitude Spectrum) model and a duration model for ground motion which are combined within the random vibration theory (RVT) framework to obtain the full response spectral ordinates. Additionally, FAS corresponding to individual acceleration records are extrapolated beyond the frequency range defined by the data using the stochastic FAS model, obtained by inversion as described in Edwards & Faeh, (2013). To that end, an empirical model for a duration, which is tuned to optimize the fit between RVT based and observed response spectral ordinate, at each oscillator frequency is derived. Although, the main motive of the presented approach was to address the adjustability issues of response spectral GMPEs; comparison, of median predicted response spectra with the other regional models indicate that presented approach can also be used as a stand-alone model. Besides that, a significantly lower aleatory variability (σbrands it to a potentially viable alternative to the classical regression (on response spectral ordinates) based GMPEs for seismic hazard studies in the near future. The dataset used for the presented analysis is a subset of the recently compiled database RESORCE-2012 across Europe, Middle East and the Mediterranean region.

  16. MODIS Aqua Optical Throughput Degradation Impact on Relative Spectral Response and Calibration on Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shihyan; Meister, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua's launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the systems optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its impacts on sensor radiometric calibration for the ocean science. Our results show that the calibration bias could be up to 1.8 % for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the calibration biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.

  17. Assessing signal-driven mechanism in neonates: brain responses to temporally and spectrally different sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo eMinagawa-Kawai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have found that in adults that acoustic properties of sound signals (such as fast vs. slow temporal features differentially activate the left and right hemispheres, and some have hypothesized that left-lateralization for speech processing may follow from left-lateralization to rapidly changing signals. Here, we tested whether newborns’ brains show some evidence of signal-specific lateralization responses using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and auditory stimuli that elicits lateralized responses in adults, composed of segments that vary in duration and spectral diversity. We found significantly greater bilateral responses of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb in the temporal areas for stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 21 ms, than stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 667 ms. However, we found no evidence for hemispheric asymmetries dependent on the stimulus characteristics. We hypothesize that acoustic-based functional brain asymmetries may develop throughout early infancy, and discuss their possible relationship with brain asymmetries for language.

  18. Spectral response, dark current, and noise analyses in resonant tunneling quantum dot infrared photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Mahmoodi, Ali; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2016-10-20

    Reduction of dark current at high-temperature operation is a great challenge in conventional quantum dot infrared photodetectors, as the rate of thermal excitations resulting in the dark current increases exponentially with temperature. A resonant tunneling barrier is the best candidate for suppression of dark current, enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio, and selective extraction of different wavelength response. In this paper, we use a physical model developed by the authors recently to design a proper resonant tunneling barrier for quantum infrared photodetectors and to study and analyze the spectral response of these devices. The calculated transmission coefficient of electrons by this model and its dependency on bias voltage are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, based on the calculated transmission coefficient, the dark current of a quantum dot infrared photodetector with a resonant tunneling barrier is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The validity of our model is proven through this comparison. Theoretical dark current by our model shows better agreement with the experimental data and is more accurate than the previously developed model. Moreover, noise in the device is calculated. Finally, the effect of different parameters, such as temperature, size of quantum dots, and bias voltage, on the performance of the device is simulated and studied.

  19. Determination of the electron-hole pair creation energy for semiconductors from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Scholze, F; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be detected by the measurement of the charge carriers produced in a detector. The improved semiconductor technology now allows detectors operating near the physical limits of the detector materials to be designed. The mean energy required for producing an electron-hole pair, W, is a material property of the semiconductor. Here, the determination of W from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes is demonstrated. Using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation, different types of semiconductor photodiodes have been examined in the UV-, VUV-, and soft X-ray spectral range. Their spectral responsivity was determined with relative uncertainties between 0.4% and 1% using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as primary detector standard. Results are presented for silicon n-on-p junction photodiodes and for GaAsP/Au Schottky diodes at room temperature. The investigations for silicon covered the complete spectral range from 3 to 1500 eV, yielding a constant value W=(3.66+-0.03) eV fo...

  20. Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Novick; J. Walker; W.S. Chan; A. Schmidt; C. Sobek; J.M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these...

  1. On the detection and monitoring of reduced water content in plants using spectral responses in the visible domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer; Chen, Tenn F.

    2016-05-01

    The water status of cultivated plants can have a significant impact not only on food production, but also on the appropriate usage of increasingly scarce freshwater supplies. Accordingly, the cost-effective detection and monitoring of changes in their water content are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals are largely based on the spectral responses of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. Recently, it has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using spectral responses, more specifically spectral subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios, obtained in the visible domain. The basis for this proposition resides on the premise that a reduced water content (RWC) can result in histological changes whose effects on the foliar optical properties may not be limited to the infrared domain. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached leaves, which were not influenced by the whole plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we investigate whether the spectral responses of living plant leaves in the visible domain can lead to reliable RWC estimations. We employ measured biophysical data and predictive light transport simulations in order to extend qualitatively and quantitatively the scope of previous studies in this area. Our findings indicate that the living specimens' physiological responses to water stress should be taken into account in the design of new procedures for the cost-effective RWC estimation using visible subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios.

  2. Biological Response to the Dynamic Spectral-Polarized Underwater Light Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Texas coastal fish skin preparations with the HyperSpectral Imager mounted on a stereomicroscope in Norway in April (Dierssen). g) Camouflage...on fish skin preparations. B) Matlab image of skin preparation showing the boxed area used in the spectral analysis. C) Median reflectance

  3. MoS2-InGaZnO Heterojunction Phototransistors with Broad Spectral Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaehyun; Kwak, Hyena; Lee, Youngbin; Kang, Yu-Seon; Cho, Mann-Ho; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2016-04-06

    We introduce an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) heterostructure phototransistor consisting of solution-based synthetic molybdenum disulfide (few-layered MoS2, with a band gap of ∼1.7 eV) and sputter-deposited a-IGZO (with a band gap of ∼3.0 eV) films as a novel sensing element with a broad spectral responsivity. The MoS2 and a-IGZO films serve as a visible light-absorbing layer and a high mobility channel layer, respectively. Spectroscopic measurements reveal that appropriate band alignment at the heterojunction provides effective transfer of the visible light-induced electrons generated in the few-layered MoS2 film to the underlying a-IGZO channel layer with a high carrier mobility. The photoresponse characteristics of the a-IGZO transistor are extended to cover most of the visible range by forming a heterojunction phototransistor that harnesses a visible light responding MoS2 film with a small band gap prepared through a large-area synthetic route. The MoS2-IGZO heterojunction phototransistors exhibit a photoresponsivity of approximately 1.7 A/W at a wavelength of 520 nm (an optical power of 1 μW) with excellent time-dependent photoresponse dynamics.

  4. A comparison of electrophysiologically determined spectral responses in six subspecies of Lymantria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Hibbard, Emily L; Mastro, Victor C

    2014-04-01

    The spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in three gypsy moth species from six different geographical regions (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij [Asian gypsy moth], Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky [Japanese gypsy moth], and Lymantria dispar dispar L. [North American gypsy moth]) was tested electrophysiologically in the wavelength region 300-700 nm. For all moths examined, a maximum response occurred in the 480-520-nm range (blue-green region) with a shoulder peak occurring at 460 nm. A smaller, secondary peak was observed for both sexes at the 340-380-nm range, which is in the region considered behaviorally maximal in night-flying insects. No peaks in sensitivity were observed between 520 and 700 nm (red region) for any of the moths tested. Based on our retinal recording data, a short wavelength blocking filter with a transition wavelength near 500 nm should reduce gypsy moth attraction to artificial lighting sources. This would help reduce the number of Lymantria-infested ships traveling to and from foreign ports.

  5. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  6. A standard comparison of spectral properties and energy response for a number of ultraviolet dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassem, I.; Bero, M.

    2013-09-01

    The radio-chromic chemical radiation dosimeters are materials that change their optical properties (Spectrique optical absorbance and optical density) due to radiation absorption. These detectors are used for dose measurements of ionizing radiation (γ and X-rays). It was established that these detectors could be used for ultraviolet radiation dose measurements. So, the aim of this work is to study and compare the metrological properties of two radiation chemical detectors, FXG gel and EBT2 Gafchromic film. The FXG gel is prepared directly at laboratory but EBT2 gafchromic film is a self developed radiation sensible film which is available as commercial product. This work focuses on realizing a comparison study between FXG and EBT2 detector metrological properties. It consists of studying optical and spectral properties of the detectors responsivity, radiation and temporal stability, linearity and total detected dose level. The results showed that the studied detectors present a very good responsivity to UVA radiation, high stability in optical absorbance under UVA radiation and good linearity over wide radiation level which contains the solar UVA radiation level reaching the earth surface. But, the EBT2 film presents two time higher total detection dose level than FXG gel, moreover, due to the simplicity of use, it was possible to test the use of EBT2 film for direct solar UVA radiation measurement. The two studied chemical detector (FXG gel and EBT2 film) provide a direct second order mathematical relation between the applied radiation dose and the optical absorbance changes with a very good approximation and suitable uncertainty (Measurement results relative dispersion is about 5%). It is possible to study the EBT2 film optical density variation as a function of UVA dose using directly a portable densitometer (author).

  7. Simulation for spectral response of solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shiwei; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we introduced how to build a physical model of refer to the device structure and parameters. Simulations for solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes spectral characteristics were conducted in use of Silvaco TCAD, where device structure and parameters are comprehensively considered. In simulation, the effects of polarization, Urbach tail, mobility, saturated velocities and lifetime in AlGaN device was considered. Especially, we focused on how the concentration-dependent Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination model affects simulation results. By simulating, we analyzed the effects in spectral response caused by TAUN0 and TAUP0, and got the values of TAUN0 and TAUP0 which can bring a result coincides with test results. After that, we changed their values and made the simulation results especially the part under 255 nm performed better. In conclusion, the spectral response between 200 nm and 320 nm of solar-blind AlGaN based p-i-n photodiodes were simulated and compared with test results. We also found that TAUN0 and TAUP0 have a large impact on spectral response of AlGaN material.

  8. Spectral Kernel Approach to Study Radiative Response of Climate Variables and Interannual Variability of Reflected Solar Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhonghai; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Loukachine, Constantin; Charlock, Thomas P.; Young, David; Noeel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The radiative kernel approach provides a simple way to separate the radiative response to different climate parameters and to decompose the feedback into radiative and climate response components. Using CERES/MODIS/Geostationary data, we calculated and analyzed the solar spectral reflectance kernels for various climate parameters on zonal, regional, and global spatial scales. The kernel linearity is tested. Errors in the kernel due to nonlinearity can vary strongly depending on climate parameter, wavelength, surface, and solar elevation; they are large in some absorption bands for some parameters but are negligible in most conditions. The spectral kernels are used to calculate the radiative responses to different climate parameter changes in different latitudes. The results show that the radiative response in high latitudes is sensitive to the coverage of snow and sea ice. The radiative response in low latitudes is contributed mainly by cloud property changes, especially cloud fraction and optical depth. The large cloud height effect is confined to absorption bands, while the cloud particle size effect is found mainly in the near infrared. The kernel approach, which is based on calculations using CERES retrievals, is then tested by direct comparison with spectral measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) (a different instrument on a different spacecraft). The monthly mean interannual variability of spectral reflectance based on the kernel technique is consistent with satellite observations over the ocean, but not over land, where both model and data have large uncertainty. RMS errors in kernel ]derived monthly global mean reflectance over the ocean compared to observations are about 0.001, and the sampling error is likely a major component.

  9. Development of spectral history methods for pin-by-pin core analysis method using three-dimensional direct response matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyasu, T.; Ishii, K.; Hino, T.; Aoyama, M.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral history methods for pin-by-pin core analysis method using the three-dimensional direct response matrix have been developed. The direct response matrix is formalized by four sub-response matrices in order to respond to a core eigenvalue k and thus can be recomposed at each outer iteration in the core analysis. For core analysis, it is necessary to take into account the burn-up effect related to spectral history. One of the methods is to evaluate the nodal burn-up spectrum obtained using the out-going neutron current. The other is to correct the fuel rod neutron production rates obtained the pin-by-pin correction. These spectral history methods were tested in a heterogeneous system. The test results show that the neutron multiplication factor error can be reduced by half during burn-up, the nodal neutron production rates errors can be reduced by 30% or more. The root-mean-square differences between the relative fuel rod neutron production rate distributions can be reduced within 1.1% error. This means that these methods can accurately reflect the effects of intra- and inter-assembly heterogeneities during burn-up and can be used for core analysis. Core analysis with the DRM method was carried out for an ABWR quarter core and it was found that both thermal power and coolant-flow distributions were smoothly converged. (authors)

  10. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, J.A.; Fortes, M.; Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. ► Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. ► The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. ► Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. ► Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J sc . - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2–4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  11. Monte Carlo modelling of a-Si EPID response: The effect of spectral variations with field size and position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Fielding, Andrew; Dance, David R.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on predicting the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) image of intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) fields in the absence of attenuation material in the beam with Monte Carlo methods. As IMRT treatments consist of a series of segments of various sizes that are not always delivered on the central axis, large spectral variations may be observed between the segments. The effect of these spectral variations on the EPID response was studied with fields of various sizes and off-axis positions. A detailed description of the EPID was implemented in a Monte Carlo model. The EPID model was validated by comparing the EPID output factors for field sizes between 1x1 and 26x26 cm 2 at the isocenter. The Monte Carlo simulations agreed with the measurements to within 1.5%. The Monte Carlo model succeeded in predicting the EPID response at the center of the fields of various sizes and offsets to within 1% of the measurements. Large variations (up to 29%) of the EPID response were observed between the various offsets. The EPID response increased with field size and with field offset for most cases. The Monte Carlo model was then used to predict the image of a simple test IMRT field delivered on the beam axis and with an offset. A variation of EPID response up to 28% was found between the on- and off-axis delivery. Finally, two clinical IMRT fields were simulated and compared to the measurements. For all IMRT fields, simulations and measurements agreed within 3%--0.2 cm for 98% of the pixels. The spectral variations were quantified by extracting from the spectra at the center of the fields the total photon yield (Y total ), the photon yield below 1 MeV (Y low ), and the percentage of photons below 1 MeV (P low ). For the studied cases, a correlation was shown between the EPID response variation and Y total , Y low , and P low

  12. Extracting the noise spectral densities parameters of JFET transistor by modeling a nuclear electronics channel response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, J.

    2009-07-01

    Mathematical model for the RMS noise of JFET transistor has been realized. Fitting the model according to the experimental results gives the noise spectral densities values. Best fitting was for the model of three noise sources and real preamplifier transfer function. After gamma irradiation, an additional and important noise sources appeared and two point defects are estimated through the fitting process. (author)

  13. Effect of Soil Use and Coverage on the Spectral Response of an Oxisol in the VIS-NIR-MIR Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Martín-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the spectral responses obtained from a Typic Red Hapludox (oxisol were analyzed under different uses and occupations: Ficus elastica cultivation, Citrus + Arachis association cultivation, transitional crops, forest, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Elaeis guineensis (18 years, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, and Musa × paradisiaca + Zea mays at the La Libertad Research Center in the department of Meta in Colombia (4°04′ North latitude, 73°30′ West longitude, 330 MAMSL. Sampling was performed with four random replicates of the horizon A and B to determine the contents of organic carbon (CO, pH, exchangeable acidity (Ac. I, cation exchange capacity (Cc, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, sand, lime, and clay and spectral responses were obtained in the visible band (VIS, near infrared (NIR, and infrared (MIR for each sample under laboratory conditions. A comparison was made between the obtained spectra, determining the main changes in soil properties due to their use and coverage. Variation of soil characteristics such as color, organic carbon content, presence of ferrous compounds, sand, silt, and clay content and mineralogy allow the identification of the main spectral changes of soils, demonstrating the importance of the use of reflectance spectroscopy as a tool of comparison and estimation between physical-chemical properties of the soils.

  14. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  15. Vascular response to ischemia in the feet of falanga torture victims and normal controls--color and spectral Doppler findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Amris, Kirstine; Holm, Christian Cato

    2009-01-01

    to controls. On color Doppler this would be seen as less color after ischemia and on spectral Doppler as elevated resistive index (RI). METHODS: Ten male torture victims from the Middle East and nine age, sex and ethnically matched controls underwent Doppler examination of the abductor hallucis and flexor...... digitorum brevis muscles before and after two minutes ischemia induced with a pressure cuff over the malleoli. The color Doppler findings were quantified with the color fraction (CF) before and after ischemia. On spectral Doppler the resistive index was measured once before and three consecutive times after....... However, the trend in RI still supports the hypothesis. The negative findings may be due to inadequate design where the CF and RI were measured in one setting, perhaps resulting in both methods being applied imperfectly. The response to ischemia seems short-lived and we suggest that the Doppler methods...

  16. The effect of spectral filters on VEP and alpha-wave responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Willeford

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The Intuitive Colorimeter filters significantly increased both N75 and P100 latencies, an effect which is primarily attributable (∼75% to luminance, and in some cases, specific spectral effects (e.g., blue and red. VEP amplitude and alpha power were not significantly affected. These findings provide an important reference to which either amplitude or power changes in light-sensitive, younger clinical groups can be compared.

  17. The effect of organic contaminants on the spectral induced polarization response of porous media - mechanistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest in using geophysical methods in general and spectral induced polarization (SIP) in particular as a tool to detect and monitor organic contaminants within the subsurface. The general idea of the SIP method is to inject alternating current through a soil volume and to measure the resultant potential in order to obtain the relevant soil electrical properties (e.g. complex impedance, complex conductivity/resistivity). Currently, a complete mechanistic understanding of the effect of organic contaminants on the SIP response of soil is still absent. In this work, we combine laboratory experiments with modeling to reveal the main processes affecting the SIP signature of soil contaminated with organic pollutant. In a first set of experiments, we investigate the effect of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) on the complex conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Our results show that addition of NAPL to the porous media increases the real component of the soil electrical conductivity and decreases the polarization of the soil (imaginary component of the complex conductivity). Furthermore, addition of NAPL to the soil resulted in an increase of the electrical conductivity of the soil solution. Based on these results, we suggest that adsorption of NAPL to the soil surface, and exchange process between polar organic compounds in the NAPL and inorganic ions in the soil are the main processes affecting the SIP signature of the contaminated soil. To further support our hypothesis, the temporal change of the SIP signature of a soil as function of a single organic cation concentration was measured. In addition to the measurements of the soil electrical properties, we also measured the effect of the organic cation on the chemical composition of both the bulk and the surface of the soil. The results of those experiments again showed that the electrical conductivity of the soil increased with increasing contaminant concentration. In addition

  18. Silicon spectral response extension through single wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Del Gobbo, Silvano; Castrucci, P.; Fedele, S.; Riele, L.; Convertino, A.; Morbidoni, M.; De Nicola, F.; Scarselli, M.; Camilli, L.; De Crescenzi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and n-silicon multiple heterojunctions have been fabricated by a SWCNT film transferring process. We report on the ability of the carbon nanotubes to extend the Si spectral range towards the near ultraviolet (UV) and the near infrared regions. Semiconducting and about metallic SWCNT networks have been studied as a function of the film sheet resistance, Rsh. Optical absorbance and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assign nanotube chirality and electronic character. This gave us hints of evidence of the participation of the metal nanotubes in the photocurrent generation. Moreover, we provide evidence that the external quantum efficiency spectral range can be modulated as a function of the SWCNT network sheet resistance in a hybrid SWCNT/Si solar cell. This result will be very useful to further design/optimize devices with improved performance in spectral regions generally not covered by conventional Si p-n devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Climate responses to SATIRE and SIM-based spectral solar forcing in a 3D atmosphere-ocean coupled GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply two reconstructed spectral solar forcing scenarios, one SIM (Spectral Irradiance Monitor based, the other the SATIRE (Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction modeled, as inputs to the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCMAM (Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model to examine climate responses on decadal to centennial time scales, focusing on quantifying the difference of climate response between the two solar forcing scenarios. We run the GCMAM for about 400 years with present day trace gas and aerosol for the two solar forcing inputs. We find that the SIM-based solar forcing induces much larger long-term response and 11-year variation in global averaged stratospheric temperature and column ozone. We find significant decreasing trends of planetary albedo for both forcing scenarios in the 400-year model runs. However the mechanisms for the decrease are very different. For SATIRE solar forcing, the decreasing trend of planetary albedo is associated with changes in cloud cover. For SIM-based solar forcing, without significant change in cloud cover on centennial and longer time scales, the apparent decreasing trend of planetary albedo is mainly due to out-of-phase variation in shortwave radiative forcing proxy (downwelling flux for wavelength >330 nm and total solar irradiance (TSI. From the Maunder Minimum to present, global averaged annual mean surface air temperature has a response of ~0.1 °C to SATIRE solar forcing compared to ~0.04 °C to SIM-based solar forcing. For 11-year solar cycle, the global surface air temperature response has 3-year lagged response to either forcing scenario. The global surface air 11-year temperature response to SATIRE forcing is about 0.12 °C, similar to recent multi-model estimates, and comparable to the observational-based evidence. However, the global surface air temperature response to 11-year SIM-based solar forcing is insignificant and inconsistent with observation-based evidence.

  20. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  1. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.A., E-mail: jose.rodriguez@tsolar.eu [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain); Fortes, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Computacion, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J. [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J{sub sc}. - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2-4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  2. Response of Spectral Reflectances and Vegetation Indices on Varying Juniper Cone Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Juniper trees are widely distributed throughout the world and are common sources of allergies when microscopic pollen grains are transported by wind and inhaled. In this study, we investigated the spectral influences of pollen-discharging male juniper cones within a juniper canopy. This was done through a controlled outdoor experiment involving ASD FieldSpec Pro Spectroradiometer measurements over juniper canopies of varying cone densities. Broadband and narrowband spectral reflectance and vegetation index (VI patterns were evaluated as to their sensitivity and their ability to discriminate the presence of cones. The overall aim of this research was to assess remotely sensed phenological capabilities to detect pollen-bearing juniper trees for public health applications. A general decrease in reflectance values with increasing juniper cone density was found, particularly in the Green (545–565 nm and NIR (750–1,350 nm regions. In contrast, reflectances in the shortwave-infrared (SWIR, 2,000 nm to 2,350 nm region decreased from no cone presence to intermediate amounts (90 g/m2 and then increased from intermediate levels to the highest cone densities (200 g/m2. Reflectance patterns in the Red (620–700 nm were more complex due to shifting contrast patterns in absorptance between cones and juniper foliage, where juniper foliage is more absorbing than cones only within the intense narrowband region of maximum chlorophyll absorption near 680 nm. Overall, narrowband reflectances were more sensitive to cone density changes than the equivalent MODIS broadbands. In all VIs analyzed, there were significant relationships with cone density levels, particularly with the narrowband versions and the two-band vegetation index (TBVI based on Green and Red bands, a promising outcome for the use of phenocams in juniper phenology trait studies. These results indicate that spectral indices are sensitive to certain juniper phenologic traits that can potentially be

  3. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  4. Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Biofilm Formation in Hanford Vadose Zone Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Katsenovich, Y.; Lee, B.; Whitman, D.

    2017-12-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear weapons program during the second world war and the cold war, there now exists a significant amount of uranium contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site located in Washington state. In-situ immobilization of mobile uranium via injections of a soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendment may prove effective in the formation of insoluble uranyl phosphate mineral, autunite. However, the injected polyphosphate undergoes hydrolysis in aqueous solutions to form orthophosphate, which serves as a readily available nutrient for the various microorganisms in the sediment. Sediment-filled column experiments conducted under saturated oxygen restricted conditions using geophysical Spectral Induced Polarization technique have shown the impact of microbes on the dissolution of autunite, a calcium uranyl phosphate mineral. Spectral Induced Polarization may be an effective way to track changes indicative of bacterial activities on the surrounding environment. This method can be a cost-effective alternative to the drilling of boreholes at a field scale.

  5. Spectrally-resolved response properties of the three most advanced FRET based fluorescent protein voltage probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Mutoh

    Full Text Available Genetically-encoded optical probes for membrane potential hold the promise of monitoring electrical signaling of electrically active cells such as specific neuronal populations in intact brain tissue. The most advanced class of these probes was generated by molecular fusion of the voltage sensing domain (VSD of Ci-VSP with a fluorescent protein (FP pair. We quantitatively compared the three most advanced versions of these probes (two previously reported and one new variant, each involving a spectrally distinct tandem of FPs. Despite these different FP tandems and dissimilarities within the amino acid sequence linking the VSD to the FPs, the amplitude and kinetics of voltage dependent fluorescence changes were surprisingly similar. However, each of these fluorescent probes has specific merits when considering different potential applications.

  6. Measurements of spectral responses for developing fiber-optic pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon; Jang, Kyoung Won; Seo, Jeong Ki; Moon, Jin Soo; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated a fiber-optic pH sensor, which is composed of a light source, a pH-sensing probe, plastic optical fibers and a spectrometer, for determining the degree of infection by Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. As pH indicators, phenol red and m-cresol purple are used, and pH liquid solutions are prepared by mixing phenol red or m-cresol purple solutions and various kinds of pH buffer solutions. The light emitted by a light source is guided by plastic optical fibers to the pH liquid solution, and the optical characteristic of a reflected light is changed according to the color variations of the pH indicator in the pH-sensing probe. Therefore, we have measured the intensities and wavelength shifts of the reflected lights, which change according to the color variations of indicators at different pH values, by using a spectrometer for spectral analysis. Also, the relationships between the pH values of liquid solutions and the optical properties of the modulated lights are obtained on the basis of the changes of the colors of indicators.

  7. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  8. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems

  9. Spectral response of crystalline acetanilide and N -methylacetamide: Vibrational self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Julian; Hamm, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied to compare the spectral response of the amide I band and the NH-stretching band of acetanilide (ACN) and N -methylacetamide (NMA), as well as their deuterated derivatives. Both molecules form hydrogen-bonded molecular crystals that are regarded to be model systems for polypeptides and proteins. The amide I bands of both ACN and NMA show a temperature-dependent sideband, while the NH bands are accompanied by a sequence of equidistantly spaced satellite peaks. These spectral anomalies are interpreted as a signature of vibrational self-trapping. Two different types of states can be identified in both crystals in the pump-probe signal: a delocalized free-exciton state and a set of localized self-trapped states. The phonons that mediate self-trapping in ACN and deuterated ACN are identified by their temperature dependence, confirming our previous results. The study shows that the substructure of the NH band in NMA (amide A and amide B bands) originates, at least partly, from vibrational self-trapping and not, as often assumed, from a Fermi resonance.

  10. Enhancement of nonlinear optical response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films by spectrally rectangle-shape-pulse-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O; Isu, T; Ishi-Hayase, J; Sasaki, M; Tsuchiya, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the enhancement of the nonlinear optical response of the weakly confined excitons with use of spectrally rectangular pulse. The nonlinear optical response was investigated as a function of excitation energy by a degenerate four-wave-mixing (DFWM) technique. In the case that the laser pulse with the controlled spectral shape excites the plural exciton states simultaneously, the DFWM signal intensity is enhanced by a factor of two in comparison with the intensity under the excitation of a single exciton state. This enhancement is caused by the superposition of the nonlinear optical responses from the plural exciton states

  11. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Daikang; Divan, Ralu; Gades, Lisa M.; Kenesei, Peter; Madden, Timothy J.; Miceli, Antonino; Park, Jun-Sang; Patel, Umeshkumar M.; Quaranta, Orlando; Sharma, Hemant; Bennett, Douglas A.; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathon D.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Swetz, Daniel S.; Ullom, Joel N.

    2017-11-01

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth, and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. We show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.

  12. Early developmental responses to seedling environment modulate later plasticity to light spectral quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J B von Wettberg

    Full Text Available Correlations between developmentally plastic traits may constrain the joint evolution of traits. In plants, both seedling de-etiolation and shade avoidance elongation responses to crowding and foliage shade are mediated by partially overlapping developmental pathways, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic constraints. To test for such constraints, we exposed inbred lines of Impatiens capensis to factorial combinations of leaf litter (which affects de-etiolation and simulated foliage shade (which affects phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance. Increased elongation of hypocotyls caused by leaf litter phenotypically enhanced subsequent elongation of the first internode in response to low red:far red (R:FR. Trait expression was correlated across litter and shade conditions, suggesting that phenotypic effects of early plasticity on later plasticity may affect variation in elongation traits available to selection in different light environments.

  13. A non-invasive, quantitative study of broadband spectral responses in human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline R Kupers

    Full Text Available Currently, non-invasive methods for studying the human brain do not routinely and reliably measure spike-rate-dependent signals, independent of responses such as hemodynamic coupling (fMRI and subthreshold neuronal synchrony (oscillations and event-related potentials. In contrast, invasive methods-microelectrode recordings and electrocorticography (ECoG-have recently measured broadband power elevation in field potentials (~50-200 Hz as a proxy for locally averaged spike rates. Here, we sought to detect and quantify stimulus-related broadband responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Extracranial measurements like MEG and EEG have multiple global noise sources and relatively low signal-to-noise ratios; moreover high frequency artifacts from eye movements can be confounded with stimulus design and mistaken for signals originating from brain activity. For these reasons, we developed an automated denoising technique that helps reveal the broadband signal of interest. Subjects viewed 12-Hz contrast-reversing patterns in the left, right, or bilateral visual field. Sensor time series were separated into evoked (12-Hz amplitude and broadband components (60-150 Hz. In all subjects, denoised broadband responses were reliably measured in sensors over occipital cortex, even in trials without microsaccades. The broadband pattern was stimulus-dependent, with greater power contralateral to the stimulus. Because we obtain reliable broadband estimates with short experiments (~20 minutes, and with sufficient signal-to-noise to distinguish responses to different stimuli, we conclude that MEG broadband signals, denoised with our method, offer a practical, non-invasive means for characterizing spike-rate-dependent neural activity for addressing scientific questions about human brain function.

  14. Which way is up? Asymmetric spectral input along the dorsal-ventral axis influences postural responses in an amphibious annelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John

    2014-11-01

    Medicinal leeches are predatory annelids that exhibit countershading and reside in aquatic environments where light levels might be variable. They also leave the water and must contend with terrestrial environments. Yet, leeches generally maintain a dorsal upward position despite lacking statocysts. Leeches respond visually to both green and near-ultraviolet (UV) light. I used LEDs to test the hypothesis that ventral, but not dorsal UV would evoke compensatory movements to orient the body. Untethered leeches were tested using LEDs emitting at red (632 nm), green (513 nm), blue (455 nm) and UV (372 nm). UV light evoked responses in 100 % of trials and the leeches often rotated the ventral surface away from it. Visible light evoked no or modest responses (12-15 % of trials) and no body rotation. Electrophysiological recordings showed that ventral sensilla responded best to UV, dorsal sensilla to green. Additionally, a higher order interneuron that is engaged in a variety of parallel networks responded vigorously to UV presented ventrally, and both the visible and UV responses exhibited pronounced light adaptation. These results strongly support the suggestion that a dorsal light reflex in the leech uses spectral comparisons across the dorsal-ventral axis rather than, or in addition to, luminance.

  15. Comparison of calculated and measured spectral response and intrinsic efficiency for a boron-loaded plastic neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamykowski, E.A. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Bethpage, NY (United States))

    1992-07-15

    Boron-loaded scintillators offer the potential for neutron spectrometers with a simplified, peak-shaped response. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used to calculate the detector characteristics of a scintillator made of a boron-loaded plastic, BC454, for neutrons between 1 and 7 MeV. Comparisons with measurements are made of spectral response for neutron energies between 4 and 6 MeV and of intrinsic efficiencies for neutrons up to 7 MeV. In order to compare the calculated spectra with measured data, enhancements to MCNP were introduced to generate tallies of light output spectra for recoil events terminating in a final capture by {sup 10}B. The comparison of measured and calculated spectra shows agreement in response shape, full width at half maximum, and recoil energy deposition. Intrinsic efficiencies measured to 7 MeV are also in agreement with the MCNP calculations. These results validate the code predictions and affirm the value of MCNP as a useful tool for development of sensor concepts based on boron-loaded plastics. (orig.).

  16. Spectral summation and facilitation in on- and off-responses for optimized representation of communication calls in mouse inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, Alexander G; Egorova, Marina A; Ehret, Günter

    2017-02-01

    Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls. The results confirmed the hypothesis showing that average response rates, as recorded extracellularly from single units, were highest and spectral facilitation most effective for both onset and offset responses to the call and call models with three resolved frequencies according to critical bands in perception. In addition, the general on- and/or off-response enhancement in almost half the investigated 122 neurons favors not only perception of single calls but also of vocalization rhythm. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that critical-band resolved frequency components within a communication sound increase the probability of its perception by boosting the signal-to-noise ratio of neural response rates within the inferior colliculus for at least 20% (our criterion for facilitation). These mechanisms, including enhancement of rhythm coding, are generally favorable to processing of other animal and human vocalizations, including formants of speech sounds. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A unified approach for suppressing sidelobes arising in the spectral response of rugate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Zahhad, M.; Bataineh, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests a universal approach to reduce the side lobes which usually appear at both sides of a stop band of a ru gate filter. Both quin tic matching layers and anodization functions are to used to improve the filter's response. The proposed technique could be used to control the ripples level by properly choosing the refractive index profile after amending it to include mat aching layers and/or modulating its profile with a slowly varying anodization (or ta perine) function. Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed technique. The given examples suggest that combining both effects on the index of refraction profile lead to the lowest possible ripple level. A multichannel filter response is obtained by wavelet cons traction of the refractive index profile with potential applications in multimode lasers and wavelength division multiple xin networks. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability of the adopted approach to design ripple free ru gate filters. The extension to stack filters and other wave guiding structures are also visible. (authors). 14 refs., 8 figs

  18. Characterization of Articular Cartilage Recovery and Its Correlation with Optical Response in the Near-Infrared Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac Oluwaseun; Singh, Sanjleena; Moody, Hayley; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading. The recovery parameter, elastic rebound ( E R ), is based on the strain energy released as the samples underwent instantaneous elastic recovery. Our results reveal positive relationship between the rebound parameter and cartilage proteoglycan content (normal samples: 2.20 ± 0.10 N mm; proteoglycan-depleted samples: 0.50 ± 0.04 N mm for 1 hour of enzymatic treatment and 0.13 ± 0.02 N mm for 4 hours of enzymatic treatment). In addition, multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression was employed to investigate the relationship between E R and NIR spectral data. The results reveal significantly high correlation ( R 2 cal = 98.35% and R 2 val = 79.87%; P cartilage in the combined NIR regions 5,450 to 6,100 cm -1 and 7,500 to 12,500 cm -1 . We conclude that E R can indicate the mechanical condition and state of health of articular cartilage. The correlation of E R with cartilage optical response in the NIR range could facilitate real-time evaluation of the tissue's integrity during arthroscopic surgery and could also provide an important tool for cartilage assessment in tissue engineering and regeneration research.

  19. Study of spectral response of a neutron filter. Design of a method to adjust spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomb-Dolci, F.

    1999-02-01

    The first part of this thesis describes an experimental method which intends to determine a neutron spectrum in the epithermal range [1 eV -10 keV]. Based on measurements of reaction rates provided by activation foils, it gives flux level in each energy range corresponding to each probe. This method can be used in any reactor location or in a neutron beam. It can determine scepter on eight energy groups, five groups in the epithermal range. The second part of this thesis presents a study of an epithermal neutron beam design, in the frame of Neutron Capture Therapy. A beam tube was specially built to test filters made up of different materials. Its geometry was designed to favour epithermal neutron crossing and to cut thermal and fast neutrons. A code scheme was validated to simulate the device response with a Monte Carlo code. Measurements were made at ISIS reactor and experimental spectra were compared to calculated ones. This validated code scheme was used to simulate different materials usable as shields in the tube. A study of these shields is presented at the end of this thesis. (author)

  20. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  1. Enhancing mid-infrared spectral response at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xin; Zhao, Kun; Xi, Jian-Feng; Xiang, Wen-Feng; Lu, Zhi-Qing; Sun, Qi; Wu, Shi-Xiang; Ni, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Many unexpected properties have been found in the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructure, but the interaction of the many ground states at its interface remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate an optical property of this n-type heterostructure where the mid-infrared spectral responsivity at the interface is enhanced by an external magnetic field. The field intensity ranged from 0.8 to 6 kOe at a low temperature (19 K) as measured with our spectral response measurement system. Two spectral peaks related to the spin-orbit coupling effect were also observed at wavelengths 2400 nm and 3700 nm. The intriguing phenomena relate to changes in the crystallographic structure and subband structure at the interface

  2. Functional imaging of hemodynamic stimulus response in the rat retina with ultrahigh-speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Baumann, Bernhard; Clermont, Allen C.; Feener, Edward P.; Boas, David A.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-03-01

    Measuring retinal hemodynamics in response to flicker stimulus is important for investigating pathophysiology in small animal models of diabetic retinopathy, because a reduction in the hyperemic response is thought to be one of the earliest changes in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated functional imaging of retinal hemodynamics in response to flicker stimulus in the rat retina using an ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT system at 840nm with an axial scan rate of 244kHz. At 244kHz the nominal axial velocity range that could be measured without phase wrapping was +/-37.7mm/s. Pulsatile total retinal arterial blood flow as a function of time was measured using an en face Doppler approach where a 200μm × 200μm area centered at the central retinal artery was repeatedly raster scanned at a volume acquisition rate of 55Hz. Three-dimensional capillary imaging was performed using speckle decorrelation which has minimal angle dependency compared to other angiography techniques based on OCT phase information. During OCT imaging, a flicker stimulus could be applied to the retina synchronously by inserting a dichroic mirror in the imaging interface. An acute transient increase in total retinal blood flow could be detected. At the capillary level, an increase in the degree of speckle decorrelation in capillary OCT angiography images could also be observed, which indicates an increase in the velocity of blood at the capillary level. This method promises to be useful for the investigation of small animal models of ocular diseases.

  3. Characteristics of Spectral Responses for a Ground Motion from Mediterranean Earthquake – ZEGHANGHANE Station (6.3Mw in Morocco, and its Influence on the Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahatri Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    In this case, we determine the spectral response of the ground motion for ZGH station, and study his influence on the structures as well as make a comparison with the requirements of the Moroccan seismic construction regulations (RPS 2000 revised in 2011.

  4. Spectral response modeling and analysis of p–n–p In0.53Ga0.47As/InP HPTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Lv Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    We report our results on the modeling of the spectral response of the near-infrared (NIR) lattice-matched p–n–p In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/InP heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs). The spectral response model is developed from the solution of the steady state continuity equations that dominate the excess optically generated minority-carriers in the active regions of the HPTs with accurate boundary conditions. In addition, a detailed optical-power absorption profile is constructed for the device modeling. The calculated responsivity is in good agreement with the measured one for the incident radiation at 980 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm. Furthermore, the variation in the responsivity of the device with the base region width is analyzed. (paper)

  5. Determination of spectral markers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using in vitro Raman microspectroscopy: cellular responses to polyamidoamine dendrimer exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efeoglu, Esen; Casey, Alan; Byrne, Hugh J

    2017-10-09

    Although consumer exposure to nanomaterials is ever increasing, with potential increased applications in areas such as drug and/or gene delivery, contrast agents and diagnosis, the determination of the cyto- and geno-toxic effects of nanomaterials on human health and the environment still remains challenging. Although many techniques have been established and adapted to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano-sized materials, these techniques remain limited by the number of assays required, total cost, and use of labels and they struggle to explain the underlying interaction mechanisms. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy is employed as an in vitro label-free, high content screening technique to observe toxicological changes within the cell in a multi-parametric fashion. The evolution of spectral markers as a function of time and applied dose has been used to elucidate the mechanism of action of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers associated with cytotoxicity and their impact on nuclear biochemistry. PAMAM dendrimers are chosen as a model nanomaterial due to their widely studied cytotoxic and genotoxic properties and commercial availability. Point spectra were acquired from the cytoplasm to monitor the cascade of toxic events occurring in the cytoplasm upon nanoparticle exposure, whereas the spectra acquired from the nucleus and the nucleolus were used to explore PAMAM-nuclear material interaction as well as genotoxic responses.

  6. A calibration method for the measurement of IR detector spectral responses using a FTIR spectrometer equipped with a DTGS reference cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravrand, Olivier; Wlassow, J.; Bonnefond, L.

    2014-07-01

    Various high performance IR detectors are today available on the market from QWIPs to narrow gap semiconductor photodiodes, which exhibit various spectral features. In the astrophysics community, the knowledge of the detector spectral shape is of first importance. This quantity (spectral QE or response) is usually measured by means of a monochromator followed by an integrating sphere and compared to a calibrated reference detector. This approach is usually very efficient in the visible range, where all optical elements are very well known, particularly the reference detector. This setup is also widely used in the near IR (up to 3μm) but as the wavelength increases, it becomes less efficient. For instance, the internal emittance of integrating spheres in the IR, and the bad knowledge of reference detectors for longer wavelengths tend to degrade the measurement reliability. Another approach may therefore be considered, using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer (FTIR). In this case, as opposed to the monochromator, the tested detector is not in low flux condition, the incident light containing a mix of different wavelengths. Therefore, the reference detector has to be to be sensitive (and known) in the whole spectral band of interest, because it will sense all those wavelengths at the same time. A popular detector used in this case is a Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate thermal detector (DTGS). Being a pyro detetector, the spectral response of such a detector is very flat, mainly limited by its window. However, the response of such a detector is very slow, highly depending on the temporal frequency of the input signal. Moreover, being a differential detector, it doesn't work in DC. In commercial FTIR spectrometers, the source luminance is usually continuously modulated by the moving interferometer, and the result is that the interferogram mixes optical spectral information (optical path difference) and temporal variations (temporal frequency) so that the temporal

  7. From ultraviolet to Prussian blue: a spectral response for the cyanotype process and a safe educational activity to explain UV exposure for all ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J; Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Lynch, M

    2014-12-01

    Engaging students and the public in understanding UV radiation and its effects is achievable using the real time experiment that incorporates blueprint paper, an "educational toy" that is a safe and easy demonstration of the cyanotype chemical process. The cyanotype process works through the presence of UV radiation. The blueprint paper was investigated to be used as not only engagement in discussion for public outreach about UV radiation, but also as a practical way to introduce the exploration of measurement of UV radiation exposure and as a consequence, digital image analysis. Tests of print methods and experiments, dose response, spectral response and dark response were investigated. Two methods of image analysis for dose response calculation are provided using easy to access software and two methods of pixel count analysis were used to determine spectral response characteristics. Variation in manufacture of the blueprint paper product indicates some variance between measurements. Most importantly, as a result of this investigation, a preliminary spectral response range for the radiation required to produce the cyanotype reaction is presented here, which has until now been unknown.

  8. Structural Changes of Desertified and Managed Shrubland Landscapes in Response to Drought: Spectral, Spatial and Temporal Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarin Paz-Kagan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought events cause changes in ecosystem function and structure by reducing the shrub abundance and expanding the biological soil crusts (biocrusts. This change increases the leakage of nutrient resources and water into the river streams in semi-arid areas. A common management solution for decreasing this loss of resources is to create a runoff-harvesting system (RHS. The objective of the current research is to apply geo-information techniques, including remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS, on the watershed scale, to monitor and analyze the spatial and temporal changes in response to drought of two source-sink systems, the natural shrubland and the human-made RHSs in the semi-arid area of the northern Negev Desert, Israel. This was done by evaluating the changes in soil, vegetation and landscape cover. The spatial changes were evaluated by three spectral indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Crust Index (CI and landscape classification change between 2003 and 2010. In addition, we examined the effects of environmental factors on NDVI, CI and their clustering after successive drought years. The results show that vegetation cover indicates a negative ∆NDVI change due to a reduction in the abundance of woody vegetation. On the other hand, the soil cover change data indicate a positive ∆CI change due to the expansion of the biocrusts. These two trends are evidence for degradation processes in terms of resource conservation and bio-production. A considerable part of the changed area (39% represents transitions between redistribution processes of resources, such as water, sediments, nutrients and seeds, on the watershed scale. In the pre-drought period, resource redistribution mainly occurred on the slope scale, while in the post-drought period, resource redistribution occurred on the whole watershed scale. However, the RHS management is effective in reducing leakage, since these systems are located on the

  9. Biomechanics of the cornea evaluated by spectral analysis of waveforms from ocular response analyzer and Corvis-ST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Tejwani

    Full Text Available In this study, spectral analysis of the deformation signal from Corvis-ST (CoST and reflected light intensity from ocular response analyzer (ORA was performed to evaluate biomechanical concordance with each other.The study was non-interventional, observational, cross-sectional and involved 188 eyes from 94 normal subjects. Three measurements were made on each eye with ORA and CoST each and then averaged for each device. The deformation signal from CoST and reflected light intensity (applanation signal from ORA was compiled for all the eyes. The ORA signal was inverted about a line joining the two applanation peaks. All the signals were analyzed with Fourier series. The area under the signal curves (AUC, root mean square (RMS of all the harmonics, lower order (LO included 1st and 2nd order harmonic, higher order (HO up to 6th harmonic, CoST deformation amplitude (DA, corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were analyzed.The device variables and those calculated by Fourier transform were statistically significantly different between CoST and ORA. These variables also differed between the eyes of the same subject. There was also statistically significant influence of eyes (left vs. right on the differences in a sub-set of RMS variables only. CH and CRF differed statistically significantly between the eyes of subject (p<0.001 but not DA (p = 0.65.CoST was statistically significantly different from ORA. CoST may be useful in delineating true biomechanical differences between the eyes of a subject as it reports deformation.

  10. The use of wavelength-selective plastic cladding materials in horticulture: understanding of crop and fungal responses through the assessment of biological spectral weighting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nigel D; Jacobson, Rob J; Taylor, Anna; Wargent, Jason J; Moore, Jason P

    2005-01-01

    Plant responses to light spectral quality can be exploited to deliver a range of agronomically desirable end points in protected crops. This can be achieved using plastics with specific spectral properties as crop covers. We have studied the responses of a range of crops to plastics that have either (a) increased transmission of UV compared with standard horticultural covers, (b) decreased transmission of UV or (c) increased the ratio of red (R) : far-red (FR) radiation. Both the UV-transparent and R : FR increasing films reduced leaf area and biomass, offering potential alternatives to chemical growth regulators. The UV-opaque film increased growth, but while this may be useful in some crops, there were trade-offs with elements of quality, such as pigmentation and taste. UV manipulation may also influence disease control. Increasing UV inhibited not only the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea but also the disease biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Unlike B. cinerea, T. harzianum was highly sensitive to UV-A radiation. These fungal responses and those for plant growth in the growth room and the field under different plastics are analyzed in terms of alternative biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF). The role of BSWF in assessing general patterns of response to UV modification in horticulture is also discussed.

  11. Analysis of Cross-Seasonal Spectral Response from Kettle Holes: Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Chlorophyll Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lennartz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kettle holes, small inland water bodies usually less than 1 ha in size, are subjected to pollution, drainage, and structural alteration by intensive land use practices. This study presents the analysis of spectral signatures from kettle holes based on in situ water sampling and reflectance measurements in application for chlorophyll estimation. Water samples and surface reflectance from kettle holes were collected from 6 ponds in 15 field campaigns (5 in 2007 and 10 in 2008, resulting in a total of 80 spectral datasets. We assessed the existing semi-empirical algorithms to determine chlorophyll content for different types of kettle holes using seasonal and cross-seasonal volume reflectance and derivative spectra. Based on this analysis and optical properties of water leaving reflectance from kettle holes, the following typology of the remote signal interpretation was proposed: Submerged vegetation, Phytoplankton dominated and Mixed type.

  12. Analysis of petroleum contaminated soils by spectral modeling and pure response profile recovery of n-hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Weindorf, David C.; Li, Bin; Ali, Md. Nasim; Majumdar, K.; Ray, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared penalized spline regression (PSR) and random forest (RF) regression using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) derived spectra of 164 petroleum contaminated soils after two different spectral pretreatments [first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate (SNV) followed by detrending] for rapid quantification of soil petroleum contamination. Additionally, a new analytical approach was proposed for the recovery of the pure spectral and concentration profiles of n-hexane present in the unresolved mixture of petroleum contaminated soils using multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The PSR model using FD spectra (r 2  = 0.87, RMSE = 0.580 log 10  mg kg −1 , and residual prediction deviation = 2.78) outperformed all other models tested. Quantitative results obtained by MCR-ALS for n-hexane in presence of interferences (r 2  = 0.65 and RMSE 0.261 log 10  mg kg −1 ) were comparable to those obtained using FD (PSR) model. Furthermore, MCR ALS was able to recover pure spectra of n-hexane. - Highlights: • We predicted soil petroleum contamination with VisNIR DRS spectra. • We examined 2 spectral pretreatments and 2 multivariate models. • MCR-ALS was used for compositional and spectral resolution of n-hexane. • Penalized spline regression performed best for quantifying soil TPH. • MCR-ALS was promising for resolution of complex soil–petroleum mixture. - Use of VisNIR DRS for rapid quantification of soil TPH and resolution of complex soil petroleum mixtures

  13. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  14. Vs30 and spectral response from collocated shallow, active- and passive-source Vs data at 27 sites in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Jack K.; Stephenson, William J.; Williams, Robert A.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Shear‐wave velocity (VS) and time‐averaged shear‐wave velocity to 30 m depth (VS30) are the key parameters used in seismic site response modeling and earthquake engineering design. Where VS data are limited, available data are often used to develop and refine map‐based proxy models of VS30 for predicting ground‐motion intensities. In this paper, we present shallow VS data from 27 sites in Puerto Rico. These data were acquired using a multimethod acquisition approach consisting of noninvasive, collocated, active‐source body‐wave (refraction/reflection), active‐source surface wave at nine sites, and passive‐source surface‐wave refraction microtremor (ReMi) techniques. VS‐versus‐depth models are constructed and used to calculate spectral response plots for each site. Factors affecting method reliability are analyzed with respect to site‐specific differences in bedrock VS and spectral response. At many but not all sites, body‐ and surface‐wave methods generally determine similar depths to bedrock, and it is the difference in bedrock VS that influences site amplification. The predicted resonant frequencies for the majority of the sites are observed to be within a relatively narrow bandwidth of 1–3.5 Hz. For a first‐order comparison of peak frequency position, predictive spectral response plots from eight sites are plotted along with seismograph instrument spectra derived from the time series of the 16 May 2010 Puerto Rico earthquake. We show how a multimethod acquisition approach using collocated arrays compliments and corroborates VS results, thus adding confidence that reliable site characterization information has been obtained.

  15. Middle atmosphere response to different descriptions of the 11-yr solar cycle in spectral irradiance in a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Swartz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The 11-yr solar cycle in solar spectral irradiance (SSI inferred from measurements by the SOlar Radiation & Climate Experiment (SORCE suggests a much larger variation in the ultraviolet than previously accepted. We present middle atmosphere ozone and temperature responses to the solar cycles in SORCE SSI and the ubiquitous Naval Research Laboratory (NRL SSI reconstruction using the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOSCCM. The results are largely consistent with other recent modeling studies. The modeled ozone response is positive throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using the NRL SSI, while the SORCE SSI produces a response that is larger in the lower stratosphere but out of phase with respect to total solar irradiance above 45 km. The modeled responses in total ozone are similar to those derived from satellite and ground-based measurements, 3–6 Dobson Units per 100 units of 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7 in the tropics. The peak zonal mean tropical temperature response using the SORCE SSI is nearly 2 K per 100 units F10.7 – 3 times larger than the simulation using the NRL SSI. The GEOSCCM and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC 2-D coupled model are used to examine how the SSI solar cycle affects the atmosphere through direct solar heating and photolysis processes individually. Middle atmosphere ozone is affected almost entirely through photolysis, whereas the solar cycle in temperature is caused both through direct heating and photolysis feedbacks, processes that are mostly linearly separable. This is important in that it means that chemistry-transport models should simulate the solar cycle in ozone well, while general circulation models without coupled chemistry will underestimate the temperature response to the solar cycle significantly in the middle atmosphere. Further, the net ozone response results from the balance of ozone production at wavelengths less than 242 nm

  16. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  17. Analysis of multi-layered films. [determining dye densities by applying a regression analysis to the spectral response of the composite transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Voss, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    Dye densities of multi-layered films are determined by applying a regression analysis to the spectral response of the composite transparency. The amount of dye in each layer is determined by fitting the sum of the individual dye layer densities to the measured dye densities. From this, dye content constants are calculated. Methods of calculating equivalent exposures are discussed. Equivalent exposures are a constant amount of energy over a limited band-width that will give the same dye content constants as the real incident energy. Methods of using these equivalent exposures for analysis of photographic data are presented.

  18. Simulations of a spectral gamma-ray logging tool response to a surface source distribution on the borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates simulation models for the large-detector spectral gamma-ray (SGR) logging tool in use at the Nevada Test Site. Application of the simulation models produced spectra for source layers on the borehole wall, either from potassium-bearing mudcakes or from plate-out of radon daughter products. Simulations show that the shape and magnitude of gamma-ray spectra from sources distributed on the borehole wall depend on radial position with in the air-filled borehole as well as on hole diameter. No such dependence is observed for sources uniformly distributed in the formation. In addition, sources on the borehole wall produce anisotropic angular fluxes at the higher scattered energies and at the source energy. These differences in borehole effects and in angular flux are important to the process of correcting SGR logs for the presence of potassium mudcakes; they also suggest a technique for distinguishing between spectral contributions from formation sources and sources on the borehole wall. These results imply the existence of a standoff effect not present for spectra measured in air-filled boreholes from formation sources. 5 refs., 11 figs

  19. In situ spectral response of the Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman coastal waters to bio-optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-10-01

    Mapping of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) over the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the satellite-based observations, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), has shown inferior performance (Chl-a overestimation) than that of deep waters. Studies in the region have shown that this poor performance is due to three reasons: (i) water turbidity (sediments re-suspension), and the presence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), (ii) bottom reflectance and (iii) incapability of the existing atmospheric correction models to reduce the effect of the aerosols from the water leaving radiance. Therefore, this work focuses on investigating the sensitivity of the in situ spectral signatures of these coastal waters to the algal (chlorophyll: Chl-a), non-algal (sediments and CDOM) and the bottom reflectance properties, in absence of contributions from the atmosphere. Consequently, the collected in situ spectral signatures will improve our understanding of Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman water properties. For this purpose, comprehensive field measurements were carried out between 2013 and 2016, over Abu-Dhabi (Arabian Gulf) and Fujairah (Sea of Oman) where unique water quality data were collected. Based on the in situ water spectral analysis, the bottom reflectance (water depth<20m) are found to degrade the performance of the conventional ocean color algorithms more than the sediment-laden waters where these waters increase the R rs at the blue and red ranges. The increasing presence of CDOM markedly decreases the R rs in the blue range, which is conflicting with the effect of Chl-a. Given the inadequate performance of the widely used ocean-color algorithms (OC3: ocean color 3, OC2: ocean color 2) in retrieving Chl-a in these very shallow coastal waters, therefore, a new algorithm is proposed here based on a 3-bands ratio approach using [R rs (656) -1 -R rs (506) -1 ]×R rs (661). The selected optimum bands (656nm, 506nm, and 661nm) from

  20. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-01-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%

  1. Spectral imaging based in vivo model system for characterization of tumor microvessel response to vascular targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Mamta

    Functional vasculature is vital for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Many tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (VTAs) aim to destroy this essential tumor vasculature to induce indirect tumor cell death via oxygen and nutrition deprivation. The tumor angiogenesis-inhibiting anti-angiogenics (AIs) and the established tumor vessel targeting vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are the two major players in the vascular targeting field. Combination of VTAs with conventional therapies or with each other, have been shown to have additive or supra-additive effects on tumor control and treatment. Pathophysiological changes post-VTA treatment in terms of structural and vessel function changes are important parameters to characterize the treatment efficacy. Despite the abundance of information regarding these parameters acquired using various techniques, there remains a need for a quantitative, real-time, and direct observation of these phenomenon in live animals. Through this research we aspired to develop a spectral imaging based mouse tumor system for real-time in vivo microvessel structure and functional measurements for VTA characterization. A model tumor system for window chamber studies was identified, and then combinatorial effects of VDA and AI were characterized in model tumor system. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  2. Ratioing methods for in-flight response calibration of space-based spectro-radiometers, operating in the solar spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Dan

    2017-11-01

    One of the most significant problems for space-based spectro-radiometer systems, observing Earth from space in the solar spectral band (UV through short-wave IR), is in achievement of the required absolute radiometric accuracy. Classical methods, for example using one or more sun-illuminated diffusers as reflectance standards, do not generally provide methods for monitoring degradation of the in-flight reference after pre-flight characterisation. Ratioing methods have been proposed that provide monitoring of degradation of solar attenuators in flight, thus in principle allowing much higher confidence in absolute response calibration. Two example methods are described. It is shown that systems can be designed for relatively low size and without significant additions to the complexity of flight hardware.

  3. Comparability of red/near-infrared reflectance and NDVI based on the spectral response function between MODIS and 30 other satellite sensors using rice canopy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijiao; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jingjing

    2013-11-26

    Long-term monitoring of regional and global environment changes often depends on the combined use of multi-source sensor data. The most widely used vegetation index is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is a function of the red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The reflectance and NDVI data sets derived from different satellite sensor systems will not be directly comparable due to different spectral response functions (SRF), which has been recognized as one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the multi-sensor data analysis. This study quantified the influence of SRFs on the red and NIR reflectances and NDVI derived from 31 Earth observation satellite sensors. For this purpose, spectroradiometric measurements were performed for paddy rice grown under varied nitrogen levels and at different growth stages. The rice canopy reflectances were convoluted with the spectral response functions of various satellite instruments to simulate sensor-specific reflectances in the red and NIR channels. NDVI values were then calculated using the simulated red and NIR reflectances. The results showed that as compared to the Terra MODIS, the mean relative percentage difference (RPD) ranged from -12.67% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, -8.52% to -0.23% for the NIR reflectance, and -9.32% to 3.10% for the NDVI. The mean absolute percentage difference (APD) compared to the Terra MODIS ranged from 1.28% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, 0.84% to 8.71% for the NIR reflectance, and 0.59% to 9.32% for the NDVI. The lowest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for Landsat5 TM for the red reflectance, CBERS02B CCD for the NIR reflectance and Landsat4 TM for the NDVI. In addition, the largest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for IKONOS for the red reflectance, AVHRR1 onboard NOAA8 for the NIR reflectance and IKONOS for the NDVI. The results also indicated that AVHRRs onboard NOAA7-17 showed

  4. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  5. Spectral calibration of EBT3 and HD-V2 radiochromic film response at high dose using 20 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiwei; Tiedje, Henry F.; Gagnon, Katherine; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Radiochromic film is used extensively in many medical, industrial, and scientific applications. In particular, the film is used in analysis of proton generation and in high intensity laser-plasma experiments where very high dose levels can be obtained. The present study reports calibration of the dose response of Gafchromic EBT3 and HD-V2 radiochromic films up to high exposure densities. A 2D scanning confocal densitometer system is employed to carry out accurate optical density measurements up to optical density 5 on the exposed films at the peak spectral absorption wavelengths. Various wavelengths from 400 to 740 nm are also scanned to extend the practical dose range of such films by measuring the response at wavelengths removed from the peak response wavelengths. Calibration curves for the optical density versus exposure dose are determined and can be used for quantitative evaluation of measured doses based on the measured optical densities. It was found that blue and UV wavelengths allowed the largest dynamic range though at some trade-off with overall accuracy.

  6. Nanoscale resonant-cavity-enhanced germanium photodetectors with lithographically defined spectral response for improved performance at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C; Audet, Ross M; Miller, David A B

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate the use of a subwavelength planar metal-dielectric resonant cavity to enhance the absorption of germanium photodetectors at wavelengths beyond the material's direct absorption edge, enabling high responsivity across the entire telecommunications C and L bands. The resonant wavelength of the detectors can be tuned linearly by varying the width of the Ge fin, allowing multiple detectors, each resonant at a different wavelength, to be fabricated in a single-step process. This approach is promising for the development of CMOS-compatible devices suitable for integrated, high-speed, and energy-efficient photodetection at telecommunications wavelengths.

  7. A study on the multi-dimensional spectral analysis for response of a piping model with two-seismic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Sato, H.

    1975-01-01

    The power and the cross power spectrum analysis by which the vibration characteristic of structures, such as natural frequency, mode of vibration and damping ratio, can be identified would be effective for the confirmation of the characteristics after the construction is completed by using the response for small earthquakes or the micro-tremor under the operating condition. This method of analysis previously utilized only from the view point of systems with single input so far, is extensively applied for the analysis of a medium scale model of a piping system subjected to two seismic inputs. The piping system attached to a three storied concrete structure model which is constructed on a shaking table was excited due to earthquake motions. The inputs to the piping system were recorded at the second floor and the ceiling of the third floor where the system was attached to. The output, the response of the piping system, was instrumented at a middle point on the system. As a result, the multi-dimensional power spectrum analysis is effective for a more reliable identification of the vibration characteristics of the multi-input structure system

  8. Análise discriminante dos solos por meio da resposta espectral no nível terrestre Soil discrimination analysis by spectral response in the ground level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rafael Nanni

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar um método para discriminação das classes de solos a partir de suas respostas espectrais, utilizando-se um sensor em laboratório. Os dados espectrais foram utilizados no desenvolvimento de modelos estatísticos para discriminar as classes de solos de uma área no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo. Equações discriminantes foram desenvolvidas para as 18 classes. A resposta espectral foi obtida em amostras da porção superficial e da porção subsuperficial dos solos da área de estudo, num total de 370 amostras. As amostras foram coletadas em 185 ha, com uma tradagem por ha. Os resultados demonstraram que as classes de solos podem ser individualizadas e distinguidas pela análise discriminante. A análise registrou índices de acerto acima de 80% de determinação da classe de solo avaliada. O acerto global foi de 90,71% quando se utilizaram todas as classes para a geração dos modelos, e 93,44% quando se utilizaram as dez classes com maior número de indivíduos. O teste estatístico simulado mostrou-se eficiente na análise discriminante, com taxa média de acerto acima de 91%, com erro global de 8,8%. A análise demonstrou redução na qualidade do modelo quando aplicado para um subconjunto de 20% das amostras, com erro global de 33,9%. O método auxilia na discriminação de classes de solos pela sua reflectância, devido às interações físicas com a energia eletromagnética.The objective of this study was to develop and test a discrimination method for soil classes by their spectral response (SR, using a laboratory sensor. Spectral data were used to develop statistical model for discriminating soil classes in an area at the southwest of São Paulo State, Brazil. Discriminant equations were developed for 18 soil classes. The spectral data were obtained in superficial and subsuperficial soil samples in the study area, with a total of 370 samples. The samples were collected in 185 ha

  9. Analysis of bias voltage dependent spectral response in Ga0.51In0.49P/Ga0.99In0.01As/Ge triple junction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Tomah; Ogura, Akio; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Spectral response measurement plays great role in characterizing solar cell device because it directly reflects the efficiency by which the device converts the sunlight into an electrical current. Based on the spectral response results, the short circuit current of each subcell can be quantitatively determined. Although spectral response dependence on wavelength, i.e., the well-known external quantum efficiency (EQE), has been widely used in characterizing multijunction solar cell and has been well interpreted, detailed analysis of spectral response dependence on bias voltage (SR −V bias ) has not been reported so far. In this work, we have performed experimental and numerical studies on the SR −V bias for Ga 0.51 In 0.49 P/Ga 0.99 In 0.01 As/Ge triple junction solar cell. Phenomenological description was given to clarify the mechanism of operation matching point variation in SR −V bias measurements. The profile of SR−V bias curve was explained in detail by solving the coupled two-diode current-voltage characteristic transcend formula for each subcell

  10. Analysis of bias voltage dependent spectral response in Ga{sub 0.51}In{sub 0.49}P/Ga{sub 0.99}In{sub 0.01}As/Ge triple junction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Tomah, E-mail: Sogabe@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ogura, Akio; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8504 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Spectral response measurement plays great role in characterizing solar cell device because it directly reflects the efficiency by which the device converts the sunlight into an electrical current. Based on the spectral response results, the short circuit current of each subcell can be quantitatively determined. Although spectral response dependence on wavelength, i.e., the well-known external quantum efficiency (EQE), has been widely used in characterizing multijunction solar cell and has been well interpreted, detailed analysis of spectral response dependence on bias voltage (SR −V{sub bias}) has not been reported so far. In this work, we have performed experimental and numerical studies on the SR −V{sub bias} for Ga{sub 0.51}In{sub 0.49}P/Ga{sub 0.99}In{sub 0.01}As/Ge triple junction solar cell. Phenomenological description was given to clarify the mechanism of operation matching point variation in SR −V{sub bias} measurements. The profile of SR−V{sub bias} curve was explained in detail by solving the coupled two-diode current-voltage characteristic transcend formula for each subcell.

  11. The effect of irradiation by 173Cs and 60Co on the optical and spectral response properties of lead iodide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S. S. B.; Ltaif, A. K.; Fadhel, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    This films of solution grown PbI 2 and of pure material of PbI 2 have been deposited onto glass substrate at 100o C by vacuum thermal evaporation technique. Some physical properties of samples without and with gamma radiation are studied. The irradiation process to the samples were made by applied sample to 1 73 'Cs source with activity 0.635 μci and 6 0C o source with activity 0.62 μci without and with different times of irradiation (3,4,5,6, weeks) to obtain the suitable dose. The x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that PbI 2 films are polycrystalline, having bollixing structure. Transmission spectra, absorption coefficient and band gap energy are studies were also carried out in the wavelength region of 420-900 nm. The band gap of Pb1 2 at room temperature was found to be 2.37-2.78 eV with direct transition nature using the plots were calculated which were machinating with earlier reported value. The spectral photocurrent of PbI 2 layers deposited in different time were also studied, it is found the maximum photocurrent response always is between the wavelength 490-500 nm. (Author)

  12. Assessing the Effects of Suomi NPP VIIRS M15/M16 Detector Radiometric Stability and Relative Spectral Response Variation on Striping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern satellite radiometers have many detectors with different relative spectral response (RSR. Effect of RSR differences on striping and the root cause of striping in sensor data record (SDR radiance and brightness temperature products have not been well studied. A previous study used MODTRAN radiative transfer model (RTM to analyze striping. In this study, we make efforts to find the possible root causes of striping. Line-by-Line RTM (LBLRTM is used to evaluate the effect of RSR difference on striping and the atmospheric dependency for VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The results show that previous study using MODTRAN is repeatable: the striping is related to the difference between band-averaged and detector-level RSR, and the BT difference has some atmospheric dependency. We also analyzed VIIRS earth view (EV data with several striping index methods. Since the EV data is complex, we further analyze the onboard calibration data. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test shows that the noise along track direction is the major reason for striping. We also found evidence of correlation between solar diffuser (SD and blackbody (BB for detector 1 in M15. Digital Count Restoration (DCR and detector instability are possibly related to the striping in SD and EV data, but further analysis is needed. These findings can potentially lead to further SDR processing improvements.

  13. UV-vis spectral property of a multi-hydroxyl Schiff-base derivative and its colorimetric response to some special metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lin; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sun, Wenyu; Yuan, Hua; Hu, Lei; Yan, Zhengquan

    2018-06-05

    A multi-hydroxyl Schiff-base derivative, N-2'-hydroxyl-1'-naphthyl methylene-2-amino phenol (HNMAP), was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was noted to find there was great effect for solvent and pH on the UV-vis spectroscopy of HNMAP. Especially, some metal ions could make its UV-vis spectra changed regularly with different time-resolved effects. For example, a real-time and multi-wavelength response to Fe 2+ at 520 nm, 466 nm and 447 nm and a quite slow one about 26 min to Fe 3+ at 447 nm and 466 nm, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the changes in the corresponding absorption intensities at above wavelengths were in proportion to c Fe 2+ or c Fe 3+ during respectively partitioned linear ranges, which realized to quantitatively detect Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ with a large linear range more than two orders of magnitude. A 1:1 complex mode for HNMAP-Fe 2+ and 1:2 for HNMAP-Fe 3+ were proposed from UV-vis spectral titration and Job's plot. HNMAP would be a potential sensor for colorimetric detection of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of spectral decomposition of 222Rn activity concentration signal series measured in Niedźwiedzia Cave to identification of mechanisms responsible for different time-period variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz Andrzej; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radosław; Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    phenomena in the lithosphere. - Highlights: • 222 Rn activity concentration monitoring in cave air; • characterisation of signal series decomposition method; • application of spectral decomposition of 222 Rn activity concentration signal series; • identification and characterisation of processes responsible for temporal changes in 222 Rn activity concentration; • application of methods appropriate to time series analysis

  15. Spectral responses in near-infrared of the mixed compounds III-V ternary and quaternary, based on GaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbow, B.; Rezzoug, N.; Peremarti, C.; Mezerreg, A.; Llinares, C.

    1993-09-01

    From the simulation of the spectral response of the different photodetector devices elaborated in our laboratory (C.E.M.), we determine the influence of geometrical and physical parameters in order to achieve the best photodetector operating at the wavelength 2.55 μm. In this paper we present: Gao{0.6}In{0.4}Sbn/Ga{0.6}In{0.4}Sbp homojunctions matched on GaSbp substrate, Ga{0.75}In{0.25}As{0.23}Sbp/GaSbn ternary heterojunction and GaSbp/Ga{0.74}In{0.26}As{0.23}Sb0.77p/GaSbn quaternary heterojunction. The GaSbp layer with an energy band gap greater than Ga{0.74}In{0.26}As{0.23}Sb0.77p optical gap will act as a window, reducing the effect of surface recombinaison. Results of the simulation are compared to experimental curves to determine the values of photoelectrical parameters (diffusion length, recombination velocity at the surface ...). Les mesures de réponse spectrale dans la gamme [0,4 eV à 2 eV] ont été effectuées sur des homojonctions, Ga{0,6}In{0,4}Sbn/Ga{0,6}In{0,4}Sbp déposées sur un substrat de GaSb et des hétérostructures ternaires Ga{0,75}In{0,25}Sbp/GaSbn et quaternaires GaSbp/Ga{0,74}In{0,26}As{0,23}Sb0,77p/GaSbn. La couche de GaSbp avec un gap plus grand que celui de Ga{0,74}In{0,26}As{0,23}Sb0,77p joue le rôle d'effet fenêtre. En s'appuyant sur les résultats de la simulation et en accordant les spectres expérimentaux aux spectres théoriques, on détermine les valeurs des paramètres photoélectriques (longueurs de diffusion, les vitesses de recombinaison en surface ... ) intervenant dans le rendement quantique.

  16. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  17. Correction for spectral mismatch effects on the calibration of a solar cell when using a solar simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, C.H.

    1981-01-15

    A general expression has been derived to enable calculation of the calibration error resulting from simulator-solar AMX spectral mismatch and from reference cell-test cell spectral mismatch. The information required includes the relative spectral response of the reference cell, the relative spectral response of the cell under test, and the relative spectral irradiance of the simulator (over the spectral range defined by cell response). The spectral irradiance of the solar AMX is assumed to be known.

  18. Depth of interaction and bias voltage depenence of the spectral response in a pixellated CdTe detector operating in time-over-threshold mode subjected to monochromatic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, E.; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Stewart, G.; Wilhelm, H.; Modh Zain, R.; Thungström, G.

    2012-03-01

    High stopping power is one of the most important figures of merit for X-ray detectors. CdTe is a promising material but suffers from: material defects, non-ideal charge transport and long range X-ray fluorescence. Those factors reduce the image quality and deteriorate spectral information. In this project we used a monochromatic pencil beam collimated through a 20μm pinhole to measure the detector spectral response in dependance on the depth of interaction. The sensor was a 1mm thick CdTe detector with a pixel pitch of 110μm, bump bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-Over-Threshold mode. The measurements were carried out at the Extreme Conditions beamline I15 of the Diamond Light Source. The beam was entering the sensor at an angle of \\texttildelow20 degrees to the surface and then passed through \\texttildelow25 pixels before leaving through the bottom of the sensor. The photon energy was tuned to 77keV giving a variation in the beam intensity of about three orders of magnitude along the beam path. Spectra in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode were recorded showing each individual interaction. The bias voltage was varied between -30V and -300V to investigate how the electric field affected the spectral information. For this setup it is worth noticing the large impact of fluorescence. At -300V the photo peak and escape peak are of similar height. For high bias voltages the spectra remains clear throughout the whole depth but for lower voltages as -50V, only the bottom part of the sensor carries spectral information. This is an effect of the low hole mobility and the longer range the electrons have to travel in a low field.

  19. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  20. Preparation of photoelectrodes with spectral response in the visible without applied bias based on photochemically deposited copper oxide inside a porous titanium dioxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, Elena [Institute of Materials-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, C. Habana 10 400 (Cuba); Gonzalez, Bernardo [Institute of Materials-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, C. Habana 10 400 (Cuba); Zumeta, Inti [Institute of Materials-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, C. Habana 10 400 (Cuba); Domingo, Concepcion [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), CSIC, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A. [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)]. E-mail: JoseAntonio.Ayllon@uab.es

    2005-10-01

    A soft and simple photochemical technique is proposed for the incorporation of copper oxide to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} with the purpose of sensitizing the TiO{sub 2} to wavelengths in the visible range. An aqueous solution of copper formate is employed as precursor. The light intensity value needed for the process, as well as its spectral range, is readily attainable with solar light. Because of the importance of heterojunctions of porous semiconductors in solar energy application, like extremely thin absorber solar cells, experimental conditions have been studied in order to obtain a thin absorption layer of copper oxide covering the TiO{sub 2}. Selection of copper formate solution concentration, irradiation time and previous immersion time in the precursor solution has been studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectral transmission. Direction and wavelength dependence of photocurrent show that photons are absorbed by the copper oxide and electrons injected to the TiO{sub 2}.

  1. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  2. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  3. Spectral Learning for Supervised Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yining; Zhu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Supervised topic models simultaneously model the latent topic structure of large collections of documents and a response variable associated with each document. Existing inference methods are based on variational approximation or Monte Carlo sampling, which often suffers from the local minimum defect. Spectral methods have been applied to learn unsupervised topic models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), with provable guarantees. This paper investigates the possibility of applying spectral methods to recover the parameters of supervised LDA (sLDA). We first present a two-stage spectral method, which recovers the parameters of LDA followed by a power update method to recover the regression model parameters. Then, we further present a single-phase spectral algorithm to jointly recover the topic distribution matrix as well as the regression weights. Our spectral algorithms are provably correct and computationally efficient. We prove a sample complexity bound for each algorithm and subsequently derive a sufficient condition for the identifiability of sLDA. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets verify the theory and demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the spectral algorithms. In fact, our results on a large-scale review rating dataset demonstrate that our single-phase spectral algorithm alone gets comparable or even better performance than state-of-the-art methods, while previous work on spectral methods has rarely reported such promising performance.

  4. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  5. Spectral dependence of some UV-B and UV-C responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis irradiated with dye laser generated UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, John; Colley, Ed; Wheeler, John; Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1987-01-01

    We have generated UV-B and UV-C radiations using a flashlamp driven tunable dye laser combined with frequency doubling crystals. Using this novel UV source, we have investigated lethality and its modification by growth phase, photoreactivation and caffeine in Tetrahymena pyriformis at 254 nm and from 260-315 nm in 5 nm steps. From the observed responses we have constructed action spectra for lethality, with or without caffeine (a repair inhibitor) and under conditions of photoreactivation. We have also estimated quantum efficiencies for these responses. Our observations suggest that complex changes in response occur at several wavelengths over the UV-C and UV-B regions. (author)

  6. Spectral image reconstruction using an edge preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Philipp; Rosen, Mitchell R; Berns, Roy S

    2009-08-01

    Reconstruction of spectral images from camera responses is investigated using an edge preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation. A Wiener denoising filter and a spectral reconstruction Wiener filter are combined into a single spatio-spectral filter using local propagation of the noise covariance matrix. To preserve edges the local mean and covariance matrix of camera responses is estimated by bilateral weighting of neighboring pixels. We derive the edge-preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation by means of Bayesian inference and show that it fades into the standard Wiener reflectance estimation shifted by a constant reflectance in case of vanishing noise. Simulation experiments conducted on a six-channel camera system and on multispectral test images show the performance of the filter, especially for edge regions. A test implementation of the method is provided as a MATLAB script at the first author's website.

  7. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is affected by a common artifact in "push-broom" sensors, the so-called "spectral smile". As a consequence, both central wavelength and spectral width of the spectral response vary along the across-track dimension, thus giving rise to a shifting and smoothing of spectra (see Fig. 1 (left)). In fact, both effects are greater for spectra on the edges, while they are minimum for data acquired by central detectors, the so-called "sweet spot". The prior artifacts become particularly critical for Martian observations which contain steep spectra such as CO2 ice-rich polar images. Fig. 1 (right) shows the horizontal brightness gradient which appears in every band corresponding to a steep portion of spectra. The correction of CRISM spectral smile is addressed using a two-step method which aims at modifying data sensibly in order to mimic the optimal CRISM response. First, all spectra, which are previously interpolated by cubic splines, are resampled to the "sweet spot" wavelengths in order to overcome the spectra shift. Secondly, the non-uniform spectral width is overcome by mimicking an increase of spectral resolution thanks to a spectral sharpening. In order to minimize noise, only bands particularly suffering from smile are selected. First, bands corresponding to the outliers of the Minimum Noise Transformation (MNF) eigenvector, which corresponds to the MNF band related to smile (MNF-smile), are selected. Then, a spectral neighborhood Θi, which takes into account the local spectral convexity or concavity, is defined for every selected band in order to maximize spectral shape preservation. The proposed sharpening technique takes into account both the instrument parameters and the observed spectra. First, every reflectance value belonging to a Θi is reevaluated by a sharpening which depends on a ratio of the spectral width of the current detector and the "sweet spot" one. Then, the optimal degree of

  8. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  9. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  10. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  11. Numerical analysis of the harmonic components of the Bragg wavelength content in spectral responses of apodized fiber Bragg gratings written by means of a phase mask with a variable phase step height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuch, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the complex interference patterns created by a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency in apodized fiber Bragg grating (FBGs) formation on their reflectance spectra is studied. The effect of the significant contributions of the zeroth and higher (m>±1) diffraction orders on the Bragg wavelength peak and its harmonic components is analyzed numerically. The results obtained for Gaussian and tanh apodization profiles are compared with similar data calculated for a uniform grating. It is demonstrated that when an apodized FBG is written using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency, significant enhancement of the harmonic components and a reduction of the Bragg wavelength peak in the grating spectral response are observed. This is particularly noticeable for the Gaussian apodization profile due to the substantial contributions of phase mask sections with relatively small phase steps in the FBG formation.

  12. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  13. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  14. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  15. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  16. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  17. Study of a 900 MW PWR by a substructuring method - Spectral response to a seismic excitation and comparison with a beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, G.; Bianchini-Burlot, B.; Bosselut, D.; Jacquart, G.; Viallet, E.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a three dimensional Finite Element Model (FEM) of a 900 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which is described at first: its modal behaviour is computed by a sub-structuring method based upon a Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) method. All the substructures taken into account in the model are described. One model with equivalent beams is also described. Then, different approaches to take into account the fluid/structure interaction in the different models are investigated. Results of the modal analysis of each model are compared to each other and with experimental measures. This modal analysis is then used to compute the non linear and linear response of the PWR due to a seismic excitation. (author)

  18. Stochastic shock response spectrum decomposition method based on probabilistic definitions of temporal peak acceleration, spectral energy, and phase lag distributions of mechanical impact pyrotechnic shock test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Duran, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Most of the times pyrotechnic shock design and test requirements for space systems are provided in Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) without the input time history. Since the SRS does not describe the input or the environment, a decomposition method is used to obtain the source time history. The main objective of this paper is to develop a decomposition method producing input time histories that can satisfy the SRS requirement based on the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from a mechanical impact test apparatus. At the heart of this decomposition method is the statistical representation of the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) designed Universal Pyrotechnic Shock Simulator (UPSS). Each pyrotechnic shock test data measured at the interface of a test unit has been analyzed to produce the temporal peak acceleration, Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration, and the phase lag at each band center frequency. Maximum SRS of each filtered time history has been calculated to produce a relationship between the input and the response. Two new definitions are proposed as a result. The Peak Ratio (PR) is defined as the ratio between the maximum SRS and the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency. The ratio between the maximum SRS and the RMS acceleration is defined as the Energy Ratio (ER) at each band center frequency. Phase lag is estimated based on the time delay between the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency and the peak acceleration at the lowest band center frequency. This stochastic process has been applied to more than one hundred pyrotechnic shock test data to produce probabilistic definitions of the PR, ER, and the phase lag. The SRS is decomposed at each band center frequency using damped sinusoids with the PR and the decays obtained by matching the ER of the damped sinusoids to the ER of the test data. The final step in this stochastic SRS decomposition process is the Monte Carlo (MC

  19. New prompt fission gamma-ray spectral data from 239Pu(nth, f in response to a high priority request from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatera Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benchmark reactor calculations have revealed an underestimation of γ-heat following fission of up to 28%. To improve the modelling of new nuclear reactors, the OECD/NEA initiated a nuclear data High Priority Request List (HPRL entry for the major isotopes (235U, 239Pu. In response to that HPRL entry, we executed a dedicated measurement program on prompt fission γ-rays employing state-of-the-art lanthanum bromide (LaBr3 detectors with superior timing and good energy resolution. Our new results from 252Cf(sf, 235U(nth,f and 241Pu(nth,f provide prompt fission γ-ray spectra characteristics : average number of photons per fission, average total energy per fission and mean photon energy; all within 2% of uncertainty. We present preliminary results on 239Pu(nth,f, recently measured at the Budapest Neutron Centre and supported by the CHANDA Trans-national Access Activity, as well as discussing our different published results in comparison to the historical data and what it says about the discrepancy observed in the benchmark calculations.

  20. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M; Zekovic, L; Belca, I

    2010-01-01

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  1. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  2. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  3. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  4. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  5. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  6. Comportamento espectral dos solos na paisagem a partir de dados coletados por sensores terrestre e orbital Spectral response of soils in the landscape based on terrestrial and orbital data acquisition levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo de Abreu Sousa Junior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Parte da variabilidade dos índices de produção agrícola está associada com as características do solo e da paisagem. Dessa forma, práticas de manejo, como a adubação, devem levar em consideração esta variabilidade. O sensoriamento remoto é uma ferramenta que pode fornecer, de maneira rápida, informações para o manejo do solo, pois relaciona a radiação eletromagnética com os atributos do solo. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento espectral, em dois níveis de aquisição de dados (terrestre e orbital, de diferentes classes de solos ao longo de toposseqüências na região de São Carlos e Ibaté, SP. Para isso, amostras de terra georreferenciadas foram coletadas em 319 pontos, em três profundidades. Em seguida, obtiveram-se os dados radiométricos em laboratório, na faixa espectral entre 450 e 2.500 nm. Os mesmos locais amostrados na camada superficial, no campo, foram avaliados na imagem de satélite. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: (a teores de areia grossa, argila e matéria orgânica, e cor tiveram relação com a reflectância dos solos; (b ao longo das vertentes ocorrem variações nos dados espectrais dos solos; e (c solos da mesma ordem taxonômica, porém com classes texturais diferentes, apresentam diferentes comportamentos espectrais, podendo ser discriminados por sensoriamento remoto.Part of agricultural production index variability is associated with soil and landscape characteristics. Management practices such as fertilizer application should therefore take the soil spatial variability into account. Remote sensing is a tool that can provide faster information for soil management because it relates electromagnetic radiation with soil attributes. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the spectral response, at two data acquisition levels (terrestrial and orbital, of different soil classes across toposequences in the region of São Carlos and Ibaté, SP. For this

  7. Spectral properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P

    2006-01-01

    We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent

  8. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  9. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  10. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  11. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  12. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  13. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  14. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-27

    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  15. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  16. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  17. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  18. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  19. In-Orbit Spectral Response Function Correction and Its Impact on Operational Calibration for the Long-Wave Split-Window Infrared Band (12.0 μm of FY-2G Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the early stage of the G satellite of the Fengyun-2 series (FY-2G, severe cold biases up to ~2.3 K occur in its measurements in the 12.0 μm (IR2 band, which demonstrate time- and scene-dependent characteristics. Similar cold biases in water vapor and carbon dioxide absorption bands of other satellites are considered to be caused by either ice contamination (physical method or spectral response function (SRF shift (empirical method. Simulations indicate that this cold bias of FY-2G indeed suffers from equivalent SRF shift as a whole towards the longer wavelength direction. To overcome it, a novel approach combining both physical and empirical methods is proposed. With the possible ice thicknesses tested before launch, the ice contamination effect is alleviated, while the shape of the SRF can be modified in a physical way. The remaining unknown factors for cold bias are removed by shifting the convolved SRF with an ice transmittance spectrum. Two parameters, i.e., the ice thickness (5 μm and the shifted value (+0.15 μm, are estimated by inter-calibration with reference instruments, and the modification coefficient is also calculated (0.9885 for the onboard blackbody calibration. Meanwhile, the updated SRF was released online on 23 March 2016. For the period between July 2015 and December 2016, the monthly biases of the FY-2G IR2 band remain oscillating around zero, the majorities (~89% of which are within ±1.0 K, while its mean monthly absolute bias is around 0.6 K. Nevertheless, the cold bias phenomenon of the IR2 band no longer exists. The combination method can be referred by other corrections for cold biases.

  20. Using GIS servers and interactive maps in spectral data sharing and administration: Case study of Ahvaz Spectral Geodatabase Platform (ASGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Rangzan, Kazem; Saberi, Azim

    2013-10-01

    With emergence of air-borne and space-borne hyperspectral sensors, spectroscopic measurements are gaining more importance in remote sensing. Therefore, the number of available spectral reference data is constantly increasing. This rapid increase often exhibits a poor data management, which leads to ultimate isolation of data on disk storages. Spectral data without precise description of the target, methods, environment, and sampling geometry cannot be used by other researchers. Moreover, existing spectral data (in case it accompanied with good documentation) become virtually invisible or unreachable for researchers. Providing documentation and a data-sharing framework for spectral data, in which researchers are able to search for or share spectral data and documentation, would definitely improve the data lifetime. Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) are main candidates for spectral data management and their efficiency is proven by many studies and applications to date. In this study, a new approach to spectral data administration is presented based on spatial identity of spectral samples. This method benefits from scalability and performance of RDBMS for storage of spectral data, but uses GIS servers to provide users with interactive maps as an interface to the system. The spectral files, photographs and descriptive data are considered as belongings of a geospatial object. A spectral processing unit is responsible for evaluation of metadata quality and performing routine spectral processing tasks for newly-added data. As a result, by using internet browser software the users would be able to visually examine availability of data and/or search for data based on descriptive attributes associated to it. The proposed system is scalable and besides giving the users good sense of what data are available in the database, it facilitates participation of spectral reference data in producing geoinformation.

  1. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  2. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  3. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  4. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  5. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  6. The potential of Sentinel-2 spectral configuration to assess rangeland quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available was measured using the analytical spectral device (ASD) in concert with leaf sample collections for leaf N chemical analysis. ASD reflectance data were resampled to the spectral bands of Sentinel-2 using published spectral response functions. Random forest (RF...

  7. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  8. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  9. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  10. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  11. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  12. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  13. Aspiring to Spectral Ignorance in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Enabling robust, defensible and integrated decision making in the Era of Big Earth Data requires the fusion of data from multiple and diverse sensor platforms and networks. While the application of standardised global grid systems provides a common spatial analytics framework that facilitates the computationally efficient and statistically valid integration and analysis of these various data sources across multiple scales, there remains the challenge of sensor equivalency; particularly when combining data from different earth observation satellite sensors (e.g. combining Landsat and Sentinel-2 observations). To realise the vision of a sensor ignorant analytics platform for earth observation we require automation of spectral matching across the available sensors. Ultimately, the aim is to remove the requirement for the user to possess any sensor knowledge in order to undertake analysis. This paper introduces the concept of spectral equivalence and proposes a methodology through which equivalent bands may be sourced from a set of potential target sensors through application of equivalence metrics and thresholds. A number of parameters can be used to determine whether a pair of spectra are equivalent for the purposes of analysis. A baseline set of thresholds for these parameters and how to apply them systematically to enable relation of spectral bands amongst numerous different sensors is proposed. The base unit for comparison in this work is the relative spectral response. From this input, determination of a what may constitute equivalence can be related by a user, based on their own conceptualisation of equivalence.

  14. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  15. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  16. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  17. Spectral long-range interaction of temporal incoherent solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Garnier, Josselin; Picozzi, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    We study the interaction of temporal incoherent solitons sustained by a highly noninstantaneous (Raman-like) nonlinear response. The incoherent solitons exhibit a nonmutual interaction, which can be either attractive or repulsive depending on their relative initial distance. The analysis reveals that incoherent solitons exhibit a long-range interaction in frequency space, which is in contrast with the expected spectral short-range interaction described by the usual approach based on the Raman-like spectral gain curve. Both phenomena of anomalous interaction and spectral long-range behavior of incoherent solitons are described in detail by a long-range Vlasov equation.

  18. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Système international d’unités, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck’s radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed

  19. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties

  20. Project STOP (Spectral Thermal Optimization Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Opjorden, R. W.; Goodelle, G. S.; Powe, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral thermal optimization of solar cell configurations for various solar panel applications is considered. The method of optimization depends upon varying the solar cell configuration's optical characteristics to minimize panel temperatures, maximize power output and decrease the power delta from beginning of life to end of life. Four areas of primary investigation are: (1) testing and evaluation of ultraviolet resistant coverslide adhesives, primarily FEP as an adhesive; (2) examination of solar cell absolute spectral response and corresponding cell manufacturing processes that affect it; (3) experimental work with solar cell manufacturing processes that vary cell reflectance (solar absorptance); and (4) experimental and theoretical studies with various coverslide filter designs, mainly a red rejection filter. The Hughes' solar array prediction program has been modified to aid in evaluating the effect of each of the above four areas on the output of a solar panel in orbit.

  1. The Effect of Epidermal Structures on Leaf Spectral Signatures of Ice Plants (Aizoaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hans-Jürgen Heim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal structures (ES of leaves are known to affect the functional properties and spectral responses. Spectral studies focused mostly on the effect of hairs or wax layers only. We studied a wider range of different ES and their impact on spectral properties. Additionally, we identified spectral regions that allow distinguishing different ES. We used a field spectrometer to measure ex situ leaf spectral responses from 350 nm–2500 nm. A spectral library for 25 species of the succulent family Aizoaceae was assembled. Five functional types were defined based on ES: flat epidermal cell surface, convex to papillary epidermal cell surface, bladder cells, hairs and wax cover. We tested the separability of ES using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA based on the spectral data. Subsequently, variable importance (VIP was calculated to identify spectral regions relevant for discriminating our functional types (classes. Classification performance was high, with a kappa value of 0.9 indicating well-separable spectral classes. VIP calculations identified six spectral regions of increased importance for the classification. We confirmed and extended previous findings regarding the visible-near-infrared spectral region. Our experiments also confirmed that epidermal leaf traits can be classified due to clearly distinguishable spectral signatures across species and genera within the Aizoaceae.

  2. Spectral Characteristics of Salinized Soils during Microbial Remediation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Shen, Guang-rong; Zhi, Yue-e; Wang, Zi-jun; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xian-hua

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the spectral reflectance of saline soils, the associated soil salt content (SSC) and the concentrations of salt ions were measured and analysed by tracing the container microbial remediation experiments for saline soil (main salt is sodium chloride) of Dongying City, Shandong Province. The sensitive spectral reflectance bands of saline soils to SSC, Cl- and Na+ in the process of microbial remediation were analysed. The average-dimension reduction of these bands was conducted by using a combination of correlation coefficient and decision coefficient, and by gradually narrowing the sampling interval method. Results showed that the tendency and magnitude of the average spectral reflectance in all bands of saline soils during the total remediation processes were nearly consistent with SSC and with Cl- coocentration, respectively. The degree of salinity of the soil, including SSC and salt ion concentrations, had a significant positive correlation with the spectral reflectance of all bands, particularly in the near-infrared band. The optimal spectral bands of SSC were 1370 to 1445 nm and 1447 to 1608 nm, whereas the optimal spectral bands of Cl- and Na+ were 1336 to 1461 nm and 1471 to 1561 nm, respectively. The relationship model among SSC, soil salt ion concentrations (Cl- and Na+) and soil spectral reflectance of the corresponding optimal spectral band was established. The largest R2 of relationship model between SSC and the average reflectance of associated optimal band reached to 0.95, and RMSEC and RMSEP were 1.076 and 0.591, respectively. Significant statistical analysis of salt factors and soil reflectance for different microbial remediation processes indicated that the spectral response characteristics and sensitivity of SSC to soil reflectance, which implied the feasibility of high spectrum test on soil microbial remediation monitoring, also provided the basis for quick nondestructive monitoring soil bioremediation process by soil spectral

  3. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  4. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  5. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  6. The spectral imaging facility: Setup characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Simone, E-mail: simone.deangelis@iaps.inaf.it; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Manzari, Paola Olga [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Ammannito, Eleonora [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Di Iorio, Tatiana [ENEA, UTMEA-TER, Rome (Italy); Liberati, Fabrizio [Opto Service SrL, Campagnano di Roma (RM) (Italy); Tarchi, Fabio; Dami, Michele; Olivieri, Monica; Pompei, Carlo [Selex ES, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Mugnuolo, Raffaele [Italian Space Agency, ASI, Spatial Geodesy Center, Matera (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The SPectral IMager (SPIM) facility is a laboratory visible infrared spectrometer developed to support space borne observations of rocky bodies of the solar system. Currently, this laboratory setup is used to support the DAWN mission, which is in its journey towards the asteroid 1-Ceres, and to support the 2018 Exo-Mars mission in the spectral investigation of the Martian subsurface. The main part of this setup is an imaging spectrometer that is a spare of the DAWN visible infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer has been assembled and calibrated at Selex ES and then installed in the facility developed at the INAF-IAPS laboratory in Rome. The goal of SPIM is to collect data to build spectral libraries for the interpretation of the space borne and in situ hyperspectral measurements of planetary materials. Given its very high spatial resolution combined with the imaging capability, this instrument can also help in the detailed study of minerals and rocks. In this paper, the instrument setup is first described, and then a series of test measurements, aimed to the characterization of the main subsystems, are reported. In particular, laboratory tests have been performed concerning (i) the radiation sources, (ii) the reference targets, and (iii) linearity of detector response; the instrumental imaging artifacts have also been investigated.

  7. The Chandra Source Catalog: Spectral Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Stephen; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Evans, Ian N.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis A.; Rots, Arnold H.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2009-09-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains all sources identified from eight years' worth of publicly accessible observations. The vast majority of these sources have been observed with the ACIS detector and have spectral information in 0.5-7 keV energy range. Here we describe the methods used to automatically derive spectral properties for each source detected by the standard processing pipeline and included in the final CSC. Hardness ratios were calculated for each source between pairs of energy bands (soft, medium and hard) using the Bayesian algorithm (BEHR, Park et al. 2006). The sources with high signal to noise ratio (exceeding 150 net counts) were fit in Sherpa (the modeling and fitting application from the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations package, developed by the Chandra X-ray Center; see Freeman et al. 2001). Two models were fit to each source: an absorbed power law and a blackbody emission. The fitted parameter values for the power-law and blackbody models were included in the catalog with the calculated flux for each model. The CSC also provides the source energy flux computed from the normalizations of predefined power-law and black-body models needed to match the observed net X-ray counts. In addition, we provide access to data products for each source: a file with source spectrum, the background spectrum, and the spectral response of the detector. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  8. Spectral emissivity of tungsten: analytic expressions for the 340-nm to 2.6-μm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, R.M.; Hessler, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    To correct emission spectra a standard radiance source is often used to determine the spectral responsivity of the detection system. In the near-UV, visible, and near-IR spectral regions the most common radiance standard is a tungsten strip lamp calibrated by a standards laboratory. For day-to-day experiments where slightly less accuracy is acceptable, a less expensive uncalibrated lamp is useful. In this case, the radiant temperature T/sub r/ of the lamp is measured with an optical pyrometer, generally at a single wavelength such as 650 nm, and the source spectral radiance L(λ) is calculated from L(λ) = tau(λ)epsilon(λ,T)L/sub B/(λ,T). The transmittance of the source is tau(λ), the spectral emissivity is epsilon(λ,T), and L/sub B/(λ,T) is the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation, Planck's radiation law. To obtain the true temperature T, Wien's approximation is employed. To conveniently calibrate a system, especially one which utilizes a microcomputer, it is advantageous to have analytic expressions for the spectral emissivity of tungsten. Although Larrabee has published such expressions, they are limited to the 450-800-nm spectral region. To obtain analytic expressions from 340 nm to 2.6 μm they have used the measurements of DeVos. Although DeVos's results differ by 2% from those of Larrabee, this difference is assumed to be acceptable

  9. Spectral and spatial shaping of Smith-Purcell radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remez, Roei; Shapira, Niv; Roques-Carmes, Charles; Tirole, Romain; Yang, Yi; Lereah, Yossi; Soljačić, Marin; Kaminer, Ido; Arie, Ady

    2017-12-01

    The Smith-Purcell effect, observed when an electron beam passes in the vicinity of a periodic structure, is a promising platform for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in previously unreachable spectral ranges. However, most of the studies of this radiation were performed on simple periodic gratings, whose radiation spectrum exhibits a single peak and its higher harmonics predicted by a well-established dispersion relation. Here, we propose a method to shape the spatial and spectral far-field distribution of the radiation using complex periodic and aperiodic gratings. We show, theoretically and experimentally, that engineering multiple peak spectra with controlled widths located at desired wavelengths is achievable using Smith-Purcell radiation. Our method opens the way to free-electron-driven sources with tailored angular and spectral responses, and gives rise to focusing functionality for spectral ranges where lenses are unavailable or inefficient.

  10. Spectral tunneling of lattice nonlocal solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    We address spectral tunneling of walking spatial solitons in photorefractive media with nonlocal diffusion component of the nonlinear response and an imprinted shallow optical lattice. In contrast to materials with local nonlinearities, where solitons traveling across the lattice close to the Bragg angle suffer large radiative losses, in photorefractive media with diffusion nonlinearity resulting in self-bending, solitons survive when their propagation angle approaches and even exceeds the Bragg angle. In the spatial frequency domain this effect can be considered as tunneling through the band of spatial frequencies centered around the Bragg frequency where the spatial group velocity dispersion is positive.

  11. Spectral density regression for bivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Castro Camilo, Daniela

    2016-05-11

    We introduce a density regression model for the spectral density of a bivariate extreme value distribution, that allows us to assess how extremal dependence can change over a covariate. Inference is performed through a double kernel estimator, which can be seen as an extension of the Nadaraya–Watson estimator where the usual scalar responses are replaced by mean constrained densities on the unit interval. Numerical experiments with the methods illustrate their resilience in a variety of contexts of practical interest. An extreme temperature dataset is used to illustrate our methods. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  12. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  13. The Research on the Spectral Characteristics of Sea Fog Based on Caliop and Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Su, J.; Liu, S.; Sheng, H.

    2018-04-01

    In view of that difficulty of distinguish between sea fog and low cloud by optical remote sensing mean, the research on spectral characteristics of sea fog is focused and carried out. The satellite laser radar CALIOP data and the high spectral MODIS data were obtained from May to December 2017, and the scattering coefficient and the vertical height information were extracted from the atmospheric attenuation of the lower star to extract the sea fog sample points, and the spectral response curve based on MODIS was formed to analyse the spectral response characteristics of the sea fog, thus providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of sea fog with optical remote sensing image.

  14. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  15. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  16. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  17. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  18. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  19. Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Fagerström, Jan; Hallberg, Tomas; Kariis, Hans

    2015-10-01

    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be

  20. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  1. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  2. Spectral ellipsometry of nanodiamond composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebov, S.G.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Gordeev, S.K.; Garriga, M.; Alonso, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods of spectral ellipsometry were applied for analysis of optical properties of nanodiamond based composite in spectral region 1.4-5 eV. The nanocomposite was synthesized by molding of ultradispersed nanodiamond powder in the course of heterogeneous chemical reaction of decomposition of methane, forming pyrocarbon interconnecting nanodiamond grains. The energy of σ + π plasmon of pyrocarbon component of nanodiamond composite was restored which proves to be ∼ 24 eV; using this value, an estimation was done of pyrocarbon matrix density, which occurs to be 2 g/cm 3 [ru

  3. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  4. Spectral entropy in monitoring anesthetic depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escontrela Rodríguez, B; Gago Martínez, A; Merino Julián, I; Martínez Ruiz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the brain response to hypnotics in general anesthesia, with the nociceptive and hemodynamic stimulus interaction, has been a subject of intense investigation for many years. Nowadays, monitors of depth of anesthesia are based in processed electroencephalogram by different algorithms, some of them unknown, to obtain a simplified numeric parameter approximate to brain activity state in each moment. In this review we evaluate if spectral entropy suitably reflects the brain electric behavior in response to hypnotics and the different intensity nociceptive stimulus effect during a surgical procedure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  6. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  7. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  8. Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented

  9. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  10. Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-23

    G. Sowa, H. H. Mantsch, National Research Council Canada; S. L. Zhang, Unilever Research (USA) 85 Brain tissue charcterization using spectral imaging...image registration and of the expert staff of Hill Top Research in Winnipeg for hosting the hydration study. Financial assistance from Unilever Research

  11. A comparison of EEG spectral entropy with conventional quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    and decrease with increasing depth of anaesthesia. Spectral en- tropy yields two scales: Response Entropy (RE), ranging between. 0 to100, is an amalgam of EEG and frontal muscle activity while. State Entropy (SE), consisting mainly of EEG activity in a lower frequency band, ranges from 0 to 91.2 Initial reports have pro-.

  12. Audiovisual Integration in Children Listening to Spectrally Degraded Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Kang, Hi Jee; Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study explored whether visual information improves speech identification in typically developing children with normal hearing when the auditory signal is spectrally degraded. Method: Children (n = 69) and adults (n = 15) were presented with noise-vocoded sentences from the Children's Co-ordinate Response Measure (Rosen, 2011) in…

  13. Spectrally based mapping of riverbed composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Stegman, Tobin K.; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing methods provide an efficient means of characterizing fluvial systems. This study evaluated the potential to map riverbed composition based on in situ and/or remote measurements of reflectance. Field spectra and substrate photos from the Snake River, Wyoming, USA, were used to identify different sediment facies and degrees of algal development and to quantify their optical characteristics. We hypothesized that accounting for the effects of depth and water column attenuation to isolate the reflectance of the streambed would enhance distinctions among bottom types and facilitate substrate classification. A bottom reflectance retrieval algorithm adapted from coastal research yielded realistic spectra for the 450 to 700 nm range; but bottom reflectance-based substrate classifications, generated using a random forest technique, were no more accurate than classifications derived from above-water field spectra. Additional hypothesis testing indicated that a combination of reflectance magnitude (brightness) and indices of spectral shape provided the most accurate riverbed classifications. Convolving field spectra to the response functions of a multispectral satellite and a hyperspectral imaging system did not reduce classification accuracies, implying that high spectral resolution was not essential. Supervised classifications of algal density produced from hyperspectral data and an inferred bottom reflectance image were not highly accurate, but unsupervised classification of the bottom reflectance image revealed distinct spectrally based clusters, suggesting that such an image could provide additional river information. We attribute the failure of bottom reflectance retrieval to yield more reliable substrate maps to a latent correlation between depth and bottom type. Accounting for the effects of depth might have eliminated a key distinction among substrates and thus reduced discriminatory power. Although further, more systematic study across a broader

  14. Photopic spectral sensitivities of the red and the yellow field of the pigeon retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The

  15. Gap timing and the spectral timing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, J W

    1999-04-01

    A hypothesized mechanism underlying gap timing was implemented in the Spectral Timing Model [Grossberg, S., Schmajuk, N., 1989. Neural dynamics of adaptive timing and temporal discrimination during associative learning. Neural Netw. 2, 79-102] , a neural network timing model. The activation of the network nodes was made to decay in the absence of the timed signal, causing the model to shift its peak response time in a fashion similar to that shown in animal subjects. The model was then able to accurately simulate a parametric study of gap timing [Cabeza de Vaca, S., Brown, B., Hemmes, N., 1994. Internal clock and memory processes in aminal timing. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Process. 20 (2), 184-198]. The addition of a memory decay process appears to produce the correct pattern of results in both Scalar Expectancy Theory models and in the Spectral Timing Model, and the fact that the same process should be effective in two such disparate models argues strongly that process reflects a true aspect of animal cognition.

  16. Classification of breast microcalcifications using spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghammraoui, B.; Glick, S. J.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of spectral mammography to distinguish between type I calcifications, consisting of calcium oxalate dihydrate or weddellite compounds that are more often associated with benign lesions, and type II calcifications containing hydroxyapatite which are predominantly associated with malignant tumors. Methods: Using a ray tracing algorithm, we simulated the total number of x-ray photons recorded by the detector at one pixel from a single pencil-beam projection through a breast of 50/50 (adipose/glandular) tissues with inserted microcalcifications of different types and sizes. Material decomposition using two energy bins was then applied to characterize the simulated calcifications into hydroxyapatite and weddellite using maximumlikelihood estimation, taking into account the polychromatic source, the detector response function and the energy dependent attenuation. Results: Simulation tests were carried out for different doses and calcification sizes for multiple realizations. The results were summarized using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with the area under the curve (AUC) taken as an overall indicator of discrimination performance and showing high AUC values up to 0.99. Conclusion: Our simulation results obtained for a uniform breast imaging phantom indicate that spectral mammography using two energy bins has the potential to be used as a non-invasive method for discrimination between type I and type II microcalcifications to improve early breast cancer diagnosis and reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies.

  17. Estimation of spectral distribution of sky radiance using a commercial digital camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Murata, Isao

    2016-01-10

    Methods for estimating spectral distribution of sky radiance from images captured by a digital camera and for accurately estimating spectral responses of the camera are proposed. Spectral distribution of sky radiance is represented as a polynomial of the wavelength, with coefficients obtained from digital RGB counts by linear transformation. The spectral distribution of radiance as measured is consistent with that obtained by spectrometer and radiative transfer simulation for wavelengths of 430-680 nm, with standard deviation below 1%. Preliminary applications suggest this method is useful for detecting clouds and studying the relation between irradiance at the ground and cloud distribution.

  18. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina; Ombao, Hernando; Ortega, Joaquí n

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  19. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina

    2018-05-04

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  20. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  1. Modal planes are spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, Victor; Iochum, Bruno; Schuecker, Thomas; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M.; Varilly, Joseph C.

    2003-09-01

    Axioms for nonunital spectral triples, extending those introduced in the unital case by Connes, are proposed. As a guide, and for the sake of their importance in noncommutative quantum field theory, the spaces R 2N endowed with Moyal products are intensively investigated. Some physical applications, such as the construction of noncommutative Wick monomials and the computation of the Connes-Lott functional action, are given for these noncommutative hyperplanes. (author)

  2. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P

    2001-01-01

    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  3. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  4. The spectral cell method in nonlinear earthquake modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Daniel; Restrepo, Doriam

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the applicability of the spectral cell method (SCM) to compute the nonlinear earthquake response of complex basins. SCM combines fictitious-domain concepts with the spectral-version of the finite element method to solve the wave equations in heterogeneous geophysical domains. Nonlinear behavior is considered by implementing the Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager yielding criteria. We illustrate the performance of SCM with numerical examples of nonlinear basins exhibiting physically and computationally challenging conditions. The numerical experiments are benchmarked with results from overkill solutions, and using MIDAS GTS NX, a finite element software for geotechnical applications. Our findings show good agreement between the two sets of results. Traditional spectral elements implementations allow points per wavelength as low as PPW = 4.5 for high-order polynomials. Our findings show that in the presence of nonlinearity, high-order polynomials (p ≥ 3) require mesh resolutions above of PPW ≥ 10 to ensure displacement errors below 10%.

  5. Spectral analysis of the turbulent mixing of two fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  6. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  7. Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika K; Lobbes, M B I; Lewin, John

    2018-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) provides low-energy 2D mammographic images comparable to standard digital mammography and a post-contrast recombined image to assess tumor neovascularity similar to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The utilization of CESM in the United States is currently low but could increase rapidly given many potential indications for clinical use. This article discusses historical background and literature review of indications and diagnostic accuracy of CESM to date. CESM is a growing technique for breast cancer detection and diagnosis that has levels of sensitivity and specificity on par with contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Because of its similar performance and ease of implementation, CESM is being adopted for multiple indications previously reserved for MRI, such as problem-solving, disease extent in newly diagnosed patients, and evaluating the treatment response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  9. Spectral properties of generalized eigenparameter dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jost function, spectrum, the spectral singularities, and the properties of the principal vectors corresponding to the spectral singularities of L, if. ∞Σn=1 n(∣1 - an∣ + ∣bnl) < ∞. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34L05, 34L40, 39A70, 47A10, 47A75. Key words: Discrete equations, eigenparameter, spectral analysis, ...

  10. Calibrating spectral images using penalized likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Glasbey, C.

    2003-01-01

    A new method is presented for automatic correction of distortions and for spectral calibration (which band corresponds to which wavelength) of spectral images recorded by means of a spectrograph. The method consists of recording a bar-like pattern with an illumination source with spectral bands

  11. Adinkras, Dessins, Origami, and Supersymmetry Spectral Triples

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, Matilde; Zolman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spectral geometry and spectral action functionals associated to 1D Supersymmetry Algebras, using the classification of these superalgebras in terms of Adinkra graphs and the construction of associated dessin d'enfant and origami curves. The resulting spectral action functionals are computed in terms of the Selberg (super) trace formula.

  12. Spectral multitude and spectral dynamics reflect changing conjugation length in single molecules of oligophenylenevinylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Ogino, Kenji; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule study of phenylenevinylene oligomers revealed distinct spectral forms due to different conjugation lengths which are determined by torsional defects. Large spectral jumps between different spectral forms were ascribed to torsional flips of a single phenylene ring. These spectral changes reflect the dynamic nature of electron delocalization in oligophenylenevinylenes and enable estimation of the phenylene torsional barriers. © 2012 The Owner Societies.

  13. Study of spectral response of a neutron filter. Design of a method to adjust spectra; Etude des moyens de conditionnement de la reponse spectrale d'un filtre a neutrons. Mise au point d'une methode d'ajustement rapide de spectre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomb-Dolci, F. [Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1999-02-01

    The first part of this thesis describes an experimental method which intends to determine a neutron spectrum in the epithermal range [1 eV -10 keV]. Based on measurements of reaction rates provided by activation foils, it gives flux level in each energy range corresponding to each probe. This method can be used in any reactor location or in a neutron beam. It can determine scepter on eight energy groups, five groups in the epithermal range. The second part of this thesis presents a study of an epithermal neutron beam design, in the frame of Neutron Capture Therapy. A beam tube was specially built to test filters made up of different materials. Its geometry was designed to favour epithermal neutron crossing and to cut thermal and fast neutrons. A code scheme was validated to simulate the device response with a Monte Carlo code. Measurements were made at ISIS reactor and experimental spectra were compared to calculated ones. This validated code scheme was used to simulate different materials usable as shields in the tube. A study of these shields is presented at the end of this thesis. (author)

  14. Spectral methods. Fundamentals in single domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, C.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of ''Spectral Methods in Fluid Dynamics'' 1988, spectral methods have become firmly established as a mainstream tool for scientific and engineering computation. The authors of that book have incorporated into this new edition the many improvements in the algorithms and the theory of spectral methods that have been made since then. This latest book retains the tight integration between the theoretical and practical aspects of spectral methods, and the chapters are enhanced with material on the Galerkin with numerical integration version of spectral methods. The discussion of direct and iterative solution methods is also greatly expanded. (orig.)

  15. Spectral representation in stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi.

    1988-10-01

    A spectral representation of stationary 2-point functions is investigated based on the operator formalism in stochastic quantization. Assuming the existence of asymptotic non-interacting fields, we can diagonalize the total Hamiltonian in terms of asymptotic fields and show that the correlation length along the fictious time is proportional to the physical mass expected in the usual field theory. A relation between renormalization factors in the operator formalism is derived as a byproduct and its validity is checked with the perturbative results calculated in this formalism. (orig.)

  16. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2016-01-01

    The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT...... adaptive Smolyak approach. The method is also used to approximate the solution of an elliptic PDE with random input data. The open source software and examples presented in this work are available online (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/TensorToolbox/)....

  17. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soft spectral evolution, indicating that this spectral softening is not a rare phenomenon .... of time, there exists a temporal steep decay phase accompanied by spectral softening. (d) In most cases, the temporal power law index α and the spectral.

  18. Influence of spectral solar radiation to the generating power of photovoltaic module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku eno taiyoko supekutoru eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaki, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Nakamura, H. [Japan quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As to the influence of spectral solar radiation to generating power of solar cells, a study was conducted from the aspects of season, time zone, intensity of solar radiation, etc. In the study, spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were introduced as evaluation values expressing the influence of spectral solar radiation. For the spectral distribution, an all sky spectral pyranometer by wavelength was used, and data were used which were obtained in the measurement in experimental facilities of the solar techno center. Concerning solar cell relative spectral sensitivity values, used were relative spectral sensitivity values of monocrystal and amorphous standard solar cells to the short-circuit current. Spectral response variation correction coefficients are coefficients correcting variations in conversion efficiency of solar cells due to changes in the spectral distribution. The changes of spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were studied using data obtained during April 1994 and March 1996. As a result, it was found that the coefficients showed large changes in summer and small ones in winter and that amorphous solar cells indicate this trend conspicuously. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. SPECTRAL RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON SVM FOR CROSS CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese HY-1C/1D satellites will use a 5nm/10nm-resolutional visible-near infrared(VNIR hyperspectral sensor with the solar calibrator to cross-calibrate with other sensors. The hyperspectral radiance data are composed of average radiance in the sensor’s passbands and bear a spectral smoothing effect, a transform from the hyperspectral radiance data to the 1-nm-resolution apparent spectral radiance by spectral reconstruction need to be implemented. In order to solve the problem of noise cumulation and deterioration after several times of iteration by the iterative algorithm, a novel regression method based on SVM is proposed, which can approach arbitrary complex non-linear relationship closely and provide with better generalization capability by learning. In the opinion of system, the relationship between the apparent radiance and equivalent radiance is nonlinear mapping introduced by spectral response function(SRF, SVM transform the low-dimensional non-linear question into high-dimensional linear question though kernel function, obtaining global optimal solution by virtue of quadratic form. The experiment is performed using 6S-simulated spectrums considering the SRF and SNR of the hyperspectral sensor, measured reflectance spectrums of water body and different atmosphere conditions. The contrastive result shows: firstly, the proposed method is with more reconstructed accuracy especially to the high-frequency signal; secondly, while the spectral resolution of the hyperspectral sensor reduces, the proposed method performs better than the iterative method; finally, the root mean square relative error(RMSRE which is used to evaluate the difference of the reconstructed spectrum and the real spectrum over the whole spectral range is calculated, it decreses by one time at least by proposed method.

  20. Aftereffects of Spectrally Similar and Dissimilar Spectral Motion Adaptors in the Tritone Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Malek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shepard tones consist of octave-spaced components, whose amplitudes are generated under a fixed bell-shaped spectral envelope. They are well defined in pitch chroma, but generate octave confusions that in turn can produce ambiguities in the perceived relative pitch heights when their chromas are exactly a tritone apart (the tritone paradox. This study examined the effects of tonal context on relative pitch height judgments using adaptor sequences followed by target sequences (pairs of Shepard tones of different chromas separated by a tritone. Listeners judged whether the second target Shepard tone was higher or lower than the first. Adaptor sequences consisted of rising or falling scales (43 s at the beginning of each block, 4 s before each target sequence. Two sets of Shepard tones were used for adaptors and targets that were generated under spectral envelopes centered at either A3 (220 Hz and C6 (1,046 Hz. Pitch direction judgments (rising vs. falling to spectrally consistent (A3–A3, C6–C6 and inconsistent (A3–C6, C6–A3 adaptor-target combinations were studied. Large significant contrastive aftereffects (0.08–0.21 change in fraction of pitch direction responses were only found for the Shepard tones that were judged as higher in the control condition (judgments about the target sequences without adaptor sequences for the consistent adaptor-target conditions (A3–A3, C6–C6. The experiments rule out explanations based on non-sensory decision making processes. Possible explanations in terms of perceptual aftereffects caused by adaptation in central auditory frequency-motion detectors are discussed.

  1. An introduction to random vibrations, spectral & wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newland, D E

    2005-01-01

    One of the first engineering books to cover wavelet analysis, this classic text describes and illustrates basic theory, with a detailed explanation of the workings of discrete wavelet transforms. Computer algorithms are explained and supported by examples and a set of problems, and an appendix lists ten computer programs for calculating and displaying wavelet transforms.Starting with an introduction to probability distributions and averages, the text examines joint probability distributions, ensemble averages, and correlation; Fourier analysis; spectral density and excitation response relation

  2. Analytically derived conversion of spectral band radiance to brightness temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Alexander [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 44th Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)], E-mail: lex@spectral.com

    2008-05-15

    Simple analytic expressions for brightness temperature have been derived in terms of band response function spectral moments. Accuracy measures are also derived. Application of these formulas to GOES-12 Sounder thermal infrared bands produces brightness temperature residuals between -5.0 and 2.5 mK for a 150-400 K temperature range. The magnitude of residuals for the five ASTER Radiometer thermal infrared bands over the same temperature range is less than 0.22 mK.

  3. Spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Mizera, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity by simulating random walks on causal sets. In contrast to other approaches to quantum gravity, we find an increasing spectral dimension at small scales. This observation can be connected to the nonlocality of causal set theory that is deeply rooted in its fundamentally Lorentzian nature. Based on its large-scale behaviour, we conjecture that the spectral dimension can serve as a tool to distinguish causal sets that approximate manifolds from those that do not. As a new tool to probe quantum spacetime in different quantum gravity approaches, we introduce a novel dimensional estimator, the causal spectral dimension, based on the meeting probability of two random walkers, which respect the causal structure of the quantum spacetime. We discuss a causal-set example, where the spectral dimension and the causal spectral dimension differ, due to the existence of a preferred foliation. (paper)

  4. Spectral measurements of loess TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, H.M.; Mann, S.J.; Townsend, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are reported for two loess samples when examined with broad band filters in the range 275-650 nm. Samples show striking differences in bleaching behaviour, when their TL emissions are observed in the u.v., blue, green and yellow spectral regions. The age estimates, given by the equivalent dose (ED) values, differ by up to a factor of two for analyses using the green and u.v. TL signals. These ED values also vary with prolonged room temperature storage between the bleaching and irradiation steps. The anomalies in the bleaching behaviour are interpreted in terms of changes in TL efficiency. The results have major implications for the regeneration method of TL dating for these fine-grained sediments and suggest that reliable dates obtained by it may be fortuitous. (author)

  5. Elementary principles of spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    It is a common observation that as we add particles, one by one, to a simple system, things get steadily more and more complicated. For example if the system is describable in shell-model terms, i.e., with a model space in which m particles are distributed over N single-particle states, then as long as m << N, the dimensionality increases rapidly with particle number. On the other hand, for the usual (1 + 2)-body Hamiltonian, the (m greater than or equal to 2)-particle spectrum and wave functions are determined by operators defined in the one-particle space (for the single-particle energies) and the two-particle space (for the interactions). We may say then that the input information becomes more and more fragmented as the particle number increases, the fixed amount of information being distributed over more and more matrix elements. On the other hand there arise also new simplicities whose origin is connected with the operation of statistical laws. There is a macroscopic simplicity corresponding to the fact that the smoothed spectrum takes on a characteristic shape defined by a few parameters (low-order moments) of the spectrum. There is a microscopic simplicity corresponding to a remarkable spectral rigidity which extends over the entire spectrum and guarantees us that the fluctuations from uniformity in the spectrum are small and in many cases carry little information. The purpose of spectral-distribution theory, as applied to these problems, is to deal with the complexities by taking advantage of the simplicities

  6. Spectral monitoring of AB Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Díaz, L. F.; Oostra, B.

    2017-07-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, did a spectral monitoring during 2014 and 2015 to AB Aurigae, the brightest Herbig Ae/be star in the northern hemisphere. The aim of this project is applying spectral techniques, in order to identify specific features that could help us not only to understand how this star is forming, but also to establish a pattern to explain general star formation processes. We have recorded 19 legible spectra with a resolving power of R = 11,0000, using a 40 cm Meade telescope with an eShel spectrograph, coupled by a 50-micron optical fiber. We looked for the prominent absorption lines, the Sodium doublet at 5890Å and 5896Å, respectively and Magnesium II at 4481Å; to measure radial velocities of the star, but, we did not find a constant value. Instead, it ranges from 15 km/s to 32 km/s. This variability could be explained by means of an oscillation or pulsation of the external layers of the star. Other variabilities are observed in some emission lines: Hα, Hβ, He I at 5876Å and Fe II at 5018Å. It seems this phenomenon could be typical in stars that are forming and have a circumstellar disk around themselves. This variability is associated with the nonhomogeneous surface of the star and the interaction that it has with its disk. Results of this interaction could be seen also in the stellar wind ejected by the star. More data are required in order to look for a possible period in the changes of radial velocity of the star, the same for the variability of He I and Fe II, and phenomena present in Hα. We plan to take new data in January of 2017.

  7. Buckling feedback of the spectral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xingqing; Shan Wenzhi; Luo Jingyu

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the problems about buckling feedback of spectral calculations in physical calculations of the reactor and presents a useful method by which the buckling feedback of spectral calculations is implemented. The effect of the buckling feedback in spectra and the broad group cross section, convergence of buckling feedback iteration and the effect of the spectral zones dividing are discussed in the calculations. This method has been used for the physical design of HTR-10 MW Test Module

  8. Quality assurance of the Brewer spectral UV measurements in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakkala

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality assurance of the two Brewer spectrophotometers of the Finnish Meteorological Institute is discussed in this paper. The complete data processing chain from raw signal to high quality spectra is presented. The quality assurance includes daily maintenance, laboratory characterizations, calculation of long-term spectral responsivity, data processing and quality assessment. The cosine correction of the measurements is based on a new method, and is included in the data processing software. The results showed that the actual cosine correction factor of the two Finnish Brewers can vary between 1.08–1.13 and 1.08–1.12, respectively, depending on the sky radiance distribution and wavelength. The temperature characterization showed a linear temperature dependence between the instruments' internal temperature and the photon counts per cycle, and a temperature correction was used for correcting the measurements. The long-term spectral responsivity was calculated using the time series of several lamps using two slightly different methods. The long-term spectral responsivity was scaled to the irradiance scale of the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT for the whole of the measurement time-periods 1990–2006 and 1995–2006 for Sodankylä and Jokioinen, respectively. Both Brewers have participated in many international spectroradiometer comparisons, and have shown good stability. The differences between the Brewers and the portable reference spectroradiometer QASUME have been within 5% during 2002–2007.

  9. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  10. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  11. Relationship between behavioral and physiological spectral-ripple discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Ho; Clinard, Christopher G; Kwon, Seeyoun; Dasika, Vasant K; Nie, Kaibao; Drennan, Ward R; Tremblay, Kelly L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have found a significant correlation between spectral-ripple discrimination and speech and music perception in cochlear implant (CI) users. This relationship could be of use to clinicians and scientists who are interested in using spectral-ripple stimuli in the assessment and habilitation of CI users. However, previous psychoacoustic tasks used to assess spectral discrimination are not suitable for all populations, and it would be beneficial to develop methods that could be used to test all age ranges, including pediatric implant users. Additionally, it is important to understand how ripple stimuli are processed in the central auditory system and how their neural representation contributes to behavioral performance. For this reason, we developed a single-interval, yes/no paradigm that could potentially be used both behaviorally and electrophysiologically to estimate spectral-ripple threshold. In experiment 1, behavioral thresholds obtained using the single-interval method were compared to thresholds obtained using a previously established three-alternative forced-choice method. A significant correlation was found (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002) in 14 adult CI users. The spectral-ripple threshold obtained using the new method also correlated with speech perception in quiet and noise. In experiment 2, the effect of the number of vocoder-processing channels on the behavioral and physiological threshold in normal-hearing listeners was determined. Behavioral thresholds, using the new single-interval method, as well as cortical P1-N1-P2 responses changed as a function of the number of channels. Better behavioral and physiological performance (i.e., better discrimination ability at higher ripple densities) was observed as more channels added. In experiment 3, the relationship between behavioral and physiological data was examined. Amplitudes of the P1-N1-P2 "change" responses were significantly correlated with d' values from the single-interval behavioral

  12. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, R.; Chang, T.; Tian, M.; Bekker, S.; Olson, A.; Ostrander, C.; Khallaayoun, A.; Dollinger, C.; Babbitt, W.R.; Cole, Z.; Reibel, R.R.; Merkel, K.D.; Sun, Y.; Cone, R.; Schlottau, F.; Wagner, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution (∼25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 μs) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed

  13. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Mohan, R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.edu; Chang, T. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Tian, M. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Bekker, S. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Olson, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ostrander, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Khallaayoun, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dollinger, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cole, Z. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Reibel, R.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Merkel, K.D. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cone, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Schlottau, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wagner, K.H. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution ({approx}25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 {mu}s) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed.

  14. Spectral Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing as Observed by AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, John M.; Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    AIRS V6 products contain the spectral contributions to Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), clear-sky OLR (OLR(sub CLR)), and Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing (LWCRF) in 16 bands from 100 cm(exp -1) to 3260 cm(exp -1). We show climatologies of selected spectrally resolved AIRS V6 products over the period of September 2002 through August 2016. Spectrally resolved LWCRF can better describe the response of the Earth system to cloud and cloud feedback processes. The spectral LWCRF enables us to estimate the fraction of each contributing factor to cloud forcing, i.e.: surface temperature, mid to upper tropospheric water vapor, and tropospheric temperature. This presentation also compares the spatial characteristics of LWCRF from AIRS, CERES_EBAF Edition-2.8, and MERRA-2. AIRS and CERES LWCRF products show good agreement. The OLR bias between AIRS and CERES is very close to that of OLR(sub CLR). This implies that both AIRS and CERES OLR products accurately account for the effect of clouds on OLR.

  15. Análise de dados de produção em um pomar jovem de laranjeiras Hamlin: I. Relações com a resposta espectral Yield data analysis in a commercial orchard of young Hamlin trees: relationships with spectral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Oliveira Parise

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um pomar jovem de laranjeiras Hamlin, não-irrigado, foi realizado um estudo que procurou investigar a potencialidade do uso de dados espectrais de árvores, visando ao gerenciamento localizado da produção de 52 árvores, distribuídas ao longo de duas transeções cruzadas, selecionadas para o levantamento da produção em dois ciclos sucessivos, 2000-2001 e 2001-2002. Imagens aéreas multiespectrais de alta resolução espacial foram tomadas de um pomar, em duas fases fenológicas distintas: antes e após a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os índices de vegetação NDVI e SAVI e os níveis de cinza nas faixas espectrais do vermelho e do infravermelho foram relacionados com a produção por meio de regressões. Os resultados mostraram que a resposta espectral apresentou relação significativa com a produção, embora os valores de r² tenham sido baixos. A tomada de imagens multiespectrais voltadas ao gerenciamento localizado da produção, tanto na época anterior, como posterior à fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo, apresentou desempenho semelhante quanto às relações entre resposta espectral e produção.Yield data of 52 young Hamlin trees in a commercial orchard were collected in two seasons, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002, along with spectral response data extracted from multispectral digital aerial images. The images were collected by a high resolution video camera in two distinct phenological stages: before and after the period of vegetative growth. NDVI, SAVI, red and infrared raw digital numbers data were selected for describing the relations. Regression analyses showed significant relationships between yield and spectral response, however the values of r² were low. Taken multispectral digital images before or after the vegetative growth period were similar performed.

  16. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  17. Spectral evolution of GRBs with negative spectral lag using Fermi GBM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arundhati; Chaudhury, Kishor; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava

    2018-06-01

    The positive spectral lag of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is often explained in terms of hard-to-soft spectral evolution of GRB pulses. While positive lags of GRBs is very common, there are few GRB pulses that exhibits negative spectral lags. In the present work we examine whether negative lags of GRBs also can be interpreted in terms of spectral evolution of GRB pulses or not. Using Fermi-GBM data, we identify two GRBs, GRB 090426C and GRB 150213A, with clean pulses that exhibit negative spectral lag. An indication of soft to hard transition has been noticed for the negative spectral lag events from the spectral evolution study. The implication of the present findings on the models of GRB spectral lags are discussed.

  18. Spectral affinity in protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu

    2009-11-29

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to quickly find nodes closest to a queried vertex in any protein

  19. Spectral affinity in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. Results We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. Conclusion We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to

  20. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  1. Spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral data with mutual information based segmented stacked autoencoder approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Subir; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral (HS) data comprises of continuous spectral responses of hundreds of narrow spectral bands with very fine spectral resolution or bandwidth, which offer feature identification and classification with high accuracy. In the present study, Mutual Information (MI) based Segmented Stacked Autoencoder (S-SAE) approach for spectral-spatial classification of the HS data is proposed to reduce the complexity and computational time compared to Stacked Autoencoder (SAE) based feature extraction. A non-parametric dependency measure (MI) based spectral segmentation is proposed instead of linear and parametric dependency measure to take care of both linear and nonlinear inter-band dependency for spectral segmentation of the HS bands. Then morphological profiles are created corresponding to segmented spectral features to assimilate the spatial information in the spectral-spatial classification approach. Two non-parametric classifiers, Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Gaussian kernel and Random Forest (RF) are used for classification of the three most popularly used HS datasets. Results of the numerical experiments carried out in this study have shown that SVM with a Gaussian kernel is providing better results for the Pavia University and Botswana datasets whereas RF is performing better for Indian Pines dataset. The experiments performed with the proposed methodology provide encouraging results compared to numerous existing approaches.

  2. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  3. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  4. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  5. The X-Shooter spectral library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y. P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Lançon, A.; Prugniel, Ph.; Koleva, M.

    2012-01-01

    We are building a new spectral library with the X-Shooter instrument on ESO's VLT: XSL, the X-Shooter Spectral Library. We present our progress in building XSL, which covers the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR with a resolution of R˜10000. As of now we have collected spectra for

  6. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...

  7. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post-mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  8. Spectral Methods in Numerical Plasma Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the use of spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation. As examples of the use of spectral methods, solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations in both a simple, doubly periodic region, and on an annulus will be shown. In the first case, the solution is expanded...

  9. Spectral Compressive Sensing with Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Dadkhahi, Hamid; F. Duarte, Marco

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we introduce a greedy recovery algorithm that leverages a band-exclusion function and a polar interpolation function to address these two issues in spectral compressive sensing. Our algorithm is geared towards line spectral estimation from compressive measurements and outperforms most existing...

  10. Spectral concentration in the nonrelativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Grosse, H.; Thaller, B.

    1982-01-01

    First order relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger operator according to Foldy and Wouthuysen are rigorously discussed in the framework of singular perturbation theory. For Coulomb plus short-range interactions we investigate the corresponding spectral properties and prove spectral concentration and existence of first order pseudoeigenvalues in the nonrelativistic limit. (Author)

  11. Spectral functions of hadrons in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Y.; Asakawa, M.; Hatsuda, T.

    2000-01-01

    Using the maximum entropy method, spectral functions of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons are extracted from lattice Monte Carlo data of the imaginary time Green's functions. The resonance and continuum structures as well as the ground state peaks are successfully obtained. Error analysis of the resultant spectral functions is also given on the basis of the Bayes probability theory. (author)

  12. Spectral analysis of bedform dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Noormets, Riko

    Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods for the an....... The proposed method overcomes the above mentioned problems of common descriptive analysis as it is an objective and straightforward mathematical process. The spectral decomposition of superimposed dunes allows a detailed description and analysis of dune patterns and migration.......Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods...... allows the application of a procedure, which has been a standard for the analysis of water waves for long times: The bathymetric signal of a cross-section of subaquatic compound dunes is approximated by the sum of a set of harmonic functions, derived by Fourier transformation. If the wavelength...

  13. Spectral statistics of 'cellular' billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    For a bounded domain Ω 0 subset of R 2 whose boundary contains a number of flat pieces Γ i , i = 1, ..., l we consider a family of non-symmetric billiards Ω constructed by patching several copies of Ω 0 along Γ i s. It is demonstrated that the length spectrum of the periodic orbits in Ω is degenerate with the multiplicities determined by a matrix group G. We study the energy spectrum of the corresponding quantum billiard problem in Ω and show that it can be split into a number of uncorrelated subspectra corresponding to a set of irreducible representations α of G. Assuming that the classical dynamics in Ω 0 are chaotic, we derive a semiclassical trace formula for each spectral component and show that their energy level statistics are the same as in standard random matrix ensembles. Depending on whether α is real, pseudo-real or complex, the spectrum has either Gaussian orthogonal, Gaussian symplectic or Gaussian unitary types of statistics, respectively

  14. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  15. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  16. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature

  17. Extracting attosecond delays from spectrally overlapping interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Attosecond interferometry is becoming an increasingly popular technique for measuring the dynamics of photoionization in real time. Whereas early measurements focused on atomic systems with very simple photoelectron spectra, the technique is now being applied to more complex systems including isolated molecules and solids. The increase in complexity translates into an augmented spectral congestion, unavoidably resulting in spectral overlap in attosecond interferograms. Here, we discuss currently used methods for phase retrieval and introduce two new approaches for determining attosecond photoemission delays from spectrally overlapping photoelectron spectra. We show that the previously used technique, consisting in the spectral integration of the areas of interest, does in general not provide reliable results. Our methods resolve this problem, thereby opening the technique of attosecond interferometry to complex systems and fully exploiting its specific advantages in terms of spectral resolution compared to attosecond streaking.

  18. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  19. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S

    2002-03-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature.

  20. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  1. THE RESEARCH ON THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEA FOG BASED ON CALIOP AND MODIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of that difficulty of distinguish between sea fog and low cloud by optical remote sensing mean, the research on spectral characteristics of sea fog is focused and carried out。The satellite laser radar CALIOP data and the high spectral MODIS data were obtained from May to December 2017, and the scattering coefficient and the vertical height information were extracted from the atmospheric attenuation of the lower star to extract the sea fog sample points, and the spectral response curve based on MODIS was formed to analyse the spectral response characteristics of the sea fog, thus providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of sea fog with optical remote sensing image.

  2. Errors in short circuit measurements due to spectral mismatch between sunlight and solar simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Errors in short circuit current measurement were calculated for a variety of spectral mismatch conditions. The differences in spectral irradiance between terrestrial sunlight and three types of solar simulator were studied, as well as the differences in spectral response between three types of reference solar cells and various test cells. The simulators considered were a short arc xenon lamp AMO sunlight simulator, an ordinary quartz halogen lamp, and an ELH-type quartz halogen lamp. Three types of solar cells studied were a silicon cell, a cadmium sulfide cell and a gallium arsenide cell.

  3. Cultural and environmental effects on the spectral development patterns of corn and soybeans: Field data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overall approach to crop spectral understanding is presented which serves to maintain a strong link between actual plant responses and characteristics and spectral observations from ground based and spaceborne sensors. A specific technique for evaluating field reflectance data, as a part of the overall approach, is also described. Results of the application of this technique to corn and soybeans reflectance data collected by and at Purdue/LARS indicate that a number of common cultural and environmental factors can significantly affect the temporal spectral development patterns of these crops in tasseled cap greenness (a transformed variable of LANDSAT MSS signals).

  4. Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainon, R.; Doesburg, R.M. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ronaldson, J.P.; Gieseg, S.P. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Janmale, T. [University of Canterbury, Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Buckenham, T.M. [University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P.H. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roake, J.A. [Christchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular, Endovascular and Transplant Surgery, Christchurch (New Zealand); Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Christchurch, Department of Radiology, PO Box 4345, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    To distinguish components of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque by imaging their energy response using spectral CT and comparing images with histology. After spectroscopic calibration using phantoms of plaque surrogates, excised human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were imaged using MARS CT using a photon-processing detector with a silicon sensor layer and microfocus X-ray tube (50 kVp, 0.5 mA) at 38-{mu}m voxel size. The plaques were imaged, sectioned and re-imaged using four threshold energies: 10, 16, 22 and 28 keV; then sequentially stained with modified Von Kossa, Perl's Prussian blue and Oil-Red O, and photographed. Relative Hounsfield units across the energies were entered into a linear algebraic material decomposition model to identify the unknown plaque components. Lipid, calcium, iron and water-like components of plaque have distinguishable energy responses to X-ray, visible on spectral CT images. CT images of the plaque surface correlated very well with histological photographs. Calcium deposits (>1,000 {mu}m) in plaque are larger than iron deposits (<100 {mu}m), but could not be distinguished from each other within the same voxel using the energy range available. Spectral CT displays energy information in image form at high spatial resolution, enhancing the intrinsic contrast of lipid, calcium and iron within atheroma. (orig.)

  5. Enamel dose calculation by electron paramagnetic resonance spectral simulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Guofu; Cong Jianbo; Guo Linchao; Ning Jing; Xian Hong; Wang Changzhen; Wu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral processing by using the EPR spectral simulation method to improve the accuracy of enamel EPR dosimetry and reduce artificial error. Methods: The multi-component superimposed EPR powder spectral simulation software was developed to simulate EPR spectrum models of the background signal (BS) and the radiation- induced signal (RS) of irradiated enamel respectively. RS was extracted from the multi-component superimposed spectrum of irradiated enamel and its amplitude was calculated. The dose-response curve was then established for calculating the doses of a group of enamel samples. The result of estimated dose was compared with that calculated by traditional method. Results: BS was simulated as a powder spectrum of gaussian line shape with the following spectrum parameters: g=2.00 35 and Hpp=0.65-1.1 mT, RS signal was also simulated as a powder spectrum but with axi-symmetric spectrum characteristics. The spectrum parameters of RS were: g ⊥ =2.0018, g ‖ =1.9965, Hpp=0.335-0.4 mT. The amplitude of RS had a linear response to radiation dose with the regression equation as y=240.74x + 76 724 (R 2 =0.9947). The expectation of relative error of dose estimation was 0.13. Conclusions: EPR simulation method has improved somehow the accuracy and reliability of enamel EPR dose estimation. (authors)

  6. Extraction of neutron spectral information from Bonner-Sphere data

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, J H; Zaidins, C S

    1999-01-01

    We have extended a least-squares method of extracting neutron spectral information from Bonner-Sphere data which was previously developed by Zaidins et al. (Med. Phys. 5 (1978) 42). A pulse-height analysis with background stripping is employed which provided a more accurate count rate for each sphere. Newer response curves by Mares and Schraube (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 366 (1994) 461) were included for the moderating spheres and the bare detector which comprise the Bonner spectrometer system. Finally, the neutron energy spectrum of interest was divided using the philosophy of fuzzy logic into three trapezoidal regimes corresponding to slow, moderate, and fast neutrons. Spectral data was taken using a PuBe source in two different environments and the analyzed data is presented for these cases as slow, moderate, and fast neutron fluences. (author)

  7. Regulation of assimilate partitioning by daylength and spectral quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, S.J. [USDA-Climate Stress Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants utilize light energy to assimilate and transform carbon dioxide into products that support growth and development. The preceding review provides an excellent summary of photosynthetic mechanisms and diurnal patterns of carbon metabolism with emphasis on the importance of gradual changes in photosynthetically-active radiation at dawn and dusk. In addition to these direct effects of irradiance, there are indirect effects of light period duration and spectral quality on carbohydrate metabolism and assimilate partitioning. Both daylength and spectral quality trigger developmental phenomena such as flowering (e.g., photoperiodism) and shade avoidance responses, but their effects on partitioning of photoassimilates in leaves are less well known. Moreover, the adaptive significance to the plants of such effects is sometimes not clear.

  8. Nanoengineering of photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum spectral shaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Sørensen, Thorkild; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    ) on the location of the Stokes and anti-Stokes bands and gain bandwidth. An analysis shows that the Raman effect is responsible for reducing the four-wave mixing gain and a slight reduction in the corresponding frequency shift from the pump, when the frequency shift is much larger than the Raman shift. Using......Supercontinuum generation using picosecond pulses pumped into cobweb photonic crystal fibers is investigated. Dispersion profiles are calculated for several fiber designs and used to analytically investigate the influence of the fiber structural parameters (core size and wall thickness...... numerical simulations we find that four-wave mixing is the dominant physical mechanism for the pumping scheme considered, and that there is a trade-off between the spectral width and the spectral flatness of the supercontinuum. The balance of this trade-off is determined by nanometer-scale design...

  9. Shaping the spatial and spectral emissivity at the diffraction limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhsiyan, Mathilde; Bouchon, Patrick; Jaeck, Julien; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces have attracted a growing interest for their ability to artificially tailor an electromagnetic response on various spectral ranges. In particular, thermal sources with unprecedented abilities, such as directionality or monochromaticity, have been achieved. However, these metasurfaces exhibit homogeneous optical properties whereas the spatial modulation of the emissivity up to the wavelength scale is at the crux of the design of original emitters. In this letter, we study an inhomogeneous metasurface made of a nonperiodic set of optical nano-antennas that spatially and spectrally control the emitted light up to the diffraction limit. Each antenna acts as an independent deep subwavelength emitter for given polarization and wavelength. Their juxtaposition at the subwavelength scale encodes far field multispectral and polarized images. This opens up promising breakthroughs for applications such as optical storage, anti-counterfeit devices, and multispectral emitters for biochemical sensing

  10. Shaping the spatial and spectral emissivity at the diffraction limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhsiyan, Mathilde [MiNaO, ONERA, The French Aerospace Lab, 91761 Palaiseau (France); MiNaO, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN), CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Bouchon, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.bouchon@onera.fr; Jaeck, Julien [MiNaO, ONERA, The French Aerospace Lab, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Pelouard, Jean-Luc [MiNaO, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN), CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Haïdar, Riad [MiNaO, ONERA, The French Aerospace Lab, 91761 Palaiseau (France); École Polytechnique, Département de Physique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-12-21

    Metasurfaces have attracted a growing interest for their ability to artificially tailor an electromagnetic response on various spectral ranges. In particular, thermal sources with unprecedented abilities, such as directionality or monochromaticity, have been achieved. However, these metasurfaces exhibit homogeneous optical properties whereas the spatial modulation of the emissivity up to the wavelength scale is at the crux of the design of original emitters. In this letter, we study an inhomogeneous metasurface made of a nonperiodic set of optical nano-antennas that spatially and spectrally control the emitted light up to the diffraction limit. Each antenna acts as an independent deep subwavelength emitter for given polarization and wavelength. Their juxtaposition at the subwavelength scale encodes far field multispectral and polarized images. This opens up promising breakthroughs for applications such as optical storage, anti-counterfeit devices, and multispectral emitters for biochemical sensing.

  11. Metaoptics for Spectral and Spatial Beam Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Srimathi, Indumathi

    Laser beam combining and beam shaping are two important areas with applications in optical communications, high power lasers, and atmospheric propagation studies. In this dissertation, metaoptical elements have been developed for spectral and spatial beam shaping, and multiplexing. Beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), referred to as optical vortices, have unique propagation properties. Optical vortex beams carrying different topological charges are orthogonal to each other and have low inter-modal crosstalk which allows for them to be (de)multiplexed. Efficient spatial (de)multiplexing of these beams have been carried out by using diffractive optical geometrical coordinate transformation elements. The spatial beam combining technique shown here is advantageous because the efficiency of the system is not dependent on the number of OAM states being combined. The system is capable of generating coaxially propagating beams in the far-field and the beams generated can either be incoherently or coherently multiplexed with applications in power scaling and dynamic intensity profile manipulations. Spectral beam combining can also be achieved with the coordinate transformation elements. The different wavelengths emitted by fiber sources can be spatially overlapped in the far-field plane and the generated beams are Bessel-Gauss in nature with enhanced depth of focus properties. Unique system responses and beam shapes in the far-field can be realized by controlling amplitude, phase, and polarization at the micro-scale. This has been achieved by spatially varying the structural parameters at the subwavelength scale and is analogous to local modification of material properties. With advancements in fabrication technology, it is possible to control not just the lithographic process, but also the deposition process. In this work, a unique combination of spatial structure variations in conjunction with the conformal coating properties of an atomic layer deposition tool

  12. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  13. Spectral quality requirements for effluent identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, R. N.; Seeley, J. A.; Wack, E. C.

    2005-11-01

    We consider the problem of remotely identifying gaseous materials using passive sensing of long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral features at hyperspectral resolution. Gaseous materials are distinguishable in the LWIR because of their unique spectral fingerprints. A sensor degraded in capability by noise or limited spectral resolution, however, may be unable to positively identify contaminants, especially if they are present in low concentrations or if the spectral library used for comparisons includes materials with similar spectral signatures. This paper will quantify the relative importance of these parameters and express the relationships between them in a functional form which can be used as a rule of thumb in sensor design or in assessing sensor capability for a specific task. This paper describes the simulation of remote sensing datacontaining a gas cloud.In each simulation, the spectra are degraded in spectral resolution and through the addition of noise to simulate spectra collected by sensors of varying design and capability. We form a trade space by systematically varying the number of sensor spectral channels and signal-to-noise ratio over a range of values. For each scenario, we evaluate the capability of the sensor for gas identification by computing the ratio of the F-statistic for the truth gas tothe same statistic computed over the rest of the library.The effect of the scope of the library is investigated as well, by computing statistics on the variability of the identification capability as the library composition is varied randomly.

  14. [Modeling and Simulation of Spectral Polarimetric BRDF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jin-jiang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Ren-bin; Tang, Qian; Ye, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Under the conditions of the polarized light, The reflective surface of the object is affected by many factors, refractive index, surface roughness, and so the angle of incidence. For the rough surface in the different wavelengths of light exhibit different reflection characteristics of polarization, a spectral polarimetric BRDF based on Kirchhof theory is proposee. The spectral model of complex refraction index is combined with refraction index and extinction coefficient spectral model which were got by using the known complex refraction index at different value. Then get the spectral model of surface roughness derived from the classical surface roughness measuring method combined with the Fresnel reflection function. Take the spectral model of refraction index and roughness into the BRDF model, then the spectral polarimetirc BRDF model is proposed. Compare the simulation results of the refractive index varies with wavelength, roughness is constant, the refraction index and roughness both vary with wavelength and origin model with other papers, it shows that, the spectral polarimetric BRDF model can show the polarization characteristics of the surface accurately, and can provide a reliable basis for the application of polarization remote sensing, and other aspects of the classification of substances.

  15. Spectral functions from hadronic τ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Hadronic decays of the τ lepton provide a clean environment to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by romances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonpertubative contributions. the τ vector spectral functions for the 2π and 4π final states are used together with e p+ e p- data in order to compute vacuum polarization integrals occurring in the calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and the running of the electromagnetic coupling

  16. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R.; Krishna Mohan, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  17. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  18. Precise Multi-Spectral Dermatological Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2004-01-01

    In this work, an integrated imaging system to obtain accurate and reproducible multi-spectral dermatological images is proposed. The system is made up of an integrating sphere, light emitting diodes and a generic monochromatic camera. The system can collect up to 10 different spectral bands....... These spectral bands vary from ultraviolet to near infrared. The welldefined and diffuse illumination of the optically closed scene aims to avoid shadows and specular reflections. Furthermore, the system has been developed to guarantee the reproducibility of the collected images. This allows for comparative...

  19. Piecewise spectrally band-pass for compressive coded aperture spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lu-Lu; Lü Qun-Bo; Huang Min; Xiang Li-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) has been discussed in recent years. It has the remarkable advantages of high optical throughput, snapshot imaging, etc. The entire spatial-spectral data-cube can be reconstructed with just a single two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing measurement. On the other hand, for less spectrally sparse scenes, the insufficiency of sparse sampling and aliasing in spatial-spectral images reduce the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) spectral cube. To solve this problem, this paper extends the improved CASSI. A band-pass filter array is mounted on the coded mask, and then the first image plane is divided into some continuous spectral sub-band areas. The entire 3D spectral cube could be captured by the relative movement between the object and the instrument. The principle analysis and imaging simulation are presented. Compared with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the information entropy of the reconstructed images at different numbers of spectral sub-band areas, the reconstructed 3D spectral cube reveals an observable improvement in the reconstruction fidelity, with an increase in the number of the sub-bands and a simultaneous decrease in the number of spectral channels of each sub-band. (paper)

  20. Multi-Configuration Matched Spectral Filter Core, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes an open-architecture spectral gas sensor based on compressive sensing concepts employed for both spatial and spectral domains. Our matched spectral...

  1. Computer-assisted spectral design and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Wang, Qiqi; Sun, Yinlong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computer-assisted approach for spectral design and synthesis. This approach starts with some initial spectrum, modifies it interactively, evaluates the change, and decides the optimal spectrum. Given a requested change as function of wavelength, we model the change function using a Gaussian function. When there is the metameric constraint, from the Gaussian function of request change, we propose a method to generate the change function such that the result spectrum has the same color as the initial spectrum. We have tested the proposed method with different initial spectra and change functions, and implemented an interactive graphics environment for spectral design and synthesis. The proposed approach and graphics implementation for spectral design and synthesis can be helpful for a number of applications such as lighting of building interiors, textile coloration, and pigment development of automobile paints, and spectral computer graphics.

  2. Spectral Shifting in Nondestructive Assay Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nettleton, Anthony Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tutt, James Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaFleur, Adrienne Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    This project involves spectrum tailoring research that endeavors to better distinguish energies of gamma rays using different spectral material thicknesses and determine neutron energies by coating detectors with various materials.

  3. Spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Supersymmetry; shape invariant potential; spectral statistics. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 70, No. ... the fluctuation properties of different systems whose average behaviours are not the same. ... coefficient c defined as [15] c = ∑.

  4. Algorithms for Spectral Decomposition with Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The analysis of spectral signals for features that represent physical phenomenon is ubiquitous in the science and engineering communities. There are two main...

  5. Ultra-High Density Spectral Storage Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasan, Zameer U

    2002-01-01

    .... Being atomic scale storage, spectral storage has the potential of providing orders of magnitude denser memories than present day memories that depend on the hulk properties of the storage medium...

  6. Learning theory of distributed spectral algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zheng-Chu; Lin, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral algorithms have been widely used and studied in learning theory and inverse problems. This paper is concerned with distributed spectral algorithms, for handling big data, based on a divide-and-conquer approach. We present a learning theory for these distributed kernel-based learning algorithms in a regression framework including nice error bounds and optimal minimax learning rates achieved by means of a novel integral operator approach and a second order decomposition of inverse operators. Our quantitative estimates are given in terms of regularity of the regression function, effective dimension of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and qualification of the filter function of the spectral algorithm. They do not need any eigenfunction or noise conditions and are better than the existing results even for the classical family of spectral algorithms. (paper)

  7. Spectral properties of almost-periodic Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.

    1983-12-01

    We give a description of some spectral properties of almost-periodic hamiltonians. We put the stress on some particular points of the proofs of the existence of absolutely continuous or pure point spectrum [fr

  8. GALILEO NIMS SPECTRAL IMAGE CUBES: JUPITER OPERATIONS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The natural form of imaging spectrometer data is the spectral image cube. It is normally in band sequential format, but has a dual nature. It is a series of 'images'...

  9. GALILEO NIMS SPECTRAL IMAGE TUBES: JUPITER OPERATIONS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The natural form of imaging spectrometer data is the spectral image cube. It is normally in band sequential format, but has a dual nature. It is a series of 'images'...

  10. Intermediate spectral theory and quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Cesar R

    2008-01-01

    The spectral theory of linear operators plays a key role in the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. Furthermore, such a rigorous mathematical foundation leads to a more profound insight into the nature of quantum mechanics. This textbook provides a concise and comprehensible introduction to the spectral theory of (unbounded) self-adjoint operators and its application in quantum dynamics. The book places emphasis on the symbiotic relationship of these two domains by (1) presenting the basic mathematics of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of one particle, i.e., developing the spectral theory of self-adjoint operators in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces from the beginning, and (2) giving an overview of many of the basic functional aspects of quantum theory, from its physical principles to the mathematical models. The book is intended for graduate (or advanced undergraduate) students and researchers interested in mathematical physics. It starts with linear operator theory, spectral questions and self-...

  11. Camouflage in thermal IR: spectral design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan; Kariis, Hans; Lindell, Roland; Hallberg, Tomas; Högström, Herman

    2016-10-01

    In this work a spectral designed coating from SPECTROGON is evaluated. Spectral design in this case means that the coating has a reflectivity equal to one at 3-5 and 8-12 microns were sensors operate and a much lower reflectivity in the other wave length regions. Three boxes are evaluated: one metallic, one black-body and one with a spectral designed surface, all with a 15 W radiator inside the box. It is shown that the box with the spectral designed surface can combine the two good characteristics of the other boxes: low signature from the metallic box and reasonable inside temperature from the black-body box. The measurements were verified with calculations using RadThermIR.

  12. On the spectral composition of global radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, G

    1983-01-01

    The global radiation is recorded at several stations on the Earth. The information about its spectral composition is poor. In this paper the spectral composition means the ratio of spectral global radiation measured by coloured glass filter domes to the total global radiation. From the measuements made by Klein and Goldberg it follows that the monthly ratios vary significantly from place to place, while the variations from month to month at one place are significant only at the station which lies near to the North Pole. The Budapest data proved the dominant effect of cloudiness on the spectral composition of global radiation. This effect is in good statistical relationship with the relative global radiation. The regression constant tabulated in this paper do not contain the error of zero point elevation which is due to the overheating of glass filters by the absorbed solar radiation.

  13. Analysis of spectral effects on the energy yield of different PV (photovoltaic) technologies: The case of four specific sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.; Nofuentes, G.; Torres-Ramírez, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at looking into the impact of the solar spectrum distribution on the energy yield of some PV (photovoltaic) materials on both monthly and annual time scales. The relative spectral responses of eight different PV solar cells – representative of each considered technology – have been selected. Modeling solar spectra in four sites located in the north hemisphere together with a 12-month experimental campaign in which spectral irradiances were periodically recorded in two of these sites located in Spain have provided highly interesting results. Regardless of the site, the considered amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride PV cells experience the most noticeable modeled and experimental variations of their monthly spectral gains, whilst flatter seasonal ones are identified in the remaining considered PV technologies. Thus, the maximum monthly variations of these spectral gains take place in the a-Si PV cell, ranging from −16% (winter) to 4% (summer) in Stuttgart. Anyway, the monthly spread of the spectral effects decreases as the latitude of the site does. Last, the impact of the solar spectrum distribution is remarkably reduced when the period of integration is enlarged up to a year. In fact, annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites. - Highlights: • Monthly and annual spectral effects on eight different PV (photovoltaic) technologies studied. • Modeled spectra in four sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Measured spectra (12 months) in two sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Higher bandgap technologies: noticeable monthly variations in their spectral gains. • Annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites

  14. Detection of plum pox virus infection in selection plum trees using spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Liliya; Stoev, Antoniy; Borisova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2016-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is among the most studied viral diseases in the world in plants. It is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of stone fruits in terms of agronomic impact and economic importance. Noninvasive, fast and reliable techniques are required for evaluation of the pathology in selection trees with economic impact. Such advanced tools for PPV detection could be optical techniques as light-induced fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies. Specific regions in the electromagnetic spectra have been found to provide information about the physiological stress in plants, and consequently, diseased plants usually exhibit different spectral signature than non-stressed healthy plants in those specific ranges. In this study spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were used for the identification of biotic stress caused by the pox virus on plum trees. The spectral responses of healthy and infected leaves from cultivars, which are widespread in Bulgaria were investigated. The two applied techniques revealed statistically significant differences between the spectral data of healthy plum leaves and those infected by PPV in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Their application for biotic stress detection helps in monitoring diseases in plants using the different plant spectral properties in these spectral ranges. The strong relationship between the results indicates the applicability of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence techniques for conducting health condition assessments of vegetation and their importance for plant protection practices.

  15. Molecular spectral imaging system for quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Guoteng

    2009-12-01

    A molecular spectral imaging system has been developed based on microscopy and spectral imaging technology. The system is capable of acquiring molecular spectral images from 400 nm to 800 nm with 2 nm wavelength increments. The basic principles, instrumental systems, and system calibration method as well as its applications for the calculation of the stain-uptake by tissues are introduced. As a case study, the system is used for determining the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and evaluating the therapeutic effects of erythropoietin. Some molecular spectral images of retinal sections of normal, diabetic, and treated rats were collected and analyzed. The typical transmittance curves of positive spots stained for albumin and advanced glycation end products are retrieved from molecular spectral data with the spectral response calibration algorithm. To explore and evaluate the protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on retinal albumin leakage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, an algorithm based on Beer-Lambert's law is presented. The algorithm can assess the uptake by histologic retinal sections of stains used in quantitative pathology to label albumin leakage and advanced glycation end products formation. Experimental results show that the system is helpful for the ophthalmologist to reveal the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and explore the protective effect of erythropoietin on retinal cells of diabetic rats. It also highlights the potential of molecular spectral imaging technology to provide more effective and reliable diagnostic criteria in pathology.

  16. The spectral dimension of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destri, Claudio; Donetti, Luca

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple yet rigorous approach to the determination of the spectral dimension of random trees, based on the study of the massless limit of the Gaussian model on such trees. As a by-product, we obtain evidence in favour of a new scaling hypothesis for the Gaussian model on generic bounded graphs and in favour of a previously conjectured exact relation between spectral and connectivity dimensions on more general tree-like structures

  17. Spectral evolution of galaxies: current views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzual, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of current views on the interpretation of the various evolutionary tests aimed at detecting spectral evolution in galaxies is presented. It is concluded that the evolution taking place in known galaxy samples is a slow process (perhaps consistent with no evolution at all), and that the early phases of rapid spectral evolution in early-type galaxies have not yet been detected. (author)

  18. Spectral correlations in Anderson insulating wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M.; Micklitz, T.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spectral level-level correlation function of Anderson insulating wires for all three Wigner-Dyson classes. A measurement of its Fourier transform, the spectral form factor, is within reach of state-of-the-art cold atom quantum quench experiments, and we find good agreement with recent numerical simulations of the latter. Our derivation builds on a representation of the level-level correlation function in terms of a local generating function which may prove useful in other contexts.

  19. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.

  20. Deconvolution of spectral line profile by FTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lego, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is studied of determining the components of the spectral line profile using Fourier transformation. The different types of the spectral line profiles are described and the conditions for their generation discussed. The main result is the discovery of the possibility to obtain the parameters of the different components directly from the interferogram without using the Fourier transformation. The method under discussion strongly simplifies evaluation while preserving or increasing accuracy. (author)

  1. Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)

  2. Normal form theory and spectral sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jan A.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of unique normal form is formulated in terms of a spectral sequence. As an illustration of this technique some results of Baider and Churchill concerning the normal form of the anharmonic oscillator are reproduced. The aim of this paper is to show that spectral sequences give us a natural framework in which to formulate normal form theory. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. Superfícies de resposta espectro-temporal de imagens do sensor MODIS para classificação de área de soja no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Spectral-temporal response surface of MODIS sensor images for soybean area classification in Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado de Moraes Rudorff

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial e as limitações das imagens MODIS para classificação e estimativa de área de soja por meio do método de superfície de resposta espectro-temporal (Spectral-Temporal Response Surface - STRS. Um mapa temático das áreas com soja, oriundo da classificação de imagens Landsat do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foi utilizado como referência para auxiliar na orientação da amostragem dos pixels de treinamento e para a comparação dos resultados. Seis imagens compostas do sensor MODIS foram utilizadas para a classificação supervisionada da área de soja por meio do algoritmo de máxima verossimilhança (MAXVER adaptado ao método STRS. Os resultados foram avaliados pelo coeficiente Kappa para a totalidade da área em estudo e também para uma região de latifúndios e outra de minifúndios. O método STRS subestimou em 6,6% a área de soja para toda a região estudada, sendo que a estatística Kappa foi de 0,503. Para as regiões de latifúndios e minifúndios, a área de soja foi superestimada em 8% (Kappa=0,424 e subestimada em 43,4% (Kappa=0,358, respectivamente. As imagens MODIS, por meio do método STRS, demonstraram ter potencial para classificar a área de soja, principalmente em regiões de latifúndios. Em regiões de minifúndios, a correta identificação e classificação das áreas de soja mostrou-se pouco eficiente em razão da baixa resolução espacial das imagens MODIS.This paper was aimed at evaluating the potential and the limitations of MODIS images for soybean classification and area estimation through a Spectral-Temporal Response Surface (STRS method. A soybean thematic map from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, derived from Landsat images was used as reference data to assist both sample training and results comparison. Six 16-day composite MODIS images were classified through a supervised maximum likelihood algorithm (MAXVER adapted to the STRS method. The results were

  4. Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.; Dalimier, D.; Stamm, R.; Stehle, CH.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of spectral line shapes (SLS), a.k.a. spectral line broadening, which embraces both shapes and shifts of spectral lines, is of both fundamental and practical importance. On the fundamental side, the study of the spectral line profiles reveals the underlying atomic and molecular interactions. On the practical side, the spectral line profiles are employed as powerful diagnostic tools for various media, such as neutral gases, technological gas discharges, magnetically confined plasmas for fusion, laser- and Z-pinch-produced plasmas (for fusion and other purposes), astrophysical plasmas (most importantly, solar plasmas), and planetary atmospheres. The research area covered by this special issue includes both the SLS dominated by various electric fields (including electron and ion micro fields in strongly ionized plasmas) and the SLS controlled by neutral particles. In the physical slang, the former is called plasma broadening while the latter is called neutral broadening (of course, the results of neutral broadening apply also to the spectral line broadening in neutral gases)

  5. A spectral approach for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations of nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Nicolas; Glavas, Vedran; Datta, Dibakar; Cai, Wei

    2018-07-01

    We present a spectral approach to perform nanoindentation simulations using three-dimensional nodal discrete dislocation dynamics. The method relies on a two step approach. First, the contact problem between an indenter of arbitrary shape and an isotropic elastic half-space is solved using a spectral iterative algorithm, and the contact pressure is fully determined on the half-space surface. The contact pressure is then used as a boundary condition of the spectral solver to determine the resulting stress field produced in the simulation volume. In both stages, the mechanical fields are decomposed into Fourier modes and are efficiently computed using fast Fourier transforms. To further improve the computational efficiency, the method is coupled with a subcycling integrator and a special approach is devised to approximate the displacement field associated with surface steps. As a benchmark, the method is used to compute the response of an elastic half-space using different types of indenter. An example of a dislocation dynamics nanoindentation simulation with complex initial microstructure is presented.

  6. The Chandra Source Catalog 2.0: Spectral Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Burke, Douglas; Nowak, Michael A.; Primini, Francis Anthony; Laurino, Omar; Nguyen, Dan T.; Allen, Christopher E.; Anderson, Craig S.; Budynkiewicz, Jamie A.; Chen, Judy C.; Civano, Francesca Maria; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Ian N.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Graessle, Dale E.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; Houck, John C.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Lee, Nicholas P.; Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph; McLaughlin, Warren; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Paxson, Charles; Plummer, David A.; Rots, Arnold H.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael; Van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Chandra Source Catalog Team

    2018-01-01

    The second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains all sources identified from sixteen years' worth of publicly accessible observations. The vast majority of these sources have been observed with the ACIS detector and have spectral information in 0.5-7 keV energy range. Here we describe the methods used to automatically derive spectral properties for each source detected by the standard processing pipeline and included in the final CSC. The sources with high signal to noise ratio (exceeding 150 net counts) were fit in Sherpa (the modeling and fitting application from the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations package) using wstat as a fit statistic and Bayesian draws method to determine errors. Three models were fit to each source: an absorbed power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung emission. The fitted parameter values for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models were included in the catalog with the calculated flux for each model. The CSC also provides the source energy fluxes computed from the normalizations of predefined absorbed power-law, black-body, Bremsstrahlung, and APEC models needed to match the observed net X-ray counts. For sources that have been observed multiple times we performed a Bayesian Blocks analysis will have been performed (see the Primini et al. poster) and the most significant block will have a joint fit performed for the mentioned spectral models. In addition, we provide access to data products for each source: a file with source spectrum, the background spectrum, and the spectral response of the detector. Hardness ratios were calculated for each source between pairs of energy bands (soft, medium and hard). This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.

  7. Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busarev, Vladimir V; Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, Valentina V; Bochkov, Valerii V

    2007-01-01

    A method of reflectance spectrophotometry of atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system, its specificity, and the means of eliminating basic spectral noise are considered. As a development, joining the method of reflectance spectrophotometry with the frequency analysis of observational data series is proposed. The combined spectral-frequency method allows identification of formations with distinctive spectral features, and estimations of their sizes and distribution on the surface of atmospherelss celestial bodies. As applied to investigations of asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, the spectral frequency method has given us the possibility of obtaining fundamentally new information about minor planets. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  8. Spectral downshifting in MBO{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} (M=Y, La) phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanwar, S.K.; Sawala, N.S. [Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Department of Physics, Amravati, MH (India)

    2017-11-15

    The spectral downshifting (DS) from ultra-violet (UV)/visible (VIS) light to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in Nd{sup 3+} doped YBO{sub 3} and LaBO{sub 3} phosphors is reported. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) properties along with time-decay curves were studied which confirmed the spectral DS from VIS to NIR radiation. This can be employed to overcome the spectral mismatch of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell with solar spectrum. The prepared Nd{sup 3+} doped as prepared phosphors provide NIR emission (1052 nm) at excitation of 586 nm where response of c-Si solar cell was optimum. Thus spectral modification by mentioned phosphor can be utilized to improve solar cells performance. Hence these phosphors have potential application for photovoltaic (PV) technology. (orig.)

  9. Spectral intensity dependence an isotropy of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonek, T.J.; Broderick, J.J.; Condon, J.J.; Crawford, D.F.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The 1000-foot (305 m) telescope of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center was used to measure 430 MHz flux densities of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz. Distributions of the resulting two-point spectral indices α (430, 2700) of sources in the intensity range 0.1less than or equal toS<0.35 Jy were compared with α (318, 2700) distributions of sources stronger than 0.35 Jy at 2700 MHz. The median normal-component spectral index and fraction of flat-spectrum sources in the faintest sample do not continue the previously discovered trend toward increased spectral steepening of faint sources. This result differs from the prediction of simple evolutionary cosmological models and therefore favors the alternative explanation that local source-density inhomogeneities are responsible for the observed intensity dependence of spectral indices

  10. Assessment of Landsat multispectral scanner spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Correlations between spectral indices and vegetation parameters in south-central New Mexico were used to determine the utility of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral indices in arid rangeland monitoring. In addition, spectral index change for 1976-1980 was calculated from retrospective MSS data and compared with qualitative ground truth in order to evaluate vegetation change detection by means of spectral indices. Brightness index change consistently differentiated between cover increase and decrease, but index change appears to have been offset from true cover change; this may at least partly be attributed to the failure of the methods used to standardize MSS scenes for differences in sensor response. Green vegetation indices, by contrast to brightness indices, failed to consistently differentiate between cover increase and decrease.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of Spectral Irradiance Reference Standards Used for NREL Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Campanelli, M.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral irradiance produced by lamp standards such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) FEL-type tungsten halogen lamps are used to calibrate spectroradiometers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Spectroradiometers are often used to characterize spectral irradiance of solar simulators, which in turn are used to characterize photovoltaic device performance, e.g., power output and spectral response. Therefore, quantifying the calibration uncertainty of spectroradiometers is critical to understanding photovoltaic system performance. In this study, we attempted to reproduce the NIST-reported input variables, including the calibration uncertainty in spectral irradiance for a standard NIST lamp, and quantify uncertainty for measurement setup at the Optical Metrology Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  12. Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of MUSES C Target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Vilas, F.; Kelley, M. S.; Abell, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese MUSES C mission launched the Hayabusa spacecraft last May 15, 2003, to encounter and study the near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. The spacecraft will obtain visible images through broadband filters similar to the ECAS filters, and near-infrared spectra from 0.85 - 2.1 microns. In preparation for this encounter, opportunities to study the asteroid with Earth-based telescopes have been fully leveraged. Visible and near-infrared spectral observations were made of asteroid 25143 Itokawa during several nights of March, 2001, around the last apparition. We report here on the results of extensive spectral observations made to address the questions of compositional variations across the surface of the asteroid (as determined by the rotational period and shape model); variations in phase angle (Sun-Itokawa-Earth angle) on spectral characteristics; and predictions of Itokawa observations by Hayabusa based on the spectral resolution and responsivity of the NIRS and AMICA instruments.

  13. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Technique, Indications, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Chandni; Matta, Danielle; Roth, Robyn G; Liao, Lydia; Tinney, Elizabeth; Brill, Kristin; Germaine, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) combines the benefits of full field digital mammography with the concept of tumor angiogenesis. Technique and practical applications of CESM are discussed. An overview of the technique is followed by a demonstration of practical applications of CESM in our practice. We have successfully implemented CESM into our practice as a screening, diagnostic, staging, and treatment response tool. It is important to understand the technique of CESM and how to incorporate it into practice. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  15. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  16. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction We have assembled a digital reflectance spectral library that covers the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to far infrared along with sample documentation. The library includes samples of minerals, rocks, soils, physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures, plants, vegetation communities, microorganisms, and man-made materials. The samples and spectra collected were assembled for the purpose of using spectral features for the remote detection of these and similar materials. Analysis of spectroscopic data from laboratory, aircraft, and spacecraft instrumentation requires a knowledge base. The spectral library discussed here forms a knowledge base for the spectroscopy of minerals and related materials of importance to a variety of research programs being conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey. Much of this library grew out of the need for spectra to support imaging spectroscopy studies of the Earth and planets. Imaging spectrometers, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Visible/Infra Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) or the NASA Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) which is currently orbiting Saturn, have narrow bandwidths in many contiguous spectral channels that permit accurate definition of absorption features in spectra from a variety of materials. Identification of materials from such data requires a comprehensive spectral library of minerals, vegetation, man-made materials, and other subjects in the scene. Our research involves the use of the spectral library to identify the components in a spectrum of an unknown. Therefore, the quality of the library must be very good. However, the quality required in a spectral library to successfully perform an investigation depends on the scientific questions to be answered and the type of algorithms to be used. For example, to map a mineral using imaging spectroscopy and the mapping algorithm of Clark and others (1990a, 2003b

  17. Solar Spectral Irradiance Changes During Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Sergey; Deland, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by approximately 0.6% +/- 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% +/- 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar "continuum." Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar "continuum," the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at lambda approximately or greater than 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  18. Interpretation of UV radiometric measurements of spectrally non-uniform sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.; Gardner, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Narrow bandpass UV radiometers are used in a variety of high-temperature measurement applications. Significant systematic errors, in the form of an apparent wavelength shift in the system response curve, may be introduced when interpreting data obtained from spectrally nonuniform sources. Theoretical calculations, using transmission curves from commercially available narrow bandpass filters, show that the apparent shift in the system spectral response is a function of temperature for a blackbody source. A brief comparison between the theoretical analysis and experimentaal data is presented

  19. Process allowing the spectral compensation of semi-conductor nuclear detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The process includes a discriminator whose threshold level is applied to the detector during a fixed time and is externally controlled by a pre-programmed system; the different threshold levels and their application time to the detector are fixed by the nature of the used detector and by the tolerance allowed on the spectral response. The measurements made for each threshold level are corrected by a coefficient depending on the nature of the used detector and the tolerance on the spectral response [fr

  20. Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H H; Martijn Smit, J; Keller, Christoph U

    2014-07-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry or spectral polarization modulation is an accurate technique for measuring the continuum polarization in one shot with no moving parts. We show how a dual-beam implementation also enables spectral line polarimetry at the intrinsic resolution, as in a classic beam-splitting polarimeter. Recording redundant polarization information in the two spectrally modulated beams of a polarizing beam-splitter even provides the possibility to perform a postfacto differential transmission correction that improves the accuracy of the spectral line polarimetry. We perform an error analysis to compare the accuracy of spectral line polarimetry to continuum polarimetry, degraded by a residual dark signal and differential transmission, as well as to quantify the impact of the transmission correction. We demonstrate the new techniques with a blue sky polarization measurement around the oxygen A absorption band using the groundSPEX instrument, yielding a polarization in the deepest part of the band of 0.160±0.010, significantly different from the polarization in the continuum of 0.2284±0.0004. The presented methods are applicable to any dual-beam channeled polarimeter, including implementations for snapshot imaging polarimetry.

  1. Information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatt, William C.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Boye, Clinton A.; Grotbeck, Carter L.; Stallard, Brian R.; Descour, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene. This system provides for a very efficient optical determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  2. THE SPECTRAL INDEX PROPERTIES OF FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Yuan, Y. H.; Wang, J.; Gao, Y., E-mail: jhfan_cn@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-12-20

    In this paper, a sample of 451 blazars (193 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 258 BL Lacertae objects) with corresponding X-ray and Fermi {gamma}-ray data is compiled to investigate the correlation both between the X-ray spectral index and the {gamma}-ray spectral index and between the spectral index and the luminosity, and to compare the spectral indexes {alpha}{sub X}, {alpha}{sub {gamma}}, {alpha}{sub X{gamma}}, and {alpha}{sub {gamma}X{gamma}} for different subclasses. We also investigated the correlation between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray luminosity. The following results have been obtained. Our analysis indicates that an anti-correlation exists between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray spectral indexes for the whole sample. However, when we considered the subclasses of blazars (FSRQs, the low-peaked BL Lacertae objects (LBLs) and the high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBLs)) separately, there is not a clear relationship for each subclass. Based on the Fermi-detected sources, we can say that the HBLs are different from FSRQs, while the LBLs are similar to FSRQs.

  3. Cochlear implant users' spectral ripple resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Turner, Christopher W; Karsten, Sue A; Henry, Belinda A; Gantz, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    This study revisits the issue of the spectral ripple resolution abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The spectral ripple resolution of recently implanted CI recipients (implanted during the last 10 years) were compared to those of CI recipients implanted 15 to 20 years ago, as well as those of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners from previously published data from Henry, Turner, and Behrens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1111-1121 (2005)]. More recently, implanted CI recipients showed significantly better spectral ripple resolution. There is no significant difference in spectral ripple resolution for these recently implanted subjects compared to hearing-impaired (acoustic) listeners. The more recently implanted CI users had significantly better pre-operative speech perception than previously reported CI users. These better pre-operative speech perception scores in CI users from the current study may be related to better performance on the spectral ripple discrimination task; however, other possible factors such as improvements in internal and external devices cannot be excluded.

  4. Modified Spectral Fatigue Methods for S-N Curves With MIL-HDBK-5J Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Tom; Larsen, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    The rainflow method is used for counting fatigue cycles from a stress response time history, where the fatigue cycles are stress-reversals. The rainflow method allows the application of Palmgren-Miner's rule in order to assess the fatigue life of a structure subject to complex loading. The fatigue damage may also be calculated from a stress response power spectral density (PSD) using the semi-empirical Dirlik, Single Moment, Zhao-Baker and other spectral methods. These methods effectively assume that the PSD has a corresponding time history which is stationary with a normal distribution. This paper shows how the probability density function for rainflow stress cycles can be extracted from each of the spectral methods. This extraction allows for the application of the MIL-HDBK-5J fatigue coefficients in the cumulative damage summation. A numerical example is given in this paper for the stress response of a beam undergoing random base excitation, where the excitation is applied separately by a time history and by its corresponding PSD. The fatigue calculation is performed in the time domain, as well as in the frequency domain via the modified spectral methods. The result comparison shows that the modified spectral methods give comparable results to the time domain rainflow counting method.

  5. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, MR; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Lenorzer, A; de Koter, A; Tielens, AGGA

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0 main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  6. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; Martín-Hernández, N.L.; Lenorzer, A.; de Koter, A.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of O main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  7. The Sturm-Liouville inverse spectral problem with boundary conditions depending on the spectral parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van der Mee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the complete version including proofs of the results announced in [van der Mee C., Pivovarchik V.: A Sturm-Liouville spectral problem with boundary conditions depending on the spectral parameter. Funct. Anal. Appl. 36 (2002, 315–317 [Funkts. Anal. Prilozh. 36 (2002, 74–77 (Russian

  8. From spectral holeburning memory to spatial-spectral microwave signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Harrington, Calvin; Mohan, R Krishna; Sharpe, Tia; Bekker, Scott H; Chase, Michael D; Merkel, Kristian D; Stiffler, Colton R; Traxinger, Aaron S; Woidtke, Alex J

    2014-01-01

    Many storage and processing systems based on spectral holeburning have been proposed that access the broad bandwidth and high dynamic range of spatial-spectral materials, but only recently have practical systems been developed that exceed the performance and functional capabilities of electronic devices. This paper reviews the history of the proposed applications of spectral holeburning and spatial-spectral materials, from frequency domain optical memory to microwave photonic signal processing systems. The recent results of a 20 GHz bandwidth high performance spectrum monitoring system with the additional capability of broadband direction finding demonstrates the potential for spatial-spectral systems to be the practical choice for solving demanding signal processing problems in the near future. (paper)

  9. Diagnostic spectral characteristics of damouritization in granite type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianguo; Mao Yuxian; Li Jianzhong; Wang Changliang; Feng Mingyue; Rong Jiashu; Zhu Minqiang; Rao Minghui

    2008-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of different alteration type in uranium deposit are the prerequisite of selecting remote sensing spectral bands for uranium reconnaissance and exploration. It is also a basis for mapping alteration zone using imaging spectral data. Taking the No. 201 uranium deposit as example, the paper is focused on the spectral characteristics researching of damouritization in granite type uranium deposite. Through extracting diagnostic spectral feature of damourite and analyzing the reason causing absorption valley, it was found that spectral characteristics of damouritization in Chinese uranium deposit is different from that of illite in the spectral library published abroad. (authors)

  10. Diagnostic spectral characteristics of damouritization in granite type uranium deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianguo, He; Yuxian, Mao; Jianzhong, Li; Changliang, Wang; Mingyue, Feng; Jiashu, Rong [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Minqiang, Zhu; Minghui, Rao [East China Univ. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2008-07-15

    Spectral characteristics of different alteration type in uranium deposit are the prerequisite of selecting remote sensing spectral bands for uranium reconnaissance and exploration. It is also a basis for mapping alteration zone using imaging spectral data. Taking the No. 201 uranium deposit as example, the paper is focused on the spectral characteristics researching of damouritization in granite type uranium deposite. Through extracting diagnostic spectral feature of damourite and analyzing the reason causing absorption valley, it was found that spectral characteristics of damouritization in Chinese uranium deposit is different from that of illite in the spectral library published abroad. (authors)

  11. The development of a modified spectral ripple test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M; Landsberger, David M

    2013-08-01

    Poor spectral resolution can be a limiting factor for hearing impaired listeners, particularly for complex listening tasks such as speech understanding in noise. Spectral ripple tests are commonly used to measure spectral resolution, but these tests contain a number of potential confounds that can make interpretation of the results difficult. To measure spectral resolution while avoiding those confounds, a modified spectral ripple test with dynamically changing ripples was created, referred to as the spectral-temporally modulated ripple test (SMRT). This paper describes the SMRT and provides evidence that it is sensitive to changes in spectral resolution.

  12. Multi spectral scaling data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Anita; Patil, R.D.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear spectroscopy applications, it is often desired to acquire data at high rate with high resolution. With the availability of low cost computers, it is possible to make a powerful data acquisition system with minimum hardware and software development, by designing a PC plug-in acquisition board. But in using the PC processor for data acquisition, the PC can not be used as a multitasking node. Keeping this in view, PC plug-in acquisition boards with on-board processor find tremendous applications. Transputer based data acquisition board has been designed which can be configured as a high count rate pulse height MCA or as a Multi Spectral Scaler. Multi Spectral Scaling (MSS) is a new technique, in which multiple spectra are acquired in small time frames and are then analyzed. This paper describes the details of this multi spectral scaling data acquisition system. 2 figs

  13. Spectral/hp element methods for CFD

    CERN Document Server

    Karniadakis, George Em

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally spectral methods in fluid dynamics were used in direct and large eddy simulations of turbulent flow in simply connected computational domains. The methods are now being applied to more complex geometries, and the spectral/hp element method, which incorporates both multi-domain spectral methods and high-order finite element methods, has been particularly successful. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to these methods. Written by leaders in the field, the book begins with a full explanation of fundamental concepts and implementation issues. It then illustrates how these methods can be applied to advection-diffusion and to incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Drawing on both published and unpublished material, the book is an important resource for experienced researchers and for those new to the field.

  14. Characterization of the titanium Kβ spectral profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C T; Smale, L F; Kinnane, M N; Illig, A J; Kimpton, J A; Crosby, D N

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals have Kα and Kβ characteristic radiation possessing complex asymmetric spectral profiles. Instrumental broadening normally encountered in x-ray experiments shifts features of profiles used for calibration, such as peak energy, by many times the quoted accuracies. We measure and characterize the titanium Kβ spectral profile. The peak energy of the titanium Kβ spectral profile is found to be 4931.966 ± 0.022 eV prior to instrumental broadening. This 4.5 ppm result decreases the uncertainty over the past literature by a factor of 2.6 and is 2.4 standard deviations from the previous standard. The spectrum is analysed and the resolution-free lineshape is extracted and listed for use in other experiments. We also incorporate improvement in analysis applied to earlier results for V Kβ. (paper)

  15. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  16. Modelling Perception of Structure and Affect in Music: Spectral Centroid and Wishart's Red Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Dean

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pearce (2011 provides a positive and interesting response to our article on time series analysis of the influences of acoustic properties on real-time perception of structure and affect in a section of Trevor Wishart’s Red Bird (Dean & Bailes, 2010. We address the following topics raised in the response and our paper. First, we analyse in depth the possible influence of spectral centroid, a timbral feature of the acoustic stream distinct from the high level general parameter we used initially, spectral flatness. We find that spectral centroid, like spectral flatness, is not a powerful predictor of real-time responses, though it does show some features that encourage its continued consideration. Second, we discuss further the issue of studying both individual responses, and as in our paper, group averaged responses. We show that a multivariate Vector Autoregression model handles the grand average series quite similarly to those of individual members of our participant groups, and we analyse this in greater detail with a wide range of approaches in work which is in press and continuing. Lastly, we discuss the nature and intent of computational modelling of cognition using acoustic and music- or information theoretic data streams as predictors, and how the music- or information theoretic approaches may be applied to electroacoustic music, which is ‘sound-based’ rather than note-centred like Western classical music.

  17. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  18. Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Candace

    2018-01-01

    TSIS-1 studies the Sun's energy input to Earth and how solar variability affects climate. TSIS-1 will measure both the total amount of light that falls on Earth, known as the total solar irradiance (TSI), and how that light is distributed among ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths, called solar spectral irradiance (SSI). TSIS-1 will provide the most accurate measurements of sunlight and continue the long-term climate data record. TSIS-1 includes two instruments: the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM), integrated into a single payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The TSIS-1 TIM and SIM instruments are upgraded versions of the two instruments that are flying on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission launched in January 2003. NASA Goddard's TSIS project responsibilities include project management, system engineering, safety and mission assurance, and engineering oversight for TSIS-1. TSIS-1 was installed on the International Space Station in December 2017. At the end of the 90-day commissioning phase, responsibility for TSIS-1 operations transitions to the Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) project at Goddard for its 5-year operations. NASA contracts with the University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) for the design, development and testing of TSIS-1, support for ISS integration, science operations of the TSIS-1 instrument, data processing, data evaluation, calibration and delivery to the Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC).

  19. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  20. Spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.; Knorr, G.; Lynov, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the use of spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation. As examples of the use of spectral methods, solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations in both a simple, doubly periodic region, and on an annulus will be shown. In the first case, the solution is expanded in a two-dimensional Fourier series, while a Chebyshev-Fourier expansion is employed in the second case. A new, efficient algorithm for the solution of Poisson's equation on an annulus is introduced. Problems connected to aliasing and to short wavelength noise generated by gradient steepening are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Spectral asymmetry for bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneventano, C G; Santangelo, E M; Wipf, A

    2002-01-01

    We give an expression, in terms of boundary spectral functions, for the spectral asymmetry of the Euclidean Dirac operator in two dimensions, when its domain is determined by local boundary conditions and the manifold is of product type. As an application, we explicitly evaluate the asymmetry in the case of a finite-length cylinder and check that the outcome is consistent with our general result. Finally, we study the asymmetry in a disc, which is a non-product case, and propose an interpretation

  2. Quantum BCH Codes Based on Spectral Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Zeng Guihua

    2006-01-01

    When the time variable in quantum signal processing is discrete, the Fourier transform exists on the vector space of n-tuples over the Galois field F 2 , which plays an important role in the investigation of quantum signals. By using Fourier transforms, the idea of quantum coding theory can be described in a setting that is much different from that seen that far. Quantum BCH codes can be defined as codes whose quantum states have certain specified consecutive spectral components equal to zero and the error-correcting ability is also described by the number of the consecutive zeros. Moreover, the decoding of quantum codes can be described spectrally with more efficiency.

  3. Spectral Classification of Asteroids by Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Lu, X. P.

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing asteroid spectral and photometric data, a variety of classification methods for asteroids have been proposed. This paper classifies asteroids based on the observations of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalogue (MOC) by using the random forest algorithm. With the training data derived from the taxonomies of Tholen, Bus, Lazzaro, DeMeo, and Principal Component Analysis, we classify 48642 asteroids according to g, r, i, and z SDSS magnitudes. In this way, asteroids are divided into 8 spectral classes (C, X, S, B, D, K, L, and V).

  4. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  5. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-01-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n s > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n s =0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  6. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  7. Online Multi-Spectral Meat Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    We perform an explorative study on multi-spectral image data from a prototype device developed for fast online quality inspection of meat products. Because the camera setup is built for speed, we sacrifice exact pixel correspondences between the different bands of the multi-spectral images. Our...... work is threefold as we 1) investigate the color distributions and construct a model to describe pork loins, 2) classify the different components in pork loins (meat, fat, membrane), and 3) detect foreign objects on the surface of pork loins. Our investigation shows that the color distributions can...

  8. Spectral Theory of Operators on Hilbert Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2012-01-01

    This work is a concise introduction to spectral theory of Hilbert space operators. Its emphasis is on recent aspects of theory and detailed proofs, with the primary goal of offering a modern introductory textbook for a first graduate course in the subject. The coverage of topics is thorough, as the book explores various delicate points and hidden features often left untreated. Spectral Theory of Operators on Hilbert Space is addressed to an interdisciplinary audience of graduate students in mathematics, statistics, economics, engineering, and physics. It will also be useful to working mathemat

  9. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  10. Krein Spectral Triples and the Fermionic Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungen, Koen van den

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the space of spinors on a Lorentzian manifold, we define Krein spectral triples, which generalise spectral triples from Hilbert spaces to Krein spaces. This Krein space approach allows for an improved formulation of the fermionic action for almost-commutative manifolds. We show by explicit calculation that this action functional recovers the correct Lagrangians for the cases of electrodynamics, the electro-weak theory, and the Standard Model. The description of these examples does not require a real structure, unless one includes Majorana masses, in which case the internal spaces also exhibit a Krein space structure.

  11. Logarithmic compression methods for spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    A method is provided for logarithmic compression, transmission, and expansion of spectral data. A log Gabor transformation is made of incoming time series data to output spectral phase and logarithmic magnitude values. The output phase and logarithmic magnitude values are compressed by selecting only magnitude values above a selected threshold and corresponding phase values to transmit compressed phase and logarithmic magnitude values. A reverse log Gabor transformation is then performed on the transmitted phase and logarithmic magnitude values to output transmitted time series data to a user.

  12. Spectral functions from Quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    In his review, D. Scalapino identified two serious limitations on the application of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to the models of interest in High T c Superconductivity (HTS). One is the ''sign problem''. The other is the ''analytic continuation problem'', which is how to extract electron spectral functions from QMC calculations of the imaginary time Green's functions. Through-out this Symposium on HTS, the spectral functions have been the focus for the discussion of normal state properties including the applicability of band theory, Fermi liquid theory, marginal Fermi liquids, and novel non-perturbative states. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. Novel spectral features of nanoelectromechanical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-02-17

    Electron transport through a quantum dot or single molecule coupled to a quantum oscillator is studied by the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism to obtain insight into the quantum dynamics of the electronic and oscillator degrees of freedom. We tune the electronic level of the quantum dot by a gate voltage, where the leads are kept at zero temperature. Due to the nonequilibrium distribution of the electrons in the quantum dot, the spectral function becomes a function of the gate voltage. Novel spectral features are identified for the ground and excited states of nanomechanical oscillators that can be used to enhance the measurement sensitivity.

  14. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Adhikari, M. D.; Nayak, Avinash; Devaraj, N.; Ghosh, Soumalya K.; Mahajan, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A Study of Spectral Integration and Normalization in NMR-based Metabonomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Lowry, David F.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Harbo, Sam J.; Meng, Quanxin; Fuciarelli, Alfred F.; Pounds, Joel G.; Lee, Monica T.

    2005-09-15

    Metabonomics involves the quantitation of the dynamic multivariate metabolic response of an organism to a pathological event or genetic modification (Nicholson, Lindon and Holmes, 1999). The analysis of these data involves the use of appropriate multivariate statistical methods. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) linear projection methods, primarily Principal Component Analysis (PCA), have been documented as a valuable pattern recognition technique for 1H NMR spectral data (Brindle et al., 2002, Potts et al., 2001, Robertson et al., 2000, Robosky et al., 2002). Prior to PCA the raw data is typically processed through four steps; (1) baseline correction, (2) endogenous peak removal, (3) integration over spectral regions to reduce the number of variables, and (4) normalization. The effect of the size of spectral integration regions and normalization has not been well studied. We assess the variability structure and classification accuracy on two distinctly different datasets via PCA and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach under two normalization approaches and an array of spectral integration regions. This study indicates that independent of the normalization method the classification accuracy achieved from metabonomic studies is not highly sensitive to the size of the spectral integration region. Additionally, both datasets scaled to mean zero and unity variance (auto-scaled) has higher variability within classification accuracy over spectral integration window widths than data scaled to the total intensity of the spectrum.

  17. The detection of 'virtual' objects using echoes by humans: Spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Daniel; Papadopoulos, Timos; Archer, Lauren; Goodhew, Amanda; Cozens, Hayley; Lopez, Ricardo Guzman; Edwards, David; Holmes, Hannah; Allen, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Some blind people use echoes to detect discrete, silent objects to support their spatial orientation/navigation, independence, safety and wellbeing. The acoustical features that people use for this are not well understood. Listening to changes in spectral shape due to the presence of an object could be important for object detection and avoidance, especially at short range, although it is currently not known whether it is possible with echolocation-related sounds. Bands of noise were convolved with recordings of binaural impulse responses of objects in an anechoic chamber to create 'virtual objects', which were analysed and played to sighted and blind listeners inexperienced in echolocation. The sounds were also manipulated to remove cues unrelated to spectral shape. Most listeners could accurately detect hard flat objects using changes in spectral shape. The useful spectral changes for object detection occurred above approximately 3 kHz, as with object localisation. However, energy in the sounds below 3 kHz was required to exploit changes in spectral shape for object detection, whereas energy below 3 kHz impaired object localisation. Further recordings showed that the spectral changes were diminished by room reverberation. While good high-frequency hearing is generally important for echolocation, the optimal echo-generating stimulus will probably depend on the task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrafast spectral dynamics of dual-color-soliton intracavity collision in a mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Li, Bowen; Wei, Xiaoming; Yu, Ying; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The single-shot spectral dynamics of dual-color-soliton collisions inside a mode-locked laser is experimentally and numerically investigated. By using the all-optically dispersive Fourier transform, we spectrally unveil the collision-induced soliton self-reshaping process, which features dynamic spectral fringes over the soliton main lobe, and the rebuilding of Kelly sidebands with wavelength drifting. Meanwhile, the numerical simulations validate the experimental observation and provide additional insights into the physical mechanism of the collision-induced spectral dynamics from the temporal domain perspective. It is verified that the dynamic interference between the soliton and the dispersive waves is responsible for the observed collision-induced spectral evolution. These dynamic phenomena not only demonstrate the role of dispersive waves in the sophisticated soliton interaction inside the laser cavity, but also facilitate a deeper understanding of the soliton's inherent stability.

  19. Evaluating the capabilities of vegetation spectral indices on chlorophyll content estimation at Sentinel-2 spectral resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Jiao, Quanjun; Dai, Huayang

    2018-03-01

    Chlorophyll is an important pigment in green plants for photosynthesis and obtaining the energy for growth and development. The rapid, nondestructive and accurate estimation of chlorophyll content is significant for understanding the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. Sentinel-2 equipped with the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI), which will provide images with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. It covers the VNIR/SWIR spectral region in 13 bands and incorporates two new spectral bands in the red-edge region and a spatial resolution of 20nm, which can be used to derive vegetation indices using red-edge bands. In this paper, we will focus on assessing the potential of vegetation spectral indices for retrieving chlorophyll content from Sentinel-2 at different angles. Subsequently, we used in-situ spectral data and Sentinel-2 data to test the relationship between VIs and chlorophyll content. The REP, MTCI, CIred-edge, CIgreen, Macc01, TCARI/OSAVI [705,750], NDRE1 and NDRE2 were calculated. NDRE2 index displays a strongly similar result for hyperspectral and simulated Sentinel-2 spectral bands (R2 =0.53, R2 =0.51, for hyperspectral and Sentinel-2, respectively). At different observation angles, NDRE2 has the smallest difference in performance (R2 = 0.51, R2 =0.64, at 0° and 15° , respectively).

  20. Dynamics of Neural Responses in Ferret Primary Auditory Cortex: I. Spectro-Temporal Response Field Characterization by Dynamic Ripple Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Depireux, Didier A; Simon, Jonathan Z; Klein, David J; Shamma, Shihab A

    1999-01-01

    .... It is calculated here from the responses to elementary 'ripples,' a family of sounds with drifting, sinusoidal, spectral envelopes - the complex spectrotemporal envelope of any broadband, dynamic...

  1. Spectral tailoring of nanoscale EUV and soft x-ray multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiushi; Medvedev, Viacheslav; van de Kruijs, Robbert; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Fred

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray (XUV) multilayer optics have experienced significant development over the past few years, particularly on controlling the spectral characteristics of light for advanced applications like EUV photolithography, space observation, and accelerator- or lab-based XUV experiments. Both planar and three dimensional multilayer structures have been developed to tailor the spectral response in a wide wavelength range. For the planar multilayer optics, different layered schemes are explored. Stacks of periodic multilayers and capping layers are demonstrated to achieve multi-channel reflection or suppression of the reflective properties. Aperiodic multilayer structures enable broadband reflection both in angles and wavelengths, with the possibility of polarization control. The broad wavelength band multilayer is also used to shape attosecond pulses for the study of ultrafast phenomena. Narrowband multilayer monochromators are delivered to bridge the resolution gap between crystals and regular multilayers. High spectral purity multilayers with innovated anti-reflection structures are shown to select spectrally clean XUV radiation from broadband X-ray sources, especially the plasma sources for EUV lithography. Significant progress is also made in the three dimensional multilayer optics, i.e., combining micro- and nanostructures with multilayers, in order to provide new freedom to tune the spectral response. Several kinds of multilayer gratings, including multilayer coated gratings, sliced multilayer gratings, and lamellar multilayer gratings are being pursued for high resolution and high efficiency XUV spectrometers/monochromators, with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Multilayer diffraction optics are also developed for spectral purity enhancement. New structures like gratings, zone plates, and pyramids that obtain full suppression of the unwanted radiation and high XUV reflectance are reviewed. Based on the present achievement

  2. Sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We study sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames of a given finite frame. We show that any finite frame has a dual with no more than $n^2$ non-vanishing entries, where $n$ denotes the ambient dimension, and that for most frames no sparser dual is possible. Moreover, we derive an expressio...

  3. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  4. Holonomy loops, spectral triples and quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Aastrup; Grimstrup, Jesper Møller; Nest, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    We review the motivation, construction and physical interpretation of a semi-finite spectral triple obtained through a rearrangement of central elements of loop quantum gravity. The triple is based on a countable set of oriented graphs and the algebra consists of generalized holonomy loops...

  5. Spectral Analysis of Large Particle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbæk, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    that Schur complements, Feshbach maps and Grushin problems are three sides of the same coin, it seems to be a new observation that the smooth Feshbach method can also be formulated as a Grushin problem. Based on this, an abstract account of the spectral renormalization group is given....

  6. Spectral Purity Enhancement via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits by using polyphase multipath circuits? The basic idea behind polyphase multipath circuits is to split the nonlinear circuits into two or more paths and exploit phase differences between these paths to

  7. Temporal and spectral interaction in loudness perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    An experiment was conducted to investigate how changes in spectral content influence loudness judgments. Six listeners were asked to discriminate sounds, which were of one second duration and changing in level every 0.1 s. In one condition the first half of the sound was low-pass filtered and the...

  8. Particulate characterization by PIXE multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Grant, Patrick G.; Kotula, Paul G.; Doyle, Barney L.; Richardson, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining particulate compositional maps from scanned PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) measurements is extremely difficult due to the complexity of analyzing spectroscopic data collected with low signal-to-noise at each scan point (pixel). Multivariate spectral analysis has the potential to analyze such data sets by reducing the PIXE data to a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (that include both spectral and image information). We have adapted the AXSIA (automated expert spectral image analysis) program, originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories to quantify electron-excited X-ray spectroscopy data, for this purpose. Samples consisting of particulates with known compositions and sizes were loaded onto Mylar and paper filter substrates and analyzed by scanned micro-PIXE. The data sets were processed by AXSIA and the associated principal component spectral data were quantified by converting the weighting images into concentration maps. The results indicate automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis is useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of compositional components needed for locating individual particles-of-interest on large area collection media

  9. Spectral triples and the geometry of fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina; Schroe, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that one can construct a spectral triple for the Sierpinski gasket such that it represents any given K-homology class, On the other hand if the geodesic distance and the dimension has to be part of the data from the triple, there are certain restriction....

  10. Novel spectral features of nanoelectromechanical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; MacKinnon, A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    of freedom. We tune the electronic level of the quantum dot by a gate voltage, where the leads are kept at zero temperature. Due to the nonequilibrium distribution of the electrons in the quantum dot, the spectral function becomes a function of the gate

  11. Finite size scaling and spectral density studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Finite size scaling (FSS) and spectral density (SD) studies are reported for the deconfining phase transition. This talk concentrates on Monte Carlo (MC) results for pure SU(3) gauge theory, obtained in collaboration with Alves and Sanielevici, but the methods are expected to be useful for full QCD as well. (orig.)

  12. Terahertz Josephson spectral analysis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, A. V.; Gundareva, I. I.; Lyatti, M. V.; Volkov, O. Y.; Pavlovskiy, V. V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Principles of Hilbert-transform spectral analysis (HTSA) are presented and advantages of the technique in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are discussed. THz HTSA requires Josephson junctions with high values of characteristic voltages I c R n and dynamics described by a simple resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. To meet these requirements, [001]- and [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions with deviations from the RSJ model less than 1% have been developed. Demonstrators of Hilbert-transform spectrum analyzers with various cryogenic environments, including integration into Stirling coolers, are described. Spectrum analyzers have been characterized in the spectral range from 50 GHz to 3 THz. Inside a power dynamic range of five orders, an instrumental function of the analyzers has been found to have a Lorentz form around a single frequency of 1.48 THz with a spectral resolution as low as 0.9 GHz. Spectra of THz radiation from optically pumped gas lasers and semiconductor frequency multipliers have been studied with these spectrum analyzers and the regimes of these radiation sources were optimized for a single-frequency operation. Future applications of HTSA will be related with quick and precise spectral characterization of new radiation sources and identification of substances in the THz frequency range.

  13. Spectral intensity distribution of trapped fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trapped fermions; local density approximation; spectral intensity distribution function. ... Thus, cold atomic systems allow us to study interesting ... In fermions, synthetic non-Abelian gauge ... energy eigenstates of the isotropic harmonic oscillator [26–28]. ... d i=1. (ni + 1. 2. )ω0. In calculating the SIDF exactly these eigenfunc-.

  14. TP89 - SIRZ Decomposition Spectral Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetho, Isacc M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Azevedo, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, Jerel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, William D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Jr., Harry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    The primary objective of this test plan is to provide X-ray CT measurements of known materials for the purposes of generating and testing MicroCT and EDS spectral estimates. These estimates are to be used in subsequent Ze/RhoE decomposition analyses of acquired data.

  15. Spectral emissivity of surface blackbody calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik

    2007-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of commercial infrared calibrators is compared with measurements of anodized aluminum samples and grooved aluminum surfaces coated with Pyromark. Measurements performed by FTIR spectroscopy in the wavelength interval from 2 to 20 mu m and at temperatures between 5...

  16. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  17. YGFP: a spectral variant of GFP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Atlung, Tove

    2011-01-01

    We describe YGFP, a slow bleaching green fluorescent protein (GFP) with unique spectral properties. YGFP is derived from an Escherichia coli codon-optimized synthetic gfp, mutant 2 derivative. In addition to the GFP-mut 2 changes, it also carries S202F and T203I substitutions. YGFP can be used...

  18. Identification of spectral units on Phoebe

    OpenAIRE

    Coradini , A.; Tosi , F.; Gavrishin , A.I.; Capaccioni , F.; Cerroni , P.; Filacchione , G.; Adriani , A.; Brown , R.H.; Bellucci , G.; Formisano , V.; D'Aversa , E.; Lunine , J.I.; Baines , K.H.; Bibring , J.-P.; Buratti , B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of spectral units on Phoebe (Coradini, A.) INAF-IFSI--> , Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario--> , Area Ricerca Tor Vergata--> , Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100--> , I-00133 Roma--> - ITALY (Coradini, A.) INAF-IFSI--> , Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario--> , Area Ricerca Tor Vergata--> , Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100--> , I-00133 Roma--> ...

  19. Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J

    2008-01-01

    Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators

  20. Spectral integration in binaural signal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    For both monaural and binaural masking, the spectral content of the masker and of the signal to be detected are important stimulus properties influencing the detection process. It is generally accepted that the auditory system separates the incoming signals in several frequency bands. It is not

  1. Spectral solution of the inverse Mie problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Andrey V.; Konokhova, Anastasiya I.; Yastrebova, Ekaterina S.; Gilev, Konstantin V.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Maltsev, Valeri P.; Yurkin, Maxim A.

    2017-10-01

    We developed a fast method to determine size and refractive index of homogeneous spheres from the power Fourier spectrum of their light-scattering patterns (LSPs), measured with the scanning flow cytometer. Specifically, we used two spectral parameters: the location of the non-zero peak and zero-frequency amplitude, and numerically inverted the map from the space of particle characteristics (size and refractive index) to the space of spectral parameters. The latter parameters can be reliably resolved only for particle size parameter greater than 11, and the inversion is unique only in the limited range of refractive index with upper limit between 1.1 and 1.25 (relative to the medium) depending on the size parameter and particular definition of uniqueness. The developed method was tested on two experimental samples, milk fat globules and spherized red blood cells, and resulted in accuracy not worse than the reference method based on the least-square fit of the LSP with the Mie theory. Moreover, for particles with significant deviation from the spherical shape the spectral method was much closer to the Mie-fit result than the estimated uncertainty of the latter. The spectral method also showed adequate results for synthetic LSPs of spheroids with aspect ratios up to 1.4. Overall, we present a general framework, which can be used to construct an inverse algorithm for any other experimental signals.

  2. Women's preferences of dynamic spectral imaging colposcopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, J.A.; Zaal, Afra; Kocken, M.; Papagiannakis, E.; Meijer, C.J.; Verheijen, RHM

    2015-01-01

    Background: The focus of testing the dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) colposcope has been on the technical characteristics and clinical performance. However, aspects from a patient’s perspective are just as important. Methods: This study was designed as a substudy of the DSI validation study, a

  3. A spectral mean for random closed curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Maria Nicolette Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    We propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by back-transformation and

  4. A spectral mean for random closed curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by

  5. Spectral Radius and Hamiltonicity of Graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Nikiforov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 432, č. 9 (2010), s. 2170-2173 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Hamiltonian cycle * Hamiltonian path * spectral radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2010

  6. Spectral Gaps in Graphene Antidot Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbaroux, Jean-Marie; Cornean, Decebal Horia; Stockmeyer, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gap creation problem in an antidot graphene lattice, i.e. a sheet of graphene with periodically distributed obstacles. We prove several spectral results concerning the size of the gap and its dependence on different natural parameters related to the antidot lattice....

  7. SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infrared spectral studies reveal that the ligand HNAAPTS is coordinated in neutral tridentate (N,N,S) fashion. The coordination number of Th(IV) in these coordination compounds varies from 6, 8, 10 or 11; while for U(VI) the coordination number are 8, 9 or 10. Thermal stabilities of these complexes were investigated ...

  8. Spectral and electronic measurements of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mamoru; Hanyu, Mitsuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The spectral data of solar radiation are necessary if detailed discussion is intended in relation to the utilization of solar energy. Since those data have not been fully prepared so far, a measuring equipment developed in Electro-technical Laboratory to obtain those data is described. The laboratory is now continuing the measurement at the wavelength of 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm. The equipment employs the system to always calibrate with the standard light source, it can measure both the direct light of the sun only and the sun light including sky light, and it enables to obtain the value based on the secondary standard of spectral illumination intensity established by the laboratory. The solar spectral irradiance is determined with the current readings of photomultiplier in the standard light source and the sun-light measurements at a wavelength and with the spectral illumination intensity from the standard light source. In order to practice such measurement many times at various wavelengths, control of the equipment, data collection, computation, drawing and listing are performed by a microcomputer. As an example, the data on Sept. 10, 1976, are shown comparing the graphs at three different hours. It can be well observed that the transmissivity attenuates with shorter wavelength, and the transmissivity in near infra-red region changes greatly due to the absorption of radiation by water vapour. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Correlative Spectral Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts using Swift-BAT and GLAST-GBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Taka; Band, David L.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary results of spectral analysis simulations involving anticipated correlated multi-wavelength observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope's (GLAST) Burst Monitor (GLAST-GBM), resulting in joint spectral fits, including characteristic photon energy (E peak ) values, for a conservative annual estimate of ∼30 GRBs. The addition of BAT's spectral response will (i) complement in-orbit calibration efforts of GBM's detector response matrices, (ii) augment GLAST's low energy sensitivity by increasing the ∼20-100 keV effective area, (iii) facilitate ground-based follow-up efforts of GLAST GRBs by increasing GBM's source localization precision, and (iv) help identify a subset of non-triggered GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis. Such multi-wavelength correlative analyses, which have been demonstrated by successful joint-spectral fits of Swift-BAT GRBs with other higher energy detectors such as Konus-WIND and Suzaku-WAM, would enable the study of broad-band spectral and temporal evolution of prompt GRB emission over three energy decades, thus potentially increasing science return without placing additional demands upon mission resources throughout their contemporaneous orbital tenure over the next decade.

  10. Correlative Spectral Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts using Swift-BAT and GLAST-GBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Takanori; Band, David L.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary results of spectral analysis simulations involving anticipated correlated multi-wavelength observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope's (GLAST) Burst Monitor (GLAST-GBM), resulting in joint spectral fits, including characteristic photon energy (E peak ) values, for a conservative annual estimate of ∼30 GRBs. The addition of BAT/s spectral response will (i) complement in-orbit calibration efforts of GBM's detector response matrices, (ii) augment GLAST's low energy sensitivity by increasing the ∼20-100 keV effective area, (iii) facilitate ground-based follow-up efforts of GLAST GRBs by increasing GBM's source localization precision, and (iv) help identify a subset of non-triggered GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis. Such multi-wavelength correlative analyses, which have been demonstrated by successful joint-spectral fits of Swift-BAT GRBs with other higher energy detectors such as Konus-WIND and Suzaku-WAM, would enable the study of broad-band spectral and temporal evolution of prompt GRB emission over three energy decades, thus potentially increasing science return without placing additional demands upon mission resources throughout their contemporaneous orbital tenure over the next decade

  11. Applications of cost-effective spectral imaging microscopy in cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P R; Vojnovic, B; Atkin, G; Daley, F M; Everett, S A; Wilson, G D; Gilbey, J D

    2003-01-01

    The application of a cost-effective spectral imager to spatially segmenting absorptive and fluorescent chemical probes on the basis of their spectral characteristics has been demonstrated. The imager comprises a computer-controlled spectrally selective element that allows random access to a bandwidth of 15 nm between 400 and 700 nm. Further, the use of linear un-mixing of the spectral response of a sample at a single pixel has been facilitated using non-negative least squares fitting. Examples are given showing the separation of dye distributions, such as immunohistochemical markers for tumour hypoxia, from multiply stained thin tissue sections, imaged by trans-illumination microscopy. A quantitative study is also presented that shows a correlation between staining intensity and normal versus tumour tissue, and the advantage of reducing the amount of data captured for a particular study is also demonstrated. An example of the application to fluorescence microscopy is also given, showing the separation of green fluorescent protein, Cy3 and Cy5 at a single pixel. The system has been validated against samples of known optical density and of known overlapping combinations of coloured filters. These results confirm the ability of this technique to separate spectral responses that cannot be resolved with conventional colour imaging

  12. Spectral measurements of fluctuating ω/sub pe/ radiation from Alcator C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, R.F.; Yates, D.

    1984-01-01

    High resolution spectral measurements have been made of the fluctuating electron plasma frequency (ω/sub pe/) radiation from Alcator C. Three techniques have been used in making the measurements. Features as narrow as 350 kHz have been observed (Δf/f approx. = 6 x 10 -6 ), impling that a highly coherent process is responsible for the emission

  13. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references

  14. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references. (JFP)

  15. Tailoring Spectral Properties of Binary PT-Symmetric Gratings by Duty-Cycle Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupu, Anatole T.; Benisty, Henri; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the frequency selective functionalities of a nonuniform PT-symmetric Bragg grating with modulated complex index profile. We start by assessing the possibility to achieve an efficient apodization of the PT-symmetric Bragg grating spectral response by using direct adaptations of the conv...

  16. Reflectance spectral analyses for the assessment of environmental pollution in the geothermal site of Mt. Amiata (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Salvini, Riccardo; Guastaldi, Enrico; Nicolardi, Valentina; Protano, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    We studied the environmental impact of geothermal activities in the Mt. Amiata area, using on-site spectral analyses of various ecological components. Analytical techniques were based on the study of the “red-edge”, which represents the spectral feature of the reflectance spectra defined between red and infrared wavelengths (λ) within the range 670-780 nm. Since in the study area the geothermal exploitation causes the drifting of contaminants such as Hg, Sb, S, B, As and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) from power plants, the spectral response of vegetation and lichens depends on their distance from the power stations, and also on the exposed surface, material type and other physical parameters. In the present research, the spectral radiance of targets was measured in the field using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Field-Spec™FR portable radiometer. Spectral measurements were made on vegetation and lichen samples located near to and far from geothermal areas and potential pollution sources (e.g., power plants), with the aim of spatially defining their environmental impact. Observations for vegetation and lichens showed correlation with laboratory chemical analyses when these organisms were under stress conditions. The evaluation of relationships was carried out using several statistical approaches, which allowed to identify methods for identifying contamination indicators for plants and lichens in polluted areas. Results show that the adopted spectral indices are sensitive to environmental pollution and their responses spatialstatically correlated to chemical and ecophysiological analyses within a notable distance.

  17. Digital staining for histopathology multispectral images by the combined application of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduced a digital staining method for histopathology images captured with an n-band multispectral camera. The method consisted of two major processes: enhancement of the original spectral transmittance and the transformation of the enhanced transmittance to its target spectral configuration. Enhancement is accomplished by shifting the original transmittance with the scaled difference between the original transmittance and the transmittance estimated with m dominant principal component (PC) vectors;the m-PC vectors were determined from the transmittance samples of the background image. Transformation of the enhanced transmittance to the target spectral configuration was done using an nxn transformation matrix, which was derived by applying a least square method to the enhanced and target spectral training data samples of the different tissue components. Experimental results on the digital conversion of a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained (MT) equivalent shows the viability of the method.

  18. Tomographic spectral imaging: microanalysis in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotula, P.G.; Keenan, M.R.; Michael, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Spectral imaging, where a series of complete x-ray spectra are typically collected from a 2D area, holds great promise for comprehensive near-surface microanalysis. There are however numerous microanalysis problems where 3D chemical information is needed as well. In the SEM, some sort of sectioning (either mechanical or with a focused ion beam (FIB) tool) followed by x-ray mapping has, in the past, been utilized in an attempt to perform 3D microanalysis. Reliance on simple mapping has the potential to miss important chemical features as well as misidentify others. In this paper we will describe the acquisition of serial-section tomographic spectral images (TSI) with a dual-beam FIB/SEM equipped with an EDS system. We will also describe the application of a modified version of our multivariate statistical analysis algorithms to TSIs. Serial sectioning was performed with a FEI DB-235 FIB/SEM. Firstly, the specimen normal was tilted to the optic axis of the FIB column and a trench was milled into the surface of the specimen. A second trench was then milled perpendicular to the first to provide visibility of the entire analysis surface to the x-ray detector. In addition, several fiducial markers were milled into the surface to allow for alignment from slice to slice. The electron column is at an angle of 52 deg to the ion column so the electron beam can 'see' the analysis surface milled by the FIB with no additional specimen tilting or rotation. Likewise the x-ray detector is at a radial angle of 45 deg to the plane of the electron and ion columns (about the electron column) and a take-off-angle of 35 deg with respect to an untilted specimen so it can 'see' the analysis surface as well with no additional sample tilting or rotation. Spectral images were acquired from regions 40 μm wide and 20μm deep for each slice. Approximately 1μm/slice was milled and 10-12 total slices were cut. Spectral images were acquired with a Thermo NORAN Vantage (Digital imaging

  19. Modal spectral analysis of piping: Determination of the significant frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the number of modes on the response of a piping system in a dynamic modal spectral analysis. It shows how the analysis can be limited to a specific frequency range of the pipe (independent of the frequency range of the response spectrum), allowing cost reduction without loss in accuracy. The 'missing mass' is taken into account through an original technique. (orig./HP)

  20. Spectral interferometric length measurement and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkl, W.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new method for optical length measurement using the principles of spectral interferometry. Results of thickness measurements on glass plates, the human cornea in vivo and human finger and toe nails in vivo and in vitro are discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of red and green ink can be measured depth sensitive. Another chapter describes a new technique to measure a thickness profile of a sample within the illuminating beam. It could be demonstrated that a thickness profile over a distance of a few millimeters can be measured with one single measurement. At the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Vienna a method to measure intraocular distances by the means of interferometry has been developed during the last ten years. Basing on this method (dual beam interferometry) an optical in vivo tomography experiment could be established. A thickness map of the retina of a human eye in vivo can be easily measured. The dual beam technique uses a Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror to adjust the length of the interferometer arms. The mirror is moved by a stepper motor. This movement induces vibrations, misalignment and other disadvantages. So mechanically moved parts as reasons for possible errors should be eliminated. This work shows one possible solution - using the principle of spectral interferometry. A spectral interferometry experiment is a static experiment, no moving parts are used. A spectral interferometry experiment has been used to measure the thickness of glass plates and stacks of glass plates. Using two light sources of different wavelengths spectral absorption properties of a sample can be measured depth sensitive. This could be demonstrated with stacks of glass plates and the use of red and green ink between two plates. The obtained results are compared to the results of a computer simulation. To demonstrate the ability of spectral interferometry to measure the thickness of biologic

  1. (LMRG): Microscope Resolution, Objective Quality, Spectral Accuracy and Spectral Un-mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Carol J.; Cole, Richard W.; Eason, Brady; Girard, Anne-Marie; Jinadasa, Tushare; Martin, Karen; McNamara, George; Opansky, Cynthia; Schulz, Katherine; Thibault, Marc; Brown, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The second study by the LMRG focuses on measuring confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) resolution, objective lens quality, spectral imaging accuracy and spectral un-mixing. Affordable test samples for each aspect of the study were designed, prepared and sent to 116 labs from 23 countries across the globe. Detailed protocols were designed for the three tests and customized for most of the major confocal instruments being used by the study participants. One protocol developed for measuring resolution and objective quality was recently published in Nature Protocols (Cole, R. W., T. Jinadasa, et al. (2011). Nature Protocols 6(12): 1929–1941). The first study involved 3D imaging of sub-resolution fluorescent microspheres to determine the microscope point spread function. Results of the resolution studies as well as point spread function quality (i.e. objective lens quality) from 140 different objective lenses will be presented. The second study of spectral accuracy looked at the reflection of the laser excitation lines into the spectral detection in order to determine the accuracy of these systems to report back the accurate laser emission wavelengths. Results will be presented from 42 different spectral confocal systems. Finally, samples with double orange beads (orange core and orange coating) were imaged spectrally and the imaging software was used to un-mix fluorescence signals from the two orange dyes. Results from 26 different confocal systems will be summarized. Time will be left to discuss possibilities for the next LMRG study.

  2. Optimization of spectral printer modeling based on a modified cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Dehong

    2014-06-01

    The study presented here optimizes several steps in the spectral printer modeling workflow based on a cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer (CYNSN) model. First, a printer subdividing method was developed that reduces the number of sub-models while maintaining the maximum device gamut. Second, the forward spectral prediction accuracy of the CYNSN model for each subspace of the printer was improved using back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) estimated n values. Third, a sequential gamut judging method, which clearly reduced the complexity of the optimal sub-model and cell searching process during printer backward modeling, was proposed. After that, we further modified the use of the modeling color metric and comprehensively improved the spectral and perceptual accuracy of the spectral printer model. The experimental results show that the proposed optimization approaches provide obvious improvements in aspects of the modeling accuracy or efficiency for each of the corresponding steps, and an overall improvement of the optimized spectral printer modeling workflow was also demonstrated.

  3. An experimental applications of impedance measurements by spectral analysis to electrochemistry and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Milocco, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    An impedance measurement system based on the spectral analysis of excitation and response signals was implemented using a pseudo-random binary sequence in the generation of the electrical perturbation signal. The spectral density functions were estimated through finite Fourier transforms of the original time history records by fast computation of Fourier series. Experimental results obtained using the FFT algorithm in the developed impedance measurement system which covers a wide frequency range, 10 KHz >= f >= 1 mHz, are given both for dummy cells representing conventional electric circuits in electrochemistry and corrosion systems and for the Fe/acidic chloride solution interfaces under different polarization conditions. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Optimization of Quantum-Dot Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Broad Spectral Bandwidth Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul

    2012-12-01

    The optimization of the key growth parameters for broad spectral bandwidth devices based on quantum dots is reported. A combination of atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence of test samples, and optoelectronic characterization of superluminescent diodes (SLDs) is used to optimize the growth conditions to obtain high-quality devices with large spectral bandwidth, radiative efficiency (due to a reduced defective-dot density), and thus output power. The defective-dot density is highlighted as being responsible for the degradation of device performance. An SLD device with 160 nm of bandwidth centered at 1230 nm is demonstrated.

  5. Optimization of Quantum-Dot Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Broad Spectral Bandwidth Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Hugues, M.; Vézian, S.; Childs, D. T. D.; Hogg, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of the key growth parameters for broad spectral bandwidth devices based on quantum dots is reported. A combination of atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence of test samples, and optoelectronic characterization of superluminescent diodes (SLDs) is used to optimize the growth conditions to obtain high-quality devices with large spectral bandwidth, radiative efficiency (due to a reduced defective-dot density), and thus output power. The defective-dot density is highlighted as being responsible for the degradation of device performance. An SLD device with 160 nm of bandwidth centered at 1230 nm is demonstrated.

  6. Effect of a pulsed power supply on the spectral and electrical characteristics of HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chammam, Abdeljelil; Elloumi, Hatem; Mrabet, Brahim; Charrada, Kamel; Stambouli, Mongi; Damelincourt, Jean Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed power operated high intensity discharges (HIDs). This investigation is related to the application of a pulsed power supply for pile driving of HID lamps. Specifically, we are interested in controlling the spectral response radiation of visible and ultraviolet (UV) lines for tertiary treatment of water using UV radiation. Simulations based on a physical model of the lamps were conducted. These results relate to the radial temperature, line intensity and electrical properties (voltage, power and conductivity). Good agreement has been found between the results of the simulations and the experimental findings

  7. Experimental evaluation of noise spectral density to investigate structure defects and electrical behavior of solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashur, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work current voltage characteristics and voltage spectral density, in both forward and reverse bias operations were evaluated for a group of mono- crystalline silicon solar cells. The cells were tested for the sake of device quality evaluation and identification of failure modes and mechanisms. Experimental results showed transport characteristics with varying slopes. In addition, electrical noise density versus frequency response, for the constant voltage mode, showed an extremum of noise voltage spectral density at zero D.C. frequency. It decreased with increasing frequency and revealed spikes of the noise voltage density at certain frequencies. (author)

  8. Spectral properties of excitons in the bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the spectral properties of the bilayer graphene with the local excitonic pairing interaction between the electrons and holes. We consider the generalized Hubbard model, which includes both intralayer and interlayer Coulomb interaction parameters. The solution of the excitonic gap parameter is used to calculate the electronic band structure, single-particle spectral functions, the hybridization gap, and the excitonic coherence length in the bilayer graphene. We show that the local interlayer Coulomb interaction is responsible for the semimetal-semiconductor transition in the double layer system, and we calculate the hybridization gap in the band structure above the critical interaction value. The formation of the excitonic band gap is reported as the threshold process and the momentum distribution functions have been calculated numerically. We show that in the weak coupling limit the system is governed by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-like pairing state. Contrary, in the strong coupling limit the excitonic condensate states appear in the semiconducting phase, by forming the Dirac's pockets in the reciprocal space.

  9. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  10. Optimal spectral tracking--adapting to dynamic regime change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Halliday, David M

    2011-01-30

    Real world data do not always obey the statistical restraints imposed upon them by sophisticated analysis techniques. In spectral analysis for instance, an ergodic process--the interchangeability of temporal for spatial averaging--is assumed for a repeat-trial design. Many evolutionary scenarios, such as learning and motor consolidation, do not conform to such linear behaviour and should be approached from a more flexible perspective. To this end we previously introduced the method of optimal spectral tracking (OST) in the study of trial-varying parameters. In this extension to our work we modify the OST routines to provide an adaptive implementation capable of reacting to dynamic transitions in the underlying system state. In so doing, we generalise our approach to characterise both slow-varying and rapid fluctuations in time-series, simultaneously providing a metric of system stability. The approach is first applied to a surrogate dataset and compared to both our original non-adaptive solution and spectrogram approaches. The adaptive OST is seen to display fast convergence and desirable statistical properties. All three approaches are then applied to a neurophysiological recording obtained during a study on anaesthetic monitoring. Local field potentials acquired from the posterior hypothalamic region of a deep brain stimulation patient undergoing anaesthesia were analysed. The characterisation of features such as response delay, time-to-peak and modulation brevity are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573

  12. Narrowband spectral filter based on biconical tapered fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaschi, Sergio; Malheiros-Silveira, Gilliard N.

    2018-02-01

    The ease of fabrication and compactness of devices based on tapered optical fibers contribute to its potential using in several applications ranging from telecommunication components to sensing devices. In this work, we proposed, fabricated, and characterized a spectral filter made of biconical taper from a coaxial optical fiber. This filter is defined by adiabatically tapering a depressed-cladding fiber. The adiabatic taper profile obtained during fabrication prevents the interference of other modes than HE11 and HE12 ones, which play the main role for the beating phenomenon and the filter response. The evolution of the fiber shapes during the pulling was modeled by two coupled partial differential equations, which relate the normalized cross-section area, and the axial velocity of the fiber elongation. These equations govern the mass and axial momentum conservation. The numerical results of the filter characteristics are in good accordance with the experimental ones. The filter was packaged in order to let it ready for using in optical communication bands. The characteristics are: free spectral range (FSR) of 6.19 nm, insertion loss bellow 0.5 dB, and isolation > 20 dB at C-band. Its transmission spectrum extends from 1200 to 1600 nm where the optical fiber core supports monomode transmission. Such characteristics may also be interesting to be applied in sensing applications. We show preliminary numerical results assuming a biconic taper embedded into a dielectric media, showing promising results for electro-optic sensing applications.

  13. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Preliminary report on NTS spectral gamma logging and calibration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, M.A.; Warren, R.G.; Garcia, S.R.; Lavelle, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Facilities are now available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Building 2201 to calibrate spectral gamma logging equipment in environments of low radioactivity. Such environments are routinely encountered during logging of holes at the NTS. Four calibration models were delivered to Building 2201 in January 1985. Each model, or test pit, consists of a stone block with a 12-inch diameter cored borehole. Preliminary radioelement values from the core for the test pits range from 0.58 to 3.83% potassium (K), 0.48 to 29.11 ppm thorium (Th), and 0.62 to 40.42 ppm uranium (U). Two satellite holes, U19ab number2 and U19ab number3, were logged during the winter of 1984-1985. The response of these logs correlates with contents of the naturally radioactive elements K. Th. and U determined in samples from petrologic zones that occur within these holes. Based on these comparisons, the spectral gamma log aids in the recognition and mapping of subsurface stratigraphic units and alteration features associated with unusual concentration of these radioactive elements, such as clay-rich zones

  15. Spectral Variations of T Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, E.

    1994-02-01

    Although it can now be taken for granted that T Tauri stars accrete matter from circumstellar disks, the way in which the matter is ultimately accreted by the star is still under discussion. Boundary layer models, as well as models of magnetic accretion are considered. Since the very inner part of the disk, the star, and the boundary layer or the accretion shock radiate mainly in the optical, it is necessary to investigate this wavelength region. Optical spectra of classical T Tauri stars consist of emission lines superimposed on a late-type photospheric spectrum, but the photospheric lines in T Tauri stars are much weaker than the lines of main sequence stars of the same spectral type. This is generally attributed to the presence of an additional continuum which veils the photospheric spectrum of the star, which may be be the emission of the boundary layer, or the emission of the immediate vicinity of an accretion shock. The aim of this work is to give additional information on the nature of the region that emits the veiling continuum by investigating the correlations between the veiling and line fluxes in time serieses of T Tauri stars. For this work a time series of 27, 117, and 89 spectra of BM And, DI Cep and DG Tau, were taken in 9, 13, and 12 nights, using the Echellette-Spectrograph of the 2.2m telescope on Calar Alto, Spain. These T Tauri stars were selected because of their different of levels of activity. The spectra cover the whole region between 3200Å and 11000Å with a resolution of about Δ λ λ = 3000. Using 32 template stars the spectral types of the stars were determined, which is found to remain unchanged during the whole time series. The wavelengths of all photospheric lines are in agreement with a single doppler shift (+/- 6 km/s), which is taken as the systemic velocity. It is thus assumed that the low excitation lines are indeed the photospheric lines of the star and the veiling is an additional continuum source. The spectrum of the veiling

  16. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  17. Spectral dispersion and fringe detection in IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W. A.; Lacasse, M. G.; Carleton, N. P.

    1990-01-01

    Pupil plane beam combination, spectral dispersion, detection, and fringe tracking are discussed for the IOTA interferometer. A new spectrometer design is presented in which the angular dispersion with respect to wavenumber is nearly constant. The dispersing element is a type of grism, a series combination of grating and prism, in which the constant parts of the dispersion add, but the slopes cancel. This grism is optimized for the display of channelled spectra. The dispersed fringes can be tracked by a matched-filter photon-counting correlator algorithm. This algorithm requires very few arithmetic operations per detected photon, making it well-suited for real-time fringe tracking. The algorithm is able to adapt to different stellar spectral types, intensity levels, and atmospheric time constants. The results of numerical experiments are reported.

  18. On Spectral Triples in Quantum Gravity I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Johannes; M. Grimstrup, Jesper; Nest, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes a link between Noncommutative Geometry and canonical quantum gravity. A semi-finite spectral triple over a space of connections is presented. The triple involves an algebra of holonomy loops and a Dirac type operator which resembles a global functional derivation operator....... The interaction between the Dirac operator and the algebra reproduces the Poisson structure of General Relativity. Moreover, the associated Hilbert space corresponds, up to a discrete symmetry group, to the Hilbert space of diffeomorphism invariant states known from Loop Quantum Gravity. Correspondingly......, the square of the Dirac operator has, in terms of canonical quantum gravity, the form of a global area-squared operator. Furthermore, the spectral action resembles a partition function of Quantum Gravity. The construction is background independent and is based on an inductive system of triangulations...

  19. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngström, Sten

    1994-07-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics, electrodynamics, and statistical physics. Quantum rules lead to revision of the conventional principle of local thermal equilibrium of matter and radiation. Study of electrodynamics suggests absence of spectral emission from fractions of the numbers of atoms and ions in a plasma due to radiative inhibition caused by electromagnetic force fields. Statistical probability methods are extended by the statement: A macroscopic physical system develops in the most probable of all conceivable ways consistent with the constraining conditions for the system. The crucial role of statistical physics in transforming quantum logic into common sense logic is stressed. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence.

  20. Multidomain spectral solution of compressible viscous flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopriva, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a nonoverlapping mutidomain spectral collocation method to solve compressible viscous flows. At the interfaces, the advection terms are treated with a characteristic correction method. The diffusion terms are treated with a penalty method. Spectral accuracy is demonstrated on linear model problems in one and two space dimensions. The method is applied to a subsonic and supersonic flow over a flat plate. The results are compared to solutions of the boundary-layer equations which show that two digit accuracy in the adiabatic plate temperature is obtained with 16 points in the boundary layer for a freestream Mach number of two. A second application is to a transonic flow in a two-dimensional converging-diverging nozzle, where the computed results are compared to experimental data

  1. Constancy of spectral-line bisectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bisectors of spectral line profiles in cool stars indicate the strength of convection in the photospheres of these objects. The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility of studying time variations in line bisectors, the reality of apparent line-to-line differences within the same stellar spectrum, and bisector differences between stars of identical spectral types. The differences considered pertain to the shape of the bisector. The material used in the investigation was acquired at the McDonald Observatory using a 1728 diode Reticon array at the coudefocus of the 2.1-m telescope. Observed bisector errors are discussed. It is established that different lines in the same star show significantly different bisectors. The observed error bands are shown by the shaded regions. The slope and curvature are unique for each case

  2. Stochastic Spectral and Conjugate Descent Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Kovalev, Dmitry

    2018-02-11

    The state-of-the-art methods for solving optimization problems in big dimensions are variants of randomized coordinate descent (RCD). In this paper we introduce a fundamentally new type of acceleration strategy for RCD based on the augmentation of the set of coordinate directions by a few spectral or conjugate directions. As we increase the number of extra directions to be sampled from, the rate of the method improves, and interpolates between the linear rate of RCD and a linear rate independent of the condition number. We develop and analyze also inexact variants of these methods where the spectral and conjugate directions are allowed to be approximate only. We motivate the above development by proving several negative results which highlight the limitations of RCD with importance sampling.

  3. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....... in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  4. Stochastic Spectral and Conjugate Descent Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Kovalev, Dmitry; Gorbunov, Eduard; Gasanov, Elnur; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The state-of-the-art methods for solving optimization problems in big dimensions are variants of randomized coordinate descent (RCD). In this paper we introduce a fundamentally new type of acceleration strategy for RCD based on the augmentation of the set of coordinate directions by a few spectral or conjugate directions. As we increase the number of extra directions to be sampled from, the rate of the method improves, and interpolates between the linear rate of RCD and a linear rate independent of the condition number. We develop and analyze also inexact variants of these methods where the spectral and conjugate directions are allowed to be approximate only. We motivate the above development by proving several negative results which highlight the limitations of RCD with importance sampling.

  5. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Sun, Ying; Chen, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  6. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Amato, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Evans, W. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics Universitat Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Giudice, P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, T. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kelly, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Kim, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Praki, K. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Ryan, S.M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skullerud, J.-I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)

    2016-12-15

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  7. Functional analysis, spectral theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Einsiedler, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a careful treatment of functional analysis and some of its applications in analysis, number theory, and ergodic theory. In addition to discussing core material in functional analysis, the authors cover more recent and advanced topics, including Weyl’s law for eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, amenability and property (T), the measurable functional calculus, spectral theory for unbounded operators, and an account of Tao’s approach to the prime number theorem using Banach algebras. The book further contains numerous examples and exercises, making it suitable for both lecture courses and self-study. Functional Analysis, Spectral Theory, and Applications is aimed at postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students with some background in analysis and algebra, but will also appeal to everyone with an interest in seeing how functional analysis can be applied to other parts of mathematics.

  8. Spectral signature selection for mapping unvegetated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. A.; Petersen, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data covering the wavelength interval from 0.40-2.60 microns were collected at an altitude of 1000 m above the terrain in southeastern Pennsylvania. Uniform training areas were selected within three sites from this flightline. Soil samples were collected from each site and a procedure developed to allow assignment of scan line and element number from the multispectral scanner data to each sampling location. These soil samples were analyzed on a spectrophotometer and laboratory spectral signatures were derived. After correcting for solar radiation and atmospheric attenuation, the laboratory signatures were compared to the spectral signatures derived from these same soils using multispectral scanner data. Both signatures were used in supervised and unsupervised classification routines. Computer-generated maps using the laboratory and multispectral scanner derived signatures resulted in maps that were similar to maps resulting from field surveys. Approximately 90% agreement was obtained between classification maps produced using multispectral scanner derived signatures and laboratory derived signatures.

  9. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian

    2001-01-01

    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  10. Spectral analysis of Floating Car Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gössel, F.; Michler, E.; Wrase, B.

    2003-01-01

    Floating Car Data (FCD) are one important data source in traffic telematic systems. The original variable in these systems is the vehicle velocity. The paper analyses the measured value “vehicle velocity" by methods of information technology. Consequences for processing, transmission and storage of FCD under condition of limited resources are discussed. Starting point of the investigation is the analysis of spectral characteristics of velocity-time-profiles. The spectra are determined by...

  11. Ultraviolet spectral reflectance of carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Daniel M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Pitman, Karly M.; Roush, Ted L.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Lucey, Paul G.

    2018-06-01

    A number of planetary spacecraft missions have carried instruments with sensors covering the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. However, there exists a general lack of relevant UV reflectance laboratory data to compare against these planetary surface remote sensing observations in order to make confident material identifications. To address this need, we have systematically analyzed reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials in the 200-500 nm spectral range, and found spectral-compositional-structural relationships that suggest this wavelength region could distinguish between otherwise difficult-to-identify carbon phases. In particular (and by analogy with the infrared spectral region), large changes over short wavelength intervals in the refractive indices associated with the trigonal sp2π-π* transition of carbon can lead to Fresnel peaks and Christiansen-like features in reflectance. Previous studies extending to shorter wavelengths also show that anomalous dispersion caused by the σ-σ* transition associated with both the trigonal sp2 and tetrahedral sp3 sites causes these features below λ = 200 nm. The peak wavelength positions and shapes of π-π* and σ-σ* features contain information on sp3/sp2, structure, crystallinity, and powder grain size. A brief comparison with existing observational data indicates that the carbon fraction of the surface of Mercury is likely amorphous and submicroscopic, as is that on the surface of the martian satellites Phobos and Deimos, and possibly comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while further coordinated observations and laboratory experiments should refine these feature assignments and compositional hypotheses. The new laboratory diffuse reflectance data reported here provide an important new resource for interpreting UV reflectance measurements from planetary surfaces throughout the solar system, and confirm that the UV can be rich in important spectral information.

  12. The Fresnel Zone Light Field Spectral Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    detection efficiency for weak signals . Additionally, further study should be done on spectral calibration methods for a FZLFSI. When dealing with weak ... detection assembly. The different image formation planes for each wavelength are constructed synthetically through processing the collected light ...a single micro-lens image. This character- istic also holds for wavelengths other than the design wavelength. 36 modified light field PSF is detected

  13. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  14. Spectral and thermal investigation of tetrabenzoylacetonatobenzoylacetonediuranyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Klavsut', G.N.; Umrejko, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium(6) compound with benzoylacetone (NBA) of [(UO 2 ) 2 (NBA)(BA) 4 ] composition was prepared by the method of electrochemical synthesis in oxidizing medium. Spectral and thermal investigation (data of IR, Raman spectra, TG, DTA) was conducted to show that four NBA molecules entered the compound as acidoligands and one NBA molecule (being a bridge) - as neutral ligand in keto-form. Mechanism of thermal decomposition was suggested and kinetic parameters of thermolysis of examined substance were calculated

  15. Airborne Multi-Spectral Minefield Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Swedish Defence Research Agency), GEOSPACE (Austria), GTD ( Ingenieria de Sistemas y Software Industrial, Spain), IMEC (Ineruniversity MicroElectronic...RTO-MP-SET-092 18 - 1 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Airborne Multi-Spectral Minefield Survey Dirk-Jan de Lange, Eric den...actions is the severe lack of baseline information. To respond to this in a rapid way, cost-efficient data acquisition methods are a key issue. de

  16. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  17. A spectral route to determining chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....

  18. Spectral Irradiance Measurements Based on Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M S; Menegotto, T; Duarte, I; Da Silva, T Ferreira; Alves, L C; Alvarenga, A D; Almeida, G B; Couceiro, I B; Teixeira, R N

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the realization of absolute spectral irradiance scale at INMETRO in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions using filter radiometers as secondary standards. In the construction of these instruments are used, at least, apertures, interference filters and a trap detector. In the assembly of the trap detectors it was necessary to characterize several photocells in spatial uniformity and shunt resistance. All components were calibrated and these results were analyzed to mount the filter radiometer

  19. SURFACE ALBEDO AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Sykes, Mark V.; Prettyman, Thomas H. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Schaefer, Michael [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany); Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A. [University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Carsenty, Uri; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Mottola, Stefano; Schröder, Stefan E. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin (Germany); Castillo-Rogez, Julie C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Schenk, Paul [Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Williams, David A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Smith, David E. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zuber, Maria T. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active, but possibly sporadic, water outgassing as well as possibly varying spectral characteristics over a timescale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as the newly acquired images by the Dawn  Framing Camera, to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, on both a global scale and in local regions, particularly the bright spots inside the Occator crater, over timescales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Sporadic water vapor venting, or any possibly ongoing activity on Ceres, is not significant enough to change the albedo or the area of the bright features in the Occator crater by >15%, or the global albedo by >3% over the various timescales that we searched. Recently reported spectral slope variations can be explained by changing Sun–Ceres–Earth geometry. The active area on Ceres is less than 1 km{sup 2}, too small to cause global albedo and spectral variations detectable in our data. Impact ejecta due to impacting projectiles of tens of meters in size like those known to cause observable changes to the surface albedo on Asteroid Scheila cannot cause detectable albedo change on Ceres due to its relatively large size and strong gravity. The water vapor activity on Ceres is independent of Ceres’ heliocentric distance, ruling out the possibility of the comet-like sublimation process as a possible mechanism driving the activity.

  20. Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, M.A.; Ishaq, M.; Shakirullah; Bahadur, A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups was performed in KBr pellets. KBr Pellets were prepared for virgin and variously pretreated coal samples. Spectra of satisfactory resolution were obtained in wave number range-4000-400 cm /sup -1/. Presence of broad absorption bands corresponds to hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phenolic functionalities in the spectra clearly define their presence in all samples understudy. Forced oxidation proved effective for oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic configurations, which can be revealed from the respective spectra. (author)

  1. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  2. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  3. Beautiful mesons from QCD spectral sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the beautiful meson from the point of view of the QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). The bottom quark mass and the mixed light quark-gluon condensates are determined quite accurately. The decay constant f B is estimated and we present some arguments supporting this result. The decay constants and the masses of the other members of the beautiful meson family are predicted. (orig.)

  4. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  5. Spectral Data Captures Important Variability Between and Among Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Serbin, S. P.; Kingdon, C.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    different genotypes of aspen. A clonal species, aspen is widely recognized for its high genotypic and phenotypic variability, and this variability expresses itself in differences in both functional and spectral traits. We demonstrate that spectral characteristics can be used to identify different genets of aspen and that this spectral variability among genets is also related to differences in traits important to ecosystem processes. Third, we illustrate variability in spectral properties of soybean related to the presence of aphids, and how those spectral properties translate to differences in yield. Finally, we show how short-term variability in milkweed spectra (within hours) is related to changes in cardenolide concentrations associated with induced defensive responses. These results demonstrate the capacity of spectroscopy to not just characterize important plant traits, but also to measure how plants vary naturally and respond dynamically to environmental changes.

  6. Constructing the spectral web of rotating plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Rotating plasmas are ubiquitous in nature. The theory of MHD stability of such plasmas, initiated a long time ago, has severely suffered from the wide spread misunderstanding that it necessarily involves non-self-adjoint operators. It has been shown (J.P. Goedbloed, PPCF 16, 074001, 2011; Goedbloed, Keppens and Poedts, Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, Cambridge, 2010) that, on the contrary, spectral theory of moving plasmas can be constructed entirely on the basis of energy conservation and self-adjointness of the occurring operators. The spectral web is a further development along this line. It involves the construction of a network of curves in the complex omega-plane associated with the complex complementary energy, which is the energy needed to maintain harmonic time dependence in an open system. Vanishing of that energy, at the intersections of the mentioned curves, yields the eigenvalues of the closed system. This permits to consider the enormous diversity of MHD instabilities of rotating tokamaks, accretion disks about compact objects, and jets emitted from those objects, from a single view point. This will be illustrated with results obtained with a new spectral code (ROC).

  7. Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2006-05-01

    Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures

  8. Spectral Analysis of Vector Magnetic Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert L.; OBrien, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra and cross spectra derived from the three components of the vector magnetic field measured on a straight horizontal path above a statistically stationary source. All of these spectra, which can be estimated from the recorded time series, are related to a single two-dimensional power spectral density via integrals that run in the across-track direction in the wavenumber domain. Thus the measured spectra must obey a number of strong constraints: for example, the sum of the two power spectral densities of the two horizontal field components equals the power spectral density of the vertical component at every wavenumber and the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-track components is always pi/2. These constraints provide powerful checks on the quality of the measured data; if they are violated, measurement or environmental noise should be suspected. The noise due to errors of orientation has a clear characteristic; both the power and phase spectra of the components differ from those of crustal signals, which makes orientation noise easy to detect and to quantify. The spectra of the crustal signals can be inverted to obtain information about the cross-track structure of the field. We illustrate these ideas using a high-altitude Project Magnet profile flown in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Spectral theories for linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of spectral analysis in the study of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is not only a fundamental technique but also leads to far-reaching consequences in describing the qualitative behaviour of the solutions. The spectral analysis, via the Jordan canonical form, will not only lead to a representation theorem for a basis of solutions, but will also give a rather precise statement of the (exponential) growth rates of various solutions. Various attempts have been made to extend this analysis to linear differential equations with time-varying coefficients. The most complete such extensions is the Floquet theory for equations with periodic coefficients. For time-varying linear differential equations with aperiodic coefficients several authors have attempted to ''extend'' the Foquet theory. The precise meaning of such an extension is itself a problem, and we present here several attempts in this direction that are related to the general problem of extending the spectral analysis of equations with constant coefficients. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce some problems of current research. The primary problem we shall examine occurs in the context of linear differential equations with almost periodic coefficients. We call it ''the Floquet problem''. (author)

  10. Hadronic spectral functions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, M.; Leupold, S.; Mosel, U.

    2004-01-01

    We study the in-medium properties of mesons (π,η,ρ) and baryon resonances in cold nuclear matter within a coupled-channel analysis. The meson self energies are generated by particle-hole excitations. Thus multi-peak spectra are obtained for the mesonic spectral functions. In turn this leads to medium-modifications of the baryon resonances. Special care is taken to respect the analyticity of the spectral functions and to take into account effects from short-range correlations both for positive and negative parity states. Our model produces sensible results for pion and Δ dynamics in nuclear matter. We find a strong interplay of the ρ meson and the D 13 (1520), which moves spectral strength of the ρ spectrum to smaller invariant masses and leads to a broadening of the baryon resonance. The optical potential for the η meson resulting from our model is rather attractive whereas the in-medium properties modifications of the S 11 (1535) are found to be quite small

  11. Some threshold spectral problems of Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, X.

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with some spectral problems of the Schroedinger operators. We first consider the semi-classical limit of the number of bound states of unique two-cluster N-body Schroedinger operator. Then we use Dirichlet-Neumann bracket to get semi-classical limit of Riesz means of the discrete eigenvalues of N-body Schroedinger operator. The effective potential of N-body Schroedinger operator with Coulomb potential is also considered and we find that the effective potential has critical decay at infinity. Thus, the Schroedinger operator with critical potential is studied in this thesis. We study the coupling constant threshold of Schroedinger operator with critical potential and the asymptotic expansion of resolvent of Schroedinger operator with critical potential. We use that expansion to study low-energy asymptotics of derivative of spectral shift function for perturbation with critical decay. After that, we use this result and the known result for high-energy asymptotic expansion of spectral shift function to obtain the Levinson theorem. (author)

  12. BLAZAR SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AT 74 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Blazars are the most extreme class of active galactic nuclei. Despite a previous investigation at 102 MHz for a small sample of BL Lac objects and our recent analysis of blazars detected in the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, a systematic study of the blazar spectral properties at frequencies below 100 MHz has been never carried out. In this paper, we present the first analysis of the radio spectral behavior of blazars based on the recent Very Large Array Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) at 74 MHz. We search for blazar counterparts in the VLSS catalog, confirming that they are detected at 74 MHz. We then show that blazars present radio-flat spectra (i.e., radio spectral indices of ∼0.5) when evaluated, which also about an order of magnitude in frequency lower than previous analyses. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the blazars-radio galaxies connection since the low-frequency radio data provide a new diagnostic tool to verify the expectations of the unification scenario for radio-loud active galaxies.

  13. Spectral envelope sensitivity of musical instrument sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, David; Sen, D

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the spectral envelope is a perceptually salient attribute in musical instrument timbre perception. While a number of studies have explored discrimination thresholds for changes to the spectral envelope, the question of how sensitivity varies as a function of center frequency and bandwidth for musical instruments has yet to be addressed. In this paper a two-alternative forced-choice experiment was conducted to observe perceptual sensitivity to modifications made on trumpet, clarinet and viola sounds. The experiment involved attenuating 14 frequency bands for each instrument in order to determine discrimination thresholds as a function of center frequency and bandwidth. The results indicate that perceptual sensitivity is governed by the first few harmonics and sensitivity does not improve when extending the bandwidth any higher. However, sensitivity was found to decrease if changes were made only to the higher frequencies and continued to decrease as the distorted bandwidth was widened. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to two other spectral envelope discrimination studies in the literature as well as what is predicted from a psychoacoustic model.

  14. A spectral algorithm for the seriation problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Boman, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Hendrickson, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Given a set of objects and a correlation function f reflecting the desire for two items to be near each other, find all sequences {pi} of the items so that correlation preferences are preserved; that is if {pi}(i) < {pi}(j) < {pi}(k) then f(i,j) {ge} f(i,k) and f(j,k) {ge} f(i,k). This seriation problem has numerous applications, for instance, solving it yields a solution to the consecutive ones problem. We present a spectral algorithm for this problem that has a number of interesting features. Whereas most previous applications of spectral techniques provided bounds or heuristics, our result is an algorithm for a nontrivial combinatorial problem. Our analysis introduces powerful tools from matrix theory to the theoretical computer science community. Also, spectral methods are being applied as heuristics for a variety of sequencing problems and our result helps explain and justify these applications. Although the worst case running time for our approach is not competitive with that of existing methods for well posed problem instances, unlike combinatorial approaches our algorithm remains a credible heuristic for the important cases where there are errors in the data.

  15. Revived STIS. II. Properties of Stars in the Next Generation Spectral Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, D.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic surveys of galaxies at high redshift will bring the rest-frame ultraviolet into view of large, ground-based telescopes. The UV-blue spectral region is rich in diagnostics, but these diagnostics have not yet been calibrated in terms of the properties of the responsible stellar population(s). Such calibrations are now possible with Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL). The NGSL contains UV-optical spectra (0.2 - 1.0 microns) of 374 stars having a wide range in temperature, luminosity, and metallicity. We will describe our work to derive basic stellar parameters from NGSL spectra using modern model spectra and to use these stellar parameters to develop UV-blue spectral diagnostics.

  16. A singular-value decomposition approach to X-ray spectral estimation from attenuation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A singular-value decomposition (SVD) approach is described for estimating the exposure-rate spectral distributions of X-rays from attenuation data measured withvarious filtrations. This estimation problem with noisy measurements is formulated as the problem of solving a system of linear equations with an ill-conditioned nature. The principle of the SVD approach is that a response matrix, representing the X-ray attenuation effect by filtrations at various energies, can be expanded into summation of inherent component matrices, and thereby the spectral distributions can be represented as a linear combination of some component curves. A criterion function is presented for choosing the components needed to form a reliable estimate. The feasibility of the proposed approach is studied in detail in a computer simulation using a hypothetical X-ray spectrum. The application results of the spectral distributions emitted from a therapeutic X-ray generator are shown. Finally some advantages of this approach are pointed out. (orig.)

  17. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  18. SPECTRAL SETS AND TILES IN CARTESIAN PRODUCTS OVER ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41

    Spectral set conjecture: A Borel set Ω ⊂ Rd of positive and finite. Lebesgue measure is a spectral set if and only if it ... Ω ⊂ G of positive and finite Haar measure is a spectral set if and only if it is a translational tile. ... Key words and phrases. p-adic number field, Cartesian product, tile, spectral set. This work was supported by ...

  19. Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.......Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector....

  20. Spectral beam combining of diode lasers with high efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2012-01-01

    Based on spectral beam combining we obtain 16 W of output power, combining two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. The spectral separation within the combined beam can be used for subsequent sum-frequency generation.......Based on spectral beam combining we obtain 16 W of output power, combining two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. The spectral separation within the combined beam can be used for subsequent sum-frequency generation....