WorldWideScience

Sample records for spectral range traceable

  1. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  2. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-01-01

    by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer’s spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

  3. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

  4. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  5. An imaging grating diffractometer for traceable calibration of grating pitch in the range 20 μm to 350 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, D A; Alves, J A P; Pekelsky, J R

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of a grating diffratometer to provide traceable calibration of grating pitch in range 20 μm to 350 nm. The approach is based on the Littrow configuration in which a laser beam is directed onto the grating which is mounted on a rotary table and can be turned so that each selected diffraction order is retro-reflected in the laser incidence direction. A beamsplitter and a lens direct the reflected diffraction order to form a small image spot on a CCD camera and the spot centering is used to adjust to rotation angle, thereby giving the diffraction angle. Knowing the diffraction angle for several orders and the wavelength of the laser, the average grating pitch can be determined to an uncertainty the order of 14 pm. (paper)

  6. Perspectives on traceability in food manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Tina

    1998-01-01

    Traceability in food manufacturing can range from in-house traceability in production plants to traceability in whole or part of the production chain from raw material to consumer, and descriptors of the product and its history can be few or many as decided. Well thought-out traceability systems...

  7. Spectral long-range interaction of temporal incoherent solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Garnier, Josselin; Picozzi, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    We study the interaction of temporal incoherent solitons sustained by a highly noninstantaneous (Raman-like) nonlinear response. The incoherent solitons exhibit a nonmutual interaction, which can be either attractive or repulsive depending on their relative initial distance. The analysis reveals that incoherent solitons exhibit a long-range interaction in frequency space, which is in contrast with the expected spectral short-range interaction described by the usual approach based on the Raman-like spectral gain curve. Both phenomena of anomalous interaction and spectral long-range behavior of incoherent solitons are described in detail by a long-range Vlasov equation.

  8. A Wide Spectral Range Reflectance and Luminescence Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Hirvonen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a wide spectral range (200–2500 nm imaging system with a 250 μm minimum spatial resolution, which can be freely modified for a wide range of resolutions and measurement geometries. The system has been tested for reflectance and luminescence measurements, but can also be customized for transmittance measurements. This study includes the performance results of the developed system, as well as examples of spectral images. Discussion of the system relates it to existing systems and methods. The wide range spectral imaging system that has been developed is however highly customizable and has great potential in many practical applications.

  9. Detection Range Estimation of UV Spectral Band Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, has come into existence an interest in the systems operating in the ultra-violet (UF band of wavelengths, which use other spectral information (coefficients of reflection or radiation in UF range about location objects, than laser systems in the visible, near or average infrared bands. Thus, a point is not only to receive additional (in another spectral range information on location objects. Laser radiation in the UF spectral band of 0.315 – 0.4 microns is safer than laser radiation with the wavelengths of 0.38 – 1.4 microns.The work presents a comparative estimation of the detection systems range of laser radars in the UV and visible spectral bands for the following wavelengths of radiation:- UF band: 0.266 microns (the fourth harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions, 0.308 microns (the XeCl-excimer laser, 0.355 microns (the third harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions;- visible band: 0.532 microns (the second harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions.Results of calculations show that for the horizontal pathway in the terrestrial atmosphere at the selected radiation wavelengths a detection range is in the range of 2510m – 5690 m.The maximum range of detection corresponds to the visible spectral band. A sweep range decreases with transition to the UF band. This is caused by the fact that with transition to the UF band there is a rise of atmosphere attenuation (generally, because of absorption by ozone, this effect being smoothed by reducing background radiation.In the UF band a wavelength of 0.355 microns is the most acceptable. For this wavelength a detection range is about 1,5 times less (in comparison with the visible band of 0.532 microns. However, this is the much more eye-safe wavelength. With transition to the UV band a detection range decreases not that much and can be compensated by changing parameters of transmitting or receiving channels of laser radar.

  10. A New and Inexpensive Pyranometer for the Visible Spectral Range

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Andújar, José M.; Enrique, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a new photodiode-based pyranometer for the visible spectral range (approx. 400 to 750 nm), whose principal characteristics are: accuracy, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote programming and operation, interior temperature regulation, cosine error minimisation and all this at a very low cost, tens of times lower than that of commercial thermopile-based devices. This new photodiode-based pyranometer overcomes traditional prob...

  11. Free spectral range adjustment of a silicon rib racetrack resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keča, T; Matavulj, P; Headley, W; Mashanovich, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important parameters that describe the quality of photonic components and devices is the free spectral range (FSR). In this paper, the measured outgoing power of a silicon rib racetrack resonator was compared with calculated transfer functions derived by coupled mode theory. The influence of geometric parameters on the FSR and resonant wavelength has been investigated. By altering the values of the coupling length and racetrack radius, derived transfer functions were adjusted to match experimental data. This procedure gives the possibility of estimating the FSR and resonant wavelength for different geometric parameters and predicting resonator functionality.

  12. Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traceability – the ability to track a product from farm to plate – is now widely used in the food sector for a range of purposes: it allows companies to improve efficiency, facilitates product recall, and helps producers flag the specific characteristics of their goods. But traceability systems...... are mainly designed and used by the people directly involved in the food chain. The people at the end of the food chain – food consumers – have little say in which attributes are traced, and can rarely access the information stored in traceability systems. This book draws on philosophical discourses (like...... ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of law) around food ethics and empirical research in three important food chains (UK bread, Danish bacon and Greek olive oil) to argue that ethical traceability systems could be used to communicate food information to consumers, allowing them not only to make...

  13. A new and inexpensive pyranometer for the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel A; Andújar, José M; Enrique, Juan M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a new photodiode-based pyranometer for the visible spectral range (approx. 400 to 750 nm), whose principal characteristics are: accuracy, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote programming and operation, interior temperature regulation, cosine error minimisation and all this at a very low cost, tens of times lower than that of commercial thermopile-based devices. This new photodiode-based pyranometer overcomes traditional problems in this type of device and offers similar characteristics to those of thermopile-based pyranometers and, therefore, can be used in any installation where reliable measurement of solar irradiance is necessary, especially in those where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of a meter. This new pyranometer has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office under the number P200703162.

  14. A New and Inexpensive Pyranometer for the Visible Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Martínez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a new photodiode-based pyranometer for the visible spectral range (approx. 400 to 750 nm, whose principal characteristics are: accuracy, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote programming and operation, interior temperature regulation, cosine error minimisation and all this at a very low cost, tens of times lower than that of commercial thermopile-based devices. This new photodiode-based pyranometer overcomes traditional problems in this type of device and offers similar characteristics to those of thermopile-based pyranometers and, therefore, can be used in any installation where reliable measurement of solar irradiance is necessary, especially in those where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of a meter. This new pyranometer has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office under the number P200703162.

  15. LEP Traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R

    2000-01-01

    After more than ten years of production for high energy physics, CERN's current flagship, LEP, will be closed down definitively October 1st, 2000. Starting immediately, some 30,000 tonnes of LEP materials will be removed from the tunnel to make room for LHC installation. The dismantling project is a major undertaking in terms of resources and constraints, which has to be completed in less than one year. Moreover, since LEP is classified as a nuclear installation in France (as if it was a nuclear power plant), special procedures have to be followed in addition to the normal environmental and safety issues. One major facet of the project is the "traceability" of everything that comes out of the LEP tunnel. This implies that each piece of equipment must be identified and tracked from its origin through any temporary storage to its final destination. Special procedures have to be followed for all materials even if they are not radioactive. As much of the equipment as possible will be recycled or disposed of. This...

  16. Laser Meter of Atmospheric Inhomogeneity Properties in UV Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of laser systems designed to operate in conditions of the terrestrial atmosphere demands reliable information about the atmosphere condition. The aerosol lidars for operational monitoring of the atmosphere allow us to define remotely characteristics of atmospheric aerosol and cloudy formations in the atmosphere.Today the majority of aerosol lidars run in the visible range. However, in terms of safety (first of all to eyes also ultra-violet (UF range is of interest. A range of the wavelengths of the harmful effect on the eye retina is from 0.38 to 1.4 mμ. Laser radiation with the wavelengths less than 0.38 mμ and over 1.4 mμ influences the anterior ambient of an eye and is safer, than laser radiation with the wavelengths of 0.38 – 1.4 mμ.The paper describes a laser meter to measure characteristics of atmospheric inhomogeneity propertis in UF spectral range at the wavelength of 0.355 mμ.As a radiation source, the meter uses a semiconductor-pumped pulse solid-state Nd:YAG laser. As a receiving lens, Kassegren's scheme-implemented mirror lens with a socket to connect optical fibre is used in the laser meter. Radiation from the receiving lens is transported through the optical fibre to the optical block. The optical block provides spectral selection of useful signal and conversion of optical radiation into electric signal.To ensure a possibility for alignment of the optical axes of receiving lens and laser radiator the lens is set on the alignment platform that enables changing lens inclination and turn with respect to the laser.The software of the laser meter model is developed in the NI LabVIEW 2012 graphic programming environment.The paper gives the following examples: a typical laser echo signal, which is back scattered by the atmosphere and spatiotemporal distribution of variation coefficient of the volumetric factor of the back scattered atmosphere. Results of multi-day measurements show that an extent of the recorded aerosol

  17. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  18. Managing traceability information manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; van Dorp, C.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to design information systems for traceability is proposed. The paper applies gozinto graph modelling for traceability of the goods flow. A gozinto graph represents a graphical listing of raw materials, parts, intermediates and subassemblies, which a process transforms

  19. Traceability of trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Traceability provides the terminology, concepts and strategy for ensuring that analytical chemical measurements are comparable. At present the reference points are often internationally agreed methods; they can also be reference materials. Ideally there should be a single reference point, which in the case of chemistry is the SI Unit the mole but much work will be required to achieve such a situation. Traceability does not imply high accuracy and levels of certainty consistent with fitness for purpose criteria is the goal. This paper discusses the relevance of the concept of traceability and reviews developments leading to a conceptual model for analytical chemistry. It also reports some recent work and considers future needs. (author)

  20. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Wegrzecka, I

    1999-01-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  1. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wegrzecki, Maciej

    1999-04-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  2. [Influence of human body target's spectral characteristics on visual range of low light level image intensifiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ju; Yang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Tao, Yuan-Yaun

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on low light level (LLL) image intensifier's distance, based on the spectral characteristics of the night-sky radiation and the spectral reflective coefficients of common clothes, we established a equation of human body target's spectral reflective distribution, and analyzed the spectral reflective characteristics of different human targets wearing the clothes of different color and different material, and from the actual detection equation of LLL image intensifier distance, discussed the detection capability of LLL image intensifier for different human target. The study shows that the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on LLL image intensifier distance is mainly reflected in the average reflectivity rho(-) and the initial contrast of the target and the background C0. Reflective coefficient and spectral reflection intensity of cotton clothes are higher than polyester clothes, and detection capability of LLL image intensifier is stronger for the human target wearing cotton clothes. Experimental results show that the LLL image intensifiers have longer visual ranges for targets who wear cotton clothes than targets who wear same color but polyester clothes, and have longer visual ranges for targets who wear light-colored clothes than targets who wear dark-colored clothes. And in the full moon illumination conditions, LLL image intensifiers are more sensitive to the clothes' material.

  3. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  4. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities

  5. Influence of temperature on the spectral characteristics of semiconductor lasers in the visible range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, A. A.; Baranov, M. S.; Khramov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    The results of studies on the effect of temperature on the output spectral characteristics of continuous semiconductor lasers of the visible range are presented. The paper presents the results of studying the spectral-optical radiation parameters of semiconductor lasers, their coherence lengths, and the dependence of the position of the spectral peak of the wavelength on temperature. This is necessary for the selection of the most optimal laser in order to use it for medical ophthalmologic diagnosis. The experiment was carried out using semiconductor laser modules based on a laser diode. The spectra were recorded by using a two-channel automated spectral complex based on the MDR-23 monochromator. Spectral dependences on the temperature of semiconductor lasers are obtained, in the range from 300 to 370 K. The possibility of determining the internal damage to the stabilization of laser modules without opening the case is shown, but only with the use of their spectral characteristics. The obtained data allow taking into account temperature characteristics and further optimization of parameters of such lasers when used in medical practice, in particular, in ophthalmologic diagnostics.

  6. Augmented halal food traceability system: analysis and design using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Y. V.; Fauzi, A. M.; Irawadi, T. T.; Djatna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Augmented halal food traceability is expanding the range of halal traceability in food supply chain where currently only available for tracing from the source of raw material to the industrial warehouse or inbound logistic. The halal traceability system must be developed in the integrated form that includes inbound and outbound logistics. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable initial model of integrated traceability system of halal food supply chain. The method was based on unified modeling language (UML) such as use case, sequence, and business process diagram. A goal programming model was formulated considering two objective functions which include (1) minimization of risk of halal traceability failures happened potentially during outbound logistics activities and (2) maximization of quality of halal product information. The result indicates the supply of material is the most important point to be considered in minimizing the risk of failure of halal food traceability system whereas no risk observed in manufacturing and distribution.

  7. High-q microring resonator with narrow free spectral range for pulse repetition rate multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz.......We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz....

  8. Silicon photodiode with selective Zr/Si coating for extreme ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruev, P N; Barysheva, Mariya M; Ber, B Ya; Zabrodskaya, N V; Zabrodskii, V V; Lopatin, A Ya; Pestov, Alexey E; Petrenko, M V; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, Nikolai N; Sukhanov, V L; Chkhalo, Nikolai I

    2012-01-01

    The procedure of manufacturing silicon photodiodes with an integrated Zr/Si filter for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range is developed. A setup for measuring the sensitivity profile of detectors with spatial resolution better than 100 μm is fabricated. The optical properties of silicon photodiodes in the EUV and visible spectral ranges are investigated. Some characteristics of SPD-100UV diodes with Zr/Si coating and without it, as well as of AXUV-100 diodes, are compared. In all types of detectors a narrow region beyond the operating aperture is found to be sensitive to the visible light. (photodetectors)

  9. Using design rationale to improve SPL traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao, I.; Aksit, Mehmet; van den Broek, P.M.; Hendriks, M.F.H.; Rashid, Awais; Royer, Jean-Claude; Rummler, Andreas

    In order to improve SPL traceability by using design rationale, this chapter introduces the traceability analysis framework (TAF), which, when combined with the AMPLE Traceability Framework, provides extra traceability capabilities for variability management. The TAF is a programmable and extensible

  10. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  11. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  12. Evaluation of skin melanoma in spectral range 450-950 nm using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, D.; Lihacova, I.; Kuzmina, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) of multi-spectral imaging data in the wavelength range 450- 950 nm for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical data by means of PCA resulted in clear separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  13. Modal spectral analysis of piping: Determination of the significant frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the number of modes on the response of a piping system in a dynamic modal spectral analysis. It shows how the analysis can be limited to a specific frequency range of the pipe (independent of the frequency range of the response spectrum), allowing cost reduction without loss in accuracy. The 'missing mass' is taken into account through an original technique. (orig./HP)

  14. Michelson mode selector for spectral range stabilization in a self-sweeping fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A Yu; Vladimirskaya, A D; Lobach, I A; Kablukov, S I

    2018-04-01

    We report on spectral range stabilization in a self-sweeping laser by adding a narrowband fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to the output mirror in the Michelson configuration. The effects of FBG reflectivity and optical path difference in the Michelson interferometer on the laser spectral dynamics are investigated. Optimization of the interferometer allows us to demonstrate broadband (over 16 nm) self-sweeping operation and reduction of the start and stop wavelength fluctuations by two orders and one order of magnitude (∼100 and 15 times) for start and stop bounds, respectively (down to several picometers). The proposed approaches significantly improve quality of the spectral dynamics and facilitate application of the self-sweeping lasers.

  15. Radical protection by differently composed creams in the UV/VIS and IR spectral ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C; Syring, Felicia; Schanzer, Sabine; Haag, Stefan F; Graf, Rüdiger; Loch, Manuela; Gersonde, Ingo; Groth, Norbert; Pflücker, Frank; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Modern sunscreens are well suited to provide sufficient protection in the UV range because the filter substances absorb or scatter UV radiation. Although up to 50% of radicals are formed in the visible and infrared spectral range during solar radiation protection strategies are not provided in this range. Previous investigations of commercially available products have shown that in addition to physical filters, antioxidants (AO) are necessary to provide protective effects in the infrared range by neutralizing already formed radicals. In this study, the efficacy of filter substances and AO to reduce radical formation in both spectral ranges was investigated after UV/VIS or IR irradiation. Optical properties and radical protection were determined for the investigated creams. It was found that organic UV filters lower radical formation in the UV/VIS range to 35% compared to untreated skin, independent of the presence of AO. Further reduction to 14% was reached by addition of 2% physical filters, whereas physical filters alone were ineffective in the UV/VIS range due to the low concentration. In contrast, this filter type reduced radical formation in the IR range significantly to 65%; similar effects were aroused after application of AO. Sunscreens which contain organic UV filters, physical filters and AO ensure protection in the complete solar spectrum. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  17. Effects of grown origin, genotype, harvest year, and their interactions of wheat kernels on near infrared spectral fingerprints for geographical traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of origin, genotype, harvest year, and their interactions on wheat near infrared (NIR) spectra were studied to find the reasons for differences in NIR fingerprints of wheat from different geographical origins and the stability of NIR fingerprints among different years. Ten varieties were grown in three regions of China for 2 years. 180 kernel samples were analysed by NIR. The spectra after pre-treatment were analysed by principal component analysis, multi-way analysis of variance, and discriminant partial least-squares. The results showed that origin, genotype, year, and their interactions all had significant effects on wheat NIR fingerprints. The second overtones of N-H and C-H stretching vibrations and a combination of stretch and deformation of C-H group in wheat were mainly influenced by the geographical origin. The wavelength ranges 975-990 nm, 1200 nm, and 1355-1380 nm contained plenty of origin information to build robust discriminant models of wheat geographical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Semiconductor lasers with a continuous tuning range above 100 nm in the nearest IR spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu O; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V [OOO ' Opton' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chamorovsky, A Yu [Superlum Ltd., Unit B3, Fota Point Enterprise Park, Carrigtwohill, Co Cork (Ireland); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    We have developed two new types of lasers based on quantum-confined semiconductor optical amplifiers with an acousto-optic tunable filter in an external fibre ring cavity. The lasers offer continuous wavelength tuning ranges from 780 to 885 and from 880 to 1010 nm, 20 mW of cw output power, and a tuning rate up to 10{sup 4} nm s{sup -1} at an instantaneous spectral linewidth less than 0.1 nm. (lasers)

  19. Influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio of Fourier transform infra-red spectra on identification of high explosive substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Krzysztof; Banas, Agnieszka M.; Heussler, Sascha P.; Breese, Mark B. H.

    2018-01-01

    In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science). In this paper the investigation of the influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio on the identification of high explosive substances by applying multivariate statistical methods on the Fourier transform infra-red spectral data sets is studied. All mathematical procedures on spectral data for dimension reduction, clustering and validation were implemented within R open source environment.

  20. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  1. Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.

  2. Inertial-range structure of Gross–Pitaevskii turbulence within a spectral closure approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kyo; Arimitsu, Toshihico

    2013-01-01

    The inertial-range structure of turbulence obeying the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, the equation of motion for quantum fluids, is analyzed by means of a spectral closure approximation. It is revealed that, for the energy-transfer range, the spectrum of the order parameter field ψ obeys k −2 law for k ≪ k * and k −1 law for k ≫ k * , where k * is the wavenumber where the characteristic timescales associated with linear and nonlinear terms are of the same order. It is also shown that, for the particle-number-transfer range, the spectrum obeys k −1 law for k ≪ k *, n and k −1/3 law for k ≫ k *,n , where k *,n is the wavenumber corresponding to k * in the particle-number-transfer range. (paper)

  3. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  4. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-06-01

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  5. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I. [National Metrology Laboratory SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), Lot PT 4803, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  6. Scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic radiation pulse by an atom in a broad spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapenko, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    The scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse by atomic particles is described using a consistent quantum-mechanical approach taking into account excitation of a target and nondipole electromagnetic interaction, which is valid in a broad spectral range. This approach is applied to the scattering of single- and few-cycle pulses by a multielectron atom and a hydrogen atom. Scattering spectra are obtained for ultrashort pulses of different durations. The relative contribution of “elastic” scattering of a single-cycle pulse by a hydrogen atom is studied in the high-frequency limit as a function of the carrier frequency and scattering angle.

  7. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  8. Managing traceability information in manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Dorp, van C.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to design information systems for traceability is proposed. The paper applies gozinto graph modelling for traceability of the goods flow. A gozinto graph represents a graphical listing of raw materials, parts, intermediates and subassemblies, which a process transforms

  9. Real Traceable Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sherman S. M.

    Traceable signature scheme extends a group signature scheme with an enhanced anonymity management mechanism. The group manager can compute a tracing trapdoor which enables anyone to test if a signature is signed by a given misbehaving user, while the only way to do so for group signatures requires revealing the signer of all signatures. Nevertheless, it is not tracing in a strict sense. For all existing schemes, T tracing agents need to recollect all N' signatures ever produced and perform RN' “checks” for R revoked users. This involves a high volume of transfer and computations. Increasing T increases the degree of parallelism for tracing but also the probability of “missing” some signatures in case some of the agents are dishonest.

  10. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    . The project partnership aims (composed by 7 partners in 5 countries, thus covering a real European spread in high tech production technology) to develop and implement an advanced e-learning system that integrates contributions from quite different disciplines into a user-centred approach that strictly....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  11. Approaches to contactless optical thermometer in the NIR spectral range based on Nd{sup 3+} doped crystalline nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldvee, K.; Nefedova, A.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Fedorenko, S.G. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vanetsev, A.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Orlovskaya, E.O. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Puust, L.; Pärs, M.; Sildos, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Ryabova, A.V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Orlovskii, Yu.V., E-mail: orlovski@Lst.gpi.ru [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The fluorescence kinetics and spectral intensity ratio (FIR) methods for contactless optical temperature measurement in the NIR spectral range with Nd{sup 3+} doped YAG micro- and YPO{sub 4} nanocrystals are considered and the problems are revealed. The requirements for good temperature RE doped crystalline nanoparticles sensor are formulated.

  12. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kurosawa, T.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities.

  13. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneiding, N.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U.; Shamonina, E.

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  14. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 - 4 μm spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, Oleg A.; Sadovnikov, Sergey A.; Kharchenko, Olga V.; Yakovlev, Semen V.

    2018-04-01

    The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  15. Broadband semiconductor optical amplifiers of the spectral range 750 – 1100 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, E V; Il' chenko, S N; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V [Superlum Diodes Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladugin, M A [' Sigm Plyus' Ltd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Marmalyuk, A A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    A line of travelling-wave semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on heterostructures used for production of broadband superluminescent diodes is developed. The pure small-signal gains of the developed SOA modules are about 25 dB, while the gain bandwidths at a level of –10 dB reach 50 – 100 nm. As a whole, the SOA modules cover the IR spectral range from 750 to 1100 nm. The SOAs demonstrate a high reliability at a single-mode fibre-coupled cw output power up to 50 mW. Examples of application of two of the developed SOA modules as active elements of broadband fast-tunable lasers are presented. (lasers)

  16. Broadband semiconductor optical amplifiers of the spectral range 750 – 1100 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A; Yakubovich, S D

    2013-01-01

    A line of travelling-wave semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on heterostructures used for production of broadband superluminescent diodes is developed. The pure small-signal gains of the developed SOA modules are about 25 dB, while the gain bandwidths at a level of –10 dB reach 50 – 100 nm. As a whole, the SOA modules cover the IR spectral range from 750 to 1100 nm. The SOAs demonstrate a high reliability at a single-mode fibre-coupled cw output power up to 50 mW. Examples of application of two of the developed SOA modules as active elements of broadband fast-tunable lasers are presented. (lasers)

  17. Spectral properties of an extended Hubbard ladder with long range anti-ferromagnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Feiguin, Adrian

    We study the spectral properties of a Hubbard ladder with anti-ferromagnetic long range order by introducing a staggered Heisenberg interaction that decays algebraically. Unlike an alternating field or the t -Jz model, our problem preserves both SU (2) and translational invariance. We solve the problem with the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group and analyze the binding between holons and spinons and the structure of the elementary excitations. We discuss the implications in the context of the 2D Hubbard model at, and away from half-filling by using cluster perturbation theory (CPT). AF acknowledges the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, for support under Grant DE-SC0014407.

  18. Thermodynamic Temperature of High-Temperature Fixed Points Traceable to Blackbody Radiation and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähmer, M.; Anhalt, K.; Hollandt, J.; Klein, R.; Taubert, R. D.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.; Gavrilov, V.; Grigoryeva, I.; Khlevnoy, B.; Sapritsky, V.

    2017-10-01

    Absolute spectral radiometry is currently the only established primary thermometric method for the temperature range above 1300 K. Up to now, the ongoing improvements of high-temperature fixed points and their formal implementation into an improved temperature scale with the mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin, rely solely on single-wavelength absolute radiometry traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. Two alternative primary thermometric methods, yielding comparable or possibly even smaller uncertainties, have been proposed in the literature. They use ratios of irradiances to determine the thermodynamic temperature traceable to blackbody radiation and synchrotron radiation. At PTB, a project has been established in cooperation with VNIIOFI to use, for the first time, all three methods simultaneously for the determination of the phase transition temperatures of high-temperature fixed points. For this, a dedicated four-wavelengths ratio filter radiometer was developed. With all three thermometric methods performed independently and in parallel, we aim to compare the potential and practical limitations of all three methods, disclose possibly undetected systematic effects of each method and thereby confirm or improve the previous measurements traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. This will give further and independent confidence in the thermodynamic temperature determination of the high-temperature fixed point's phase transitions.

  19. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  20. High-dynamic range compressive spectral imaging by grayscale coded aperture adaptive filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Diaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging system (CASSI is an imaging architecture which senses the three dimensional informa-tion of a scene with two dimensional (2D focal plane array (FPA coded projection measurements. A reconstruction algorithm takes advantage of the compressive measurements sparsity to recover the underlying 3D data cube. Traditionally, CASSI uses block-un-block coded apertures (BCA to spatially modulate the light. In CASSI the quality of the reconstructed images depends on the design of these coded apertures and the FPA dynamic range. This work presents a new CASSI architecture based on grayscaled coded apertu-res (GCA which reduce the FPA saturation and increase the dynamic range of the reconstructed images. The set of GCA is calculated in a real-time adaptive manner exploiting the information from the FPA compressive measurements. Extensive simulations show the attained improvement in the quality of the reconstructed images when GCA are employed.  In addition, a comparison between traditional coded apertures and GCA is realized with respect to noise tolerance.

  1. Retrieval interval mapping, a tool to optimize the spectral retrieval range in differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L.; Sihler, H.; Lampel, J.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-06-01

    Remote sensing via differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a standard technique to identify and quantify trace gases in the atmosphere. The technique is applied in a variety of configurations, commonly classified into active and passive instruments using artificial and natural light sources, respectively. Platforms range from ground based to satellite instruments and trace-gases are studied in all kinds of different environments. Due to the wide range of measurement conditions, atmospheric compositions and instruments used, a specific challenge of a DOAS retrieval is to optimize the parameters for each specific case and particular trace gas of interest. This becomes especially important when measuring close to the detection limit. A well chosen evaluation wavelength range is crucial to the DOAS technique. It should encompass strong absorption bands of the trace gas of interest in order to maximize the sensitivity of the retrieval, while at the same time minimizing absorption structures of other trace gases and thus potential interferences. Also, instrumental limitations and wavelength depending sources of errors (e.g. insufficient corrections for the Ring effect and cross correlations between trace gas cross sections) need to be taken into account. Most often, not all of these requirements can be fulfilled simultaneously and a compromise needs to be found depending on the conditions at hand. Although for many trace gases the overall dependence of common DOAS retrieval on the evaluation wavelength interval is known, a systematic approach to find the optimal retrieval wavelength range and qualitative assessment is missing. Here we present a novel tool to determine the optimal evaluation wavelength range. It is based on mapping retrieved values in the retrieval wavelength space and thus visualize the consequence of different choices of retrieval spectral ranges, e.g. caused by slightly erroneous absorption cross sections, cross correlations and

  2. Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Changho; Jung, Woonggyu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-10

    A full-bandwidth k-domain linearization method for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is demonstrated. The method uses information of the wavenumber-pixel-position provided by a translating-slit-based wavelength filter. For calibration purposes, the filter is placed either after a broadband source or at the end of the sample path, and the filtered spectrum with a narrowed line width (∼0.5 nm) is incident on a line-scan camera in the detection path. The wavelength-swept spectra are co-registered with the pixel positions according to their central wavelengths, which can be automatically measured with an optical spectrum analyzer. For imaging, the method does not require a filter or a software recalibration algorithm; it simply resamples the OCT signal from the detector array without employing rescaling or interpolation methods. The accuracy of k-linearization is maximized by increasing the k-linearization order, which is known to be a crucial parameter for maintaining a narrow point-spread function (PSF) width at increasing depths. The broadening effect is studied by changing the k-linearization order by undersampling to search for the optimal value. The system provides more position information, surpassing the optimum without compromising the imaging speed. The proposed full-range k-domain linearization method can be applied to SD-OCT systems to simplify their hardware/software, increase their speed, and improve the axial image resolution. The experimentally measured width of PSF in air has an FWHM of 8 μm at the edge of the axial measurement range. At an imaging depth of 2.5 mm, the sensitivity of the full-range calibration case drops less than 10 dB compared with the uncompensated case.

  3. Towards traceable size determination of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Varga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs have clinical importance due to their roles in a wide range of biological processes. The detection and characterization of EVs are challenging because of their small size, low refractive index, and heterogeneity. Methods: In this manuscript, the size distribution of an erythrocyte-derived EV sample is determined using state-of-the-art techniques such as nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, and electron microscopy, and novel techniques in the field, such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and size exclusion chromatography coupled with dynamic light scattering detection. Results: The mode values of the size distributions of the studied erythrocyte EVs reported by the different methods show only small deviations around 130 nm, but there are differences in the widths of the size distributions. Conclusion: SAXS is a promising technique with respect to traceability, as this technique was already applied for traceable size determination of solid nanoparticles in suspension. To reach the traceable measurement of EVs, monodisperse and highly concentrated samples are required.

  4. Transmitted spectral modulation of double-ring resonator using liquid crystals in terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huijuan; Zhou, Qingli; Wang, Xiumin; Li, Chenyu; Wu, Ani; Zhang, Cunlin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials with subwavelength structural features show unique electromagnetic responses that are unattainable with natural materials. Recent research on these artificial materials has been pushed forward to the terahertz region because of potential applications in biological fingerprinting, security imaging, remote sensing, and high frequency magnetic and electric resonant devices. Active control of their properties could further facilitate and open up new applications in terms of modulation and switching. Liquid crystals, which have been the subject of research for more than a century, have the unique properties for the development of many other optical components such as light valves, tunable filters and tunable lenses. In this paper, we investigated the transmitted spectral modulation in terahertz range by using liquid crystals (5CB and TEB300) covering on the fabricated double-ring resonators to realize the shift of the resonance frequency. Our obtained results indicate the low frequency resonance shows the obvious blue-shift, while the location of high frequency resonance is nearly unchanged. We believe this phenomenon is related to not only the refractive index of the covering liquid crystals but also the resonant mechanism of both resonances.

  5. Research on Food Safety Traceability Technology Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Meng; Yongfeng Cui; Hansen Wang; Shijun Li

    2015-01-01

    Relying on the Internet of things platform, building a traceability system ranging from the source to dinner table is the crucial issue of meat products to be solved at the moment. On the basis of knowing the current situation of domestic and international food traceability quo, the passage will put forward the feasibility of mobile query used in food traceability queries, mainly targeting elaborating the core technology like image preprocessing and decoding. It illustrates the feasibility of...

  6. Optical performance of B-layer ultra-shallow-junction silicon photodiodes in the VUV spectral range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, L.; Sarubbi, F.; Nanver, L.K.; Kroth, U.; Gottwald, A.; Nihtianov, S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent work, a novel silicon-based photodiode technology was reported to be suitable for producing radiation detectors for 193 nm deep-ultraviolet light and for the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. The devices were developed and fabricated at the Delft Institute of Microsystems and

  7. 21 CFR 820.65 - Traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traceability. 820.65 Section 820.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Identification and Traceability § 820.65 Traceability. Each manufacturer of a...

  8. Exploration of Integrated Visible to Near-, Shortwave-, and Longwave-Infrared (Full-Range) Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    wavelength region .................................... 67 Table 7. Description of comparison locations...concentration and characteristics of the silicate bonds. Sulfates, phosphates, oxides, and hydroxides also exhibit strong features in the LWIR. Because...authors suggested that full spectral coverage would provide complementary information about the mineralogical and mineral chemistry patterns. The

  9. Development of Halal Pharmaceuticals Traceability Systems for Used with Mobile Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Jalil Abd Hamid

    2014-01-01

    From early times, the pharmaceutical industry has had simple traceability systems, but with the increasing implementation of quality management in pharmaceutical manufacture, traceability systems have become more advanced covering more information and more steps in the production chain. Pork and its byproducts are not considered permissible (non-halal) and are forbidden for muslims to consume, along with alcohol and meat from animals not slaughtered according to Islamic law. Recently, the porcine DNA crisis and debates about non-halal substances have drawn new attention to production chain traceability. Existing guidelines on halal products, especially those issued by Jakim, and the halal standard MS2424, were insufficient to overcome the heaping problems of non-halal pharmaceuticals. An effective traceability system is essential to mitigate the risks associated with non-halal pharmaceutical and also as a tool for communication making information available along the production and supply chain. Traceability in pharmaceutical manufacturing can range from in-house traceability in production plants to traceability in whole or part of the production chain from raw material to consumer, and descriptors of the product and its history can be few or many as decided. This study is written to discuss on the approaches towards development of halal pharmaceuticals traceability systems for used with mobile devices for fulfilling muslims consumer demands. Specifically, this study discusses the conceptual architecture on halal traceability system for halal pharmaceutical product in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Molecular Markers for Food Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins-Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a way to understand complex organism's genome. It is presently being widely applied across different fields, where food takes a preeminent position. Constant outbreaks of foodborne illnesses are increasing consumer's attention towards more detailed information related to what they are consuming. This overview reports on the areas where food traceability has been considered, and the problems that still remain to be bypassed in order to be widely applied. An outline of the most broadly used PCR-based methods for food traceability is described. Applications in the area of detection of genetically modified organisms, protected denomination of origin, allergenic and intolerance reactions are detailed in order to understand the dimension of the performed studies.

  11. THE SECOND STAGE OF FERMI at ELETTRA: A SEEDED FEL IN THE SOFT X-RAY SPECTRAL RANGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaria, E.; DeNinno, G.; Fawley, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The second stage of the FERMI FEL, named FEL-2, is based on the principle of high-gain harmonic generation and relies on a double-seeded cascade. Recent developments stimulated a revision of the original setup, which was designed to cover the spectral range between 40 and 10 nm. The numerical simulations we present here show that the nominal (expected) electron-beam performance allows extension of the FEL spectral range down to 4 nm. A significant amount of third harmonic power can be also expected. We also show that the proposed setup is flexible enough for exploiting future developments of new seed sources, e.g., high harmonic generation in gases.

  12. Passive mode locking at harmonics of the free spectral range of the intracavity filter in a fiber ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumin; Lu, Fuyun; Dong, Xinyong; Shum, Ping; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Gong, Yandong; Lu, Chao

    2005-11-01

    We report the passive mode-locking at harmonics of the free spectral range (FSR) of the intracavity multi-channel filter in a fiber ring laser. The laser uses a sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) with a free spectral range (FSR) of 0.8 nm, or 99 GHz at 1555 nm, and a length of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with low and flat dispersion. Stable picosecond soliton pulse trains with twofold to sevenfold enhancement in the repetition rate, relative to the FSR of the SFBG, have been achieved. The passive mode-locking mechanism that is at play in this laser relies on a dissipative four-wave mixing process and switching of repetition rate is realized simply by adjustment of the intracavity polarization controllers.

  13. Magnetorefractive effect in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 in the infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Granovskii, A. B.; Gan'shina, E. A.; Naumov, S. V.; Kostromitina, N. V.; Elokhina, L. V.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reflection and magnetic reflection spectra, magnetic resistance, electrical properties, and equatorial Kerr effect in La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 crystals have been complexly investigated. The measurements have been performed in wide temperature and spectral ranges in magnetic fields up to 3.5 kOe. It has been found that magnetic reflection is a high-frequency response in the infrared spectral range to the colossal magnetore-sistance near the Curie temperature. Correlation between the field and temperature dependences of the magnetic reflection and colossal magnetoresistance has been revealed. The previously developed theory of the magnetorefractive effect for metallic systems makes it possible to explain the experimental data at the qualitative level. Both demerits of the theory of the magnetorefractive effect in application to the magnets and possible additional mechanisms responsible for the magnetic reflection are discussed.

  14. Universal dispersion model for characterization of optical thin films over wide spectral range: Application to magnesium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Giglia, Angelo; Franta, Pavel; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Optical characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films is performed in a wide spectral range from far infrared to extreme ultraviolet (0.01-45 eV) utilizing the universal dispersion model. Two film defects, i.e. random roughness of the upper boundaries and defect transition layer at lower boundary are taken into account. An extension of universal dispersion model consisting in expressing the excitonic contributions as linear combinations of Gaussian and truncated Lorentzian terms is introduced. The spectral dependencies of the optical constants are presented in a graphical form and by the complete set of dispersion parameters that allows generating tabulated optical constants with required range and step using a simple utility in the newAD2 software package.

  15. TESIS experiment on study of solar corona in EUV spectral range (CORONAS-PHOTON project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, S.V.; Zhitnik, I.A.; Ignat'ev, A.P.; Mitrofanov, A.V.; Pertsov, A.A.; Bugaenko, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    A new orbital station, namely: the CORONAS-PHOTON one (to be launched in 2006) equipped with systems to explore Sun at the intensification period of the solar activity 24-th cycle and at its peak is being designed within the framework of the CORONAS National Sun Space Exploration Program. The station equipment consists of systems to observe Sun within the spectral soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet bands. Paper lists and describes the TESIS experiment tools designed for the CORONAS-PHOTON Project to ensure the Sun atmospheric research within short-wave band [ru

  16. Broadband superluminescent diodes and semiconductor optical amplifiers for the spectral range 750 - 800 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O; Kukushkin, I A; Ladugin, M A; Lapin, P I; Lobintsov, A A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Yakubovich, S D

    2011-01-01

    We have studied superluminescent diodes (SLDs) and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on an (Al x Ga 1-x )As/GaAs single quantum well structure with an Al content x ∼ 0.1 in a 10-nm-thick active layer. Depending on the length of the active channel, the single-mode fibre coupled cw output power of the SLDs is 1 to 30 mW at a spectral width of about 50 nm. The width of the optical gain band in the active channel exceeds 40 nm. Preliminary operating life tests have demonstrated that the devices are sufficiently reliable. (lasers)

  17. The Expanding Role of Traceability in Seafood: Tools and Key Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sara G; Boyle, Mariah

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, a range of drivers within the seafood sector have incentivized the application of traceability to issues beyond food safety and inventory management. Some of the issues motivating the expanded use of traceability within the global seafood sector include: increased media attention on the legal and social risks within some seafood supply chains, governmental traceability requirements, private-sector sustainability commitments, and others. This article begins with an overview of these topics in the seafood industry, and why many nongovernment organizations (NGOs), companies, and government actors have turned to traceability as a tool to address them. We discuss how traceability connects to key requirements of environmental sustainability and social responsibility. Later, we review the range of traceability services, tools, software solutions, and the due diligence measures that are currently being leveraged within the seafood sector. The paper concludes with a discussion of several NGO- and industry-led traceability initiatives that are examples of seafood traceability improvements. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Giant magneto-optical faraday effect in HgTe thin films in the terahertz spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, A M; Astakhov, G V; Pimenov, A; Brüne, C; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W

    2011-03-11

    We report the observation of a giant Faraday effect, using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy on epitaxial HgTe thin films at room temperature. The effect is caused by the combination of the unique band structure and the very high electron mobility of HgTe. Our observations suggest that HgTe is a high-potential material for applications as optical isolator and modulator in the THz spectral range.

  19. Spectral Unmixing of Forest Crown Components at Close Range, Airborne and Simulated Sentinel-2 and EnMAP Spectral Imaging Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Clasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest biochemical and biophysical variables and their spatial and temporal distribution are essential inputs to process-orientated ecosystem models. To provide this information, imaging spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool. In this context, the present study investigates the potential of spectral unmixing to derive sub-pixel crown component fractions in a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem. However, the high proportion of foliage in this complex vegetation structure leads to the problem of saturation effects, when applying broadband vegetation indices. This study illustrates that multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA can contribute to overcoming this challenge. Reference fractional abundances, as well as spectral measurements of the canopy components, could be precisely determined from a crane measurement platform situated in a deciduous forest in North-East Germany. In contrast to most other studies, which only use leaf and soil endmembers, this experimental setup allowed for the inclusion of a bark endmember for the unmixing of components within the canopy. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional endmembers markedly improves the accuracy. A mean absolute error of 7.9% could be achieved for the fractional occurrence of the leaf endmember and 5.9% for the bark endmember. In order to evaluate the results of this field-based study for airborne and satellite-based remote sensing applications, a transfer to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA and simulated Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP and Sentinel-2 imagery was carried out. All sensors were capable of unmixing crown components with a mean absolute error ranging between 3% and 21%.

  20. GOME-2A retrievals of tropospheric NO2 in different spectral ranges – influence of penetration depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Behrens

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a novel nitrogen dioxide (NO2 differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS retrieval in the ultraviolet (UV spectral range for observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 on board EUMETSAT's MetOp-A (GOME-2A satellite. We compare the results to those from an established NO2 retrieval in the visible (vis spectral range from the same instrument and investigate how differences between the two are linked to the NO2 vertical profile shape in the troposphere.As expected, radiative transfer calculations for satellite geometries show that the sensitivity close to the ground is higher in the vis than in the UV spectral range. Consequently, NO2 slant column densities (SCDs in the vis are usually higher than in the UV if the NO2 is close to the surface. Therefore, these differences in NO2 SCDs between the two spectral ranges contain information on the vertical distribution of NO2 in the troposphere. We combine these results with radiative transfer calculations and simulated NO2 fields from the TM5-MP chemistry transport model to evaluate the simulated NO2 vertical distribution.We investigate regions representative of both anthropogenic and biomass burning NO2 pollution. Anthropogenic air pollution is mostly located in the boundary layer close to the surface, which is reflected by large differences between UV and vis SCDs of  ∼  60 %. Biomass burning NO2 in contrast is often uplifted into elevated layers above the boundary layer. This is best seen in tropical Africa south of the Equator, where the biomass burning NO2 is well observed in the UV, and the SCD difference between the two spectral ranges is only  ∼  36 %. In tropical Africa north of the Equator, however, the biomass burning NO2 is located closer to the ground, reducing its visibility in the UV.While not enabling a full retrieval of the vertical NO2 profile shape in the troposphere, our results can help to constrain the vertical

  1. Photophysics of GaN single-photon emitters in the visible spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Amanuel M.; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Bradac, Carlo; Walsh, Michael; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a detailed photophysical analysis of recently discovered, optically stable single-photon emitters (SPEs) in gallium nitride (GaN). Temperature-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal that the emission lines at 4 K are three orders of magnitude broader than the transform-limited width expected from excited-state lifetime measurements. The broadening is ascribed to ultrafast spectral diffusion. The photophysical study on several emitters at room temperature (RT) reveals an average brightness of (427 ±215 )kCounts /s . Finally, polarization measurements from 14 emitters are used to determine visibility as well as dipole orientation of defect systems within the GaN crystal. Our results underpin some of the fundamental properties of SPEs in GaN both at cryogenic and RT, and define the benchmark for future work in GaN-based single-photon technologies.

  2. Traceability of 'Limone di Siracusa PGI' by a multidisciplinary analytical and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, M; Fabroni, S; Costa, C; Rapisarda, P

    2016-11-15

    Food traceability is increasingly relevant with respect to safety, quality and typicality issues. Lemon fruits grown in a typical lemon-growing area of southern Italy (Siracusa), have been awarded the PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) recognition as 'Limone di Siracusa'. Due to its peculiarity, consumers have an increasing interest about this product. The detection of potential fraud could be improved by using the tools linking the composition of this production to its typical features. This study used a wide range of analytical techniques, including conventional techniques and analytical approaches, such as spectral (NIR spectra), multi-elemental (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Li, Sr) and isotopic ((13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O) marker investigations, joined with multivariate statistical analysis, such as PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), to implement a traceability system to verify the authenticity of 'Limone di Siracusa' production. The results demonstrated a very good geographical discrimination rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Traceability Method for Software Engineering Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Adila Azram; Rodziah Atan

    2012-01-01

    Traceability has been widely discussed in research area. It has been one of interest topic to be research in software engineering. Traceability in software documentation is one of the interesting topics to be research further. It is important in software documentation to trace out the flow or process in all the documents whether they depends with one another or not. In this paper, we present a traceability method for software engineering documentation. The objective of this research is to fac...

  4. Spectral optical properties of long-range transport Asian dust and pollution aerosols over Northeast Asia in 2007 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mega-cities program, aerosol physical and optical properties were continuously measured from March 2007 to March 2008 at an urban site (37.57° N, 126.94° E in Seoul, Korea. Spectral optical properties of long-range transported Asian dust and pollution aerosols have been investigated based on the year long measurement data. Optically measured black carbon/thermally measured elemental carbon (BC/EC ratio showed clear monthly variation with high values in summer and low values in winter mainly due to the enhancement of light attenuation by the internal mixing of EC. Novel approach has been suggested to retrieve the spectral light absorption coefficient (babs from Aethalometer raw data by using BC/EC ratio. Mass absorption efficiency, σabs (=babs/EC at 550 nm was determined to be 9.0±1.3, 8.9±1.5, 9.5±2.0, and 10.3±1.7 m2 g−1 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively with an annual mean of 9.4±1.8 m2 g−1. Threshold values to classify severe haze events were suggested in this study. Increasing trend of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA with wavelength was observed during Asian dust events while little spectral dependence of SSA was observed during long-range transport pollution (LTP events. Satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT and Hysplit air mass backward trajectory analyses as well as chemical analysis were performed to characterize the dependence of spectral optical properties on aerosol type. Results from this study can provide useful information for studies on regional air quality and aerosol's effects on climate change.

  5. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the 500-1150 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Risueno, E. [CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava, Spain. (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5-22 {mu}m spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for {lambda} > 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen-Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 {mu}m to about 0.10 at 22 {mu}m. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen-Rubens equation.

  6. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the 500–1150 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Fernández, L.; Risueño, E.; Pérez-Sáez, R.B.; Tello, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. ► Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. ► Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5–22 μm spectral range. ► Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for λ > 10 μm. ► Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen–Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti–6Al–4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 μm to about 0.10 at 22 μm. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen–Rubens equation.

  7. Analysis of global water vapour trends from satellite measurements in the visible spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mieruch

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Global water vapour total column amounts have been retrieved from spectral data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME flying on ERS-2, which was launched in April 1995, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT launched in March 2002. For this purpose the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS approach has been used. The combination of the data from both instruments provides us with a long-term global data set spanning more than 11 years with the potential of extension up to 2020 by GOME-2 data on MetOp.

    Using linear and non-linear methods from time series analysis and standard statistics the trends of H2O columns and their errors have been calculated. In this study, factors affecting the trend such as the length of the time series, the magnitude of the variability of the noise, and the autocorrelation of the noise are investigated. Special emphasis has been placed on the calculation of the statistical significance of the observed trends, which reveal significant local changes from −5% per year to +5% per year. These significant trends are distributed over the whole globe. Increasing trends have been calculated for Greenland, East Europe, Siberia and Oceania, whereas decreasing trends have been observed for the northwest USA, Central America, Amazonia, Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsular.

  8. Phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene: Sensitized by riboflavin under different irradiation spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xin; Zhao Xueheng; Hwang, H.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Riboflavin-sensitized phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under natural sunlight was investigated with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of different spectral region of sunlight on TNT phototransformation in the absence or presence of riboflavin was also investigated by using optical filters with cut-off at 400 or 455 nm. The concentration of riboflavin in the phototransformation of TNT was optimized. Concentration of riboflavin and TNT was 1.0 and 50 μM, respectively. The rates of phototransformation of TNT under natural sunlight in the presence or absence of riboflavin were conformed to initial pseudo-first-order rate equation. The photolysis half life of TNT in the presence of riboflavin was 21.87 min, compared to 39 min in the absence of riboflavin under natural sunlight. Two major phototransformation products of TNT, 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5-DNA) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), were detected in the samples in the presence of riboflavin receiving irradiation at full wavelength or wavelength >400 nm. The results indicate that riboflavin mediates TNT sensitized-phototransfomation under natural sunlight or near-UV-vis light

  9. Adaption of an array spectroradiometer for total ozone column retrieval using direct solar irradiance measurements in the UV spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ralf; Sperfeld, Peter; Riechelmann, Stefan; Nevas, Saulius; Sildoja, Meelis; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    A compact array spectroradiometer that enables precise and robust measurements of solar UV spectral direct irradiance is presented. We show that this instrument can retrieve total ozone column (TOC) accurately. The internal stray light, which is often the limiting factor for measurements in the UV spectral range and increases the uncertainty for TOC analysis, is physically reduced so that no other stray-light reduction methods, such as mathematical corrections, are necessary. The instrument has been extensively characterised at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. During an international total ozone measurement intercomparison at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory in Tenerife, the high-quality applicability of the instrument was verified with measurements of the direct solar irradiance and subsequent TOC evaluations based on the spectral data measured between 12 and 30 September 2016. The results showed deviations of the TOC of less than 1.5 % from most other instruments in most situations and not exceeding 3 % from established TOC measurement systems such as Dobson or Brewer.

  10. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  11. Quantum-cascade lasers in the 7-8 μm spectral range with full top metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, A. S.; Babichev, A. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Karachinsky, L. Ya; Novikov, I. I.; Sofronov, A. N.; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Bousseksou, A.; Egorov, A. Yu

    2018-03-01

    The paper demonstrates the generation of multistage quantum-cascade lasers (QCL) in the 7-8 μm spectral range in the pulse generation mode. The active region structure we used is based on a two-phonon resonance scheme. The QCL heterostructure based on a heteropair of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As solid alloys was grown by molecular beam epitaxy and includes 50 identical stages. A waveguide geometry with top cladding with full top metallization (surface- plasmon quantum-cascade lasers) has been used. The developed QCLs have demonstrated multimodal generation in the 7-8 μm spectral range in the pulse mode in the 78-250 K temperature range. The threshold current density for a 1.6 mm long laser and a 20 μm ridge width amounted to ˜ 2.8 kA/cm2 at a temperature of 78 К. A temperature increase to 250 K causes a long-wave shift of the wavelength from 7.6 to 7.9 μm and a jth increase to 5.0 kA/cm2.

  12. Database setup insuring radiopharmaceuticals traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, N.; Salmon, F.; Clermont-Gallerande, H. de; Celerier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Having to organize radiopharmacy and to insure proper traceability of radiopharmaceutical medicines brings numerous problems, especially for the departments which are not assisted with global management network systems. Our work has been to find a solution enabling to use high street software to cover those needs. We have set up a PC database run by the Microsoft software ACCESS 97. Its use consists in: saving data related to generators, isotopes and kits reception and deletion, as well as the results of quality control; transferring data collected from the software that is connected to the activimeter (elutions and preparations registers, prescription book). By relating all the saved data, ACCESS enables to mix all information in order to proceed requests. At this stage, it is possible to edit all regular registers (prescription book, generator and radionuclides follow-up, blood derived medicines traceability) and to quickly retrieve patients who have received a particular radiopharmaceutical, or the radiopharmaceutical that has been given to a particular patient. This user-friendly database provides a considerable support to nuclear medicine department that don't possess any network management for their radiopharmaceutical activity. (author)

  13. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2011-06-01

    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  14. Traceability in the food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, E.J.; Spiegel, van der M.; Prins, T.W.; Manti, V.; Groot, M.J.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels, van der H.J.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Traceability of food implies the ability to trace and follow a food, feed, or a food-producing animal or substance intended to be, or expected to be, incorporated into a food or feed, through all stages of production, processing, and distribution. The importance of traceability has grown due to the

  15. TiO(2) doping by hydroxyurea at the nucleation stage: towards a new photocatalyst in the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouani, R; Tieng, S; Chhor, K; Bocquet, J-F; Eloy, P; Gaigneaux, E M; Klementiev, K; Kanaev, A V

    2010-10-07

    We report an original method of preparation of OCN-doped TiO(2) for photocatalysis in the visible spectral range. The preparation is achieved by a sol-gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide precursor. Special attention was paid to fluid micromixing, which enables homogeneous reaction conditions in the reactor bulk and monodispersity of the produced clusters/nanoparticles. The dopant hydroxyurea (HyU, CH(4)N(2)O(2)) is injected into the reactive fluid at the nucleation stage, which lasts tens of milliseconds. The doping results in a strong yellow coloration of the nanocolloids due to the absorption band in the spectral range 380-550 nm and accelerates the aggregation kinetics of both nuclei at the induction stage and sub-nuclei units (clusters) at the nucleation stage. FTIR, Raman and UV-visible absorption analyses show the formation of a stable HyU-TiO(2) complex. EXAFS spectra indicate no appreciable changes of the first-shell Ti atom environment. The doping agent takes available surface sites of TiO(2) clusters/nanoparticles attaining ∼10% molar loading. The reaction kinetics then accelerates due to a longer collisional lifetime between nanoparticles induced by the formation of a weak [double bond, length as m-dash]OTi bond. The OCN-group bonding to titanium atoms produces a weakening of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bond and a strengthening of the C-N and N-O bonds.

  16. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of germanium in the UV–vis spectral range: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The study of temperature dependence of thermophysical parameter dielectric function is key to understanding thermal radiative transfer in high-temperature environments. Limited by self-radiation and thermal oxidation, however, it is difficult to directly measure the high-temperature dielectric function of solids with present experimental technologies. In this work, we implement two first-principles methods, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), to study the temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) in the UV–vis spectral range in order to provide data of high-temperature dielectric function for radiative transfer study in high-temperature environments. Both the two methods successfully predict the temperature dependence of dielectric function of Ge. Moreover, the good agreement between the calculated results of the AIMD approach and experimental data at 825 K enables us to predict the high-temperature dielectric function of Ge with the AIMD method in the UV–vis spectral range. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) is investigated with two first-principles methods. • The temperature effect on dielectric function of Ge is discussed. • The high-temperature dielectric function of Ge is predicted

  17. Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in terahertz spectral range by free-electron laser radiation and their refractive index determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, G.D.; Jeong, Uk Young; Zhizhin, G.N.; Nikitin, A.K.; Zavyalov, V.V.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    First experiments for observation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) in the terahertz spectral range generated on dense aluminum films covering the optical quality glass plates are presented in this paper. Coherent radiation of the new free-electron laser covering the frequency range from 30 to 100cm -1 was used. The interference technique employing SEW propagation in the part of one shoulder of the asymmetric interferometer was applied. From the interference pattern the real part of SEW's effective refractive index ae ' was determined for the two laser emission wavelengths: at λ=150μm-ae ' =1+5x10 -5 , at λ=110μm-ae ' =1+8x10 -4 . High sensitivity of the interference patterns to overlayers made of Ge and Si with thickness of 100nm was demonstrated as well

  18. On the Full-range β Dependence of Ion-scale Spectral Break in the Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua

    2018-04-01

    The power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations has a break at the high-frequency end of the inertial range. Beyond this break, the spectrum becomes steeper than the Kolmogorov law f ‑5/3. The break frequency was found to be associated with plasma beta (β). However, the full-range β dependence of the ion-scale spectral break has not been presented before in observational studies. Here we show the continuous variation of the break frequency on full-range β in the solar wind turbulence. By using measurements from the WIND and Ulysses spacecraft, we show the break frequency (f b ) normalized, respectively, by the frequencies corresponding to ion inertial length (f di ), ion gyroradius ({f}ρ i), and cyclotron resonance scale (f ri ) as a function of β for 1306 intervals. Their β values spread from 0.005 to 20, which nearly covers the full β range of the observed solar wind turbulence. It is found that {f}b/{f}{di} ({f}b/{f}ρ i) generally decreases (increases) with β, while {f}b/{f}{ri} is nearly a constant. We perform a linear fit on the statistical result, and obtain the empirical formulas {f}b/{f}{di}∼ {β }-1/4, {f}b/{f}ρ i∼ {β }1/4, and {f}b/{f}{ri}∼ 0.90 to describe the relation between f b and β. We also compare our observations with a numerical simulation and the prediction by ion cyclotron resonance theory. Our result favors the idea that the cyclotron resonance is an important mechanism for energy dissipation at the spectral break. When β ≪ 1 and β ≫ 1, the break at f di and {f}ρ i may also be associated with other processes.

  19. A HIGH-RESOLUTION, MULTI-EPOCH SPECTRAL ATLAS OF PECULIAR STARS INCLUDING RAVE, GAIA , AND HERMES WAVELENGTH RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2010-01-01

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 A and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  20. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

  1. Fully automated dual-frequency three-pulse-echo 2DIR spectrometer accessing spectral range from 800 to 4000 wavenumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, Joel D.; Nyby, Clara M.; Varner, Clyde; Tang, Jianan; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Yue, Yuankai; Kireev, Victor V.; Burtsev, Viacheslav D.; Qasim, Layla N.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Grigory I. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    A novel dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared instrument is designed and built that permits three-pulse heterodyned echo measurements of any cross-peak within a spectral range from 800 to 4000 cm{sup −1} to be performed in a fully automated fashion. The superior sensitivity of the instrument is achieved by a combination of spectral interferometry, phase cycling, and closed-loop phase stabilization accurate to ∼70 as. The anharmonicity of smaller than 10{sup −4} cm{sup −1} was recorded for strong carbonyl stretching modes using 800 laser shot accumulations. The novel design of the phase stabilization scheme permits tuning polarizations of the mid-infrared (m-IR) pulses, thus supporting measurements of the angles between vibrational transition dipoles. The automatic frequency tuning is achieved by implementing beam direction stabilization schemes for each m-IR beam, providing better than 50 μrad beam stability, and novel scheme for setting the phase-matching geometry for the m-IR beams at the sample. The errors in the cross-peak amplitudes associated with imperfect phase matching conditions and alignment are found to be at the level of 20%. The instrument can be used by non-specialists in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  2. New methods of highly efficient controlled generation of radiation by liquid crystal nanostructures in a wide spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagayev, S N; Klementyev, V M; Nyushkov, B N; Pivtsov, V S; Trashkeev, S I

    2012-01-01

    We report the recent results of research focused on a new kind of soft matter-the liquid-crystal nanocomposites with controllable mechanical and nonlinear optical properties. These are promising media for implementation of ultra-compact photonic devices and efficient sources of coherent radiation in a wide spectral range. We overview the technology of preparation of nematic-liquid-crystal media saturated with disclination defects. The defects were formed in different ways: by embedding nanoparticles and molecular objects, by exposure to alpha-particle flux. The defect locations were controlled by applying an electric field. We also present and discuss the recently discovered features of nematic-liquid-crystal media: a thermal orientation effect leading to the fifth-order optical nonlinearity, enormous second-order susceptibility revealed by measurements, and structural changes upon exposure to laser radiation. We report on efficient generation of harmonics, sum and difference optical frequencies in nematic-liquid-crystal media. In addition, transformation of laser radiation spectra to spectral supercontinua, and filamentation of laser beams were also observed in nematic-liquid-crystal media. We conclude that most nonlinear optical effects result from changes of the orientational order in the examined nematic liquid crystals. These changes lead to the symmetry breaking and disclination appearances.

  3. Development and testing of a fast Fourier transform high dynamic-range spectral diagnostics for millimeter wave characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoen, D. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Westerhof, E.; Baar, M. R. de; Berg, M. A. van den; Beveren, V. van; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Buerger, A.; Hennen, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200 000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range.

  4. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 – 4 μm spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanovskii Oleg A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  5. Establishment of Traceability of Reference Grade Hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (npli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Harish; Mandal, Goutam; Das, M. B.; Sharma, D. C.

    The present paper discusses the establishment of traceability of reference grade hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI). The reference grade hydrometers are calibrated and traceable to the primary solid density standard. The calibration has been done according to standard procedure based on Cuckow's Method and the reference grade hydrometers calibrated covers a wide range. The uncertainty of the reference grade hydrometers has been computed and corrections are also calculated for the scale readings, at which observations are taken.

  6. Spectral counting assessment of protein dynamic range in cerebrospinal fluid following depletion with plasma-designed immunoaffinity columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is a rich source of biomarkers for neurological diseases, identification of biomarkers requires methods that allow reproducible detection of low abundance proteins. It is therefore crucial to decrease dynamic range and improve assessment of protein abundance. Results We applied LC-MS/MS to compare the performance of two CSF enrichment techniques that immunodeplete either albumin alone (IgYHSA or 14 high-abundance proteins (IgY14. In order to estimate dynamic range of proteins identified, we measured protein abundance with APEX spectral counting method. Both immunodepletion methods improved the number of low-abundance proteins detected (3-fold for IgYHSA, 4-fold for IgY14. The 10 most abundant proteins following immunodepletion accounted for 41% (IgY14 and 46% (IgYHSA of CSF protein content, whereas they accounted for 64% in non-depleted samples, thus demonstrating significant enrichment of low-abundance proteins. Defined proteomics experiment metrics showed overall good reproducibility of the two immunodepletion methods and MS analysis. Moreover, offline peptide fractionation in IgYHSA sample allowed a 4-fold increase of proteins identified (520 vs. 131 without fractionation, without hindering reproducibility. Conclusions The novelty of this study was to show the advantages and drawbacks of these methods side-to-side. Taking into account the improved detection and potential loss of non-target proteins following extensive immunodepletion, it is concluded that both depletion methods combined with spectral counting may be of interest before further fractionation, when searching for CSF biomarkers. According to the reliable identification and quantitation obtained with APEX algorithm, it may be considered as a cheap and quick alternative to study sample proteomic content.

  7. Design of a Distributed Food Traceability Platform and Its Application in Food Traceability at Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haibiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food traceability is an important measure to secure food safety. This paper designed a food traceability platform based on distribution framework and implemented it in Guangdong province. The platform can provide traceability service, production and management service for food enterprise, provide forward and backward traceability of the whole cycle of food production and circulation, and provide various methods of food traceability for public. One characteristic of the platform is that it opens up the data flow among production, circulation and supervising departments, and builds a unified commodity circulation data pool. Based on the flow data pool, not only the production and circulation information of the food product can be traced, but also its inspection and quarantine information. Another characteristic of the platform is that its database and data interface were developed based on the fool electronic traceability standards formulated by the National Food and Drug Administration. Its interface standardization and compatibility with other food traceability platforms can thus be guaranteed. The platform is running at Guangdong province for key supervising products of Infant formula foods (including milk powder, rice flour, farina, etc, editable oil and liquor. The public can use the Guangdong food traceability portal, mobile APP, Wechat or the self-service terminals in the supermarkets to trace food products by scanning or input its traceability code or its product code and verify its authenticity. It will help to promote consumer confidence in food safety.

  8. Mutton Traceability Method Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Min-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the mutton traceability efficiency for Internet of Things and solve the problem of data transmission, analyzed existing tracking algorithm, proposed the food traceability application model, Petri network model of food traceability and food traceability of time series data of improved K-means algorithm based on the Internet of things. The food traceability application model to convert, integrate and mine the heterogeneous information, implementation of the food safety traceability information management, Petri network model for food traceability in the process of the state transition were analyzed and simulated and provides a theoretical basis to study the behavior described in the food traceability system and structural design. The experiments on simulation data show that the proposed traceability method based on Internet of Things is more effective for mutton traceability data than the traditional K-means methods.

  9. Risk Monitoring through Traceability Information Model

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Zamora; Wilson Adarme; Laura Palacios

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows a traceability framework for supply risk monitoring, beginning with the identification, analysis, and evaluation of the supply chain risk and focusing on the supply operations of the Health Care Institutions with oncology services in Bogota, Colombia. It includes a brief presentation of the state of the art of the Supply Chain Risk Management and traceability systems in logistics operations, and it concludes with the methodology to integrate the SCRM model with the traceabili...

  10. Traceability and uncertainty estimation in coordinate metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    National and international standards have defined performance verification procedures for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) that typically involve their ability to measure calibrated lengths and to a certain extent form. It is recognised that, without further analysis or testing, these results...... are required. Depending on the requirements for uncertainty level, different approaches may be adopted to achieve traceability. Especially in the case of complex measurement situations and workpieces the procedures are not trivial. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability in coordinate metrology...

  11. Active thermal fine laser tuning in a broad spectral range and optical properties of cholesteric liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mi-Yun; Kwak, Keumcheol

    2016-11-20

    In this study, we achieved active fine laser tuning in a broad spectral range with dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal wedge-type cells through temperature control. The spatial pitch gradient of each position of the wedge cell at room temperature was almost maintained after developing a temperature gradient. To achieve the maximum tuning range, the chiral dopant concentration, thickness, thickness gradient, and temperature gradient on the wedge cell should be matched properly. In order to understand the laser tuning mechanism for temperature change, we studied the temperature dependence of optical properties of the photonic bandgap of cholesteric liquid crystals. In our cholesteric liquid crystal samples, when temperature was increased, photonic bandgaps were shifted toward blue, while the width of the photonic bandgap was decreased, regardless of whether the helicity was left-handed or right-handed. This is mainly due to the combination of decreased refractive indices, higher molecular anisotropy of chiral molecules, and increased chiral molecular solubility. We envisage that this kind of study will prove useful in the development of practical active tunable CLC laser devices.

  12. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  13. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  14. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B.; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M.; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S.

    2012-01-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  15. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d' astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  16. Spectral analysis of geological materials in the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica and its relationship to the remote detection of anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Rejas, J. G.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Martínez, R.; Bonatti, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the comparative study of methods for calculating spectral anomalies from imaging spectrometry in several test areas of the Central Volcanic Range (CVR) of Costa Rica. In the detection of anomalous responses it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, so that the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information significantly differentiated with respect to a background to be estimated, either globally for the full scene, either locally by i...

  17. Traceability and quality control in mammography: measurements and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2002-10-01

    The success of a treatment or diagnosis using radiation, depends on the optimization of the dose determination to be administered for the patient and on the beam radiation quality. It is recognized by the international guidelines that it is necessary to improve calibration services for mammography beams in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis. Major efforts have been made by several laboratories in order to establish an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure and to provide the basis for a quality control program in mammography. The contribution of the radiation metrology network to the mammography services is reviewed in this work. Steps required for the implementation of a mammography calibration system using a constant potential x-ray and a clinical mammography x-ray machine are presented. The various qualities of mammography radiation discussed in this work are in accordance with the IEC 61674 and the AAPM recommendations. This work also presents the methodology and the procedures to maintain and to disseminate the traceability at the x-ray mammography range, describing the interlaboratory comparison performed at LNMRI/IRD/CNEN and at the IPEN/CNEN using the secondary standard ionization chambers traceable with the international standard. It assesses the inter-laboratory comparison consistency and decides whether a questionable value should or not be accepted, using the residual method. This thesis discusses the uncertainties involved in all steps of the calibration chain in accord once with the ISO recommendations. (author)

  18. From UV Protection to Protection in the Whole Spectral Range of the Solar Radiation: New Aspects of Sunscreen Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, Leonhard; Meinke, Martina C; Albrecht, Stephanie; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Sunscreens have been constantly improving in the past few years. Today, they provide an efficient protection not only in the UVB but also in the UVA spectral region of the solar radiation. Recently it could be demonstrated that 50% of all free radicals induced in the skin due to solar radiation are formed in the visible and infrared spectral region. The good protective efficacy of sunscreens in the UV region prompts people to stay much longer in the sun than if they had left their skin unprotected. However, as no protection in the visible and infrared spectral region is provided, high amounts of free radicals are induced here that could easily exceed the critical radical concentration. This chapter describes how the effect of sunscreens can be extended to cover also the visible and infrared spectral region of the solar radiation by adding pigments and antioxidants with high radical protection factors to the sunscreen formulations.

  19. A single-shot nonlinear autocorrelation approach for time-resolved physics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompotis, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a single-shot temporal metrology scheme operating in the vacuum-extreme ultraviolet spectral range has been designed and experimentally implemented. Utilizing an anti-collinear geometry, a second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement of a vacuum ultraviolet pulse can be performed by encoding temporal delay information on the beam propagation coordinate. An ion-imaging time-of-flight spectrometer, offering micrometer resolution has been set-up for this purpose. This instrument enables the detection of a magnified image of the spatial distribution of ions exclusively generated by direct two-photon absorption in the combined counter-propagating pulse focus and thus obtain the second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement on a single-shot basis. Additionally, an intense VUV light source based on high-harmonic generation has been experimentally realized. It delivers intense sub-20 fs Ti:Sa fifth-harmonic pulses utilizing a loose-focusing geometry in a long Ar gas cell. The VUV pulses centered at 161.8 nm reach pulse energies of 1.1 μJ per pulse, while the corresponding pulse duration is measured with a second-order, fringe-resolved autocorrelation scheme to be 18 ± 1 fs on average. Non-resonant, two-photon ionization of Kr and Xe and three-photon ionization of Ne verify the fifth-harmonic pulse intensity and indicate the feasibility of multi-photon VUV pump/VUV probe studies of ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Finally, the extended functionally of the counter-propagating pulse metrology approach is demonstrated by a single-shot VUV pump/VUV probe experiment aiming at the investigation of ultrafast dissociation dynamics of O 2 excited in the Schumann-Runge continuum at 162 nm.

  20. Characterization of Articular Cartilage Recovery and Its Correlation with Optical Response in the Near-Infrared Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac Oluwaseun; Singh, Sanjleena; Moody, Hayley; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading. The recovery parameter, elastic rebound ( E R ), is based on the strain energy released as the samples underwent instantaneous elastic recovery. Our results reveal positive relationship between the rebound parameter and cartilage proteoglycan content (normal samples: 2.20 ± 0.10 N mm; proteoglycan-depleted samples: 0.50 ± 0.04 N mm for 1 hour of enzymatic treatment and 0.13 ± 0.02 N mm for 4 hours of enzymatic treatment). In addition, multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression was employed to investigate the relationship between E R and NIR spectral data. The results reveal significantly high correlation ( R 2 cal = 98.35% and R 2 val = 79.87%; P cartilage in the combined NIR regions 5,450 to 6,100 cm -1 and 7,500 to 12,500 cm -1 . We conclude that E R can indicate the mechanical condition and state of health of articular cartilage. The correlation of E R with cartilage optical response in the NIR range could facilitate real-time evaluation of the tissue's integrity during arthroscopic surgery and could also provide an important tool for cartilage assessment in tissue engineering and regeneration research.

  1. KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE OF RFID TRACEABILITY SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan KATO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the food market has become highly dynamic. Food crises in the early 90's, or those of the recent years, such as avian flu pandemic, swine flu, the cucumber or horse meat crises all had a negative impact on the Romanian food industry. Food deficiencies have led not only to contamination but also to the illness or death of some consumers. The products traceability is a prerequisite for success in the food industry. As a modern solution, RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications made with rewritable passive RFID tags. This paper aims to examine how RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications and will submit a diligent search regarding the degree of knowledge of RFID technology and the acceptance of an empirical model by the employees of Romanian companies.

  2. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    -focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  3. Traceability in laboratories; Trazabilidad en laboratorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Tulio [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes; Peretti, Matilde; Saravi, Margarita [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    1996-07-01

    The testing and/or calibration laboratories main concern in to obtain reliability in the results delivered, therefore the accuracy and precision should be guaranteed. The regulations with respect to the quality systems makes special mention to the traceability in the equipment and in the measurements. In order to obtain that goal the laboratories are organized in national as well as in international nets to maintain the traceability to the primary standards. In the present work will be given the example of a particular laboratory in this regard. (author)

  4. Influence of the number of atomic levels on the spectral opacity of low temperature nickel and iron in the spectral range 50-300 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Klapisch, M.; Gilles, D.

    2013-01-01

    Opacity is a fundamental ingredient for the secular evolution of stars. The calculation of the stellar plasma absorption coefficients is complex due to the composition of these plasmas, generally an H /He dominated mixture with a low concentration of partially ionized heavy ions (the iron group). The international collaboration OPAC recently presented extensive comparisons of spectral opacities of iron and nickel for temperatures between 15 and 40 eV and for densities of ∼ 3 mg/cm 3 , relevant to the stellar envelope conditions [1, 2]. The role of Configuration Interaction (CI) and the influence of the number of atomic levels on the opacity using the recently improved version of HULLAC atomic code [3, 4] are illustrated in this article. Comparisons with theoretical predictions already presented in [1] are discussed. (authors)

  5. Visualizing and Validating Metadata Traceability within the CDISC Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Sam; Sarnikar, Surendra; Becnel, Lauren; Bennett, Dorine

    2017-01-01

    The Food & Drug Administration has begun requiring that electronic submissions of regulated clinical studies utilize the Clinical Data Information Standards Consortium data standards. Within regulated clinical research, traceability is a requirement and indicates that the analysis results can be traced back to the original source data. Current solutions for clinical research data traceability are limited in terms of querying, validation and visualization capabilities. This paper describes (1) the development of metadata models to support computable traceability and traceability visualizations that are compatible with industry data standards for the regulated clinical research domain, (2) adaptation of graph traversal algorithms to make them capable of identifying traceability gaps and validating traceability across the clinical research data lifecycle, and (3) development of a traceability query capability for retrieval and visualization of traceability information.

  6. Temperature dependence of the dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystals in the spectral range 1.0-8.5 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, C.; Schmidt-Grund, R.; Zviagin, V.; Grundmann, M.

    2017-08-01

    The full dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-phase) was determined by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range from 1.0 eV up to 8.5 eV and temperatures in the range from 10 K up to 300 K. By using the oriented dipole approach, the energies and broadenings of the excitonic transitions are determined as a function of the temperature, and the exciton-phonon coupling properties are deduced.

  7. Microscopic nucleon spectral function for finite nuclei featuring two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations: The model versus ab initio calculations for three-nucleon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio; Mezzetti, Chiara Benedetta; Morita, Hiko

    2017-04-01

    Background: Two-nucleon (2 N ) short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei have been recently thoroughly investigated, both theoretically and experimentally and the study of three-nucleon (3 N ) SRC, which could provide important information on short-range hadronic structure, is underway. Novel theoretical ideas concerning 2 N and 3 N SRC are put forward in the present paper. Purpose: The general features of a microscopic one-nucleon spectral function which includes the effects of both 2 N and 3 N SRC and its comparison with ab initio spectral functions of the three-nucleon systems are illustrated. Methods: A microscopic and parameter-free one-nucleon spectral function expressed in terms of a convolution integral involving ab initio relative and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distributions of a 2 N pair and aimed at describing two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations, is obtained by using: (i) the two-nucleon momentum distributions obtained within ab initio approaches based upon nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Argonne family; (ii) the exact relation between one- and two-nucleon momentum distributions; (iii) the fundamental property of factorization of the nuclear wave function at short internucleon ranges. Results: The comparison between the ab initio spectral function of 3He and the one based upon the convolution integral shows that when the latter contains only two-nucleon short-range correlations the removal energy location of the peaks and the region around them exhibited by the ab initio spectral function are correctly predicted, unlike the case of the high and low removal energy tails; the inclusion of the effects of three-nucleon correlations brings the convolution model spectral function in much better agreement with the ab initio one; it is also found that whereas the three-nucleon short-range correlations dominate the high energy removal energy tail of the spectral function, their effects on the one-nucleon momentum distribution are almost one

  8. Metrological traceability of holmium oxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D. E. F.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Alvarenga, A. P. D.; Borges, P. P.; Araujo, T. O.

    2018-03-01

    Holmium oxide solution was prepared as a candidate of certified reference material for spectrophotometer wavelength scale calibration. Here is presented the necessary steps for evaluation of the uncertainty and the establishment of metrological traceability for the production of this material. Preliminary results from the first produced batch are shown.

  9. Deciding to Adopt Requirements Traceability in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, F.A.; Blaauboer, Floris; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Aydin, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The use of requirements traceability for information systems development (ISD) projects is not very common in practice despite its often mentioned advantages in the literature. We conducted a case study in a large IT company to identify the factors that are relevant for the decision whether or not

  10. Value-Based Requirements Traceability: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyed, Alexander; Grünbacher, Paul; Heindl, Matthias; Biffl, Stefan

    Traceability from requirements to code is mandated by numerous software development standards. These standards, however, are not explicit about the appropriate level of quality of trace links. From a technical perspective, trace quality should meet the needs of the intended trace utilizations. Unfortunately, long-term trace utilizations are typically unknown at the time of trace acquisition which represents a dilemma for many companies. This chapter suggests ways to balance the cost and benefits of requirements traceability. We present data from three case studies demonstrating that trace acquisition requires broad coverage but can tolerate imprecision. With this trade-off our lessons learned suggest a traceability strategy that (1) provides trace links more quickly, (2) refines trace links according to user-defined value considerations, and (3) supports the later refinement of trace links in case the initial value consideration has changed over time. The scope of our work considers the entire life cycle of traceability instead of just the creation of trace links.

  11. How traceability is restructuring Malawi's tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyer-Lee, Jason; Prowse, Martin

    farming offers merchants the ability to meet manufacturers’ compliance and traceability requirements. It also offers an opportunity for process and product upgrading by smallholders, but threatens to exclude poorer growers. The article concludes by outlining current contractual practices and the possible...... role of third parties in this rapid institutional evolution....

  12. Ethical traceability in the bacon supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2008-01-01

    The chapter describes how Danish consumers feel a need for more information about bacon production practices,especially about some of the invisible attributes, such as origin, use of medicine and animal welfare, even though there is a long tradition for highly developed traceability systems. Trac...

  13. Food quality and safety: traceability and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses food systems in general, their development over the past 120 years, and realities and problems faced by a world population of over 6 billion people. Various food and feed problems are mentioned, and the concept of "traceability" is discussed in the context of the broader and more useful approach of using "good practices" at all levels of the food chain.

  14. Traceability and standardization of large dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1989-01-01

    The reliability of dose control for radiation sterilization and food irradiation depends on the relative errors in measurements made by different dosimeters and the level of process control techniques as well as traceability. International efforts have been made for standardization of dose measurement procedures and process control techniques. A system for traceability of large dose measurement has already been established in the U.S. and Britain, and it has become urgent in Japan to establish a traceability system. For process control for radiation sterilization of medical tools, dose measurement is replacing the use of a biological indicator to play a more important role in relation to sterilization assurance. AAMI is making efforts to establish implementation standards for process control for industrial sterilization with electron beam. In Japan, the Radiation Irradiation Promotion Association has developed a manual 'Measurement of Dose of Electron Beam for Irradiation' to be used by users of electron beam for irradiation. Further efforts are required to establish a proper traceability system and standardization of dose measurement. (N.K.)

  15. Design of a sun tracker for the automatic measurement of spectral irradiance and construction of an irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.; Maj, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Pedros, R.; Gomez-Amo, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    An automatic global and direct solar spectral irradiance system has been designed based on two LICOR spectro radiometers equipped with fibre optics and remote cosine sensors. To measure direct irradiance a sun tracker based on step motors has been developed. The whole system is autonomous and works continuously. From the measurements provided by this system a spectral irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range has been created. This database contains normal direct and global horizontal irradiances as well as diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane, together with total atmospheric optical thickness and aerosol optical depth. (author)

  16. Exploring the Limitations on RFID Technology in Traceability Systems at Beverage Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Expósito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of RFID in traceability of products in beverage factories is analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic conditions defined by the massive presence of metallic elements and liquids. Various experiments are reported to determine the maximum reading range from RFID tags installed on tanks or to read RFID information around bottles, both empty and full of wine, trying to put in context the possible problems that could appear when installing an RFID-based traceability system within a winery, a brewery, or any other beverage factory.

  17. Dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystals in the spectral range 0.5–8.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sturm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric tensor of Ga2O3 in the monoclinic (β phase was determined by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in a wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV as well as by density functional theory calculations combined with many-body perturbation theory including quasiparticle and excitonic effects. The dielectric tensors obtained by both methods are in excellent agreement with each other and the observed transitions in the dielectric function are assigned to the corresponding valence bands. It is shown that the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor reaches values up to |εxz| ≈ 0.30 and cannot be neglected. Even in the transparent spectral range where it is quite small (|εxz| < 0.02 it causes a rotation of the dielectric axes around the symmetry axis of up to 20°.

  18. Estimation of organic carbon deposition into forest ecosystems by determination of the spectral absorption of rainwater in range of ultraviolet radiation (SAC254)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, U.

    1988-01-01

    Organic compounds are mostly neglected within deposition measurement programs because their determination is expensive and complicated. A very simple and rapid estimation of total organic carbon (TOC) is possible by determination of the spectral absorption coefficient in the range of ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm wave-length (SAC 254 ): TOC (mg/1) = 0,5 SAC 254 (m −1 ) - 0,15 (author) [de

  19. Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range for the geographic classification of Italian exravirgin olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Cimato, Antonio; Sani, Graziano; Smith, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range are innovately used to analyze samples of extra virgin olive oils coming from selected areas of Tuscany, a famous Italian region for the production of extra virgin olive oil. The measured spectra are processed by means of the Principal Component Analysis method, so as to create a 3D map capable of clustering the Tuscan oils within the wider area of Italian extra virgin olive oils.

  20. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  1. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.

    Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  2. Radiometric Correction of Close-Range Spectral Image Blocks Captured Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with a Radiometric Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Honkavaara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV equipped with novel, miniaturized, 2D frame format hyper- and multispectral cameras make it possible to conduct remote sensing measurements cost-efficiently, with greater accuracy and detail. In the mapping process, the area of interest is covered by multiple, overlapping, small-format 2D images, which provide redundant information about the object. Radiometric correction of spectral image data is important for eliminating any external disturbance from the captured data. Corrections should include sensor, atmosphere and view/illumination geometry (bidirectional reflectance distribution function—BRDF related disturbances. An additional complication is that UAV remote sensing campaigns are often carried out under difficult conditions, with varying illumination conditions and cloudiness. We have developed a global optimization approach for the radiometric correction of UAV image blocks, a radiometric block adjustment. The objective of this study was to implement and assess a combined adjustment approach, including comprehensive consideration of weighting of various observations. An empirical study was carried out using imagery captured using a hyperspectral 2D frame format camera of winter wheat crops. The dataset included four separate flights captured during a 2.5 h time period under sunny weather conditions. As outputs, we calculated orthophoto mosaics using the most nadir images and sampled multiple-view hyperspectral spectra for vegetation sample points utilizing multiple images in the dataset. The method provided an automated tool for radiometric correction, compensating for efficiently radiometric disturbances in the images. The global homogeneity factor improved from 12–16% to 4–6% with the corrections, and a reduction in disturbances could be observed in the spectra of the object points sampled from multiple overlapping images. Residuals in the grey and white reflectance panels were less than 5% of the

  3. Wide-spectral/dynamic-range skin-compatible phototransistors enabled by floated heterojunction structures with surface functionalized SWCNTs and amorphous oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insik; Kim, Jaehyun; Lee, Minkyung; Lee, Min-Wook; Kim, Hee-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Hwang, Do Kyung; Kim, Myunggil; Yoon, Haeyoung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2017-11-09

    Purified semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) have been researched for optoelectronic applications due to their high absorption coefficient from the visible to even the near-infrared (NIR) region. Nevertheless, the insufficient electrical characteristics and incompatibility with conventional CMOS processing have limited their wide utilization in this emerging field. Here, we demonstrate highly detective and wide spectral/dynamic range phototransistors incorporating floated heterojunction active layers which are composed of low-temperature sol-gel processed n-type amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) stacked with a purified p-type sc-SWCNT layer. To achieve a high and broad spectral/dynamic range photo-response of the heterogeneous transistors, photochemically functionalized sc-SWCNT layers were carefully implemented onto the a-IGZO channel area with a floating p-n heterojunction active layer, resulting in the suppression of parasitic charge leakage and good bias driven opto-electrical properties. The highest photosensitivity (R) of 9.6 × 10 2 A W -1 and a photodetectivity (D*) of 4 × 10 14 Jones along with a dynamic range of 100-180 dB were achieved for our phototransistor in the spectral range of 400-780 nm including continuous and minimal frequency independent behaviors. More importantly, to demonstrate the diverse application of the ultra-flexible hybrid photosensor platform as skin compatible electronics, the sc-SWCNT/a-IGZO phototransistors were fabricated on an ultra-thin (∼1 μm) polyimide film along with a severe static and dynamic electro-mechanical test. The skin-like phototransistors showed excellent mechanical stability such as sustainable good electrical performance and high photosensitivity in a wide dynamic range without any visible cracks or damage and little noise interference after being rolled-up on the 150 μm-thick optical fiber as well as more than 1000 times cycling.

  4. Resolving traceability issues of product derivation for software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Saad bin

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Dealing with traceability management issues during model based product derivation in large complex industrial SPL is error prone due to the lack of tool support. As a result traceability management between connected models emerges as an important research topic. In this position paper, we discuss research challenges as scenarios from developed example product line and give recommendations on resolving traceability issues during product derivation. We also discuss initial idea...

  5. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis

  6. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  7. KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE OF RFID TRACEABILITY SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan KATO

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the food market has become highly dynamic. Food crises in the early 90's, or those of the recent years, such as avian flu pandemic, swine flu, the cucumber or horse meat crises all had a negative impact on the Romanian food industry. Food deficiencies have led not only to contamination but also to the illness or death of some consumers. The products traceability is a prerequisite for success in the food industry. As a modern solution, RFID technology can be useful for tr...

  8. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – TRACEABILITY, CALIBRATION AND PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with an exercise of 1 hour duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns establishment of traceability of measurements with optical coordinate machine by mean of using two different calibrated...

  9. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Adjustment of a goniometer for X-rays optics calibration in the spectral range 1.5-20 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legistre, S.

    1992-10-01

    The aim of this memoir is the adjustment of a (θ, 2θ) goniometer coupled to X-rays source to calibrate mirrors (single layers like C, Ni, Au, etc... and multilayers like C/W, Si/W, etc...) in the spectral range 1.5 - 20 keV. For each kind of tested optics the adjustment of the goniometer include the procedure alignment of the different components (X-ray source, collimation slits, optics, detectors) and the first reflectivity measurements. Those measurements are compared those realized at LURE, using synchrotron radiation provided by SUPER ACO storage ring, and to a theoretical simulation

  11. Traceability system for radioactivity standards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    The electrotechnical laboratory (ETL) is the one of the largest national research institute, affiliated with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The ETL has a role to maintain the national standards of electricity, acoustics, visible light, ionizing radiation and radioactivity. The primary radioactivity standards have been established in ETL mainly with the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The liquid scintillation counters and multi-wire proportional counters are also used for pure-beta and surface emission rate standards, respectively. As for the traceability, the primary standard sources are transferred to the Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA), and the JRIA measure these sources to calibrate their secondary standard equipments such as high pressurized 4π ionization chambers, high pore Ge and Nal (Tl) gamma spectrometers. The primary sources are also sent to the BIPM and neighboring countries for the intercomparisons to keep the consistency of the national standards. In this paper, these measurement techniques for the primary standardization and transfer system will be introduced, and some results of comparisons for certificate the traceability system will be described. (author)

  12. Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Aceto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile.

  13. Method for traceable measurement of LTE signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Dash, Soumya; Pythoud, Frederic; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Leuthold, Juerg

    2018-04-01

    This contribution presents a reference setup to measure the power of the cell-specific resource elements present in downlink long term evolution (LTE) signals in a way that the measurements are traceable to the international system of units. This setup can be used to calibrate the LTE code-selective field probes that are used to measure the radiation of base stations for mobile telephony. It can also be used to calibrate LTE signal generators and receivers. The method is based on traceable scope measurements performed directly at the output of a measuring antenna. It implements offline digital signal processing demodulation algorithms that consider the digital down-conversion, timing synchronization, frequency synchronization, phase synchronization and robust LTE cell identification to produce the downlink time-frequency LTE grid. Experimental results on conducted test scenarios, both single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output antenna configuration, show promising results confirming measurement uncertainties of the order of 0.05 dB with a coverage factor of 2.

  14. Change of the spectral sensitivity range of thin-film AlGaAs/GaAs -photoreceivers under influence of ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveryukhina, N. N.; Zaveryukhin, B. N.; Zaveryukhina, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The task of controlled variation of the physical properties of semiconductor materials under the action of external factors is an important problem in the physics of semiconductors. As is well known, one such factor is ultrasonic radiation: propagating in a semiconductor crystal, acoustic (ultrasonic) waves change its properties, in particular, the optical characteristics. In the context of solving the above task, it is expedient to continue investigations of the effect of ultrasonic waves on the characteristics of semiconductor devices. This report presents the results of experimental investigations of the influence of ultrasonic waves on the spectral characteristics of photoreceivers based on AlGaAs/GaAs- heterostructures. The study showed that an exposure to ultrasonic radiation leads to a change, depending on the ultrasonic treatment (UST) parameters, in the spectral characteristics of gallium arsenide crystals, the base materials of modern semiconductor photoelectronics. Some results showed evidence of the positive character of changes in the characteristics of A 3 B 5 -based photoreceivers under the action of ultrasonic waves. The effect of ultrasonic waves on the spectral sensitivity of photoreceivers based on AlGaAs/GaAs- heterostructures has been studied. Ultrasonic treatment of a zinc-doped graded-gap Al x Ga 1-x As- film leads to the formation of a surface layer sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range < 0,55m. It is established that this layer is formed as a result of the acoustostimulated inward diffusion of zinc from the surface to the bulk of the graded-gap layer. The observed expansion of the short-wavelength sensitivity range and an increase in the efficiency of nonequilibrium charge carrier collection in AlGaAs/GaAs- photoreceivers are due to improvement of the crystal defect structure and the dopant redistribution under the action of ultrasound. (authors)

  15. Spectral characterisation of aperiodic normal-incidence Sb/B4C multilayer mirrors for the λ < 124 Å range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, E. A.; Kopylets, I. A.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Kolesnikov, A. O.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ragozin, E. N.; Shatokhin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Three broadband aperiodic Sb/B4C multilayer mirrors were synthesised for the purposes of soft X-ray optics and spectroscopy in the wavelength range beyond the L-edge of Si (λ plasma radiation source and an electronic detector with a 2D spatial resolution (a CCD matrix with 13 × 13 μm sized pixels). The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical calculations. The effect of lower antimony and B4C layer densities on the reflection spectra is discussed.

  16. Tailoring of the free spectral range and geometrical cavity dispersion of a microsphere by a coating layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Davor; Mazzola, Maurizio; Chiappini, Andrea; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Féron, Patrice; Ramponi, Roberta; Righini, Giancarlo C; Cibiel, Gilles; Ivanda, Mile; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    The modal dispersion of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator is a very important parameter for use in all nonlinear optics applications. In order to tailor the WGM modal dispersion of a microsphere, we have coated a silica microsphere with a high-refractive-index coating in order to study its effect on the WGM modal dispersion. We used Er(3+) ions as a probe for a modal dispersion assessment. We found that, by varying the coating thickness, the geometrical cavity dispersion can be used to shift overall modal dispersion in a very wide range in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regime.

  17. Consumer perceptions of traceability: A cross-national comparison of the associated benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.; Menozzi, D.; Faioli, G.

    2008-01-01

    Consumer perceptions regarding traceability were investigated by means-end-chain laddering. Consumers in four European countries were questioned about the benefits they associate with traceability related attributes. The benefits consumers associate with traceability are in terms of health, quality,

  18. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem

    2002-09-01

    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  19. Enhanced optical transmission through a star-shaped bull's eye at dual resonant-bands in UV and the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Tavakol; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Kong, Byung-Joo; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-07-13

    Dual resonant bands in UV and the visible range were simultaneously observed in the enhanced optical transmission (EOT) through star-shaped plasmonic structures. EOTs through four types of polygonal bull's eyes with a star aperture surrounded by the concentric star grooves were analyzed and compared for 3, 4, 5, and 6 corners, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to plasmonic resonances in the visible range, the UV-band resonance intensity was found to scale with the number of corners, which is related with higher order multipole interactions. Spectral positions and relative intensities of the dual resonances were analyzed parametrically to find optimal conditions to maximize EOT in UV-visible dual bands.

  20. Simulation of laser propagation through a three-layer human skin model in the spectral range from 1000 to 1900 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasouri, Babak; Murphy, Thomas E.; Berberoglu, Halil

    2014-07-01

    For understanding the mechanisms of low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), accurate knowledge of light interaction with tissue is necessary. We present a three-dimensional, multilayer reduced-variance Monte Carlo simulation tool for studying light penetration and absorption in human skin. Local profiles of light penetration and volumetric absorption were calculated for uniform as well as Gaussian profile beams with different spreads over the spectral range from 1000 to 1900 nm. The results showed that lasers within this wavelength range could be used to effectively and safely deliver energy to specific skin layers as well as achieve large penetration depths for treating deep tissues, without causing skin damage. In addition, by changing the beam profile from uniform to Gaussian, the local volumetric dosage could increase as much as three times for otherwise similar lasers. We expect that this tool along with the results presented will aid researchers in selecting wavelength and laser power in LLLT.

  1. Emerging applications for traceability systems and implications for consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Davies, O.H.; Rijswijk, W. van; Luijckx, N.L.; Ward, S.

    2008-01-01

    The modified European Food Law (General Food Law) has been emphasizing on the need to increase consumer confidence through implementation of regulatory measures focused on increased traceability in food chain. The implementation of effective traceability systems can provide the basis of

  2. Heavy subgraph pairs for traceability of block-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Binlong; Li, Binlong; Broersma, Haitze J.; Zhang, Shenggui

    2014-01-01

    A graph is called traceable if it contains a Hamilton path, i.e., a path containing all its vertices. Let G be a graph on n vertices. We say that an induced subgraph of G is o-1-heavy if it contains two nonadjacent vertices which satisfy an Ore-type degree condition for traceability, i.e., with

  3. Narrow-line external cavity diode laser micro-packaging in the NIR and MIR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; Milde, T.; Staacke, N.; Aßmann, C.; Carpintero, G.; Sacher, J.

    2017-07-01

    Narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers are an important tool for spectroscopic instrumentation. Conventional external cavity diode lasers offer high output power and narrow linewidth. However, most external cavity diode lasers are designed as laboratory instrument and do not allow portability. In comparison, other commonly used lasers, like distributed feedback lasers (DFB) that are capable of driving a handheld device, are limited in power and show linewidths which are not sufficiently narrow for certain applications. We present new miniaturized types of tunable external cavity diode laser which overcome the drawbacks of conventional external cavity diode lasers and which preserve the advantages of this laser concept. Three different configurations are discussed in this article. The three types of miniaturized external cavity diode laser systems achieve power values of more than 50 mW within the 1.4 μm water vapor absorption band with excellent side-mode suppression and linewidth below 100 kHz. Typical features outstand with respect to other type of laser systems which are of extended use such as DFB laser diodes. The higher output power and the lower linewidth will enable a higher sensitivity and resolution for a wide range of applications.

  4. Radiation damage resistance of AlGaN detectors for applications in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); John, Joachim; Malinowski, Pawel E. [Interuniversity MicroElectronic Center (IMEC), Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    We report on the fabrication of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) Schottky-photodiode-based detectors. AlGaN layers were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Si(111) wafers. The diodes were characterized at a wavelength of 13.5 nm using a table-top extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation source, consisting of a laser-produced xenon plasma and a Schwarzschild objective. The responsivity of the diodes was tested between EUV energies ranging from 320 nJ down to several picojoules. For low fluences, a linear responsivity of 7.14 mAs/J could be determined. Saturation starts at approximately 1 nJ, merging into a linear response of 0.113 mAs/J, which could be attributed to the photoeffect on the Au electrodes on top of the diode. Furthermore, degradation tests were performed up to an absolute dose of 3.3x10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN photodiodes were compared to commercially available silicon-based photodetectors. For AlGaN diodes, responsivity does not change even for the highest EUV dose, whereas the response of the Si diode decreases linearly to {approx}93% after 2x10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x–y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments

  6. Open problems in traceability: from raw materials to finished food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Comba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the main EU regulations concerning food traceability have already entered to force since many years, we still remark very wide and impacting product recalls, which often involve simultaneously large territories and many countries. This is a clear sign that current traceability procedures and systems, when implemented with the only aim of respecting mandatory policies, are not effective, and that there are some aspects that are at present underestimated, and therefore should be attentively reconsidered. In particular, the sole adoption of the so-called “one step back-one step forward traceability” to comply the EC Regulation 178/2002, where every actor in the chain handles merely the data coming from his supplier and those sent to his client, is in fact not sufficient to control and to limit the impact of a recall action after a risk notification. Recent studies on lots dispersion and routing demonstrate that each stakeholder has to plan his activities (production, transformation or distribution according to specific criteria that allow pre-emptively estimating and limiting the range action of a possible recall. Moreover, these new and very recently proposed techniques still present some limits; first of all the problem of traceability of bulk products (e.g. liquids, powders, grains, crystals during production phases that involve mixing operations of several lots of different/same materials. In fact, current traceability practices are in most cases unable to deal efficiently with this kind of products, and, in order to compensate the lack of knowledge about lot composition, typically resort to the adoption of very large lots, based for instance on a considered production period. Aim of this paper is to present recent advances in the design of supply chain traceability systems, discussing problems that are still open and are nowadays subject of research.

  7. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  8. Traceability in Model-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML for defining the relationships between models.

  9. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  10. RISIKO RANTAI PASOK MINUMAN SARI APEL DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISTEM TRACEABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Iryaning Handayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risiko merupakan faktor-faktor yang menghambat operasional pada rantai pasok makanan yang tidak dapat dihindari akan tetapi dapat diminimalisir atau dihilangkan dengan melakukan penanganan risiko yang tepat. Salah satu penanganan risiko dengan menggunakan sistem traceability. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan penaksiran risiko yang terjadi pada rantai pasok minuman sari apel berdasarkan informasi sistem traceability. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode SCOR (Supply Chain Operation Reference. Sedangkan  penilaian risiko rantai pasok menggunakan teknik FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. Upaya yang dilakukan dalam mengetahui risiko yang dapat ditangani dengan sistem traceability menggunakan metode House of Risk (HOR. Terdapat 1 risiko ekstrime yaitu risiko terjadinya kekurangan barang dan bahan baku digudang. Sedangkan risiko sedang sebanyak lima. Risiko yang berkatagori rendah sejumlah tujuh. Risiko yang terjadi disebabkan tidak ada prosedur yang jelas, kurang memperhatikan prosedur penyimpanan, inspeksi dilakukan di akhir proses dan kesalahan komposisi bahan baku, Sedangkan penyebab risiko yang bisa ditangani dengan traceability sebanyak 75% dari semua penyebab risiko yang terjadi. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa peran traceability pada rantai pasok makanan dapat mereduksi risiko yang terjadi. Kata kunci:  risiko, traceability, rantai pasok   Abstract Risks are factors that hinder operations in the food supply chain that can not be avoided but can be minimized or eliminated by appropriate risk management . One risk management using a traceability system . Therefore, this study aims to conduct a risk assessment that occurs in apple juice supply chain traceability system based on information . In this study using the SCOR ( Supply Chain Operations Reference . While supply chain risk assessment using the technique of FMEA ( Failure Mode and Effects Analysis . Efforts are made to know the risks that can be addressed by

  11. The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

  12. The spectral characteristics of Gd sub 2 SiO sub 5 :Eu sup 3 sup + in VUV-UV range

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Yong; Wei Ya Guang; Tao Ye

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation source was used to investigated the spectral characteristics of Gd sub 2 SiO sub 5 :Eu sup 3 sup + in VUV-UV range. The various energy transfers at room temperature and 10 K, including from host or Gd sup 3 sup + ions to Eu sup 3 sup + ions and transfer between Eu sup 3 sup + ions at two different lattice sites, were discussed. In addition the emission spectra under 186 nm and 276 nm excitation were compared from the view of quantum cutting. The results indicate that Gd sub 2 SiO sub 5 :Eu sup 3 sup + is a kind of material with potential high efficiency quantum cutting

  13. Multiple resonant absorber with prism-incorporated graphene and one-dimensional photonic crystals in the visible and near-infrared spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, X. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.; Lai, M.

    2018-04-01

    A multi-band absorber constructed from prism-incorporated one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) containing graphene defects is achieved theoretically in the visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectral range. By means of the transfer matrix method (TMM), the effect of structural parameters on the optical response of the structure has been investigated. It is possible to achieve multi-peak and complete optical absorption. The simulations reveal that the light intensity is enhanced at the graphene plane, and the resonant wavelength and the absorption intensity can also be tuned by tilting the incidence angle of the impinging light. In particular, multiple graphene sheets are embedded in the arrays, without any demand of manufacture process to cut them into periodic patterns. The proposed concept can be extended to other two-dimensional (2D) materials and engineered for promising applications, including selective or multiplex filters, multiple channel sensors, and photodetectors.

  14. The Herschel/HIFI spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4 (CHESS). An overview of the 480 to 1902 GHz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Fuente, A.; Caux, E.; Higgins, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Broadband spectral surveys of protostars offer a rich view of the physical, chemical and dynamical structure and evolution of star-forming regions. The Herschel Space Observatory opened up the terahertz regime to such surveys, giving access to the fundamental transitions of many hydrides and to the high-energy transitions of many other species. Aims: A comparative analysis of the chemical inventories and physical processes and properties of protostars of various masses and evolutionary states is the goal of the Herschel CHEmical Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS) key program. This paper focusses on the intermediate-mass protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We obtained a spectrum of OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 480 to 1902 GHz range with the HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel and carried out the reduction, line identification, and a broad analysis of the line profile components, excitation, and cooling. Results: We detect 719 spectral lines from 40 species and isotopologs. The line flux is dominated by CO, H2O, and CH3OH. The line profiles are complex and vary with species and upper level energy, but clearly contain signatures from quiescent gas, a broad component likely due to an outflow, and a foreground cloud. Conclusions: We find abundant evidence for warm, dense gas, as well as for an outflow in the field of view. Line flux represents 2% of the 7 L⊙ luminosity detected with HIFI in the 480 to 1250 GHz range. Of the total line flux, 60% is from CO, 13% from H2O and 9% from CH3OH. A comparison with similar HIFI spectra of other sources is set to provide much new insight into star formation regions, a case in point being a difference of two orders of magnitude in the relative contribution of sulphur oxides to the line cooling of Orion KL and OMC-2 FIR 4. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Forbidden subgraph pairs for traceability of block-chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binlong Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A block-chain is a graph whose block graph is a path, i.e. it is either a $P_1$, a $P_2$, or a 2-connected graph, or a graph of connectivity 1 with exactly two end-blocks. A graph is called traceable if it contains a Hamilton path. A traceable graph is clearly a block-chain, but the reverse does not hold in general.In this paper we characterize all pairs of connected graphs $\\{R,S\\}$ such that every $\\{R,S\\}$-free block-chain is traceable.

  16. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  17. Spectral emissivities at wavelengths in the range 500--653 nm, enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Roesner-Kuhn, M.; Drewes, K.; Thiedemann, U.; Kuppermann, G.; Camin, B.; Blume, R.; Frohberg, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the literature data for spectral emissivities at wavelengths (λ) in the range 500--653 nm, the enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium. Emissivity measurements were carried out by means of electromagnetic levitation at the solid-to-liquid transition with a partial-radiation pyrometer operating at λ = 547 and 650 nm. Considering the sensitivity of the optical properties to surface impurities, investigations on the surfaces of several titanium and zirconium samples by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed that confirmed a nitrogen- and oxygen-free process atmosphere during the measurements. Liquid phase normal emissivities obtained were var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.331 for cobalt, var-epsilon n,547 = 0.409 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.393 for titanium, and var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.355 for zirconium. Enthalpy measurements on the liquid metals were carried out by means of levitation-drop calorimetry in the range 1591--2159 K for cobalt, 1847--2430 K for titanium, and 2025--2897 K for zirconium. The resulting heat capacities (values in J·mol -1 ·K -1 ) obtained were 42.78 for cobalt, 43.79 for titanium, and 39.81 for zirconium

  18. Long ranging swept-source optical coherence tomography-based angiography outperforms its spectral-domain counterpart in imaging human skin microcirculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjiang; Song, Shaozhen; Men, Shaojie; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing demand for imaging tools in clinical dermatology that can perform in vivo wide-field morphological and functional examination from surface to deep tissue regions at various skin sites of the human body. The conventional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography-based angiography (SD-OCTA) system is difficult to meet these requirements due to its fundamental limitations of the sensitivity roll-off, imaging range as well as imaging speed. To mitigate these issues, we demonstrate a swept-source OCTA (SS-OCTA) system by employing a swept source based on a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. A series of comparisons between SS-OCTA and SD-OCTA are conducted. Benefiting from the high system sensitivity, long imaging range, and superior roll-off performance, the SS-OCTA system is demonstrated with better performance in imaging human skin than the SD-OCTA system. We show that the SS-OCTA permits remarkable deep visualization of both structure and vasculature (up to ˜2 mm penetration) with wide field of view capability (up to 18×18 mm2), enabling a more comprehensive assessment of the morphological features as well as functional blood vessel networks from the superficial epidermal to deep dermal layers. It is expected that the advantages of the SS-OCTA system will provide a ground for clinical translation, benefiting the existing dermatological practice.

  19. Spectral-kinetic characteristics of Pr3+ luminescence in LiLuF4 host upon excitation in the UV-VUV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryganyuk, G.; Zimmerer, G.; Shiran, N.; Voronova, V.; Nesterkina, V.; Gektin, A.; Shimamura, K.; Villora, E.; Jing, F.; Shalapska, T.; Voloshinovskii, A.

    2008-01-01

    Spectral-kinetic study of Pr 3+ luminescence has been performed for LiLuF 4 :Pr(0.1 mol%) single crystal upon the excitation within 5-12 eV range at T=8 K. The fine-structure of Pr 3+ 4f 2 →4f 5d excitation spectra is shown for LiLuF 4 :Pr(0.1 mol%) to be affected by the efficient absorption transitions of Pr 3+ ions into 4f 5d involving 4f 1 core in the ground state. Favourable conditions have been revealed in LiLuF 4 :Pr(0.1 mol%) for the transformation of UV-VUV excitation quanta into the visible range. Lightly doped LiLuF 4 :Pr crystals are considered as the promising luminescent materials possessing the efficient Pr 3+3 P 0 visible emission upon UV-VUV excitation. The mechanism of energy transfer between Lu 3+ host ion and Pr 3+ impurity is discussed

  20. Spectral range calculation inside the Research Irradiating Facility Army Technology Center using code MCNPX and comparison with the spectra of energy Caesium 137 raised in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Renato G.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Cavaliere, Marcos Paulo; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Moreira Junior, Luis; Vital, Helio C.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2013-01-01

    Using the MCNPX code, the objective was to calculate by means of computer simulation spectroscopy range inside the irradiation chamber upper radiator gamma research irradiating facility Army Technology Center (CTEx). The calculations were performed in the spectral range usual 2 points for research purposes irradiating the energy spectra of gamma rays from the source of Cesium chloride 137. Sought the discretization of the spectrum in 100 channels at points of upper bound of 1cm higher and lower dose rates previously known. It was also conducted in the laboratory lifting the spectrum of Cesium-137 source using NaI scintillator detector and multichannel analyzer. With the source spectrum Cesium-137 contained in the literature and raised in the laboratory, both used as reference for comparison and analysis in terms of probability of emission maximum of 0.661 MeV The spectra were quite consistent in terms of the behavior of the energy distributions with scores. The position of maximum dose rate showed absorption detection almost maximum energy of 0.661 MeV photopeak In the spectrum of the position of minimum dosage rate, it was found that due to the removal of the source point of interest, some loss detection were caused by Compton scattering. (author)

  1. Optical properties of InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells for the 1520–1580 nm spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladyshev, A. G., E-mail: andrey.gladyshev@connector-optics.com; Novikov, I. I.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Denisov, D. V. [Connector Optics OOO (Russian Federation); Blokhin, S. A.; Blokhin, A. A.; Nadtochiy, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kurochkin, A. S. [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. Yu. [Connector Optics OOO (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The optical properties of elastically strained semiconductor heterostructures with InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells (QWs), intended for use in the formation of the active region of lasers emitting in the spectral range 1520–1580 nm, are studied. Active regions with varied lattice mismatch between the InGaAs QWs and the InP substrate are fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. The maximum lattice mismatch for the InGaAs QWs is +2%. The optical properties of the elastically strained InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP heterostructures are studied by the photoluminescence method in the temperature range from 20 to 140°C at various power densities of the excitation laser. Investigation of the optical properties of InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP experimental samples confirms the feasibility of using the developed elastically strained heterostructures for the fabrication of active regions for laser diodes with high temperature stability.

  2. How to obtain traceability on optical radiation measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros García, Carlos H.

    2006-02-01

    Traceability to national standards provides confidence in measurements results, granting a guaranty when carrying out governmental rules and when demonstrating conformity with quality requirements such as ISO 9000 or ISO/IEC 17025 (and the Mexican equivalent standards). The appropriate traceability contributes with confidence of the quality of products or services. This paper presents different ways to obtain traceability in Mexico for the optical radiation measurements, mentioning some applications, and highlighting the necessity of having traceability to the appropriate units of the SI. Additionally it present the national standards maintained by Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), the national metrology institute in Mexico, that give the technical support to Mexican measurements in this field and the international recognition that the personal of the Optics and Radiometry Division had gained in 10 years of development.

  3. [Establishment of traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yao-dong; Gao, Shi-man; Liu, Hai-tao; Li, Xi-wen; Wei, Jian-he; Zhang, Ben-gang; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2015-12-01

    The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed.

  4. Traceable size determination of nanoparticles, a comparison among European metrology institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meli, Felix; Klein, Tobias; Buhr, Egbert; Frase, Carl Georg; Gleber, Gudrun; Krumrey, Michael; Duta, Alexandru; Duta, Steluta; Korpelainen, Virpi; Bellotti, Roberto; Picotto, Gian Bartolo; Boyd, Robert D; Cuenat, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Within the European iMERA-Plus project ‘Traceable Characterisation of Nanoparticles’ various particle measurement procedures were developed and finally a measurement comparison for particle size was carried out among seven laboratories across six national metrology institutes. Seven high quality particle samples made from three different materials and having nominal sizes in the range from 10 to 200 nm were used. The participants applied five fundamentally different measurement methods, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle x-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in transmission mode, and provided a total of 48 independent, traceable results. The comparison reference values were determined as weighted means based on the estimated measurement uncertainties of the participants. The comparison reference values have combined standard uncertainties smaller than 1.4 nm for particles with sizes up to 100 nm. All methods, except DLS, provided consistent results. (paper)

  5. Traceability, Liability, and Incentives for Food Safety and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Pouliot; Daniel A. Sumner

    2008-01-01

    Recent food scares such as the discoveries of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and E. coli-contaminated spinach have heightened interest in food traceability. Here, we show how exogenous increases in food traceability create incentives for farms and marketing firms to supply safer food by increasing liability costs. We model a stylized marketing chain composed of farms, marketers, and consumers. Unsafe food for consumers can be caused by either marketers or farms. We show that food safety dec...

  6. Forbidden subgraph pairs for traceability of block-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Binlong; Li, Binlong; Broersma, Haitze J.; Zhang, Shenggui

    2013-01-01

    A block-chain is a graph whose block graph is a path, i.e. it is either a P1, a P2, or a 2-connected graph, or a graph of connectivity 1 with exactly two end-blocks. A graph is called traceable if it contains a Hamilton path. A traceable graph is clearly a block-chain, but the reverse does not hold

  7. Risiko Rantai Pasok Minuman Sari Apel Dalam Perspektif Sistem Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Dwi Iryaning

    2014-01-01

    Risiko merupakan faktor-faktor yang menghambat operasional pada rantai pasok makanan yang tidak dapat dihindari akan tetapi dapat diminimalisir atau dihilangkan dengan melakukan penanganan risiko yang tepat. Salah satu penanganan risiko dengan menggunakan sistem traceability. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan penaksiran risiko yang terjadi pada rantai pasok minuman sari apel berdasarkan informasi sistem traceability. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode SCOR (Supply ...

  8. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  9. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  10. AUTOMATION OF TRACEABILITY PROCESS AT GRAIN TERMINAL LLC “ UKRTRANSAGRO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. TRISHYN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive trend of growth in both grain production and export is indicated. In the current marketing year the export potential of the Ukrainian grain market is close to the record level. However, the high positions in the rating of world exporters are achieved not only due to the high export potential, but also because of higher quality and logistics. These factors depend directly on the quality of enterprise management and all processes occurring at it. One of the perspective ways of enterprise development is the implementation of the traceability system and further automation of the traceability process. European integration laws are obliging Ukrainian enterprises to have a traceability system. Traceability is an ability to follow the movement of a feed or food through specified stages of production, processing and distribution. The process of traceability is managing by people, which implies a human factor. Automation will allow, in a greater extent, to exclude the human factor that will mean decreasing of errors in documentation and will speed up the process of grain transshipment. Research work on the process was carried out on the most modern grain terminal - LLC “UkrTransAgro”. The terminal is located in the Ukrainian water area of the Azov Sea (Mariupol, Ukraine. Characteristics of the terminal: capacity of a simultaneous storage - 48,120 thousand tons, acceptance of crops from transport - 4,500 tons / day; acceptance of crops from railway transport - 3000 tons / day, transshipment capacity - up to 1.2 million tons per year, shipment to the sea vessels - 7000 tons / day. The analysis of the automation level of the grain terminal is carried out. The company uses software from 1C - «1C: Enterprise 8. Accounting for grain elevator, mill, and feed mill for Ukraine». This software is used for quantitative and qualitative registration at the elevator in accordance with industry guidelines and standards. The software product has many

  11. Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx): A New Instrument for In situ Ambient Aerosol Extinction Measurements Across the UV/Visible Wavelength Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C. A.; Dibb, J. E.; Greenslade, M. E.; Martin, R. F.; Moore, R. H.; Scheuer, E.; Shook, M. A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new instrument for the measurement of in situ ambient aerosol extinction over the 300-700 nm wavelength range, the Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument. This measurement capability is envisioned to complement existing in situ instrumentation, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the evolution of aerosol optical, chemical, and physical characteristics in the ambient environment. In this work, a detailed description of the instrument is provided along with characterization tests performed in the laboratory. Measured spectra of NO2 and polystyrene latex spheres agreed well with theoretical calculations. Good agreement was also found with simultaneous aerosol extinction measurements at 450, 530, and 630 nm using CAPS PMex instruments in a series of 22 tests including non-absorbing compounds, dusts, soot, and black and brown carbon analogs. SpEx can more accurately distinguish the presence of brown carbon from other absorbing aerosol due to its 300 nm lower wavelength limit compared to measurements limited to visible wavelengths. In addition, the spectra obtained by SpEx carry more information than can be conveyed by a simple power law fit that is typically defined by the use of Angstrom Exponents. Future improvements aim at lowering detection limits and ruggedizing the instrument for mobile operation.

  12. RELAP-7 Code Assessment Plan and Requirement Traceability Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junsoo; Choi, Yong-joon; Smith, Curtis L.

    2016-10-01

    The RELAP-7, a safety analysis code for nuclear reactor system, is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Overall, the code development is directed towards leveraging the advancements in computer science technology, numerical solution methods and physical models over the last decades. Recently, INL has also been putting an effort to establish the code assessment plan, which aims to ensure an improved final product quality through the RELAP-7 development process. The ultimate goal of this plan is to propose a suitable way to systematically assess the wide range of software requirements for RELAP-7, including the software design, user interface, and technical requirements, etc. To this end, we first survey the literature (i.e., international/domestic reports, research articles) addressing the desirable features generally required for advanced nuclear system safety analysis codes. In addition, the V&V (verification and validation) efforts as well as the legacy issues of several recently-developed codes (e.g., RELAP5-3D, TRACE V5.0) are investigated. Lastly, this paper outlines the Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) for RELAP-7 which can be used to systematically evaluate and identify the code development process and its present capability.

  13. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kucharski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples or dopant ionization (p-type samples. In the mid-infrared the transparency cut-off, which for a semi-insulating GaN is at ~7 µm due to an absorption on a second harmonic of optical phonons, shifts towards shorter wavelengths due to an absorption on free carriers up to ~1 µm at n ~ 1020 cm−3 doping level. Moreover, a semi-insulating GaN crystal shows good transparency in the 1–10 THz range, while for n-and p-type crystal, the transparency in this spectral region is significantly quenched below 1%. In addition, it is shown that in the visible spectral region n-type GaN substrates with a carrier concentration below 1018 cm−3 are highly transparent with the absorption coefficient below 3 cm−1 at 450 nm, a satisfactory condition for light emitting diodes and laser diodes operating in this spectral range.

  14. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kucharski; Łukasz Janicki; Marcin Zajac; Monika Welna; Marcin Motyka; Czesław Skierbiszewski; Robert Kudrawiec

    2017-01-01

    GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type) on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples) or dopant ionization (p-type samples). In the mid-in...

  15. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  16. Heavy subgraph pairs for traceability of block-chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Binlong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A graph is called traceable if it contains a Hamilton path, i.e., a path containing all its vertices. Let G be a graph on n vertices. We say that an induced subgraph of G is o−1-heavy if it contains two nonadjacent vertices which satisfy an Ore-type degree condition for traceability, i.e., with degree sum at least n−1 in G. A block-chain is a graph whose block graph is a path, i.e., it is either a P1, P2, or a 2-connected graph, or a graph with at least one cut vertex and exactly two end-blocks. Obviously, every traceable graph is a block-chain, but the reverse does not hold. In this paper we characterize all the pairs of connected o−1-heavy graphs that guarantee traceability of block-chains. Our main result is a common extension of earlier work on degree sum conditions, forbidden subgraph conditions and heavy subgraph conditions for traceability

  17. Making traceability work across the entire food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C; Lothian, Paul; Sterling, Brian; Hickey, Caitlin

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists held Traceability Research Summits on July 14, August 22, and November 1, 2011, to address how to meet the growing requirement for agriculture and food traceability. Each meeting had a group of about 50 individuals who came from food companies, trade associations, local, state, and federal governments, 3rd-party traceability solution providers, not-for-profit corporations, consultants, and consumer groups. They discussed and deliberated the objectives of traceability and the means to develop product tracing in the food system. A total of 70 people participated in the 3 summits. These individuals were invited to participate in a small workgroup responsible for considering the details related to product tracing and presenting draft concepts to the larger group on November 1, 2011, in Chicago. During this meeting, the larger assembly further refined the concepts and came to an agreement on the basic principles and overall design of the desired approach to traceability. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Breed traceability of buffalo meat using microsatellite genotyping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Bheemashankar H; Fairoze, Md Nadeem; Girish, P S; Karabasanavar, Nagappa; Rudresh, B H

    2017-02-01

    Although buffalo has emerged as a major meat producing animal in Asia, major research on breed traceability has so far been focused on cattle (beef). This research gap on buffalo breed traceability has impelled development and validation of buffalo breed traceability using a set of eight microsatellite (STR) markers in seven Indian buffalo breeds (Bhadawari, Jaffaarabadi, Murrah, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri and Surti). Probability of sharing same profile by two individuals at a specific locus was computed considering different STR numbers, allele pooling in breed and population. Match probabilities per breed were considered and six most polymorphic loci were genotyped. Out of eight microsatellite markers studied, markers CSSMO47, DRB3 and CSSM060 were found most polymorphic. Developed technique was validated with known and unknown, blood and meat samples; wherein, samples were genetically traced in 24 out of 25 samples tested. Results of this study showed potential applications of the methodology and encourage other researchers to address the problem of buffalo traceability so as to create a world-wide archive of breed specific genotypes. This work is the first report of breed traceability of buffalo meat utilizing microsatellite genotyping technique.

  19. Role of Al coordination in barium phosphate glasses on the emission features of Ho{sup 3+} ion in the visible and IR spectral ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Kalpana, T.; Ravi Kumar, V. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid-521 201, A.P. (India); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid-521 201, A.P. (India)

    2010-03-15

    The glasses of the composition (39-x)BaO-xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}-60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:1.0Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in mol%) with x value ranging from 1.0 to 4.0 have been synthesized. The IR spectral studies of these glasses have indicated that there is a gradual transformation of Al{sup 3+} ions from tetrahedral to octahedral with increase in the concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 3.0 mol%. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra (in the visible and NIR regions) of these glasses have been recorded at room temperature. The Judd-Ofelt theory could successfully be applied to characterize the absorption and luminescence spectra of Ho{sup 3+} ions in these glasses. From the luminescence spectra, various radiative properties like transition probability A, branching ratio beta{sub r}, the radiative lifetime tau{sub r} and emission cross-section sigma{sup E} for various emission levels of these glasses have been evaluated. The radiative lifetime of the {sup 5}S{sub 2}->{sup 5}I{sub 8} (green emission) transition has also been measured. The variations observed in these parameters have been discussed in the light of varying co-ordinations (tetrahedral and octahedral positions) of Al{sup 3+} ions in the glass network. The influence of hydroxyl groups on the luminescence efficiency of the transition {sup 5}S{sub 2}->{sup 5}I{sub 8} has also been discussed. Finally the optimum concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for getting maximum luminescence output has also been identified and reported.

  20. Morphology of the spectral resonance structure of the electromagnetic background noise in the range of 0.1–4 Hz at L = 5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous observations of fluctuations of the geomagnetic field at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (L = 5.2 were used for a comprehensive morphological study of the spectral resonance structure (SRS seen in the background electromagnetic noise in the frequency range of 0.1–4.0 Hz. It is shown that the occurrence rate of SRS is higher in the nighttime than in the daytime. The occurrence rate is higher in winter than in summer. The SRS frequencies and the difference between neighbouring eigenfrequencies (the frequency scale increase towards nighttime and decrease towards daytime. Both frequency scale and occurrence rate exhibit a clear tendency to decrease from minimum to maximum of the solar activity cycle. It is found that the occurrence rate of SRS decreases when geomagnetic activity increases. The SRS is believed to be a consequence of a resonator for Alfvén waves, which is suggested to exist in the upper ionosphere. According to the theory of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR, characteristics of SRS crucially depend on electron density in the F-layer maximum, as well as on the altitudinal scale of the density decay above the maximum.We compared the SRS morphological properties with predictions of the IAR theory. The ionospheric parameters needed for calculation were obtained from the ionosphere model (IRI-95, as well as from measurements made with the ionosonde in Sodankylä. We conclude that, indeed, the main morphological properties of SRS are explained on the basis of the IAR theory. The measured parameters of SRS can be used for improving the ionospheric models.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; wave propagation – Radio Science (electromagnetic noise and interference

  1. Traceable calibration of impedance heads and artificial mastoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D A; Dickinson, L P; Bell, T J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial mastoids are devices which simulate the mechanical characteristics of the human head, and in particular of the bony structure behind the ear. They are an essential tool in the calibration of bone-conduction hearing aids and audiometers. With the emergence of different types of artificial mastoids in the market, and the realisation that the visco-elastic part of these instruments changes over time, the development of a method of traceable calibration of these devices without relying on commercial software has become important for national metrology institutes. This paper describes commercially available calibration methods, and the development of a traceable calibration method including the traceable calibration of the impedance head used to measure the mechanical impedance of the artificial mastoid. (paper)

  2. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  3. Traceability technique of isotopic application in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Boli; Wei Yimin; Pan Jiarong

    2006-01-01

    Epidemics such as BSE, mouth and foot disease, avian influenza have brought new pressure to food safety management, constituted a extreme threat to people health, and caused serious economic loss and social scare to countries with outbreaks of above diseases. Isotopic tracing technology is an effect tool for tracing food origin and implementing the preservation of production premise in the world at present, and it is promising in the field of food safety traceability, so some developed countries have put a lot of effort on establishment of isotopic technology for food traceability. In this paper, the basic principles of isotopic tracing technology and the recent research advancement were be expounded, and the differentiate and connection was be compared between isotopic tracing technology and others. Furthermore, the suggestion about study of isotopic tracing technology in China was put forward. The aim of the paper is to promote the establishment and improvement of food traceability system, and ensure the consumer health. (authors)

  4. THE AUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITY OF FOOD – CONSUMERS PROTECTION FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCU EMILIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of food is closely related with food safety, highlighted by their authenticity and traceability. Essentially the food it is a carrier of information, his quality reflecting off the capability of the body to decode them and so to provide a healthy lifestyle. Each individual, as well as the community, is preoccupied by the great problems of food, eating and the food behaviour, seeking the right solutions to the questions: what, how, when, and where do we eat to satisfy our physiological necessities. Food and food behaviour are essential determinants of our numerous pathologies, appreciating that many of the severe diseases may be prevented by lifestyle changes where the food is playing a key role. For authentic products, in this article there are presented information regarding benefits of traceability of products. The traceability of food products can be obtained by registering the ups and downs of the physical flux obtained during the production process. The objective of traceability is to obtain total control on products by individual and group identification to intervene in case of post-processing defects or any inconvenience. In traceability the "one step back, one step ahead" principle is applied. This means that any company has the obligation to have all the necessary information regarding the product, including the nature of raw and auxiliary materials and to possess information regarding the date and delivery destination. For the accomplishment of this wish, the individual identification of the goods, products, locations and place is indispensable. The traceability of the product is based on the identification code. It is monitored the changes that have occurred during the production processes, transport, storage and distribution flux.

  5. Development of Traceable Phantoms for Improved Image Quantification in Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trials for new drugs increasingly rely on imaging data to monitor patient response to the therapy being studied. In the case of radiopharmaceutical applications, imaging data are also used to estimate organ and tumor doses in order to arrive at the optimal dosage for safe and effective treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is one of the most commonly used imaging modalities for these types of applications. In large, multicenter trials it is crucial to minimize as much as possible the variability that arises due to use of different types of scanners and other instrumentation so that the biological response can be more readily evaluated. This can be achieved by ensuring that all the instruments are calibrated to a common standard and that their performance is continuously monitored throughout the trial. Maintaining links to a single standard also enables the comparability of data acquired on a heterogeneous collection of instruments in different clinical settings. As the standards laboratory for the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been developing a suite of phantoms having traceable activity content to enable scanner calibration and performance testing. The configurations range from small solid cylindrical sources having volumes from 1 mL to 23 mL to large cylinders having a total volume of 9 L. The phantoms are constructed with 68Ge as a long-lived substitute for the more clinically useful radionuclide 18F. The contained activity values are traceable to the national standard for 68Ge and are also linked to the standard for 18F through a careful series of comparisons. The techniques that have been developed are being applied to a variety of new phantom configurations using different radionuclides. Image-based additive manufacturing techniques are also being investigated to create fillable phantoms having irregular shapes which can better mimic actual organs and tumors while still maintaining traceability

  6. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  7. Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, FE

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10949 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www....csir.co.za Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania Esbeth van Dyk CSIR Centre for Logistics ORSSA/SAIIE August 2005 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www.csir.co.za Structure • Why traceability? • Legislation • Tanzania project • Recordkeeping in coffee...

  8. Traceability in the fish sector from research to commercial business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erling

    the traceability information from the fishermen, it has been necessary to develop a new IT platform that can communicate with the official data collecting systems. At present nearly 90 % of all fish landed in Denmark is registrede in the central database, and the number of processing industries, wholesalers...... and retailers that are using the database are increasing steeply. In the near future another major step will be taken, due to an extensive investment program financed by the European Community, which will use the traceability data, from showing interactive information to the consumers to processing planning...

  9. Lightweight approach to model traceability in a CASE tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vileiniskis, Tomas; Skersys, Tomas; Pavalkis, Saulius; Butleris, Rimantas; Butkiene, Rita

    2017-07-01

    A term "model-driven" is not at all a new buzzword within the ranks of system development community. Nevertheless, the ever increasing complexity of model-driven approaches keeps fueling all kinds of discussions around this paradigm and pushes researchers forward to research and develop new and more effective ways to system development. With the increasing complexity, model traceability, and model management as a whole, becomes indispensable activities of model-driven system development process. The main goal of this paper is to present a conceptual design and implementation of a practical lightweight approach to model traceability in a CASE tool.

  10. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2017-06-01

    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  11. Comprehensive protocol of traceability during IVF: the result of a multicentre failure mode and effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, L; Bariani, F; Dalla Zorza, M; Albani, E; Benini, F; Chamayou, S; Minasi, M G; Parmegiani, L; Restelli, L; Vizziello, G; Costa, A Nanni

    2017-08-01

    Assurance responsible, Embryologist(s), Gynaecologist(s), Nurse(s) and Administration. The FMEA analyses were performed according to the Joint Commission International. The FMEA teams identified seven main process phases: oocyte collection, sperm collection, gamete processing, insemination, embryo culture, embryo transfer and gamete/embryo cryopreservation. A mean of 19.3 (SD ± 5.8) associated process steps and 41.9 (SD ± 12.4) possible failure modes were recognized per centre. A RPN ≥15 was calculated in a mean of 6.4 steps (range 2-12, SD ± 3.60). A total of 293 failure modes were centrally analysed 45 of which were considered at medium/high risk. After consistent corrective measures implementation and re-evaluation, a significant reduction in the RPNs in all centres (RPN IVF centre should have a clear and reliable protocol for identification of patients and traceability of cells during manipulation. The results of this study can support IVF groups in better recognizing critical steps in their protocols, understanding identification and witnessing process, and in turn enhancing safety by introducing validated corrective measures. This study was designed by the Italian Society of Embryology Reproduction and Research (SIERR) and funded by the Italian National Transplant Centre (CNT) of the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS). The authors have no conflicts of interest. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Validation of HITEMP-2010 for carbon dioxide and water vapour at high temperatures and atmospheric pressures in 450-7600cm-1 spectral range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is validation of HITEMP-2010 at atmospheric pressures and temperatures reaching 1770K. To this end, spectral transmissivities at 1cm-1 resolution and excellent signal-to-noise-ratio have been measured for 22 CO2/H2O/N2 mixtures. In this paper we consider the 450cm-1-7600...

  13. method for ranging and noise reduction of low coherence interferometry LCI and optical coherence tomography OCT signals by parallel detection of spectral bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, JF De; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, BE

    2008-01-01

    Apparatus and method for increasing the sensitivity in the detection of optical coherence tomography and loW coher ence interferometry (“LCI”) signals by detecting a parallel set of spectral bands, each band being a unique combination of optical frequencies. The LCI broad bandwidth source is split

  14. Radiometric inter-sensor cross-calibration uncertainty using a traceable high accuracy reference hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew C.; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Optical earth observation (EO) satellite sensors generally suffer from drifts and biases relative to their pre-launch calibration, caused by launch and/or time in the space environment. This places a severe limitation on the fundamental reliability and accuracy that can be assigned to satellite derived information, and is particularly critical for long time base studies for climate change and enabling interoperability and Analysis Ready Data. The proposed TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio-Studies) mission is explicitly designed to address this issue through re-calibrating itself directly to a primary standard of the international system of units (SI) in-orbit and then through the extension of this SI-traceability to other sensors through in-flight cross-calibration using a selection of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) recommended test sites. Where the characteristics of the sensor under test allows, this will result in a significant improvement in accuracy. This paper describes a set of tools, algorithms and methodologies that have been developed and used in order to estimate the radiometric uncertainty achievable for an indicative target sensor through in-flight cross-calibration using a well-calibrated hyperspectral SI-traceable reference sensor with observational characteristics such as TRUTHS. In this study, Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is evaluated as an example, however the analysis is readily translatable to larger-footprint sensors such as Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This study considers the criticality of the instrumental and observational characteristics on pixel level reflectance factors, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within the target site. It quantifies the main uncertainty contributors in the spectral, spatial, and temporal domains. The resultant tool

  15. Defining and Analyzing Traceability Systems in Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Traceability is considered to be a vital issue for all stakeholders in food supply chains. The most important driver is the increasing societal need to guarantee food quality and provenance. Because consumers cannot know in detail what processing steps are executed in the production of food and what

  16. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  17. Bio-markers: traceability in food safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Research and practice are focusing on development, validation and harmonization of technologies and methodologies to ensure complete traceability process throughout the food chain. The main goals are: scale-up, implementation and validation of methods in whole food chains, assurance of authenticity, validity of labelling and application of HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) to the entire food chain. The current review is to sum the scientific and technological basis for ensuring complete traceability. Tracing and tracking (traceability) of foods are complex processes due to the (bio)markers, technical solutions and different circumstances in different technologies which produces various foods (processed, semi-processed, or raw). Since the food is produced for human or animal consumption we need suitable markers to be stable and traceable all along the production chain. Specific biomarkers can have a function in technology and in nutrition. Such approach would make this development faster and more comprehensive and would make possible that food effect could be monitored with same set of biomarkers in consumer. This would help to develop and implement food safety standards that would be based on real physiological function of particular food component.

  18. Molecular traceability of beef from synthetic Mexican bovine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, R; Arana, A; Alfonso, L; González-Córdova, A F; Torrescano, G; Guerrero Legarreta, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2011-10-06

    Traceability ensures a link between carcass, quarters or cuts of beef and the individual animal or the group of animals from which they are derived. Meat traceability is an essential tool for successful identification and recall of contaminated products from the market during a food crisis. Meat traceability is also extremely important for protection and value enhancement of good-quality brands. Molecular meat traceability would allow verification of conventional methods used for beef tracing in synthetic Mexican bovine breeds. We evaluated a set of 11 microsatellites for their ability to identify animals belonging to these synthetic breeds, Brangus and Charolais/Brahman (78 animals). Seven microsatellite markers allowed sample discrimination with a match probability, defined as the probability of finding two individuals sharing by chance the same genotypic profile, of 10(-8). The practical application of the marker set was evaluated by testing eight samples from carcasses and pieces of meat at the slaughterhouse and at the point of sale. The DNA profiles of the two samples obtained at these two different points in the production-commercialization chain always proved that they came from the same animal.

  19. Can traceability improve consumers' confidence in food quality and safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates whether the implementation of traceability systems in line with the European General Food Law as well as food labelling laws related to allergens can impact on consumer confidence in food quality and safety. It aims to give insight into consumer demands regarding

  20. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  1. Experts' perspectives on the implementation of traceability in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Frewer, L.J.; Jonge, J.de; Wentholt, M.; Davies, O.H.; Luijckx, N.B.L.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The research presented in this paper aims at understanding the views of European food risk management experts on food traceability implementation, implementation of the general food law, and the advantages the system can offer for effective risk mitigation. Design/methodology/approach:

  2. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Bessa, M. S.; Silva, C. R.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2016-06-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed.

  3. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovski, I; França, R S; Bessa, M S; Silva, C R; Couceiro, I B

    2016-01-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed. (paper)

  4. Proton and electron impact on molecular and atomic oxygen: I. High resolution fluorescence spectra in the visible and VUV spectral range and emission cross-sections for dissociative ionisation and excitation of O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Schartner, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.11, p.45-58, 2000. Molecular oxygen O 2 was dissociated in collisions with protons and electrons in the intermediate velocity range (p + -energies: 17-800 keV, e - -energies: 0.2-2 keV). Fluorescence from excited atomic and singly ionised fragments and from singly ionised molecules was detected in the VUV and in the visible and near UV spectral range. Highly resolved spectra are presented for the VUV (46-131 nm) and the near UV/visible (340-605 nm) spectral range. Absolute emission cross-sections have been determined for dissociative ionisation and excitation leading to fluorescence in the VUV. Results are compared with published data. (orig.)

  5. EVALUASI PENDEKATAN PEMBANGUNAN TRACEABILITY LINK DALAM EVOLUSI PERANGKAT LUNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Fitria A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Traceability merupakan hal penting pada proyek perangkat lunak, terutama pada proyek skala besar. Traceability berfungsi untuk mengetahui ketelusuran antar artefak dalam fase-fase yang berbeda (analisis kebutuhan, analisis desain, dan analisis implementasi maupun antara artefak dan pihak pengembang yang terlibat. Sistem traceability otomatis diperlukan untuk membangun ketelusuran antar artefak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi sejumlah literatur pendekatan terbaru yang digunakan untuk membangun traceability link. Eksplorasi literatur mengacu pada taksonomi berbasis evolusi perangkat lunak terhadap sejumlah mekanisme karakterisasi perubahan dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi mekanisme. Hasil penelitian dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi bagaimana pendekatan tersebut dapat mendukung evolusi perangkat lunak serta memberikan garis besar dari kriteria yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun metode traceability yang lebih baik. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah variasi faktor suatu pendekatan tidak berbeda jauh dengan pendekatan lainnya kecuali jika terdapat perbedaan pada faktor temporal.

  6. NFC-Based Traceability in the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pigini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many events related to food and public health, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease, dioxin, bird flu and swine flu, brought the issue of food security to the center of international attention. Many countries established strict rules to ensure the food traceability “from farm to fork” to meet the demand of consumer safety and to ensure public health. Consequently, the concepts of controlled supply chain, brand of quality and traceability of food products have had a strong evolution. Companies in the food production sector must evolve and change their organizational and management chain to satisfy increasingly stringent government rules and to respond to the requirements of the market. From this point of view, NFC (Near Field Communication has all the requirements to become the main technology for traceability in the various food sectors. This paper proposes a solution to gather information throughout the entire food supply chain and bring it directly to the consumer. The architecture consists of a complex identification system based on NFC tags, which cumulates data during all phases of the production process. The aim of this work is to keep track of the information generated during food processing, not only for traceability purposes, but also for enhancing and optimizing production. The data generated by the traceability system are collected in a cloud database through apps on Android smartphones. The information is accessible by the consumers through a public Android application. The pork supply chain has been used as an application example of the proposed methodology.

  7. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  8. An Empirical Template Library of Stellar Spectra for a Wide Range of Spectral Classes, Luminosity Classes, and Metallicities Using SDSS BOSS Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesseli, Aurora Y.; West, Andrew A.; Veyette, Mark; Harrison, Brandon; Feldman, Dan [Boston University Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Bochanski, John J., E-mail: aurorak@bu.edu [Rider University, 2083 Lawrenceville Rd., Lawrence Township, NJ 08648 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We present a library of empirical stellar spectra created using spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. The templates cover spectral types O5 through L3, are binned by metallicity from −2.0 dex through +1.0 dex, and are separated into main-sequence (dwarf) stars and giant stars. With recently developed M dwarf metallicity indicators, we are able to extend the metallicity bins down through the spectral subtype M8, making this the first empirical library with this degree of temperature and metallicity coverage. The wavelength coverage for the templates is from 3650 to 10200 Å at a resolution of better than R  ∼ 2000. Using the templates, we identify trends in color space with metallicity and surface gravity, which will be useful for analyzing large data sets from upcoming missions like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Along with the templates, we are releasing a code for automatically (and/or visually) identifying the spectral type and metallicity of a star.

  9. [Current progress in food geographical origin traceability by near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dong-Hong; Wang, Xi-Chang; Liu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    The geographical origin traceability of food, an important part of traceability system, is effective in protecting the quality and safety of foodstuffs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), which is a powerful technique for geographical origin traceability, has attracted extensive attention by scientists due to its speediness, non-pollution and simple operation. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of techniques that have been used for food geographical origin traceability. The basic principles of NIR and its applications in different food geographical origin traceability are presented too. Furthermore, problems in applications are analyzed and the future development trends are discussed.

  10. Maintaining Traceability in an Evolving Distributed Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, I.; Wartel, R.

    2015-12-01

    The management of risk is fundamental to the operation of any distributed computing infrastructure. Identifying the cause of incidents is essential to prevent them from re-occurring. In addition, it is a goal to contain the impact of an incident while keeping services operational. For response to incidents to be acceptable this needs to be commensurate with the scale of the problem. The minimum level of traceability for distributed computing infrastructure usage is to be able to identify the source of all actions (executables, file transfers, pilot jobs, portal jobs, etc.) and the individual who initiated them. In addition, sufficiently fine-grained controls, such as blocking the originating user and monitoring to detect abnormal behaviour, are necessary for keeping services operational. It is essential to be able to understand the cause and to fix any problems before re-enabling access for the user. The aim is to be able to answer the basic questions who, what, where, and when concerning any incident. This requires retaining all relevant information, including timestamps and the digital identity of the user, sufficient to identify, for each service instance, and for every security event including at least the following: connect, authenticate, authorize (including identity changes) and disconnect. In traditional grid infrastructures (WLCG, EGI, OSG etc.) best practices and procedures for gathering and maintaining the information required to maintain traceability are well established. In particular, sites collect and store information required to ensure traceability of events at their sites. With the increased use of virtualisation and private and public clouds for HEP workloads established procedures, which are unable to see 'inside' running virtual machines no longer capture all the information required. Maintaining traceability will at least involve a shift of responsibility from sites to Virtual Organisations (VOs) bringing with it new requirements for their

  11. Implementing traceability using particle randomness-based textile printed tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, T. K.; Koehl, L.; Campagne, C.

    2017-10-01

    This article introduces a random particle-based traceability tag for textiles. The proposed tag not only act as a unique signature for the corresponding textile product but also possess the features such as easy to manufacture and hard to copy. It seeks applications in brand authentication and traceability in textile and clothing (T&C) supply chain. A prototype has been developed by screen printing process, in which micron-scale particles were mixed with the printing paste and printed on cotton fabrics to attain required randomness. To encode the randomness, the image of the developed tag was taken and analyzed using image processing. The randomness of the particles acts as a product key or unique signature which is required to decode the tag. Finally, washing and abrasion resistance tests were conducted to check the durability of the printed tag.

  12. Application of Stable Isotope Signatures in Food Traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Roslanzairi Mostapha; Zainon Othman; Nor Afiqah Harun; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Md Suhaimi Elias; Salmah Moosa

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has widely been used to trace the origin of organic materials in various fields, such as geochemistry, biochemistry, archaeology and petroleum. In past a decade, it has also become an important tool for food traceability study. The globalization of food markets and the relative ease with which food commodities are transported through and between countries and continents, means that consumers are increasingly concerned about the origin of the foods they eat. The natural abundance isotope variation such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen are use as geographic tracers or marker to determine the geographic origin of fruits, crop, vegetables and food products from animal. The isotopic compositions of plant materials reflect various factors such as isotopic compositions of source materials and their assimilation processes as well as growth environments. This paper will discuss on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in rice, advantages, limitations and potential of other analysis applications that can be incorporated in food traceability system. (author)

  13. Traceable calibration of photovoltaic reference cells using natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllejans, H.; Zaaiman, W.; Pavanello, D.; Dunlop, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    At the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI) photovoltaic (PV) reference cells are calibrated traceably to SI units via the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) using natural sunlight. The Direct Sunlight Method (DSM) is described in detail and the latest measurement results and an updated uncertainty budget are reported. These PV reference cells then provide a practical means for measuring the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight during the calibration of other PV devices.

  14. Traceability and Demand Sensitiveness: Evidences from Italian Fresh Potatoes Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When a traceability system takes place, either when mandatory or voluntary, many questions arise that need to be addressed and answered. One of the firsts concerns whether it introduces new costs with no gain in efficiency or, on the contrary, the system efficiency increases lowering costs and, as a consequence, market price of the good in hand. Among others, another issue that only rarely is addressed regards the effect of a price change on the final market. The objective of this paper was to simulate the effect on fresh Italian vegetables market of prices change due to a newer traceability procedure, focusing on early potato. Reasons why early potato was the main object of our study will be explained in detail later in the paper. Moreover, this study concerns a demand system estimation that has, as main goal, the measurement of own and cross price elasticities as well as expenditure elasticities. Such estimations are not strictly related with traceability because they measure any change in quantity demanded due to price changes due to any market perturbation. However, since early potato is experiencing a peculiar market and chain change in Italy, our simulation is meant to reason in terms of a “what if” approach, formally simulating the effect of any change in price due to an hypothesis of traceability system involved. In order to estimate a demand system, real household consumption data (3,000 observations of a statistically representative sample of the Italian population of households was taken into account. Relevant measures of market variables were estimated by means of a Linear Almost Ideal Demand System implementing a large set of fresh vegetables: potato split in early and late, cabbage, salad, mushrooms, fruits vegetables, roots, asparagus, onion, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, beans, zucchinis and others.

  15. Traceability and measurement uncertainty in sample preparation (W5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegscheider, W.; Walner, U.; Moser, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Very few chemical measurements are being made directly on the object of interest and sample preparation is thus the rule rather than the exception in daily practice. Unfortunately the operations undertaken in the course of sample preparation are prone to rendering a sample useless for the purpose of interpreting a measurement performed on it, as it might not represent the original and relevant status any longer. Sample preparation along with sampling itself constitutes therefore a procedure that leads to a loss of representation of the original specimen or population. On the other hand it is also not sufficient to confine aspects of traceability and measurement uncertainty to the ultimate measurement, as the key purpose of measuring is to supply adequate data for some kind of decision, be it in production, in health, in the environment, or indeed in any other circumstance. These considerations have led to severe confusion in the community as to what traceability really means in chemistry. CITAC and EURACHEM have only recently issued a preliminary document that clarifies these issues and gives a firm handle on the future development of quality assurance in analytical chemistry. In this talk it will be attempted to outline the general ideas and procedures that lead to traceability of analytical chemical results accompanied by valid statements of their uncertainty. It will be argued that the central element in achieving these goals is a well-designed validation study that frequently goes beyond those requirements currently laid out in official documents. (author)

  16. RFID Data Loggers in Fish Supply Chain Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Trebar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID is an innovative and well-recognized technology that supports all kinds of traceability systems in many areas. It becomes very important in the food industry where the electronic systems are used to capture the data in the supply chain. Additionally, RFID data loggers with sensors are available to perform a cold chain optimization for perishable foods. This paper presents the temperature monitoring solution at the box level in the fish supply chain as part of the traceability system implemented with RFID technology. RFID data loggers are placed inside the box to measure the temperature of the product and on the box for measuring ambient temperature. The results show that the system is very helpful during the phases of storage and transportation of fish to provide the quality control. The sensor data is available immediately at the delivery to be checked on the mobile RFID reader and afterwards stored in the traceability systems database to be presented on a web to stakeholders and private consumers.

  17. Framework for Design of Traceability System on Organic Rice Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandoko, P. B.; Seminar, K. B.; Sutrisno; Sugiyanta

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the preferences of organic products such as organic rice have been increased. It because of the people awareness of the healthy and eco-friendly food product consumption has grown. Therefore, it is very important to ensure organic quality of the product that will be produced. Certification is a series of process that holds to ensure the quality of products meets all criteria of organic standards. Currently, there is a problem that traceability information system for organic rice certification has been not available. The current system still conducts manually caused the loss of information during storage process. This paper aimed at developing a traceability framework on organic rice certification process. First, the main discussed issues are organic certification process. Second, unified modeling language (UML) is used to build the model of user requirement in order to develop traceability system for all actors in the certification process. Furthermore, the information captured model along certification process will be explained in this paper. The model shows the information flow that has to be recorded for each actor. Finally, the challenges in the implementation system will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukatana, Kreshnik; Sevrani, Kozeta; Hoxha, Elira

    2016-02-17

    Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer.

  19. Automatic summary generating technology of vegetable traceability for information sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenxuan, Zhang; Minjing, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve problems of excessive data entries and consequent high costs for data collection in vegetable traceablility for farmers in traceability applications, the automatic summary generating technology of vegetable traceability for information sharing was proposed. The proposed technology is an effective way for farmers to share real-time vegetable planting information in social networking platforms to enhance their brands and obtain more customers. In this research, the influencing factors in the vegetable traceablility for customers were analyzed to establish the sub-indicators and target indicators and propose a computing model based on the collected parameter values of the planted vegetables and standard legal systems on food safety. The proposed standard parameter model involves five steps: accessing database, establishing target indicators, establishing sub-indicators, establishing standard reference model and computing scores of indicators. On the basis of establishing and optimizing the standards of food safety and traceability system, this proposed technology could be accepted by more and more farmers and customers.

  20. Traceability Assessment and Performance Evaluation of Results for Measurement of Abbott Clinical Chemistry Assays on 4 Chemistry Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinsook; Song, Kyung Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kwon, Gye Choel

    2016-05-01

    -The traceability of clinical results to internationally recognized and accepted reference materials and reference measurement procedures has become increasingly important. Therefore, the establishment of traceability has become a mandatory requirement for all in vitro diagnostics devices. -To evaluate the traceability of the Abbott Architect c8000 system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois), consisting of calibrators and reagents, across 4 different chemistry analyzers, and to evaluate its general performance on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara-shi, Tochigi-ken, Japan). -For assessment of traceability, secondary reference materials were evaluated 5 times, and then bias was calculated. Precision, linearity, and carryover were determined according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, Pennsylvania). -The biases from 4 different analyzers ranged from -2.33% to 2.70% on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO, -2.33% to 5.12% on the Roche Hitachi 7600 (Roche Diagnostics International, Basel, Switzerland), -0.93% to 2.87% on the Roche Modular, and -2.16% to 2.86% on the Abbott Architect c16000. The total coefficients of variance of all analytes were less than 5%. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were more than 0.9900. The carryover rate ranged from -0.54% to 0.17%. -Abbott clinical chemistry assays met the performance criteria based on desirable biological variation for precision, bias, and total error. They also showed excellent linearity and carryover. Therefore, these clinical chemistry assays were found to be accurate and reliable and are readily applicable on the various platforms used in this study.

  1. Analysis of the influence of the plasma thermodynamic regime in the spectrally resolved and mean radiative opacity calculations of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Martel, P.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated for a wide range of plasma conditions which cover situations where corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are found. An analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on these magnitudes is also carried out by means of comparisons of the results obtained from collisional-radiative, corona or Saha–Boltzmann equations. All the calculations presented in this work were performed using ABAKO/RAPCAL code. -- Highlights: ► Spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated. ► Corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are analyzed. ► Simulations performed using the computational package ABAKO/RAPCAL. ► A criterion for the establishment of the thermodynamic regime is proposed.

  2. FIRST INTEGRAL OBSERVATIONS OF V404 CYGNI DURING THE 2015 OUTBURST: SPECTRAL BEHAVIOR IN THE 20–650 KeV ENERGY RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth [Université Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (up to ∼200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT{sub 0} ∼ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400–600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −4} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (2σ) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum.

  3. Non-destructive geographical traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) using near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiuhan; Cai, Rui; Wang, Shisheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Yueqing; Zhao, Weijie

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model. The ordered predictor selection algorithm was performed to select feasible wavelength regions for the construction of PLS and identification models. The identification model was developed by principal component analysis combined with Mahalanobis distance and scaling to the first range algorithms. In the test set of the optimum PLS models, the root mean square error of prediction was 0.45, and correlation coefficient was 0.90. The correct classification rates of 100% were obtained in both identification calibration model and test model. The overall results indicated that NIRS method combined with chemometric analysis was a suitable tool for origin traceability and identification of fresh sea cucumber samples from nine origins in China.

  4. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase. PMID:27983654

  5. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-12-14

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  6. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Shin Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  7. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Busconi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG, cultivated and sold as “Tahitian vanilla,” although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V. ×tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin “Tahitian vanilla” (PDO, currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V. ×tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on

  8. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Lucini, Luigi; Soffritti, Giovanna; Bernardi, Jamila; Bernardo, Letizia; Brunschwig, Christel; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Fernandez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla . Vanilla × tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as "Tahitian vanilla," although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V . × tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin "Tahitian vanilla" (PDO), currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V . × tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on the different

  9. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for {sup 137}Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  10. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for 137 Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  11. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Vukatana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer.

  12. Heteronuclear Micro-Helmholtz Coil Facilitates µm-Range Spatial and Sub-Hz Spectral Resolution NMR of nL-Volume Samples on Customisable Microfluidic Chips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Spengler

    Full Text Available We present a completely revised generation of a modular micro-NMR detector, featuring an active sample volume of ∼ 100 nL, and an improvement of 87% in probe efficiency. The detector is capable of rapidly screening different samples using exchangeable, application-specific, MEMS-fabricated, microfluidic sample containers. In contrast to our previous design, the sample holder chips can be simply sealed with adhesive tape, with excellent adhesion due to the smooth surfaces surrounding the fluidic ports, and so withstand pressures of ∼2.5 bar, while simultaneously enabling high spectral resolution up to 0.62 Hz for H2O, due to its optimised geometry. We have additionally reworked the coil design and fabrication processes, replacing liquid photoresists by dry film stock, whose final thickness does not depend on accurate volume dispensing or precise levelling during curing. We further introduced mechanical alignment structures to avoid time-intensive optical alignment of the chip stacks during assembly, while we exchanged the laser-cut, PMMA spacers by diced glass spacers, which are not susceptible to melting during cutting. Doing so led to an overall simplification of the entire fabrication chain, while simultaneously increasing the yield, due to an improved uniformity of thickness of the individual layers, and in addition, due to more accurate vertical positioning of the wirebonded coils, now delimited by a post base plateau. We demonstrate the capability of the design by acquiring a 1H spectrum of ∼ 11 nmol sucrose dissolved in D2O, where we achieved a linewidth of 1.25 Hz for the TSP reference peak. Chemical shift imaging experiments were further recorded from voxel volumes of only ∼ 1.5 nL, which corresponded to amounts of just 1.5 nmol per voxel for a 1 M concentration. To extend the micro-detector to other nuclei of interest, we have implemented a trap circuit, enabling heteronuclear spectroscopy, demonstrated by two 1H/13C 2D HSQC

  13. Unexplored Indoors method for pyranometers calibration traceable to SI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Matadamas, H A; Molina-Vazquez, J C; Quintero-Torres, R

    2015-01-01

    A method to calibrate pyranometers with direct traceability to the International System of Units (SI) is presented, the method use an electrically calibrated pyroelectric detector (ECPR) as standard and offers numerous advantages over outdoors conventional calibration methods, such as reducing the uncertainty from the reference standard and the final uncertainty of the sensitivity coefficient of the calibrated pyranometer; the measurement uncertainty achieved with this method at normal irradiance is 2.1% for a coverage factor k = 2 and could be reduce if one reduces the uncertainty level of the reference standard

  14. A mixing method for traceable air velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpää, S; Heinonen, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel and quite simple method to establish a traceability link between air velocity and the national standards of mass and time is presented in this paper. The method is based on the humidification of flowing air before the blower of a wind tunnel with a known mass flow of water. Then air velocity can be calculated as a function of humidification water flow. The method is compared against a Pitot-tube-based velocity measurement in a wind tunnel at the MIKES. The results of these two different methods agreed well, with a maximum difference of 0.7%

  15. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet. PMID:22253982

  16. Portable radiation instrumentation traceability of standards and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiserman, A.; Walke, M.

    1995-01-01

    Portable radiation measuring instruments are used to estimate and control doses for workers. Calibration of these instruments must be sufficiently accurate to ensure that administrative and legal dose limits are not likely to be exceeded due to measurement uncertainties. An instrument calibration and management program is established which permits measurements made with an instrument to be traced to a national standard. This paper describes the establishment and maintenance of calibration standards for gamma survey instruments and an instrument management program which achieves traceability of measurement for uniquely identified field instruments. (author)

  17. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M; Zekovic, L; Belca, I

    2010-01-01

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  18. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  19. Design and implementation of safety traceability system for candied fruits based on two-dimension code technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Kun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the basic principle of food safety.A food safety traceability system based on QR code and cloud computing technology was introduced in this paper.First of all we introduced the QR code technology and the concept of traceability.And then through the field investigation,we analyzed the traceability process.At the same time,we designed the system and database were found,and the consumer experiencing technology is studied.Finally we expounded the traceability information collection,transmission and final presentation style and expected the future development of traceability system.

  20. Theory-based metrological traceability in education: A reading measurement network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P; Stenner, A Jackson

    2016-10-01

    Huge resources are invested in metrology and standards in the natural sciences, engineering, and across a wide range of commercial technologies. Significant positive returns of human, social, environmental, and economic value on these investments have been sustained for decades. Proven methods for calibrating test and survey instruments in linear units are readily available, as are data- and theory-based methods for equating those instruments to a shared unit. Using these methods, metrological traceability is obtained in a variety of commercially available elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education programs in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established historical patterns, widespread routine reproduction of predicted text-based and instructional effects expressed in a common language and shared frame of reference may lead to significant developments in theory and practice. Opportunities for systematic implementations of teacher-driven lean thinking and continuous quality improvement methods may be of particular interest and value.

  1. New Primary Standards for Establishing SI Traceability for Moisture Measurements in Solid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M.; Bell, S.; Choi, B. Il; Cortellessa, G.; Fernicola, V.; Georgin, E.; Hudoklin, D.; Ionescu, G. V.; Ismail, N.; Keawprasert, T.; Krasheninina, M.; Aro, R.; Nielsen, J.; Oğuz Aytekin, S.; Österberg, P.; Skabar, J.; Strnad, R.

    2018-01-01

    A European research project METefnet addresses a fundamental obstacle to improving energy-intensive drying process control: due to ambiguous reference analysis methods and insufficient methods for estimating uncertainty in moisture measurements, the achievable accuracy in the past was limited and measurement uncertainties were largely unknown. This paper reports the developments in METefnet that provide a sound basis for the SI traceability: four new primary standards for realizing the water mass fraction were set up, analyzed and compared to each other. The operation of these standards is based on combining sample weighing with different water vapor detection techniques: cold trap, chilled mirror, electrolytic and coulometric Karl Fischer titration. The results show that an equivalence of 0.2 % has been achieved between the water mass fraction realizations and that the developed methods are applicable to a wide range of materials.

  2. Integrity of nuclear genomic deoxyribonucleic acid in cooked meat: Implications for food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, O; Hamill, R M; Sweeney, T; Reardon, W; Mullen, A M

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to isolate high-quality DNA from muscle tissue for PCR-based applications in traceability of animal origin. We wished to examine the impact of cooking meat to a range of core temperatures on the quality and quantity of subsequently isolated genomic (specifically, nuclear) DNA. Triplicate steak samples were cooked in a water bath (100 degrees C) until their final internal temperature was 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 degrees C, and DNA was extracted. Deoxyribonucleic acid quantity was significantly reduced in cooked meat samples compared with raw (6.5 vs. 56.6 ng/microL; P 800 bp) were observed only when using DNA from raw meat and steak cooked to lower core temperatures. Small amplicons (food authentication, it is less abundant, and results suggest that analyses should be designed to use small amplicon sizes for meat cooked to high core temperatures.

  3. Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, D. R.; Hollandt, J.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Hoepe, A.; Hauer, K.-O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Gege, P.; Schwarzmaier, T.; Lenhard, K.; Baumgartner, A. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut fuer Methodik der Fernerkundung, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    A dedicated calibration technique was applied for the calibration of the spectral radiance transfer standard (RASTA) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), consisting of two independent but complementing calibration procedures to provide redundancy and smallest possible calibration uncertainties. Procedure I included two calibration steps: In a first step the optical radiation source of RASTA, an FEL lamp, was calibrated in terms of its spectral irradiance E{sub {lambda}}({lambda}) in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 2400 nm using the PTB Spectral Irradiance Calibration Equipment (SPICE), while in a second step the spectral radiance factor {beta}{sub 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign }({lambda}) of the RASTA reflection standard was calibrated in a 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign -viewing geometry in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 1700 nm at the robot-based gonioreflectometer facility of PTB. The achieved relative standard uncertainties (k= 1) range from 0.6 % to 3.2 % and 0.1 % to 0.6 % respectively. Procedure II was completely independent from procedure I and allowed to cover the entire spectral range of RASTA from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In the second procedure, the 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign -viewing geometry spectral radiance L{sub {lambda},0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign }({lambda}) of RASTA was directly calibrated at the Spectral Radiance Comparator Facility (SRCF) of PTB. The relative uncertainties for this calibration procedure range from 0.8 % in the visible up to 7.5 % at 2500 nm (k= 1). In the overlapping spectral range of both calibration procedures the calculated spectral radiance L{sub {lambda},0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign ,calc}({lambda}) from procedure I is in good agreement with the direct measurement of procedure II, i.e. well within the combined expanded uncertainties (k= 2) of both procedures.

  4. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400-1100 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Huilan; Xing Da; Wei Huajiang; Gu Huaimin; Wu Guoyong; Lu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy

  5. Traceability and retrievability: Documentation, the bridge from science to compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this day of regulatory compliance, the fact that good science was practiced and documented is, in and of itself, not enough to assure a successful licensing or permitting result. A new level of documentation, that clearly walks a non-project reviewer through the traceability of all activities and decisions is required for successful acceptance of scientific results. Compliance reviewers (whether the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), etc.) expect to verify the results of the scientific and program activities without the physical presence of the person or persons that conducted the activity. Traceability of activities and associated decisions through the retrieval of all associated records is a must. This presentation is based on lessons learned from the various quality assurance (QA) audits and program reviews of Sandia National Laboratories, Nuclear Waste Management Programs Center, scientific and programmatic documentation. The authors build a bridge from science to compliance from lessons learned. Here now is a somewhat fictional rendition of actual scientific testing and compliance support activities

  6. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Acedo, Eneko; Kortaberria, Gorka; Olarra, Aitor

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand. PMID:28696358

  7. Rollout Strategy to Implement Interoperable Traceability in the Seafood Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Martin; Dent, Benjamin; Sylvia, Gilbert; Cusack, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Verifying the accuracy and rigor of data exchanged within and between businesses for the purposes of traceability rests on the existence of effective and efficient interoperable information systems that meet users' needs. Interoperability, particularly given the complexities intrinsic to the seafood industry, requires that the systems used by businesses operating along the supply chain share a common technology architecture that is robust, resilient, and evolves as industry needs change. Technology architectures are developed through engaging industry stakeholders in understanding why an architecture is required, the benefits provided to the industry and individual businesses and supply chains, and how the architecture will translate into practical results. This article begins by reiterating the benefits that the global seafood industry can capture by implementing interoperable chain-length traceability and the reason for basing the architecture on a peer-to-peer networked database concept versus more traditional centralized or linear approaches. A summary of capabilities that already exist within the seafood industry that the proposed architecture uses is discussed; and a strategy for implementing the architecture is presented. The 6-step strategy is presented in the form of a critical path. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Processing Uncertain RFID Data in Traceability Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  9. Processing uncertain RFID data in traceability supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie; Guo, Guangjun; Jiang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries.

  10. Application of Stable Isotope Signatures in Food Traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Roslanzairi Mostapha; Zainon Othman

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has widely been used to trace the origin of organic materials in various fields, such as geochemistry, biochemistry, archaeology and petroleum. In past a decade, it has also become an important tool for food traceability study. The globalisation of food markets and the relative ease which food commodities are transported through and between countries and continents means that consumers are increasingly concerned about the origin of the foods they eat. The natural abundance of stable isotope variation such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen are used as geographic tracers or marker to determine the geographic origin of fruits, crop, vegetables and food products from animal. The isotopic compositions of plant materials reflect various factors such as isotopic compositions of source materials and their assimilation processes as well as growth environments. This paper will discuss on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in rice that been determined by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, advantages, limitations and potential of other analysis applications that can be incorporated in food traceability system. (author)

  11. Metrological traceability of carbon dioxide measurements in atmosphere and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, F; Pessana, E; Sega, M

    2017-01-01

    The accurate determination of gaseous pollutants is fundamental for the monitoring of the trends of these analytes in the environment and the application of the metrological concepts to this field is necessary to assure the reliability of the measurement results. In this work, an overview of the activity carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica to establish the metrological traceability of the measurements of gaseous atmospheric pollutants, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is presented. Two primary methods, the gravimetry and the dynamic dilution, are used for the preparation of reference standards for composition which can be used to calibrate sensors and analytical instrumentation. At present, research is carried out to lower the measurement uncertainties of the primary gas mixtures and to extend their application to the oceanic field. The reason of such investigation is due to the evidence of the changes occurring in seawater carbonate chemistry, connected to the rising level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. The well established activity to assure the metrological traceability of CO 2 in the atmosphere will be applied to the determination of CO 2 in seawater, by developing suitable reference materials for calibration and control of the sensors during their routine use. (paper)

  12. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutilba, Unai; Gomez-Acedo, Eneko; Kortaberria, Gorka; Olarra, Aitor; Yagüe-Fabra, Jose A

    2017-07-11

    Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand.

  13. Traceability on radon measurements at the JAEA Ningyo-toge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yuu

    2007-01-01

    The study on the establishment and maintenance of the traceability on radon measurements at the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA Ningyo-toge) is illustrated in this paper. The primary standard is a radium solution provided by the National Bureau of Standard (present the National Institute of Standards and Technology) in the USA, and the secondary standard is the method with gas-filled ionization chambers calibrated with the solution. The radon reference chamber is utilized to provide reference atmospheres in calibration experiments for other monitors. Through the intercomparison experiments among the international reference institutes, it was confirmed that the reliability and consistency of the secondary standard of the JAEA Ningyo-toge have been retained since 1984. It shows that the calibration and measurement techniques associated with the traceability system constructed have been maintained well at the JAEA Ningyo-toge. Science there is no reference field as a national standard and no method regulated by the Japanese Industrial standard, this paper provides not only reliability and accuracy of the radon measurements at the JAEA Ningyo-toge, but also useful information for the standardization of radon measurements in Japan. (author)

  14. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  15. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Luming; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-01-15

    Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR)) were applied for the origin traceability of 192 mushroom samples (caps and stipes) in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA) and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM), were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples) were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  16. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR were applied for the origin traceability of 184 mushroom samples (caps and stipes in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM, were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  17. Guidance on meeting DOE order requirements for traceable nondestructive assay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Purpose of this guide is to facilitate accuracy and precision of nondestructive assay measurements through improvement of the materials and process of traceability. This document provides DOE and its contractor facilities with guidance to establish traceability to the national measurement base for site-prepared NDA working reference materials

  18. Developing a Framework for Traceability Implementation in the Textile Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traceability has recently gained considerable attention in the textile industry. Traceability stands for information sharing about a product including the product history, specification, or location. With the involvement of globally dispersed actors in the textile supply chain, ensuring appropriate product quality with timely supplies is crucial for surviving in this industry with ever increasing competition. Hence it is of paramount importance for a supply chain actor to track every product and trace its history in the supply chain. In this context, this paper presents a framework to implement traceability in the textile supply chain. A system approach has been followed, where firstly the usage requirement of traceability is defined, and then a framework for implementing intra-actor or internal traceability and inter-actor or external traceability is discussed. This article further presents a sequential diagram to demonstrate the interaction and information exchange between the actors in the supply chain, when the traceability information is requested. An example is also illustrated for data storage using a relational database management system and information exchange using XML for the textile weaver. Finally, the article discusses challenges and future studies required to implement traceability in the textile supply chain.

  19. Technical and economic considerations about traceability and certification in livestock production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on traceability and certification. The goal of the paper is to analyse the status and perspectives of traceability systems and certification schemes and to review their potential costs and benefits. The following two sections describe purposes, requirements, status and

  20. Diagnostic model for assessing traceability system performance in fish processing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgonja, J.T.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a diagnostic tool that can be used by fish processing companies to evaluate their own traceability systems in a systematic manner. The paper begins with discussions on the rationale of traceability systems in food manufacturing companies, followed by a detailed analysis of the

  1. Testing improvements in the chocolate traceability system: Impact on product recalls and production efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    hypothetical improvements of the traceability system within the chocolate production system and supply chain and we illustrate the resulting benefits by using a case study. Based on the case study, we quantify the influence of these improvements on production efficiency and recall size in case of a safety......The primary aim of food traceability is to increase food safety, but traceability systems can also bring other benefits to production systems and supply chains. In the literature these benefits are extensively discussed, but studies that quantify them are scarce. In this paper we propose two...... crisis by developing a simulation tool. These results are aimed to illustrate and quantify the additional benefits of traceability information, and could help food industries in deciding whether and how to improve their traceability systems....

  2. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra

    2013-07-01

    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  3. Third-harmonic generation in silicon and photonic crystals of macroporous silicon in the spectral intermediate-IR range; Erzeugung der Dritten Harmonischen in Silizium und Photonischen Kristallen aus makroporoesem Silizium im spektralen mittleren IR-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzschke, Kerstin

    2007-11-01

    Nonlinear optical spectroscopy is a powerful method to study surface or bulk properties of condensed matter. In centrosymmetric materials like silicon even order nonlinear optical processes are forbidden. Besides self-focussing or self phase modulation third-harmonic-generation (THG) is the simplest process that can be studied. This work demonstrates that THG is a adapted non-contact and non-invasive optical method to get information about bulk structures of silicon and Photonic crystals (PC), consisting of silicon. Until now most studies are done in the visible spectral range being limited by the linear absorption losses. So the extension of THG to the IR spectral range is extremely useful. This will allow the investigation of Photonic Crystals, where frequencies near a photonic bandgap are of special interest. 2D- photonic structures under investigation were fabricated via photoelectrochemical etching of the Si (100) wafer (thickness 500 {mu}m) receiving square and hexagonal arranged pores. The typical periodicity of the structures used is 2 {mu}m and the length of the pores reached to 400 {mu}m. Because of stability the photonic structures were superimposed on silicon substrate. The experimental set-up used for the THG experiments generates tuneable picosecond IR pulses (tuning range 1500-4000 cm{sup -1}). The IR-pulse hit the sample either perpendicular to the sample surface or under an angle {theta}. The sample can be rotated (f) around the surface normal. The generated third harmonic is analysed by a polarizer, spectrally filtered by a polychromator and registered by a CCD camera. The setup can be used either in transmission or in reflection mode. Optical transmission and reflection spectra of the Si bulk correspond well with the theoretical description, a 4-fold and a 8-fold dependencies of the azimuth angle resulting in the structure of the x{sup (3)}-tensor of (100)-Si. The situation changes dramatically if the PC with hexagonal structure is investigated

  4. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  5. Realising traceable electrostatic forces despite non-linear balance motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Julian; Shaw, Gordon A

    2017-01-01

    Direct realisation of force, traceable to fundamental constants via electromagnetic balances, is a key goal of the proposed redefinition of the international system of units (SI). This will allow small force metrology to be performed using an electrostatic force balance (EFB) rather than subdivision of larger forces. Such a balance uses the electrostatic force across a capacitor to balance an external force. In this paper we model the capacitance of a concentric cylinder EFB design as a function of the displacement of its free electrode, accounting for the arcuate motion produced by parallelogram linkages commonly used in EFB mechanisms. From this model we suggest new fitting procedures to reduce uncertainties arising from non-linear motion as well as methods to identify misalignment of the mechanism. Experimental studies on both a test capacitor and the NIST EFB validate the model. (paper)

  6. Proceedings of the August 2011 Traceability Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C

    2013-12-01

    IFT's Traceability Improvement Initiative aims to advance work in the area of food product tracing through several means including hosted events where thought leaders exchange knowledge and ideas. In August 2011, the Initiative, in collaboration with GS1 US, convened a group of 50 product tracing stakeholders, as a follow-on to a successful event the month prior. Representatives conducting pilots or implementation studies in produce, seafood, dairy, and other industries discussed the objectives, challenges and learnings. Some of the learnings from on-going initiatives included the sense that better information management provides a return of investment; data often exist but may not necessarily be appropriately linked through the supply chain; and enhanced product tracing enables better accountability and quality control. Challenges identified in enabling traceability throughout the supply chain were the distribution complexity; the need for training, communication, and collaboration; improving the reliability, quality and security of data captured, stored and shared as well as the importance of standards in data and interoperability of technology. Several approaches to overcoming these challenges were discussed. The first approach incrementally improves upon the current "one up/one down" system by requiring electronic records and tracking internal as well as external critical tracking events. The benefits of this approach are its similarity to existing regulatory requirements and low cost of implementation; resulting in a higher probability of adoption. The major disadvantage to this process is the longer response time required during a trace (back or forward). The second approach is similar to a "pedigree" approach where historical information about the food travels with it through the value chain. A major advantage of this approach is the quickest response time during a trace. Some of the disadvantages of this approach are potential for misuse of data, the volume

  7. The Researches on Food Traceability System of University takeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    lu, Jia xin; zhao, Ce; li, Zhuang zhuang; shao, Zi rong; pi, Kun yi

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, campus takeaway has developed rapidly, and all kinds of online ordering platforms are running. The problem of distribution in the campus can not only save the time cost of the businessmen, but also guarantee the effective management of the school, which is beneficial to the construction of the standard health system for the takeout. But distribution according to the existing mode will cause certain safety and health risks. The establishment of the University takeaway food traceability system can solve this problem. This paper first analyzes the sharing mode and distribution process of campus takeaway, and then designs the intelligent tracing system for the campus takeaway; the construction of the food distribution information platform and the problem of the recycling of the green environment of the dining box. Finally, the intelligent tracing system of the school takeout is analyzed with the braised chicken as an example.

  8. Traceable calibration of hospital 192Ir HDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rajan, K.N.; Sharma, S.D.; Palaniselvam, T.; Vandana, S.; Bhatt, B.C.; Vinatha, S.; Patki, V.S.; Pendse, A.M.; Kannan, V.

    2004-01-01

    A HDR 1000 PLUS well type ionization chamber, procured from Standard Imaging, USA, and maintained by medical Physics and Safety Section (MPSS), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, as a reference well chamber 1 (RWCH1), was traceably calibrated against the primary standard established by Radiological Standards Laboratory (RSL), BARC for 192 Ir HDR source, in terms of air kerma strength (AKS). An indigenously developed well-type ionization chamber, reference well chamber 2 (RWCH2) and electrometer system, fabricated by CD High Tech (CDHT) Instruments Private Ltd., Bangalore, India, was in turn calibrated against RWCH1. The CDHT system (i.e. RWCH2 and CDHT electrometer system) was taken to several hospitals, in different regions of the country, to check the calibration status of 192 Ir HDR sources. The result of this calibration audit work is reported here. (author)

  9. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  10. Ethical Traceability for Improved Transparency in the Food Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2010-01-01

    Some practices in the agri-food sector worry consumers. Consumers might for instance be concerned about animal welfare, health, environmental issues, transparency of the food chain and so forth.A question, which confronts consumers today, is how they can become capable of acting upon such ethical...... concerns. Information is often seen as an answer to the mentioned consumer concerns. Paradoxically, although consumers are bombarded with information on food - from the media, the food industry, food authorities, NGOs and interest groups – details about how foods are actually produced is often hard to find....... Much of the information available is superficial, conflicting or partial, and it is hard for consumers seeking to make informed food choices on ethical matters to know which information to trust. Food traceability, which provides a record of the history and journey of a given food, and which...

  11. Metrology of trace radionuclides in environment. Standardization and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread concern over radioactive substances in the environment regularly requires environmental and public health assessments. The credibility of an assessment will depend on the quality and reliability on measurement results that often are of paramount significance in the environmental domain. Those man made radionuclides present in the various environmental components of the French territory are however found at trace, even ultra-trace levels. This article gives an overview of standardization work and required reference materials and rules for measuring radionuclides in environmental matrices as well as the international and national systems to manage standardization and traceability. Some achievements as well as the many difficulties that the metrologist must overcome when using nuclear techniques to measure trace quantities of radionuclides are presented. (author)

  12. The Researches on Food Traceability System of University takeout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lu Jia xin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, campus takeaway has developed rapidly, and all kinds of online ordering platforms are running. The problem of distribution in the campus can not only save the time cost of the businessmen, but also guarantee the effective management of the school, which is beneficial to the construction of the standard health system for the takeout. But distribution according to the existing mode will cause certain safety and health risks. The establishment of the University takeaway food traceability system can solve this problem. This paper first analyzes the sharing mode and distribution process of campus takeaway, and then designs the intelligent tracing system for the campus takeaway; the construction of the food distribution information platform and the problem of the recycling of the green environment of the dining box. Finally, the intelligent tracing system of the school takeout is analyzed with the braised chicken as an example.

  13. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  14. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  15. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients’ informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient’s consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be

  16. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients' informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient's consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be a

  17. Proposal of genetic traceability for Cinta Senese products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinta Senese is a white belted pig breed native of Italy. This breed is characterized by an high quality meat whereas its productive and reproductive performances are poor. The breed currently produces fresh and cured products with high market price. One of the factors associated with this high price is the quality of the raw material but consumers require that Cinta Senese be the only breed involved. There are some Cinta Senese products which are currently in the process of being recognized by European Union (PDO. Nevertheless the deceitful use of more fruitful breeds is anyhow possible, therefore the institution of a protocol for a DNA-based traceability of Cinta Senese products would be desirable. Traditionally breeds were classified by their colour or type so that over time a Standard of Excellence (phenotypic conformity was developed to define phenotype and supplemented by pedigree information. One of the main distinguishing features for pig breeds is coat colour and pattern. Two loci, Extension and Dominant White have a major influence on coat colour. The genes involved have been identified (MC1R and KIT respectively, variants have been described and associations with breed and colour determined (Giuffra et al., 2002, Johansson Moller et al., 1996, Kijas et al., 1998, 2001, Marklund et al., 1998, Pielberg et al., 2002. All the assayed mutations are causal of the investigated phenomena. These polymorphisms could play an important role in Quality Assurance programmes and maintenance of brand identity. The aim of this work was the study of these polymorphisms in Cinta Senese breed and the final purpose was the establishment of a DNA-based traceability protocol of Cinta Senese products.

  18. Traceable calibration of hospital 192Ir HDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rajan, K.N.; Bhatt, B.C.; Pendse, A.M.; Kannan, V.

    2002-01-01

    Presently, no primary standard exists for the standardization of remote afterloading 192 Ir HDR sources. These sources are, therefore, being standardized by a few Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), in terms of Air Kerma Strength (AKS) or Reference Air Kerma Rate (RAKR) using a 0.6 cc Farmer type chamber, set up as an Interim Standard. These SSDLs offer calibration to well type of ionization chambers that are normally used by the hospitals for calibrating the 192 lr HDR source. Presently, in many countries, including India, well chambers are not commercially available. Nor do these countries offer any calibration service for 192 lr HDR source. With the result users make use of well chambers imported from different countries with their calibration traceable to the country of origin. Since no intercomparisons between these countries have been reported, the measurement consistency between hospitals becomes questionable. The problem is compounded by the fact that these chambers are used for several years without re-calibration since no calibration service is locally available. For instance, in India, the chambers have been in use in hospitals, since 1994, without a second calibration. Not all hospitals use the well chamber for the calibration of the 192 lr HDR source. Many hospitals make use of 0.6 cc chambers, in air, at short source to chamber distances, for measuring the AKS of the source. The latter method is prone to much larger inaccuracy due to the use of very short source to chamber distances without proper calibration jigs, use of 60 Co calibration factor for 192 Ir HDR source calibrations, neglecting correction factors for room scatter, fluence non-uniformity, use of arbitrary buildup factors for the buildup cap of the chamber etc. A comparison of the procedures used at hospitals revealed that various arbitrary methods are in use at hospitals. An indigenously developed well chamber was calibrated against a Reference Standard traceable to the

  19. Proceedings of the November 2011 Traceability Research Summit: this report is the third in a series on Traceability Summits sponsored by IFT beginning in July 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Caitlin; Bhatt, Tejas

    2013-12-01

    Fifty thought leaders in the area of food traceability met for a 3rd time to discuss methodologies and finalize the principles that define their vision for traceability. Participants in the summit included representatives from industry, trade associations, government, academia, consumer groups, and more. One main focus of this summit included a discussion on the current regulations and voluntary initiatives in place regarding traceability. Overall, it was recognized that the recommendations from this summit group would be more specific and stringent in comparison to these current regulations and initiatives. The participants sought to be leaders in the traceability arena, with their recommendations leading the industry to optimal traceability systems and methods. Participants agreed on many principles for their vision of traceability, emphasizing the importance of access to traceability data. They discussed having industry be asked for "basic" tracing data prior to the need for a large-scale investigation, having standards for sharing data, and having the data in electronic form. Participants foresaw the importance of capturing data electronically in the future, although they recognized that many firms do not currently do this. The group also saw a need for a transition period to implement changes, and to provide implementation training and resource aid to small businesses. Summit participants discussed specific definitions and examples for key data elements and critical tracking events that could be used by industry to capture tracing data at specific points within the supply chain. Overall, participants refined the goals of the summit group and started to identify specific ways to achieve those goals. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Dielectric function in the spectral range (0.5–8.5)eV of an (AlxGa1−x)2O3 thin film with continuous composition spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Grund, R.; Kranert, C.; Wenckstern, H. von; Zviagin, V.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    We determined the dielectric function of the alloy system (Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV and for Al contents ranging from x = 0.11 to x = 0.55. For the composition range x < 0.4, we observe single phase material in the β-modification and for larger Al content also the occurrence of γ-(Al,Ga) 2 O 3 . We derived spectra of the refractive index and the absorption coefficient as well as energy parameters of electronic band-band transitions by model analysis of the dielectric function. The dependence of the dielectric functions lineshape and the energy parameters on x is highly continuous, reflecting theoretical expectations. The data presented here provide a basis for a deeper understanding of the electronic properties of this material system and may be useful for device engineering

  1. The perceived value of dairy product traceability in modern society: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Sylvain; Haratifar, Sanaz

    2015-05-01

    The current study assessed the perceived value of food traceability in modern society by young consumers. After experiencing numerous recalls and food safety-related incidences, consumers are increasingly aware of the tools available to mitigate risks. Food traceability has been associated with food safety procedures for many years, but recent high-profile cases of food fraud around the world have given traceability a different strategic purpose. Focusing solely on dairy products, our survey results offer a glimpse of consumer perceptions of traceability as a means to preserve food integrity and authenticity. This study explored the various influences that market-oriented traceability has had on dairy consumers. For example, results show that if the dairy sector could guarantee that their product is in fact organic, 53.8% of respondents who often purchase organic milk would consider always purchasing traceable organic milk. This research produced a quantitative set of information related to the perceived value of food traceability, which could be useful for the creation and development of improved guidelines and better education for consumers. We discuss limitations and suggest areas for new research. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  3. SI-traceability of reference materials and reference measurements: From ignoring to realizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, P. de; Taylor, P.D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Basic principles of traceability of measurements in and to the SI system in general and for measurements of amount of substance in particular are described. Analogies with long-standing traceability schemes in physical measurements are shown and attempts are made to indicate what - as yet barely existing - traceability of amount (-of-substance) measurements could be. The recent start of the CGPM/CIPM/CCQM/BIPM involvement in the field of measurements indicated and possible tasks suggested for these scientific (and legal) guards of the international system of measurements SI (Systeme International). (author)

  4. Current Barriers to Large-scale Interoperability of Traceability Technology in the Seafood Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Marah J; Flett, Keith; Howell, Colleen J

    2017-08-01

    Interoperability is a critical component of full-chain digital traceability, but is almost nonexistent in the seafood industry. Using both quantitative and qualitative methodology, this study explores the barriers impeding progress toward large-scale interoperability among digital traceability systems in the seafood sector from the perspectives of seafood companies, technology vendors, and supply chains as a whole. We highlight lessons from recent research and field work focused on implementing traceability across full supply chains and make some recommendations for next steps in terms of overcoming challenges and scaling current efforts. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  6. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  7. Knowledge representation in safety assessment: improving transparency and traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, F.L. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sullivan, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ross, T. [University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guimaraes, L.N.F. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Transparency and traceability are key factors for confidence building, acceptability, and quality enhancement of the safety assessment, and safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility. In order to facilitate analysis and promote discussions, all of the information used to make decisions should be readily available to stake holders. The information should convey a good understanding of the intermediate decisions processes, allowing examination of alternatives and 'what if questions'. In an ideal situation all stake holders, including scientists and the public, should be able to follow the path of a certain parameter, from the beginning where it was defined, its assumptions and uncertainties, throughout the calculations until the final results of the safety assessment. One of the main challenges, to achieving such a transparency and traceability, is that stake holders are a very diverse audience, with very different backgrounds. This could require preparation of various versions of the same documentation, which would be impractical. While the linguistic information is of crucial importance to understanding the reasoning, it is very difficult to convey the supporting conditions, and consequent uncertainties for the selection of parameters values. Even scientists involved in the process can become confused due to the overwhelming amount of information that is used to support parameter value selection. The amount of details makes it difficult to track the decisions, which lead to the selection of a certain parameter, throughout the calculations. This paper presents a methodology to represent the linguistic information used in the safety assessment in terms of mathematical expressions by using the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic tools. This methodology aims to help information to be readily available while keeping, as much as possible, the original meaning of the linguistic expressions and, consequently, to be available at any time as a quick reference

  8. Knowledge representation in safety assessment: improving transparency and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F.L. de; Sullivan, T.; Ross, T.; Guimaraes, L.N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency and traceability are key factors for confidence building, acceptability, and quality enhancement of the safety assessment, and safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility. In order to facilitate analysis and promote discussions, all of the information used to make decisions should be readily available to stake holders. The information should convey a good understanding of the intermediate decisions processes, allowing examination of alternatives and 'what if questions'. In an ideal situation all stake holders, including scientists and the public, should be able to follow the path of a certain parameter, from the beginning where it was defined, its assumptions and uncertainties, throughout the calculations until the final results of the safety assessment. One of the main challenges, to achieving such a transparency and traceability, is that stake holders are a very diverse audience, with very different backgrounds. This could require preparation of various versions of the same documentation, which would be impractical. While the linguistic information is of crucial importance to understanding the reasoning, it is very difficult to convey the supporting conditions, and consequent uncertainties for the selection of parameters values. Even scientists involved in the process can become confused due to the overwhelming amount of information that is used to support parameter value selection. The amount of details makes it difficult to track the decisions, which lead to the selection of a certain parameter, throughout the calculations. This paper presents a methodology to represent the linguistic information used in the safety assessment in terms of mathematical expressions by using the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic tools. This methodology aims to help information to be readily available while keeping, as much as possible, the original meaning of the linguistic expressions and, consequently, to be available at any time as a quick reference. This would

  9. Si-Traceable Scale for Measurements of Radiocarbon Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Long, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon (^{14}C) dating of organic materials is based on measuring the ^{14}C/^{12}C atomic fraction relative to the nascent value that existed when the material was formed by photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. This field of measurement has numerous applications including source apportionment of anthropogenic and biogenic fuels and combustion emissions, carbon cycle dynamics, archaeology, and forensics. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most widely used method for radiocarbon detection because it can measure extremely small amounts of radiocarbon (background of nominally 1.2 parts-per-trillion) with high relative precision (0.4 %). AMS measurements of radiocarbon are typically calibrated by reference to standard oxalic-acid (C_2H_2O_4) samples of known radiocativity that are derived from plant matter. Specifically, the internationally accepted absolute dating reference for so-called "modern-equivalent" radiocarbon is 95 % of the specific radioactivity in AD 1950 of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) oxalic acid standard reference material and normalized to δ^{13}C_{VPDB} = 19 per mil. With this definition, a "modern-equivalent" corresponds to 1.176(70) parts-per-trillion of ^{14}C relative to total carbon content. As an alternative radiocarbon scale, we propose an SI-traceable method to determine ^{14}C absolute concentration which is based on linear Beer-Lambert-law absorption measurements of selected ^{14}C^{16}O_2 ν_3-band line areas. This approach is attractive because line intensities of chosen radiocarbon dioxide transitions can be determined by ab initio calculations with relative uncertainties below 0.5 %. This assumption is justified by the excellent agreement between theoretical values of line intensities and measurements for stable isotopologues of CO_2. In the case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements of ^{14}C^{16}O_2 peak areas, we show that absolute, SI-traceable concentrations of

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Advances in traceable nanometrology at the National Physical Laboratory†Advances in traceable nanometrology at the National Physical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard; Haycocks, Jane; Jackson, Keith; Lewis, Andrew; Oldfield, Simon; Yacoot, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    The only difference between nanotechnology and many other fields of science or engineering is that of size. Control in manufacturing at the nanometre scale still requires accurate and traceable measurements whether one is attempting to machine optical quality glass or write one's company name in single atoms. A number of instruments have been developed at the National Physical Laboratory that address the measurement requirements of the nanotechnology community and provide traceability to the definition of the metre. The instruments discussed in this paper are an atomic force microscope and a surface texture measuring instrument with traceable metrology in all their operational axes, a combined optical and x-ray interferometer system that can be used to calibrate displacement transducers to subnanometre accuracy and a co-ordinate measuring machine with a working volume of (50 mm)3 and 50 nm volumetric accuracy.

  11. EPA’s Hg Gas Traceability Approach for Source Emissions Measurement and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solicited presentation (special topic) at the International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant on how EPA establishes the NIST traceability of reference materials used to support regulatory mercury emissions measurements.

  12. Importance of Requirements Analysis & Traceability to Improve Software Quality and Reduce Cost and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manju M.; Mehta, Manju

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance of developing complete and unambiguous requirements early in the project cycle (prior to Preliminary Design Phase). Having a complete set of requirements early in the project cycle allows sufficient time to generate a traceability matrix. Requirements traceability and analysis are the key elements in improving verification and validation process, and thus overall software quality. Traceability can be most beneficial when the system changes. If changes are made to high-level requirements it implies that low-level requirements need to be modified. Traceability ensures that requirements are appropriately and efficiently verified at various levels whereas analysis ensures that a rightly interpreted set of requirements is produced.

  13. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend

  14. A PetriNet-Based Approach for Supporting Traceability in Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiwei; Zhu, Yeping; Cheng, Bo; Lin, Chuang; Chen, Junliang

    2016-03-17

    With the growing popularity of complex dynamic activities in manufacturing processes, traceability of the entire life of every product has drawn significant attention especially for food, clinical materials, and similar items. This paper studies the traceability issue in cyber-physical manufacturing systems from a theoretical viewpoint. Petri net models are generalized for formulating dynamic manufacturing processes, based on which a detailed approach for enabling traceability analysis is presented. Models as well as algorithms are carefully designed, which can trace back the lifecycle of a possibly contaminated item. A practical prototype system for supporting traceability is designed, and a real-life case study of a quality control system for bee products is presented to validate the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. A PetriNet-Based Approach for Supporting Traceability in Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of complex dynamic activities in manufacturing processes, traceability of the entire life of every product has drawn significant attention especially for food, clinical materials, and similar items. This paper studies the traceability issue in cyber-physical manufacturing systems from a theoretical viewpoint. Petri net models are generalized for formulating dynamic manufacturing processes, based on which a detailed approach for enabling traceability analysis is presented. Models as well as algorithms are carefully designed, which can trace back the lifecycle of a possibly contaminated item. A practical prototype system for supporting traceability is designed, and a real-life case study of a quality control system for bee products is presented to validate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Application of the concept of traceability to the management of nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnari, J.C.; Cohen, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The connotations of the quality of nuclear data in the quality of experimental results are discussed. The authors show the analogies existent between metrological standards and literature data and propose the adoption of the concept of traceability of nuclear data. The conditions to be fulfilled for the publication of nuclear data, concerning the establishment of traceability, are discussed. Criteria for renormalization are presented. The requirements of nuclear data in neutron activation analysis and the role of the analyst are discussed

  17. Development on traceability based on changes of stable isotopes in animal tissues and organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xianfeng; Guo Boli; Wei Yimin; Sun Shumin; Wei Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a new method in food traceability, which can be used to trace animals' geographical origin and life history. This paper reviews the recent progress of researches on characteristics of stable isotopes and turnover time in different animal tissues and organs, as well as their influence caused by feed, drinking water, geographical origin, storing and processing. The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical reference for studies on the traceability of animal derived food and animals' life history. (authors)

  18. Recent advance in DNA-based traceability and authentication of livestock meat PDO and PGI products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoloso, Letizia; Crepaldi, Paola; Mazza, Raffaele; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Negrini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    This review updates the available molecular techniques and technologies and discusses how they can be used for traceability, food control and enforcement activities. The review also provides examples on how molecular techniques succeeded to trace back unknowns to their breeds of origin, to fingerprint single individuals and to generate evidence in court cases. The examples demonstrate the potential of the DNA based traceability techniques and explore possibilities for translating the next generation genomics tools into a food and feed control and enforcement framework.

  19. Integrated analytical approaches for food traceability and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    It developed in the laboratory of Food Science of the Montevideo commissariat a regional workshop with the following aims:To evaluate the effect of vegetable matrices on the determination of pesticides through analysis by GC / M S. For the implementation and application of these tests, it was applied the Laboratory s protocol which it was distributed to all members of the working group. It worked with a matrix lettuce, chard and a mix of green leafy vegetables , evaluating the matrix effect in the following pesticides: chloropyrifos, procimidione, L-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, trifluralin and fenbuconazole, using heptachlor as internal standard.They carried out in five concentration levels, in triplicate tests, applying the techniques of extraction by QuEChERS (kit agile nt). Prepared samples are injected into the GC / M S equipment, an analysis of the results were evaluated by the working group. Furthermore this regional workshop was about nuclear techniques role in agricultural practice, the traceability and pollution control, laboratory services and farmers relationships, environmental, economic, social and political impact, pest prevention and animal diseases, risk, the human health, environment protection in the agricultural and the pesticides uses.

  20. Applicability of SCAR markers to food genomics: olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Simona; Agrimonti, Caterina; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2007-07-25

    DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a shortcut toward a genomic comprehension of complex organisms. The availability of micro-DNA extraction methods, coupled with selective amplification of the smallest extracted fragments with molecular markers, could equally bring a breakthrough in food genomics: the identification of original components in food. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) have been instrumental in plant genomics because they may allow rapid and reliable analysis of multiple and potentially polymorphic sites. Nevertheless, their direct application to the analysis of DNA extracted from food matrixes is complicated by the low quality of DNA extracted: its high degradation and the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The conversion of an AFLP fragment to a robust and specific single-locus PCR-based marker, therefore, could extend the use of molecular markers to large-scale analysis of complex agro-food matrixes. In the present study is reported the development of sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) starting from AFLP profiles of monovarietal olive oils analyzed on agarose gel; one of these was used to identify differences among 56 olive cultivars. All the developed markers were purposefully amplified in olive oils to apply them to olive oil traceability.

  1. The determinants of voluntary traceability standards. The case of the wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanella Stranieri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the determinants leading firms to choose among different kinds of voluntary traceability standards in the wine sector. To achieve this goal, we referred both to individual and institutional-level determinants, which are identified to play an important role in the literature related to the implementation of quality and safety standards. In specific, we referred to two theoretical approaches to better understand the industry behaviour towards the adoption of voluntary traceability, i.e. the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Institutional Theory. We developed a vis-à-vis survey through a questionnaire on a sample of Italian wineries approached during the most important Italian wine exhibitions in 2016. The results suggest that when wineries show positive cognitive beliefs towards voluntary traceability standards, they will probably implement complex traceability systems, which require high investments and efforts for their management. On the contrary, when the institutional environment plays a key role in the perception of wine processors, a simple and flexible traceability system seems to be preferred. Keywords: Voluntary traceability standards, Institutional determinants, Cognitive determinants

  2. Modeling traceability information and functionality requirement in export-oriented tilapia chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshuan; Feng, Jianying; Xu, Mark; Hu, Jinyou

    2011-05-01

    Tilapia has been named as the 'food fish of the 21st century' and has become the most important farmed fish. China is the world leader in tilapia production and export. Identifying information and functional requirements is critical in developing an efficient traceability system because traceability has become a fundamental prerequisite for exporting aquaculture products. This paper examines the export-oriented tilapia chains and information flow in the chains, and identifies the key actors, information requirements and information-capturing points. Unified Modeling Language (UML) technology is adopted to describe the information and functionality requirement for chain traceability. The barriers of traceability system adoption are also identified. The results show that the traceability data consist of four categories that must be recorded by each link in the chain. The functionality requirement is classified into four categories from the fundamental information record to decisive quality control; the top three barriers to the traceability system adoption are: high costs of implementing the system, lack of experienced and professional staff; and low level of government involvement and support. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 252-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  4. Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlie, N.; Petit, L.; Musgraves, J. D.; Richardson, K.; Anheier, N. C. Jr.; Qiao, H. A.; Bernacki, B.; Phillips, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5-10.6 μm range. The instrumental error was found to be ±0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to that of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.

  5. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  6. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  7. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-22

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10(-7) in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  8. TACO - a framework for traceability and communication of requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.; Valkonen, Janne; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Ventae, Olli; Andersson, Jan-Ove

    2005-06-01

    Several cases from the nuclear industry indicate the importance of clear, complete, and stable requirements from the beginning of the system development project. Since the safety of digital I and C is a property of the system in which it is embedded, the requirements specification of the I and C also plays an important role in the safety assessment of the whole system. In the development of NPP digital I and C systems, it is important to be able to trace the requirements backwards to the safety analysis report and forwards to the implementation (for development and quality control). A practical problem to perform such a trace relates to large amounts of documentation that must be read to produce the requirements specification of the safety systems. An important research task is therefore to identify, develop, or improve techniques that simplify the development and use of the requirement specification. These and related concerns motivated the initiation of the TACO project, and have provided guidance to three years of Nordic collaborative research within the NKS-R programme. The present report summarises the project and its deliverables, first of all the TACO common approach to requirements handling, called the TACO Shell. The overall objective of the TACO project was to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to activities involving the requirement specification. (Author)

  9. Proceedings of the July 2011 Traceability Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Rosetta L; Bhatt, Tejas; McEntire, Jennifer C

    2013-12-01

    At a discussion-based forum of 50 leaders in the area of food product tracing, participants recognized the need for the development of a common vision for a simple, low cost and implementable traceability approach. A key theme that emerged during the day's discussions revolved around not reinventing the wheel: there are many efforts underway, including numerous pilots, and these efforts should be collaborative. The group sought more information on current initiatives and felt that learning from the experiences of others could help form a realistic vision for the future. Although any forthcoming actions from the US FDA are unknown, industry fully expects that improvements in product tracing will be necessary, and expects that industry itself (through the "demand" side) will enact requirements that may surpass regulatory mandates. A chief concern is uniform adoption, which will require outreach to and support from the global community as well as small firms that may lack the resources and education to keep up. Ultimately, an approach that is global, economical, scalable, and inclusive of firms of all sizes who handles all types of food products, will have the greatest likelihood of success. While the ability to rapidly link products across the supply chain serves as an ideal goal, there are still substantial concerns to be addressed, particularly regarding confidentiality of data, and who will have access to what information under what circumstances, which was woven into virtually every discussion topic. Who will spearhead the development of the visions is a question, but there was general agreement that a joint partnership which includes all stakeholders is a necessity. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. An analytical approach to Sr isotope ratio determination in Lambrusco wines for geographical traceability purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Bertelli, Davide; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Manzini, Daniela; Papotti, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Simona

    2015-04-15

    Geographical origin and authenticity of food are topics of interest for both consumers and producers. Among the different indicators used for traceability studies, (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratio has provided excellent results. In this study, two analytical approaches for wine sample pre-treatment, microwave and low temperature mineralisation, were investigated to develop accurate and precise analytical method for (87)Sr/(86)Sr determination. The two procedures led to comparable results (paired t-test, with trange of the soils and wines has been observed. Nevertheless, the investigated indicator was not enough powerful to discriminate between similar products. To this regard, it is worth to note that more soil samples as well as wines coming from different districts will be considered to obtain more trustworthy results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A study on adapting advanced traceability system between feed manufacturer and salmon farmer in a farmed salmon supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yating; Kim, YunJin

    2015-01-01

    Adopting an advanced traceability system in a supply chain is crucial to solve food safety issue. It is certainly important for firms to improve their traceability to deal with potential recalls but it is up to the firms’ choice 'How much traceability' they want and on 'What level of granularity'. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how different actors in a real farmed salmon supply chain perceive benefits of implementing the advanced trac...

  12. [Traceability of labile blood products in Morocco: experience of the Ibn-Sina hospital of Rabat between 1999 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadghiri, S; Atouf, O; Brick, C; Benseffaj, N; Essakalli, M

    2012-02-01

    The blood transfusion and haemovigilance service of the Ibn-Sina hospital in Rabat (Morocco) was created 1997. This unit manages the pretransfusional tests, distribution of blood products, traceability and haemovigilance. The objective of this study was to analyze, over a period of 12years, the traceability of blood products delivered in our hospital and the measures used to improve feedback information. This is a retrospective study conducted between 1999 and 2010. Traceability rate was calculated from the feedback of traceability forms supplied with blood products (number of blood products noted on traceability forms on the total number of delivered product). To improve traceability rate, several actions were undertaken: one-time training, awareness campaigns and call phones asking for feedback information. Between 1999 and 2010, the service has delivered 173,858 blood products. The average rate of traceability during this period was 13.4 %. Traceability rate varies widely over time (5.2 % in 1999, 15.5 % in 2010) and shows a maximum value of 27.2 % in 2005. Feedback information is lower in emergency departments than in medical and surgical services. Feedback information about traceability in Ibn-Sina hospital remains very poor despite the measures used. Other actions, such as continuous education courses, low enforcement and informatisation should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishing Food Traceability System Using Nuclear and Related Techniques in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Salmah Moosa; Roslanzairi Mostapha

    2015-01-01

    Determination of food traceability is important in quality control and safety of food. The dramatic increase in the volume of global trade and complexity of supply chains has caused a number of issues concerning food authenticity and safety. Commodities that attract premium prices are subject to fraud such as adulteration and counterfeit. This poses serious health risks due to unknown origin of the counterfeit. In addition to safety concern, the capability to certify food origin is becoming significant economic importance. In several countries, the use of geographical indications allows producers to obtain market recognition and often a premium price. In addressing food safety issues in Malaysia, the Food Hygiene Regulations (2009) has provision for traceability but mechanism on how traceability can be achieved is not prescribed. Present mechanism is mainly paper-based system that passes information along with the commodity. However, such system is subject to failure either inadvertently or deliberately (fraud). Thus there is a need to establish a science-based traceability system to support the food safety surveillance program in Malaysia. This paper presents the concept and use of nuclear and related techniques involving isotopic and elemental fingerprinting in determining the geographical origin of various food products and its potential application for traceability of Malaysian agricultural produce. (author)

  14. IDENTIFIKASI RISIKO RANTAI PASOK BERBASIS SISTEM TRACEABILITY PADA MINUMAN SARI APEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Iryaning Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Risiko merupakan faktor-faktor yang menghambat operasional pada rantai pasok makanan yang tidak dapat dihindari akan tetapi dapat diminimalisir atau dihilangkan dengan melakukan penanganan risiko yang tepat. Penanganan risiko dalam rantai pasok sangat diperlukan agar dapat meminimalkan biaya, waktu dan kinerja dalam aktifitas rantai pasok. Traceability merupakan suatu sistem yang dapat meningkatkan transparansi dalam rantai supplai dalam mengurangi risiko klaim serta menemukan potensi risiko proses rantai pasok makanan. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proses yang terkait dengan traceability dan mengidentifikasi risiko yang terjadi pada rantai pasok makanan berdasarkan informasi sistem traceability. Aktivitas yang terkait dalam membangun sistem traceability antara lain pemeriksaan level stock dan produk minuman sari buah, penerimaan material dari pemasok, pembongkaran inspeksi bahan baku, penyimpanan bahan baku, penyimpanan sari buah di gudang, mengeluarkan sari buah dalam gudang untuk memulai aktivitas proses, inspeksi kualitas produk minuman sari buah, labeling produk jadi, persiapan pengiriman produk jadi, penyimpanan produk minuman sari apel di gudang, pengiriman produk ke distributor. Adapun risiko terjadi yang dapat di tangani dengan traceability yaitu, ketidak sesuaian data dengan produk dan bahan baku di gudang, kekurangan barang dan bahan baku digudang, keterlambatan penerimaan material, ketidak sesuaian barang yang dipesan, material busuk,sari buah rusak di gudang, sari buah tercampur dengan benda lain kesalahan pengangkutan produk, kesalahan dalam pengambilan galon sari buah yang tidak bersifat FIFO, kualitas produk tidak sesuai, kesalahan memberikan identitas, produk rusak digudang, produk cacat dalam perjalanan.

  15. Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA. It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model". The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient Γ of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10-3, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.

  16. Radionuclide traceability for U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Radioanalytical Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J.S.; McIntyre, T.I.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Analytical Management Program (NAMP) established a Radiological Traceability Program (RTP) as a new initiative for the radioanalytical activities related to the environmental programs conducted throughout the DOE complex. The National Analytical Management Program entered into an interagency agreement with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish traceability to the national standard for DOE-EM radioanalytical activities through the NIST/reference laboratory concept as described in ANSI N42.23-1996. Using the criteria established by the RTP, NAMP named two DOE-EM laboratories as reference or secondary laboratories and established a program with NIST that demonstrated the concept of traceability. In order to gain and maintain traceability to NIST, each reference laboratory must meet the performance criteria as defined by the RTP and NAMP. Traceability to NIST is tiered down to each radioanalytical laboratory (monitor or service) that successfully participates in the performance-evaluation programs offered by the reference laboratories. Essential to the RTP is the demonstration that the reference laboratories can produce performance-testing (PT) materials of high quality as well as analyze/verify the radionuclide concentration to the required accuracy and precision. Elements of the RTP and the program requirements of NIST and the reference laboratories are presented. (author)

  17. A REVIEW ON LEGAL TRACEABILITY OF GNSS MEASUREMENTS IN THE MALAYSIAN CADASTRAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the dependency on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in surveying has been growing over the years, the need for legal traceability of GNSS measurements has become a significant matter. In Malaysia, with the advent of the Malaysia Real-time Kinematic Network (MyRTKnet, GNSS surveying has revolutionised land survey and mapping. Correspondingly, the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM amended and published standard regulations and guidelines concerning cadastral survey, i.e., Cadastral Survey Regulations 2009, to include GNSS measurements. However, these regulations and guidelines has not comprehensively incorporated legal traceability of GNSS measurements; which is a prerequisite for cadastral surveys as it requires reliable and conclusive evidence for issues such as boundary disputes. The first objective of this paper is to review and discuss the legal traceability of GNSS measurements. Secondly, it will highlight the current practice and issues, i.e., with regard to legal traceability, within the present Malaysian cadastral regulation and guidelines, in relation to the prevalently adopted Network RTK (N-RTK technique, GNSS instrument calibrations, and reference stations’ accuracy. Lastly, a rudimentary best practice guideline for GNSS surveying in cadastral survey for Malaysia is proposed. It is expected that this paper will contribute to the implementation of a best practice guideline, which is inclusive of legal traceability of GNSS measurements, for the Malaysian cadastral practice.

  18. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  19. IMPACTS OF BOVINE TRACEABILITY IMPLANTATION IN COMPUTERIZED RURAL COMPANIES: CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Cócaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study looked into evaluating the impacts that the adhesion to the bovine traceability caused in four agricultural companies that adopted or used ITs for tracked herd management. After comparing the case studies it was concluded that the adhesion to traceability caused the adoption of ITs, mainly of the management and traceability system for beef cattle and the electronic scale; the zoo technical changes that happened were, the individual identification of the animals, the control of animal stock and the possibility to determine performance and reproductive indexes; the management changes that happened were the development of new controls by filing the animal identification document (DIA, the documentation of the purchase, use and exit of inputs (nutritional and sanitarian, and the documentation of animal movements. It was not verified the return of managerial or zoo technical information by SISBOV that aided the companies in their decision-taking process.

  20. Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gichure, Josphat Njenga; Wahome, Raphael Githaiga; Njage, Patrick M.Kamau

    2017-01-01

    Information asymmetry is often a characteristic present in food value chains. However, high information asymmetry reduces trust and may compromise food safety and quality. Traceability enhances information sharing and disclosure thereby reducing the imperfection. Qualitative and quantitative data...... was collected from Kenyan certified farmers and organic outlets to generate empirical information on the extent and factors that contribute to traceability along organic kale value chains. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and factor.......754), certification by other quality management standards (0.711), training on food safety and traceability management (0.444) and system monitoring (0.770). Such knowledge can be used by players along the value chain to reduce information asymmetry. The results suggest need for awareness creation among stakeholders...

  1. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S., E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Goto, S.; Takahashi, C. [Takizawa Laboratory, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Cartier, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Nakashima, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata, (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  2. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sera, K.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Cartier, L.; Nakashima, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  3. Construction of Traceability System for Quality Safety of Cereal and Oil Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huoguo; Liu, Shihong; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan

    After several significant food safety incident, global food industry and governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food quality and safety management. The traceability system for quality safety of cereal and oil products was designed and implemented with HACCP and FMECA method, encoding, information processing, and hardware R&D technology etc, according to the whole supply chain of cereal and oil products. Results indicated that the system provide not only the management in origin, processing, circulating and consuming for enterprise, but also tracing service for customers and supervisor by means of telephone, internet, SMS, touch machine and mobile terminal.

  4. TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel Sánchez, Borja; Alcarria, Ramón; Martín, Diego; Robles, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product’s life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time. PMID:26610509

  5. A false single nucleotide polymorphism generated by gene duplication compromises meat traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Arianne; Ordovás, Laura; Zaragoza, Pilar; Sanz, Albina; de Blas, Ignacio; Rodellar, Clementina

    2012-07-01

    Controlling meat traceability using SNPs is an effective method of ensuring food safety. We have analyzed several SNPs to create a panel for bovine genetic identification and traceability studies. One of these was the transversion g.329C>T (Genbank accession no. AJ496781) on the cytochrome P450 17A1 gene, which has been included in previously published panels. Using minisequencing reactions, we have tested 701 samples belonging to eight Spanish cattle breeds. Surprisingly, an excess of heterozygotes was detected, implying an extreme departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (PT SNP is a false positive polymorphism, which allows us to explain the inflated heterozygotic value. We recommend that this ambiguous SNP, as well as other polymorphisms located in this region, should not be used in identification, traceability or disease association studies. Annotation of these false SNPs should improve association studies and avoid misinterpretations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seafood traceability: current needs, available tools, and biotechnological challenges for origin certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Pimentel, Tânia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Market globalization and recurring food safety alerts have resulted in a growing consumer awareness of the need for food traceability. This is particularly relevant for seafood due to its perishable nature and importance as a key protein source for the population of the world. Here, we provide an overview of the current needs for seafood origin traceability, along with the limitations and challenges for its implementation. We focus on geochemical, biochemical, and molecular tools and how they should be optimized to be implemented globally and to address our societal needs. We suggest that seafood traceability is key to enforcing food safety regulations and fisheries control, combat fraud, and fulfill present and future expectations of conscientious producers, consumers, and authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two generators to produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, C.; Guillevic, M.; Ackermann, A.; Leuenberger, D.; Niederhauser, B.

    2017-12-01

    To answer the needs of air quality and climate monitoring networks, two new gas generators were developed and manufactured at METAS in order to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations. The technical features of the transportable generators allow for the realization of such gas standards for reactive compounds (e.g. NO2, volatile organic compounds) in the nmol · mol-1 range (ReGaS2), and fluorinated gases in the pmol ṡ mol-1 range (ReGaS3). The generation method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution. The transportable generators have multiple individual permeation chambers allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to five different compounds. This mixture is then diluted using mass flow controllers, thus making the production process adaptable to generate the required amount of substance fraction. All parts of ReGaS2 in contact with the gas mixture are coated to reduce adsorption/desorption processes. Each input parameter required to calculate the generated amount of substance fraction is calibrated with SI-primary standards. The stability and reproducibility of the generated amount of substance fractions were tested with NO2 for ReGaS2 and HFC-125 for ReGaS3. They demonstrate stability over 1-4 d better than 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, and reproducibility better than 0.7% and 1%, respectively. Finally, the relative expanded uncertainty of the generated amount of substance fraction is smaller than 3% with the major contributions coming from the uncertainty of the permeation rate and/or of the purity of the matrix gas. These relative expanded uncertainties meet then the needs of the data quality objectives fixed by the World Meteorological Organization.

  8. Dynamic–gravimetric preparation of metrologically traceable primary calibration standards for halogenated greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guillevic

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the comparability of measurements obtained with various instruments within a global-scale air quality monitoring network has been ensured by anchoring all results to a unique suite of reference gas mixtures, also called a primary calibration scale. Such suites of reference gas mixtures are usually prepared and then stored over decades in pressurised cylinders by a designated laboratory. For the halogenated gases which have been measured over the last 40 years, this anchoring method is highly relevant as measurement reproducibility is currently much better ( <  1 %, k  =  2 or 95 % confidence interval than the expanded uncertainty of a reference gas mixture (usually  >  2 %. Meanwhile, newly emitted halogenated gases are already measured in the atmosphere at pmol mol−1 levels, while still lacking an established reference standard. For compounds prone to adsorption on material surfaces, it is difficult to evaluate mixture stability and thus variations in the molar fractions over time in cylinders at pmol mol−1 levels.To support atmospheric monitoring of halogenated gases, we create new primary calibration scales for SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride, HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane, HFO-1234yf (or HFC-1234yf, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene, HCFC-132b (1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane and CFC-13 (chlorotrifluoromethane. The preparation method, newly applied to halocarbons, is dynamic and gravimetric: it is based on the permeation principle followed by dynamic dilution and cryo-filling of the mixture in cylinders. The obtained METAS-2017 primary calibration scales are made of 11 cylinders containing these five substances at near-ambient and slightly varying molar fractions. Each prepared molar fraction is traceable to the realisation of SI units (International System of Units and is assigned an uncertainty estimate following international guidelines (JCGM, 2008, ranging from 0.6 % for SF6 to 1.3 % (k

  9. Working Environment and Software Configuration Management Assimiliation using Traceability Enhancement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, H.; Javed, A.; Majeed, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Software Configuration Management (SCM) Systems are very useful in coordinating group effort in large and complex software systems. As a result of change in user requirement, market needs, tools, technology or new business goals emanate out, changes are continuously induced while developing the software product. For change management, Traceability technique and SCM are two prominent practices in the software development process. SCM helps in managing configuration items while traceability helps in tracing the knowledge about the configuration items. In this paper we propose a model of the SCM system with the working environment when changes are introduced in multiple artifacts and by which high quality products are developed. (author)

  10. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  11. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  12. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  13. Study of the strongly ionized medium in active galactic n ('Warm Absorber'): multi-wavelength modelling and plasma diagnostics in the X-ray spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porquet, Delphine

    1999-01-01

    The so-called 'Warm Absorber' medium is observed in the central region of Active Galactic Nuclei and particularly in Seyfert l galaxies. lt is mainly characterized by O(VII) and O(VIII) absorption edges detected in the soft X-rays. Its study (modelization and observation) is an important key tool to understand Active Galactic Nuclei. The work presented here consists in modelling the Warm Absorber, and in developing X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics to constrain the physical parameters of any hot medium such as the Warm Absorber. The physical parameters of the Warm Absorber (density, temperature, ionization processes..) are difficult to determine only on the basis of present X-ray data. In particular, the value of the density cannot be derived only from the modelling of the resonance lines and of the soft X-ray absorption edges since there are almost insensitive to the density in the range of values expected for the Warm Absorber. lt is why we have developed diagnostic methods based on a multi-wavelength approach. The modelling is made with two complementary computational codes: PEGAS, and IRIS which takes into account the most accurate atomic data. With these two codes, we have modelled several types of plasma ionisation processes (photoionized plasmas and/or collisional). Results for the Warm Absorber were compared to multi-wavelength observations (mainly the optical iron coronal lines [Fe X] 6375 Angstroms, [Fe XI] 7892 Angstroms, and [Fe XIV] 5303 Angstroms). The proposed method has allowed to show that the Warm Absorber could be responsible of the emission of these lines totally or partially. All models of the Warm Absorber producing coronal line equivalent widths larger than observed were ruled out. This strongly constrains the physical parameters of the Warm Absorber, and particularly its density (n H ≥10 10 cm -3 ). The new generation of X-ray satellites (Chandra/AXAF, XMM...) will produce spectra at high spectral resolution and high sensitivity

  14. Validation of ammonia diffusive and active samplers in a controlled atmosphere test facility using traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas A.; Ferracci, Valerio; Cassidy, Nathan; Hook, Josh; Battersby, Ross M.; Tang, Yuk S.; Stevens, Amy C. M.; Jones, Matthew R.; Braban, Christine F.; Gates, Linda; Hangartner, Markus; Stoll, Jean-Marc; Sacco, Paolo; Pagani, Diego; Hoffnagle, John A.

    2017-04-01

    Intensive animal farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for the observed increases in the amount fraction of ammonia (NH3) found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, potentially leading to a loss of biodiversity and undesirable changes to the ecosystem. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) formation, which is associated with poor air quality and adverse health outcomes. Measurements of ambient ammonia are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each method delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. However, such techniques have not yet been extensively validated. The goal of this work was to provide improvements in the metrological traceability through the determination of NH3 diffusive sampling rates. Five different designs of commercial diffusive samplers (FSM Radiello radial sampler, Gradko diffusion tube, Gradko DIFRAM-400, Passam ammonia sampler, and CEH ALPHA sampler) were employed, together with a pumped denuder sampler (CEH DELTA denuder) for comparison. All devices were simultaneously exposed for either 28 days or 14 days (dependent on sampler type) in a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) containing traceable amount fractions of humidified ammonia using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures developed by gravimetry at NPL, under a wide range of conditions that are relevant to ambient monitoring. Online continuous monitoring of the ammonia test atmospheres was carried out by extractive sampling, employing a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer, which had been modified to account for cross interference by water vapour. Each manufacturer extracted the captured ammonia on the exposed samplers in the form of ammonium (NH4+) using their own accredited traceable wet chemical techniques, and then reported data

  15. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  16. Whole-chain traceability, is it possible to trace your hamburger to a particular steer, a U. S. perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Babu, Dinesh; Jarvis, Nathan; Davis, Mike L; Buser, Michael; Adam, Brian; Marcy, John; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-10-01

    Traceability through the entire food supply chain from conception to consumption is a pressing need for the food industry, consumers and government regulators. A robust, whole-chain traceability system is needed that will effectively address food quality, food safety and food defense issues by providing real-time, transparent and reliable information from beef production through slaughter and distribution to the consumer. Traceability is an expanding part of the food safety continuum that minimizes the risk of foodborne diseases, assures quality and cold-chain integrity. Traceability can be a positive competitive marketing edge for beef producers who can verify specific quality attributes such as humane production or grass fed or Certified Organic. In this review we address the benefits as well as the remaining issues for whole-chain traceability in the beef industry, with particular focus on ground beef for the markets in the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A calibration facility to provide traceable calibration to upper air humidity measuring sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Rosso, Lucia; Smorgon, Denis; Beltramino, Giulio; Fernicola, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Accurate knowledge and high quality measurement of the upper air humidity and of its profile in atmosphere is essential in many areas of the atmospheric research, for example in weather forecasting, environmental pollution studies and research in meteorology and climatology. Moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere, the water vapour amount varies between some percent to few part per million. For this reason, through the years, several methods and instruments have been developed for the measurement of the humidity in atmosphere. Among the instruments used for atmospheric sounding, radiosondes, airborne and balloon-borne chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) and tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers (TDLAS) play a key role. To avoid the presence of unknown biases and systematic errors and to obtain accurate and reliable humidity measurements, these instruments need a SI-traceable calibration, preferably carried out in conditions similar to those expected in the field. To satisfy such a need, a new calibration facility has been developed at INRIM. The facility is based on a thermodynamic-based frost-point generator designed to achieve a complete saturation of the carrier gas with a single passage through an isothermal saturator. The humidity generator covers the frost point temperature range between -98 °C and -20 °C and is able to work at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1000 hPa (corresponding to a barometric altitude between ground level and approximately 12000 m). The paper reports the work carried out to test the generator performances, discusses the results and presents the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The present work was carried out within the European Joint Research Project "MeteoMet 2 - Metrology for Essential Climate Variables" co-funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  18. Uncertainty Source of Modeled Ecosystem Productivity in East Asian Monsoon Region: A Traceability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, E.; Xia, J.; Huang, K.; Ito, A.; Arain, M. A.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Tian, H.; Mao, J.; Fisher, J.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huang, M.; Peng, S.; Wang, W.

    2017-12-01

    East Asian monsoon region, benefits from sufficient water-heat availability and increasing nitrogen deposition, represents significantly higher net ecosystem productivity than the same latitudes of Europe-Africa and North America. A better understanding of major contributions to the uncertainties of terrestrial carbon cycle in this region is greatly important for evaluating the global carbon balance. This study analyzed the key carbon processes and parameters derived from a series of terrestrial biosphere models. A wide range of inter-model disagreement on GPP was found in China's subtropical regions. Then, this large difference was traced to a few traceable components included in terrestrial carbon cycle. The increase in ensemble mean GPP over 1901-2010 was predominantly resulted from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, while high frequent land-use change over this region showed a slightly negative effect on GPP. However, inter-model differences of GPP were mainly attributed to the baseline simulations without changes in external forcing. According to the variance decomposition, the large spread in simulated GPP was well explained by the differences in leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf area (SLA) among models. In addition, the underlying errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model and introduce some additional errors to the simulation of NPP and biomass. By comparing the simulations with satellite-derived, data-oriented and observation-based datasets, we further found that GPP, vegetation carbon turn-over time, aboveground biomass, LAI and SLA were all overestimated in most of the models while biomass distribution in leaves was significantly underestimated. The results of this study indicate that model performance on ecosystem productivity in East Asian monsoon region can be improved by a more realistic representation of leaf functional traits.

  19. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared – Part 3: Quantification of the mid- and near-infrared water vapor continuum in the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range under atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reichert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a first quantification of the near-infrared (NIR water vapor continuum absorption from an atmospheric radiative closure experiment carried out at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.. Continuum quantification is achieved via radiative closure using radiometrically calibrated solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR absorption spectra covering the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range. The dry atmospheric conditions at the Zugspitze site (IWV 1.4 to 3.3 mm enable continuum quantification even within water vapor absorption bands, while upper limits for continuum absorption can be provided in the centers of window regions. Throughout 75 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range, the Zugspitze results agree within our estimated uncertainty with the widely used MT_CKD 2.5.2 model (Mlawer et al., 2012. In the wings of water vapor absorption bands, our measurements indicate about 2–5 times stronger continuum absorption than MT_CKD, namely in the 2800 to 3000 cm−1 and 4100 to 4200 cm−1 spectral ranges. The measurements are consistent with the laboratory measurements of Mondelain et al. (2015, which rely on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CDRS, and the calorimetric–interferometric measurements of Bicknell et al. (2006. Compared to the recent FTIR laboratory studies of Ptashnik et al. (2012, 2013, our measurements are consistent within the estimated errors throughout most of the spectral range. However, in the wings of water vapor absorption bands our measurements indicate typically 2–3 times weaker continuum absorption under atmospheric conditions, namely in the 3200 to 3400, 4050 to 4200, and 6950 to 7050 cm−1 spectral regions.

  20. Extending the accredited low flow liquid calibration range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, Tom; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accredited liquid flow calibrations in the range of 1 g/h to 30 kg/h. The accredited Low Flow liquid Calibration Setup [1] (LFCS) at Bronkhorst® covers a flow range of 1 to 200 g/h, leaving a traceability gap in the flow range of 0.2 to 30 kg/h.

  1. Metrological Traceability in the Social Sciences: A Model from Reading Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, A Jackson; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    The central importance of reading ability in learning makes it the natural place to start in formative and summative assessments in education. The Lexile Framework for Reading constitutes a commercial metrological traceability network linking books, test results, instructional materials, and students in elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia

  2. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  3. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavors by Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatographyisotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed...

  4. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development - the TACO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the issues studied in the TACO project, a current activity partially funded by Nordic nuclear safety research through the NKS-R programme (NKS-R project number NKS R2 002 1 6). For more details, the reader is referred to the two project reports already delivered by the project (see section 9). On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the TACO project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The overall aim of the preproject, which was carried out in the second half of 2002, was to identify the main issues related to traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. By focusing on the identification of main issues, the preproject provided a basis for prioritising further work, while at the same time providing some initial recommendations related to these issues. The establishment of a Nordic expert network within the subject was another important result of the preproject. Further work has concentrated on four central and related issues, viz.; Representation of requirements origins; Traceability techniques; Configuration management and the traceability of requirements; Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models. (Author)

  5. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development - Project report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredrikson, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    In 2004, the work has focused on providing a unified exposition on the issues studied and thereby facilitating a common approach to requirements handling, from their origins and through the different development phases. Emphasis has been put on the development of the TACO Traceability Model. The model supports understandability, communication and traceability by providing a common basis, in the form of a requirements change history, for different kinds of analysis and presentation of different requirements perspectives. Traceability is facilitated through the representation of requirements changes in terms of a change history tree built up by composition of instances of a number of change types, and by providing analysis on the basis of this representation. Much of the strength of the TACO Traceability Model is that it aims at forming the logic needed for formalising the activities related to change management and hence their further automation. The work was presented at the second TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Helsinki on the 8th of December 2004. Minutes of the seminar are included in appendix B. (au)

  6. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.; Andersson, J.O.

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  7. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of food chain traceability in food risk mitigation: expert and consumer outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kher, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union has enforced mandatory traceability for food business operators for effective monitoring and management of risks associated with food and feed chains. The implementation of such a system needs to take account of stakeholder priorities and expectations. Expert stakeholders (such as

  9. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  10. A prototype, glassless densitometer traceable to primary optical standards for quantitative radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B. S.; Hammer, C. G.; Kunugi, K. A.; DeWerd, L. A.; Soares, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a prototype densitometer traceable to primary optical standards and compare its performance to an EPSON Expression ® 10000XL flatbed scanner (the Epson) for quantitative radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry. Methods: A prototype traceable laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed to mitigate common film scanning artifacts, such as positional scan dependence and high noise in low-dose regions, by performing point-based measurements of RCF suspended in free-space using coherent light. The LDS and the Epson optical absorbance scales were calibrated up to 3 AU, using reference materials calibrated at a primary standards laboratory and a scanner calibration factor (SCF). Calibrated optical density (OD) was determined for 96 Gafchromic ® EBT3 film segments before and after irradiation to one of 16 dose levels between 0 and 10 Gy, exposed to 60 Co in a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The sensitivity was determined at each dose level and at two rotationally orthogonal readout orientations to obtain the sensitometric response of each RCF dosimetry system. LDS rotational scanning dependence was measured at nine angles between 0°and 180°, due to the expected interference between coherent light and polarizing EBT3 material. The response curves were fit to the analytic functions predicted by two physical response models: the two-parameter single-hit model and the four-parameter percolation model. Results: The LDS and the Epson absorbance measurements were linear to primary optical standards to within 0.2% and 0.3% up to 2 and 1 AU, respectively. At higher densities, the LDS had an over-response (2.5% at 3 AU) and the Epson an under-response (3.1% and 9.8% at 2 and 3 AU, respectively). The LDS and the Epson SCF over the applicable range were 0.968% ± 0.2% and 1.561% ± 0.3%, respectively. The positional scan dependence was evaluated on each digitizer and shown to be mitigated on the LDS, as compared to the Epson. Maximum EBT3 rotational

  11. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance system with continuous flow of polarized water to obtain the traceability to static magnetic fields; Sistema de ressonancia magnetica nuclear com fluxo continuo de agua polarizada para obtencao da rastreabilidade para campos magneticos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ramon Valls; Nazarre, Diego Joriro, E-mail: ramon@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a system to obtain the traceability of field or magnetic induction intensity in the range of 2 μT up to 2 T, even in the presence of magnetic field gradients or noisy environments. The system is based on a nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer, built in streaming water. The calibration procedure of a coil for magnetic field generation is described, as well as the results obtained and the estimated uncertainty (author)

  13. Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) as materials for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range of 4–5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkeev, D. A., E-mail: d.pashkeev@gmail.com; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Zasavitskiy, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The optical properties of epitaxial layers and heterostructures based on Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) are analyzed in the context of designing Bragg mirrors and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the midinfrared spectral range. It is shown that the optimal heteropair for laser microcavities is Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te(x ≈ 0.06)/EuTe. On the basis of this heteropair, highly reflective Bragg mirrors consisting of just three periods and featuring a reflectance of R ⩾ 99.8% at the center of the stop band are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on BaF{sub 2} (111) substrates. Single-mode optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the 4–5 μm spectral range operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures are demonstrated.

  14. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  15. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  16. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards.

  17. Transgene traceability in transgenic mice: a bioanalytical approach for potential gene-doping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Patrizia; Spiriti, Maria Michela; Lazzarano, Stefano; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Buiatti, Marcello; Minunni, Maria

    2011-11-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency fears the use of gene doping to enhance athletic performances. Thus, a bioanalytical approach based on end point PCR for detecting markers' of transgenesis traceability was developed. A few sequences from two different vectors using an animal model were selected and traced in different tissues and at different times. In particular, enhanced green fluorescent protein gene and a construct-specific new marker were targeted in the analysis. To make the developed detection approach open to future routine doping analysis, matrices such as urine and tears as well blood were also tested. This study will have impact in evaluating the vector transgenes traceability for the detection of a gene doping event by non-invasive sampling.

  18. parameters affecting the calibration uniformity and traceability of gamma measuring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, S.K.; Henaish, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    One of the problems which usually defeats the dosimetric evaluations performed by the health and safety experts is the absence of the reproducibility and accuracy of the used measuring devices systems. Furthermore, the traceability of the dose evaluation done by the users themselves are not achieved. Also the uniformity and homogeneity between the various users dosimeters and that available at specified central organization are not maintained. The present manuscript is scoping to deal with such various problems such as: a) dosimeter accuracy, b) traceability of the various users dosimeters and measuring devices. This paper also suggests a programme for the minimum facilities which are required for operating a central calibration laboratory. the responsibility of that central calibration lab., beside the linking chain between the different users and that calibration lab. are stated and discussed in detail. Furthermore, the authors experiences gained in operating the secondary standards calibration laboratory are also reviewed. 2 fig

  19. Meeting the measurement uncertainty and traceability requirements of ISO/AEC standard 17025 in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B

    2001-11-01

    The new laboratory accreditation standard, ISO/IEC 17025, reflects current thinking on good measurement practice by requiring more explicit and more demanding attention to a number of activities. These include client interactions, method validation, traceability, and measurement uncertainty. Since the publication of the standard in 1999 there has been extensive debate about its interpretation. It is the author's view that if good quality practices are already in place and if the new requirements are introduced in a manner that is fit for purpose, the additional work required to comply with the new requirements can be expected to be modest. The paper argues that the rigour required in addressing the issues should be driven by customer requirements and the factors that need to be considered in this regard are discussed. The issues addressed include the benefits, interim arrangements, specifying the analytical requirement, establishing traceability, evaluating the uncertainty and reporting the information.

  20. Decision Model for Planning and Scheduling of Seafood Product Considering Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin; Mawengkang, Herman; Mathelinea, Devy

    2018-01-01

    Due to the global challenges, it is necessary for an industrial company to integrate production scheduling and distribution planning, in order to be more efficient and to get more economics advantages. This paper presents seafood production planning and scheduling of a seafood manufacture company which produces simultaneously multi kind of seafood products, located at Aceh Province, Indonesia. The perishability nature of fish highly restricts its storage duration and delivery conditions. Traceability is a tracking requirement to check whether the quality of the product is satisfied. The production and distribution planning problem aims to meet customer demand subject to traceability of the seafood product and other restrictions. The problem is modeled as a mixed integer linear program, and then it is solved using neighborhood search approach.

  1. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies......The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers...... in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount...

  2. Microfluidic-assisted fabrication of flexible and location traceable organo-motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoung Duck; Kwak, Byung Kook; Sanchez, Samuel; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we fabricate a flexible and location traceable micromotor, called organo-motor, assisted by microfluidic devices and with high throughput. The organo-motors are composed of organic hydrogel material, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), which can provide the flexibility of their structure. For spatial and temporal traceability of the organo-motors under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION; Fe3O4) were incorporated into the PEGDA microhydrogels. Furthermore, a thin layer of platinum (Pt) was deposited onto one side of the SPION-PEGDA microhydrogels providing geometrical asymmetry and catalytic propulsion in aqueous fluids containing hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2. Furthermore, the motion of the organo-motor was controlled by a small external magnet enabled by the presence of SPION in the motor architecture.

  3. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards

  4. [Preliminary studies on critical control point of traceability system in wolfberry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sai; Xu, Chang-Qing; Li, Jian-Ling; Lin, Chen; Xu, Rong; Qiao, Hai-Li; Guo, Kun; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) has a long cultivation history and a good industrial development foundation. With the development of wolfberry production, the expansion of cultivation area and the increased attention of governments and consumers on food safety, the quality and safety requirement of wolfberry is higher demanded. The quality tracing and traceability system of production entire processes is the important technology tools to protect the wolfberry safety, and to maintain sustained and healthy development of the wolfberry industry. Thus, this article analyzed the wolfberry quality management from the actual situation, the safety hazard sources were discussed according to the HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) and GAP (good agricultural practice for Chinese crude drugs), and to provide a reference for the traceability system of wolfberry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Geotraceability: an innovative concept to enhance conventional traceability in the agri-food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization of trade, people have become enlightened and demanding consumers as regards the origin of their food and the environment in which it is produced. The concept of geotraceability described in this article responds to that requirement by combining geographical information with conventional traceability data. The inclusion of geographical information relating to the environment of the production plots is based not only on exploiting some functionalities of spatial analysis tools that exist in geographical information systems (GIS but also on developing specific tools such as a geoidentifier and geoindicators. This article also describes the characteristics and methods of implementing a geographical information management system linked with traceability information. Lastly, the potential for using geotraceability systems in supply chains is analyzed, in particular for consumer warnings in cases of food crisis and assistance for certification of differentiated quality agricultural products.

  6. A new simplex chemometric approach to identify olive oil blends with potentially high traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmar, N; Laroussi-Mezghani, S; Grati-Kamoun, N; Hammami, M; Artaud, J

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil blends (OOBs) are complex matrices combining different cultivars at variable proportions. Although qualitative determinations of OOBs have been subjected to several chemometric works, quantitative evaluations of their contents remain poorly developed because of traceability difficulties concerning co-occurring cultivars. Around this question, we recently published an original simplex approach helping to develop predictive models of the proportions of co-occurring cultivars from chemical profiles of resulting blends (Semmar & Artaud, 2015). Beyond predictive model construction and validation, this paper presents an extension based on prediction errors' analysis to statistically define the blends with the highest predictability among all the possible ones that can be made by mixing cultivars at different proportions. This provides an interesting way to identify a priori labeled commercial products with potentially high traceability taking into account the natural chemical variability of different constitutive cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calibration/Validation Error Budgets, Uncertainties, Traceability and Their Importance to Imaging Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of uncertainties and errors are essential for comparisons of remote sensing data across time, space, and spectral domains. Vicarious radiometric calibration is used to demonstrate the need for uncertainty knowledge and to provide an example error budget. The sample error budget serves as an example of the questions and issues that need to be addressed by the calibrationvalidation community as accuracy requirements for imaging spectroscopy data will continue to become more stringent in the future. Error budgets will also be critical to ensure consistency between the range of imaging spectrometers expected to be launched in the next five years.

  8. Practice and experience in traceability of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhijian

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects on radioactivity measurement traceability and summarizes the work on quality assurance of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples in the laboratory, including transfer of standards, preparation of reference materials, and calibration of efficiency for volumse surces with Ge(Li) spectrometer. Some practical activitis regarding intercomparison of radioactivity measurements and other traceabillity-related activities are also described. Some sugestions relating to performing quality assurance are made

  9. Study of mechanism improving target course traceability in G-Vectoring Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakado, Makoto; Abe, Masato; Kano, Yoshio; Umetsu, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Thoru

    2018-05-01

    Production-type G-Vectoring Control vehicles are now being put on the market. Customers and reviewers have praised the handling quality and course traceability of these vehicles. This paper clarifies the mechanism behind this improvement in handling quality using a simple bicycle model and driver model analysis. It focuses on the residual yaw angular acceleration when the steering speed is zero and shows that GVC reduces its value. This result provides evidence for improved handling quality in GVC vehicles.

  10. Evaluation of surface contamination based on certifiably traceable, internationally accreditable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    National Accreditation and Measurement Service (NAMAS) adopted by the EUROMET agreement requires that the calibration of monitoring instruments be traceable internationally with the objective that radiation hazard assessment be improved. This objective is achieved for Tritium surface contamination by employing calibration sources and evaluation methods which comply with ISO standards including the measurement of activity removable by Volatilization as well as dust. Consideration should be given to organic binding of tritium in the skin with its implications in the event of litigation. (author)

  11. Traceability in food supply chains Exploring governmental authority and industrial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ringsberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Traceability in food supply chains has received increased attention in the last decade. The efforts of governmental authorities have also increased to regulate and control food supply chains and product characteristics related to information to ensure safety, quality, and preservation of living resources. Previous studies in the area take an industrial focus and exclude the governmental authority focus. This thesis thus focuses on exploring governmental authority and industrial effects on tra...

  12. TRACEABILITY OF ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – CALIBRATION AND PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Savio, Enrico; Bariani, Paolo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises each of 45 minutes duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measurement traceability: 1) Performance verification of a CMM using a ball bar; 2) Calibration...... of an optical coordinate measuring machine; 3) Uncertainty assessment using the ISO 15530-3 “Calibrated workpieces” procedure....

  13. Nomenclature and traceability debate for biosimilars: small-molecule surrogates lend support for distinguishable nonproprietary names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jingdong; Skup, Martha; Alexander, Emily; Tundia, Namita; Macaulay, Dendy; Wu, Eric; Mulani, Parvez

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the traceability of adverse events (AEs) for branded and generic drugs with identical nonproprietary names and to consider potential implications for the traceability of AEs for branded and biosimilar biologics. Adverse event reports in the Food and Drug Administration AE Reporting System (FAERS) were compared with those in a commercial insurance claims database (Truven Health MarketScan(®)) for 2 drugs (levetiracetam and enoxaparin sodium) with manufacturing or prescribing considerations potentially analogous to those of some biosimilars. Monthly rates of branded- and generic-attributed AEs were estimated pre- and post-generic entry. Post-entry branded-to-generic AE relative rate ratios were calculated. In FAERS, monthly AE rate ratios during the post-generic period showed a pattern in which AE rates for the branded products were greater than for the generic products. Differences in rates of brand- and generic-attributed AEs were statistically significant for both study drugs; the AE rate for the branded products peaked at approximately 10 times that of the generic levetiracetam products and approximately 4 times that of the generic enoxaparin sodium products. In contrast, monthly ratios for the MarketScan data were relatively constant over time. Use of the same nonproprietary name for generic and branded products may contribute to poor traceability of AEs reported in the FAERS database due to the significant misattribution of AEs to branded products (when those AEs were in fact associated with patient use of generic products). To ensure accurate and robust safety surveillance and traceability for biosimilar products in the United States, improved product identification mechanisms, such as related but distinguishable nonproprietary names for biosimilars and reference biologics, should be considered.

  14. Ensuring the Visibility and Traceability of Items through Logistics Chain of Automotive Industry Based on AutoEPCNet Using

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Stasa; Filip Benes; Jiri Svub; Yong-Shin Kang; Jakub Unucka; Lukas Vojtech; Vladimir Kebo; Jongtae Rhee

    2016-01-01

    Traceability in logistics is the capability of the participants to trace the products throughout the supply chain by means of either the product and/or container identifiers in a forward and/or backward direction. In today's competitive economic environment, traceability is a key concept related to all products and all types of supply chains. The goal of this paper is to describe development of application that enables to create and share information about the physical movement and status of ...

  15. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  16. Implementing Traceability Systems in Specific Supply Chain Management (SCM through Critical Success Factors (CSFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traceability plays a vital role in the success of Halal Supply Chain (HSC. HSC revolve around the essential dimension of Halal Integrity (HI, whereas traceability is seemed to be medium to assure integrity. Thus, a need is felt to identify the factors which are critical to the successful implementation of traceability in Halal Supply Chain Management (HSCM. Identified Twelve Critical Success Factors (CSFs through an extensive review of literature and opinion of experts. Further, a contextual relationship among the CSFs is developed using Total Interpretive Structure Modelling (TISM approach and derived a model. The structural model is analyzed using Fuzzy MICMAC (Matrice d’Impacts Croises-Multipication Applique and Classment-cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification approach to identify the importance of CSFs by driving and dependence power. The primary result indicates towards; that improving the HSCM with the higher level of Halal awareness. Assuring HI will enhance the consumer satisfaction which leads to a competitive advantage for the organization. Academic researchers, industrial practitioners and Supply Chain executives can understand the complex interrelationship of CSFs by visualizing the TISM. It can help the management, lobbies and government to develop the policies regarding the implementation.

  17. Development of the management for parenteral nutrition traceability in a standard hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bernabeu Soria

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop the traceability control and the hazard analysis in the processes of parenteral nutrients (PN. Method: a standardized graphical notation was generated, describing in detail each of the stages in the overall process. The presence of hazards was analysed by sequencing decisions. The existence of Control Points (CP or Critical Control Points (CCP was estimated by Criticality Index (CI for each hazard taking into account the probability of occurrence and the severity of the damage. The threshold for the IC was set in 6. Results: a specific flow chart for the management and traceability of PN was obtained, defining each of the stages in CPs (validation and transcription of the prescription and administration or CCPs (preparation, storage and infusion pump –flow and filter-. Stages regarding the delivery, the recovery and the recycle of the packing material of PNs are not considered CPs and, therefore, they were not included in the dashboard. Conclusions: PN must be dealt with in the frame of a standardized management system in order to improve patient safety, clinical relevance, maximize resource efficiency and minimize procedural issues. The proposed system provides a global management model whose steps are fully defined, allowing monitoring and verification of PN. It would be convenient to make use of a software application to support the monitoring of the traceability management and to store the historical records in order to evaluate the system.

  18. Innovative solutions in traceability to improve the competitiveness of a local fruit and vegetable retailing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Pakurár

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to investigate the network of local fruit and vegetable products from “farm to fork”, to uncover the hidden processes in traceability and to advise innovations in the retailing system to improve the competitiveness of the sector. Traceability is an ability to track any food that will be consumed throughout the processes of production, processing and distribution. The research investigates what the customer knows about the origin and treatments of purchased products and what further information would satisfy the consumer. The study explores the flow of information amongst the chain members: producers, wholesalers, small-scale retailers, and customers. Based on interviews and questionnaires, regression analysis and ordinal regression procedure were performed. Innovative solutions to make the retailing competitive should be aligned with the precise knowledge of the consumer. The results of the research show that deficiencies in data collection, data erosion, low level of cooperation of supply chain partners, not paying more attention for more detailed information, and inadequate control are the main problems of the traceability in fruit and vegetable chains.

  19. Traceable calibration and demonstration of a portable dynamic force transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlajic, Nicholas; Chijioke, Ako

    2017-08-01

    In general, the dynamic sensitivity of a force transducer depends upon the mechanical system in which it is used. This dependence serves as motivation to develop a dynamic force transfer standard, which can be used to calibrate an application transducer in situ. In this work, we SI-traceably calibrate a hand-held force transducer, namely an impact hammer, by using a mass suspended from a thin line which is cut to produce a known dynamic force in the form of a step function. We show that this instrument is a promising candidate as a transfer standard, since its dynamic response has small variance between different users. This calibrated transfer standard is then used to calibrate a secondary force transducer in an example application setting. The combined standard uncertainty (k  =  2) in the calibration of the transfer standard was determined to be 2.1% or less, up to a bandwidth of 5 kHz. The combined standard uncertainty (k  =  2) in the performed transfer calibration was less than 4%, up to 3 kHz. An advantage of the transfer calibration framework presented here, is that the transfer standard can be used to transfer SI-traceable calibrations without the use of any SI-traceable voltage metrology instrumentation.

  20. Quality transitivity and traceability system of herbal medicine products based on quality markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changxiao; Guo, De-An; Liu, Liang

    2018-05-15

    Due to a variety of factors to affect the herb quality, the existing quality management model is unable to evaluate the process control. The development of the concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker) lays basis for establishing an independent process quality control system for herbal products. To ensure the highest degree of safety, effectiveness and quality process control of herbal products, it is aimed to establish a quality transitivity and traceability system of quality and process control from raw materials to finished herbal products. Based on the key issues and challenges of quality assessment, the current status of quality and process controls from raw materials to herbal medicinal products listed in Pharmacopoeia were analyzed and the research models including discovery and identification of Q-markers, analysis and quality management of risk evaluation were designed. Authors introduced a few new technologies and methodologies, such as DNA barcoding, chromatographic technologies, fingerprint analysis, chemical markers, bio-responses, risk management and solution for quality process control. The quality and process control models for herbal medicinal products were proposed and the transitivity and traceability system from raw materials to the finished products was constructed to improve the herbal quality from the entire supply and production chain. The transitivity and traceability system has been established based on quality markers, especially on how to control the production process under Good Engineering Practices, as well as to implement the risk management for quality and process control in herbal medicine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishing the traceability of a uranyl nitrate solution to a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A uranyl nitrate solution for use as a Working Calibration and Test Material (WCTM) was characterized, using a statistically designed procedure to document traceability to National Bureau of Standards Reference Material (SPM-960). A Reference Calibration and Test Material (PCTM) was prepared from SRM-960 uranium metal to approximate the acid and uranium concentration of the WCTM. This solution was used in the characterization procedure. Details of preparing, handling, and packaging these solutions are covered. Two outside laboratories, each having measurement expertise using a different analytical method, were selected to measure both solutions according to the procedure for characterizing the WCTM. Two different methods were also used for the in-house characterization work. All analytical results were tested for statistical agreement before the WCTM concentration and limit of error values were calculated. A concentration value was determined with a relative limit of error (RLE) of approximately 0.03% which was better than the target RLE of 0.08%. The use of this working material eliminates the expense of using SRMs to fulfill traceability requirements for uranium measurements on this type material. Several years' supply of uranyl nitrate solution with NBS traceability was produced. The cost of this material was less than 10% of an equal quantity of SRM-960 uranium metal

  2. [Study on brand traceability of vinegar based on near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiao; Liu, Jing; Gu, Fang-Qing; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, 152 vinegar samples with four different brands were chosen as research targets, and their near infrared spectra were collected by diffusion reflection mode and transmission mode, respectively. Furthermore, the brand traceability models for edible vinegar were constructed. The effects of the collection mode and pretreatment methods of spectrum on the precision of traceability models were investigated intensively. The models constructed by PLS1-DA modeling method using spectrum data of 114 training samples were applied to predict 38 test samples, and R2, RMSEC and RMSEP of the model based on transmission mode data were 0.92, 0.113 and 0.127, respectively, with recognition rate of 76.32%, and those based on diffusion reflection mode data were 0.97, 0.102 and 0.119, with recognition rate of 86.84%. The results demonstrated that the near infrared spectrum combined with PLS1-DA can be used to establish the brand traceability models for edible vinegar, and diffuse reflection mode is more beneficial for predictive ability of the model.

  3. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying

    2015-04-01

    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Traceability System Model for Quality Gelatin Raw Material of Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several criteria must be accomplished within the provision of quality products in terms of the types of materials, the processing methods and effort to get it. Traceability system involves various parties that have different needs and goals in the process of supplying raw materials. Hence, there is a need for institutional systems engineering that can organize and manage the tracking process, the procurement of raw materials that guarantee the origin of gelatin raw materials, and facilitate the industry and customer to create a standardized quality of product. The purpose of the study formulates the institutional tracking models of gelatin raw material from cattle hide based on various criteria and assessment of the expert opinion. The methods used in this study were Interpretative structural modeling to formulate a representation of institutional tracking efficiently and analytical hierarchy process to determine the tracking strategy of industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide. The results obtained from the study were some key elements of institutional tracking model for industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide and the traceability strategies for industrial raw materials from cattle hide gelatin Indonesia. (Animal Production 12(3: 190-198 (2010 Key Words: traceability, institutional model, cattle hide, gelatin

  5. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability.

  6. Traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms using data fusion of UV-visible and FTIR combined with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Liu, HongGao; Li, JieQing; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-04-01

    Boletaceae mushrooms are wild-grown edible mushrooms that have high nutrition, delicious flavor and large economic value distributing in Yunnan Province, China. Traceability is important for the authentication and quality assessment of Boletaceae mushrooms. In this study, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were applied for traceability of 247 Boletaceae mushroom samples in combination with chemometrics. Compared with a single spectroscopy technique, data fusion strategy can obviously improve the classification performance in partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and grid-search support vector machine (GS-SVM) models, for both species and geographical origin traceability. In addition, PLS-DA and GS-SVM models can provide 100.00% accuracy for species traceability and have reliable evaluation parameters. For geographical origin traceability, the accuracy of prediction in the PLS-DA model by data fusion was just 64.63%, but the GS-SVM model based on data fusion was 100.00%. The results demonstrated that the data fusion strategy of UV-visible and FTIR combined with GS-SVM could provide a higher synergic effect for traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms and have a good generalization ability for the comprehensive quality control and evaluation of similar foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  8. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  9. The X-Shooter spectral library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y. P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Lançon, A.; Prugniel, Ph.; Koleva, M.

    2012-01-01

    We are building a new spectral library with the X-Shooter instrument on ESO's VLT: XSL, the X-Shooter Spectral Library. We present our progress in building XSL, which covers the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR with a resolution of R˜10000. As of now we have collected spectra for

  10. Spectral concentration in the nonrelativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Grosse, H.; Thaller, B.

    1982-01-01

    First order relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger operator according to Foldy and Wouthuysen are rigorously discussed in the framework of singular perturbation theory. For Coulomb plus short-range interactions we investigate the corresponding spectral properties and prove spectral concentration and existence of first order pseudoeigenvalues in the nonrelativistic limit. (Author)

  11. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-05

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  12. Carrier diffusion as a measure of carrier/exciton transfer rate in InAs/InGaAsP/InP hybrid quantum dot-quantum well structures emitting at telecom spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Biegańska, D.; Misiewicz, J.; Lelarge, F.; Rousseau, B.; Sek, G.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the diffusion of photo-generated carriers (excitons) in hybrid two dimensional-zero dimensional tunnel injection structures, based on strongly elongated InAs quantum dots (called quantum dashes, QDashes) of various heights, designed for emission at around 1.5 μm, separated by a 3.5 nm wide barrier from an 8 nm wide In0.64Ga0.36As0.78P0.22 quantum well (QW). By measuring the spectrally filtered real space images of the photoluminescence patterns with high resolution, we probe the spatial extent of the emission from QDashes. Deconvolution with the exciting light spot shape allows us to extract the carrier/exciton diffusion lengths. For the non-resonant excitation case, the diffusion length depends strongly on excitation power, pointing at carrier interactions and phonons as its main driving mechanisms. For the case of excitation resonant with absorption in the adjacent QW, the diffusion length does not depend on excitation power for low excitation levels since the generated carriers do not have sufficient excess kinetic energy. It is also found that the diffusion length depends on the quantum-mechanical coupling strength between QW and QDashes, controlled by changing the dash size. It influences the energy difference between the QDash ground state of the system and the quantum well levels, which affects the tunneling rates. When that QW-QDash level separation decreases, the probability of capturing excitons generated in the QW by QDashes increases, which is reflected by the decreased diffusion length from approx. 5 down to 3 μm.

  13. Improving Process Quality by Means of Accurate and Traceable Calibration of Flow Devices with Process-oriented Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Hugo; Tschannen, Martin; de Huu, Marc

    2018-03-30

    Calibration of flow devices is important in several areas of pharmaceutical, flow chemistry and health care applications where volumetric dosage or delivery at given flow rates are crucial for the process. Although most of the flow devices are measuring flow rates of process-oriented liquids, their calibrations are often performed with water as calibration liquid. It is recommended to perform the calibrations of the flow devices with process-oriented liquids as the liquid itself might influence the performance of the flow devices. Therefore, METAS has developed facilities with METAS flow generators to address the issue of measuring with process-oriented liquids for flow rates from 400 ml/min down to 50 nl/min with uncertainties from 0.07-0.9 %. Traceability is guaranteed through the calibration of the generated flow rates of the METAS flow generators by means of the dynamic gravimetric method where a liquid of well-known density and a well-controlled evaporation rate is used. The design of the milli-flow facility will be discussed as well as first measurement results of the METAS flow generators in the range of micro-flow and milli-flow using water and other liquids.

  14. Mineral oil content in sediments and soils: comparability, traceability and a certified reference material for quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Roland; Buge, Hans-Gerhard; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The performance of twelve laboratories with previously established proficiency in the determination of the mineral oil content in a fresh water sediment is described. The summation parameter total petrol hydrocarbon (TPH) is defined according to ISO 16703:2004 with regard to the sample preparation to be applied, the flame ionisation detection (FID) and the boiling range of C{sub 10}-C{sub 40} to be integrated. Comprehensive tests of homogeneity and stability have been carried out on the candidate material using appropriate models. The outcome of the study served as the basis for the certification of the candidate reference material as ERM-CC015a. The certified mass fraction is 1,820{+-}130mgkg{sup -1}and traceability was established by using an appropriate calibration standard certified for the mass fraction of C{sub 10}-C{sub 40}. The interlaboratory scatter of measurement results in this exercise can largely be explained by the variability of the individual calibrations based on this common calibration standard. (orig.)

  15. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  16. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  17. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  18. Research on the Consumers Willingness to Buy Traceable Pork with Different Quality Information:A Case Study of Consumers in Weifang, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan; BU; Dian; ZHU; Linhai; WU

    2013-01-01

    The traceability system can effectively reduce the food safety risks, however, it is confronted with various problems during its implementation. In this context, the paper carries out a case study of consumers in Weifang, Shandong Province, and studies their willingness to pay the traceable pork with different quality information. The results indicate that, the consumers show high expectations towards the introduction of traceability system, and they tend to buy the traceable pork only with breeding and slaughter information; their behaviors of purchase are greatly influenced by the following factors: the consumers education, age, income, attention on food safety and whether there are pregnant family members, etc..

  19. Fluorescent graphene quantum dots as traceable, pH-sensitive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jichuan Qiu,1 Ruibin Zhang,2 Jianhua Li,1 Yuanhua Sang,1 Wei Tang,3 Pilar Rivera Gil,4 Hong Liu1,51Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, 2Blood Purification Center, Jinan Central Hospital, 3Department of Pathogenic Biology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 4Institute of Chemistry, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain; 5Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Graphene quantum dots (GQDs were rationally fabricated as a traceable drug delivery system for the targeted, pH-sensitive delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug into cancer cells. The GQDs served as fluorescent carriers for a well-known anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox. The whole system has the capacity for simultaneous tracking of the carrier and of drug release. Dox release is triggered upon acidification of the intracellular vesicles, where the carriers are located after their uptake by cancer cells. Further functionalization of the loaded carriers with targeting moieties such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD peptides enhanced their uptake by cancer cells. DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer ability of Dox-loaded RGD-modified GQDs (Dox-RGD-GQDs. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using GQDs as traceable drug delivery systems with the ability for the pH-triggered delivery of drugs into target cells.Keywords: graphene quantum dots, drug delivery, pH-sensitive, controlled release, traceable

  20. Case study on traceable, transparent documentation to support decision-making on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.A.; Andrews, R.W.; Sevougian, S.D.; Dockery, H.A.; Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Gaither, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    The recent assessment of the Yucca Mountain potential repository attempted to develop transparent and traceable documentation. The assessment was largely successful in this effort, providing meaningful graphics and easy to understand descriptions of the analyses for multiple audiences. While there are obviously many areas in the modeling and data collection that could be improved with sufficient resources, the document has been well received as an accurate, understandable assessment of the analyses. A few difficulties were encountered in the efforts to produce transparent and traceable documentation of the performance assessment analyses. Streamlining the text from a typical technical document to more of a layman's document, was not always easy. The data transfer steps that are proceduralized were not always smooth, as we worked out some of the bugs in the data transfer system. For some of the graphics, there was a mismatch between the analyst's hardware/software and the production hardware/software, causing difficulties in printing the graphics. One thing that was clear as the many organizations worked to pull the document together, is that relationships between people are still necessary in spite of all the technology brought to bear on the problem. A high level of cooperation and integration is necessary for the process to work smoothly. Significant effort is being made to continue to improve the processes that lead to traceability. Multiple teams are taking the sequencing of models/data apart and finding all of the transfers required as the project moves toward Site Recommendation and potential licensing. Likewise, the effort to achieve transparency is evolving and will improve with the next iteration of the analyses

  1. The role of psychological determinants and demographic factors in consumer demand for farm-to-fork traceability systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myae, Aye Chan; Goddard, Ellen; Aubeeluck, Ashwina

    2011-01-01

    Traceability systems are an important tool (1) for tracking, monitoring, and managing product flows through the supply chain for better efficiency and profitability of suppliers, and (2) to improve consumer confidence in the face of serious food safety incidents. After the global bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis affected producers, consumers, trade, and the health status of animals and humans, new systems to help confirm the status of cattle products along the supply chain from farm to fork were implemented in many countries (Trautman et al. 2008 ). In this study, people's overall food safety beliefs are explored with the main objective of measuring the link between their food safety beliefs and their attitudes toward traceability. A comparison is made among English-speaking Canadians, French-speaking Canadians, and Japanese consumers. In the study, an Internet-based survey was used to collect data from nationally representative samples of the population in Canada-English (1275), Canada-French (343), and Japanese (1940) in the summer of 2009. Respondents' interests in traceability systems are clearly linked to their sense that the industry is primarily responsible for any food safety outbreaks. Moreover, it is clear that certain segments of the population in all samples feel strongly about the importance of farm to fork traceability in beef; thus, policymakers may wish to consider extending traceability beyond the point of slaughter as a way of encouraging beef sales in Canada.

  2. Optimal Product Quality of Supply Chain Based on Information Traceability in Fashion and Textiles Industry: An Adverse Logistics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and compares two quality control methods, that is, inspection control and traceability control, to optimize supply chain quality in fashion and textiles industry. The objective is to maximize the supply chain participants’ expected profits and to achieve a Pareto improvement of supply chain product quality. With quality as a controllable variable indicating the level of opportunistic behavior, the return is interpreted as a function of quality: the higher the quality, the lower the return. Taking into account both quality and inventory quantity, we propose and compare the optimal decision-making models for three control methods of supply chain, respectively: decentralized (no control, inspection, and traceability. Further, we use a numerical example to illustrate the relationships among quality, profits, and quality-control cost coefficients (i.e., inspection-related cost and traceability-related cost. We then analyze and discuss the differences in the applications and scopes of the two control methods. On the one hand, given the poor standardization of fashion and textiles industry in the current practice (especially in China market, the cost of sampling inspection is relatively lower as compared to that of the traceability control method. On the other hand, with the improved industrial standardization and technology, traceability control tends to gain increasing advantages in cost and popularity.

  3. Soft fruit traceability in food matrices using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Luisa; Bozza, Elisa; Giongo, Lara

    2009-02-01

    Food product authentication provides a means of monitoring and identifying products for consumer protection and regulatory compliance. There is a scarcity of analytical methods for confirming the identity of fruit pulp in products containing Soft Fruit. In the present work we have developed a very sensible qualitative and quantitative method to determine the presence of berry DNAs in different food matrices. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the applicability, to Soft Fruit traceability, of melting curve analysis and multiplexed fluorescent probes, in a Real-Time PCR platform. This methodology aims to protect the consumer from label misrepresentation.

  4. Verification of traceability and backscattering in surface entrance air kerma measurements with detector type ionizing chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of doses in radiology services by ionizing chambers are easier than those made by TLD, however the protocols for measurements differ regarding the calibration. The objectives were to verify the traceability in the measures of ESAK corrected by the inverse square law, due to the difference in position between the source and IC and the influence of the backscattered radiation in bringing the detector to the table. Was defined a procedure practiced by the radiological services and designed experimental arrangements for the same technique. Was noted that the approximation of the detector to the table generated a significant backscattered. (author)

  5. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.M.; Saez, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp(10) and H*(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-802) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With these data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  6. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003[TACO. Reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Kjeller (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  8. Ensuring the Visibility and Traceability of Items through Logistics Chain of Automotive Industry Based on AutoEPCNet Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Stasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traceability in logistics is the capability of the participants to trace the products throughout the supply chain by means of either the product and/or container identifiers in a forward and/or backward direction. In today's competitive economic environment, traceability is a key concept related to all products and all types of supply chains. The goal of this paper is to describe development of application that enables to create and share information about the physical movement and status of products as they travel throughout the supply chain. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the development of RFID based track and trace system for ensuring the visibility and traceability of items in logistics chain especially in automotive industry. The proposed solution is based on EPCglobal Network Architecture.

  9. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altzitzoglou, T.; Bohnstedt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, and 90 Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented

  10. Embedding X.509 Digital Certificates in Three-Dimensional Models for Authentication, Authorization, and Traceability of Product Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Krima, Sylvere; Camelio, Jaime A

    2017-03-01

    Exchange and reuse of three-dimensional (3D)-product models are hampered by the absence of trust in product-lifecycle-data quality. The root cause of the missing trust is years of "silo" functions (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, quality assurance) using independent and disconnected processes. Those disconnected processes result in data exchanges that do not contain all of the required information for each downstream lifecycle process, which inhibits the reuse of product data and results in duplicate data. The X.509 standard, maintained by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), was first issued in 1988. Although originally intended as the authentication framework for the X.500 series for electronic directory services, the X.509 framework is used in a wide range of implementations outside the originally intended paradigm. These implementations range from encrypting websites to software-code signing, yet X.509 certificate use has not widely penetrated engineering and product realms. Our approach is not trying to provide security mechanisms, but equally as important, our method aims to provide insight into what is happening with product data to support trusting the data. This paper provides a review of the use of X.509 certificates and proposes a solution for embedding X.509 digital certificates in 3D models for authentication, authorization, and traceability of product data. This paper also describes an application within the Aerospace domain. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and provides recommendations for further research into using X.509 certificates in product lifecycle management (PLM) workflows to enable a product lifecycle of trust.

  11. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Messai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Olive oils (OOs show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i characterization by specific markers; (ii authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  12. Traceability System for Improved Utilization of Solid Biofuel from Agricultural Prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass production and supply for renewable energy generation should be managed well and carried out in a sustainable manner. An effective traceability system (TS is required to provide sufficient information and assure the quality of the biomass. The objective of this study is to define and develop a TS to assure the pruning biomass quality for the production of solid biofuels and to provide guarantee to the final user that the biomass is in good condition according to recommended quality criteria. It is designed for an agricultural pruning supply chain in which farmers, biomass traders, transporters, and end users are major actors. It is based on the biofuel quality requirements required by final users and other standards such as the new European standards EN 14961-1, EN15234:1-2011, and EN14961-1:2010, which describe solid fuel quality parameters. Traceable quality parameters include origin and source of product, traded form, bale dimension, chips size distribution, moisture content, ash content, and density of biomass. In this TS, a unique product label is introduced and integrated into a smart logistics system (SLS. The TS uses information captured at different stages of the product supply chain. It enables the management of the whole pruning biomass supply chain with the support of a centralized web-based information platform, an integral part of the SLS.

  13. Traceable calibration for a digital real-time oscilloscope with time interleaving architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongju; Lee, Joo-Gwang; Lee, Dong-Joon; Cho, Chihyun

    2018-01-01

    Impairments of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) used in digital real-time oscilloscopes (DRTO) have caused inevitable signal distortions in measurements. To calibrate these errors with traceability, we propose a novel method that consists of two steps. First, each transfer function of the ADCs is measured using pulse trains from a photodiode calibrated up to 110 GHz. Each data set of the ADCs is superimposed to convert the repetitive pulse to a single pulse to solve the under-sampling problem of the separated data depending on each ADC. Then, the signals of the device under test (DUT) are also separated and superimposed depending on the ADCs, and they are calibrated in the frequency domain based on the measured transfer functions. After a calibration process, the data set is reconverted to the time domain to achieve traceable calibration. To verify our method, we have measured the output of another 70 GHz photodiode with a calibrated DRTO. In terms of results, time-interleaved errors are suppressed by more than 24 dB up to the bandwidth of the DRTO.

  14. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.

    2017-03-01

    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  16. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: ?NIST Traceability ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the true concentrations of Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases produced from high quality, NIST-traceable, commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 generators. This presentation will also discuss the availability of HCl and Hg0 compressed reference gas standards as a result of EPA's recently approved Alternative Methods 114 and 118. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) and oxidized mercury (HgCl2) reference standards are integral to the use of mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (Hg CEMS) for regulatory compliance emissions monitoring. However, a quantitative disparity of approximately 7-10% has been observed between commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases which currently limits the use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards. Resolving this disparity would enable the expanded use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards for regulatory compliance purposes.

  17. Development and evaluation of an intelligent traceability system for frozen tilapia fillet processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Fu, Zetian; Qi, Lin; Mira, Trebar; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2015-10-01

    The main export varieties in China are brand-name, high-quality bred aquatic products. Among them, tilapia has become the most important and fast-growing species since extensive consumer markets in North America and Europe have evolved as a result of commodity prices, year-round availability and quality of fresh and frozen products. As the largest tilapia farming country, China has over one-third of its tilapia production devoted to further processing and meeting foreign market demand. Using by tilapia fillet processing, this paper introduces the efforts for developing and evaluating ITS-TF: an intelligent traceability system integrated with statistical process control (SPC) and fault tree analysis (FTA). Observations, literature review and expert questionnaires were used for system requirement and knowledge acquisition; scenario simulation was applied to evaluate and validate ITS-TF performance. The results show that traceability requirement is evolved from a firefighting model to a proactive model for enhancing process management capacity for food safety; ITS-TF transforms itself as an intelligent system to provide functions on early warnings and process management by integrated SPC and FTA. The valuable suggestion that automatic data acquisition and communication technology should be integrated into ITS-TF was achieved for further system optimization, perfection and performance improvement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Proposal of traceability chain for direct measurements of radioactive contamination in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walwyn Salas, Gonzalo; Tamayo Garcia, Jose A.; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor

    2008-01-01

    The measurements of the radioactive surface contamination are common used to demonstrate the compliance with safety regulations at national level. It is mandatory that those measurements are traceable to national standards through the suitable calibration of the monitors used for survey. In Cuba, there is not a harmonized methodology for evaluation of contamination from direct measurements and no standardized calibration service for portable monitors is routinely provided to users. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Cuba has recently established the calibration service of contamination monitors in terms of instrument efficiency using the reference sources of known emission rate per unit area in accordance with international normative ISO 8769. In the present paper, is proposed a traceable scheme of direct measurements of contamination that involve the calibration at the laboratory level using multi-source method and the evaluation of contaminations at user level in terms of activity per unit area. Some improvements from the previous single-source method of calibration are explained in order to support the advantages that offer the new chain for those measurements in the country. (author)

  19. Traceability and Quality Control in Traditional Chinese Medicine: From Chemical Fingerprint to Two-Dimensional Barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fingerprinting is currently a widely used tool that enables rapid and accurate quality evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, chemical fingerprints are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval, which limit their use in Chinese medicine traceability. In this study, samples of three kinds of Chinese medicines were randomly selected and chemical fingerprints were then constructed by using high performance liquid chromatography. Based on chemical data, the process of converting the TCM chemical fingerprint into two-dimensional code is presented; preprocess and filtering algorithm are also proposed aiming at standardizing the large amount of original raw data. In order to know which type of two-dimensional code (2D is suitable for storing data of chemical fingerprints, current popular types of 2D codes are analyzed and compared. Results show that QR Code is suitable for recording the TCM chemical fingerprint. The fingerprint information of TCM can be converted into data format that can be stored as 2D code for traceability and quality control.

  20. Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2014-02-15

    With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PGI chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) traceability by means of HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritota, Mena; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2013-05-01

    Analytical traceability of PGI and PDO foods (Protected Geographical Indication and Protected Denomination Origin respectively) is one of the most challenging tasks of current applied research. Here we proposed a metabolomic approach based on the combination of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS-NMR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis, i.e. PLS-DA, as a reliable tool for the traceability of Italian PGI chicories (Cichorium intybus L.), i.e. Radicchio Rosso di Treviso and Radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco, also known as red and red-spotted, respectively. The metabolic profile was gained by means of HRMAS-NMR, and multivariate data analysis allowed us to build statistical models capable of providing clear discrimination among the two varieties and classification according to the geographical origin. Based on Variable Importance in Projection values, the molecular markers for classifying the different types of red chicories analysed were found accounting for both the cultivar and the place of origin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Habib; Farman, Muhammad; Sarraj-Laabidi, Abir; Hammami-Semmar, Asma; Semmar, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:28231172

  3. Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-10-22

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed. The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C). It was found that results of δ(13)C for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (δ(2)H). A graphic representation of δ(13)C versus δ(2)H revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins grouped together. Accordingly, values of δ(13)C and δ(2)H can be used for studies of authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors.

  4. DYNAMIC MODEL FOR THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE TRACEABILITY OF MEXICAN BEEF MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Herrera Ayala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to point out the importance of the implementation of a traceability system in economic terms in the beef meat production activity, for the 2011-2016 period, a dynamic model was created in order to estimate the real value of the cattle inventory and to make projections of the gains and losses obtained in the implementation or not of this system with two possible plausible scenarios that affect the exports and imports. The results indicate that if the exports were increased by 53%, just like it happened in Uruguay with the implementation of this system, gains would increase 8.21% in the yearly average. In the absence of this system and considering the 80% decrease of the exports in the United States, in the presence of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE losses would increase 9.97% in a yearly average. In both scenarios a change ± of 20% in the imports was considered. Due to the results obtained and in the face of foreseeable conduct of trade, the cost of opportunity of a traceability system results positive.

  5. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  6. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  7. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  8. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  9. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  10. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  11. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan: Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 1 – Physics and numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This INL plan comprehensively describes the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) on main physics and numerical method of the RELAP-7. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7.

  12. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  13. Selection and use of microsatellite markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2018-06-01

    Meat traceability based on molecular markers is exerting a great influence on food safety and will enhance its key role in the future. This study aimed to investigate and verify the polymorphism of 23 microsatellite markers and select the most suitable markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market. The mean polymorphism information content value of these 23 loci was 0.7851, and each locus exhibited high polymorphism in the pooled population. There were 10 loci showing good polymorphism in each breed, namely, Sw632, S0155, Sw2406, Sw830, Sw2525, Sw72, Sw2448, Sw911, Sw122 and CGA. When six highly polymorphic loci were combined, the match probability value for two random individual genotypes among the pig breeds (Beijing Black, Sanyuan and Taihu) was lower than 1.151 E-06. An increasing number of loci indicated a gradually decreasing match probability value and therefore enhanced traceability accuracy. The validation results of tracing 18 blood and corresponding meat samples based on five highly polymorphic loci (Sw2525, S0005, Sw0107, Sw911 and Sw857) were successful, with 100% conformation probability, which provided a foundation for establishing a traceability system for pork in the Chinese market.

  14. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  15. Practical aspects of the uncertainty and traceability of spectrochemical measurement results by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, S.; Robouch, P.; Barbu, L.; Taylor, P.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of trace elements concentration in water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is a common and well established technique in many chemical testing laboratories. However, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty results is not systematically implemented. The paper presents an easy step-by-step example leading to the evaluation of the combined standard uncertainty of copper determination in water using ETAAS. The major contributors to the overall measurement uncertainty are identified due to amount of copper in water sample that mainly depends on the absorbance measurements, due to certified reference material and due to auto-sampler volume measurements. The practical aspects how the traceability of copper concentration in water can be established and demonstrated are also pointed out

  16. Practical aspects of the uncertainty and traceability of spectrochemical measurement results by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, S. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); National Institute of Metrology, 042122 Vitan Barzesti 11, sector 4 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: steluta.duta@inm.ro; Robouch, P. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: Piotr.Robouch@ec.europa.eu; Barbu, L. [Coca-Cola Entreprise, Analytical Department, Bucharest (Romania); Taylor, P. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: Philip.Taylor@ec.europa.eu

    2007-04-15

    The determination of trace elements concentration in water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is a common and well established technique in many chemical testing laboratories. However, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty results is not systematically implemented. The paper presents an easy step-by-step example leading to the evaluation of the combined standard uncertainty of copper determination in water using ETAAS. The major contributors to the overall measurement uncertainty are identified due to amount of copper in water sample that mainly depends on the absorbance measurements, due to certified reference material and due to auto-sampler volume measurements. The practical aspects how the traceability of copper concentration in water can be established and demonstrated are also pointed out.

  17. Metrological assurance and traceability for Industry 4.0 and additive manufacturing in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliarov, Volodymyr; Neyezhmakov, Pavel; Prokopov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The national measurement standards from the point of view of traceability of the results of measurement in additive manufacturing in Ukraine are considered in the paper. The metrological characteristics of the national primary measurement standards in the field of geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements, which took part in international comparisons within COOMET projects, are presented. The accurate geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements are the key ones in controlling the quality of additive manufacturing. The use of advanced CAD/CAE/CAM systems allows to simulate the process of additive manufacturing at each stage. In accordance with the areas of the technology of additive manufacturing, the ways of improving the national measurement standards of Ukraine for the growing needs of metrology of additive manufacturing are considered.

  18. Determination of radionuclides in environmental test items at CPHR: traceability and uncertainty calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana González, J; Fernández, I M; Capote Ferrera, E; Rodríguez Castro, G

    2008-11-01

    Information about how the laboratory of Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba establishes its traceability to the International System of Units for the measurement of radionuclides in environmental test items is presented. A comparison among different methodologies of uncertainty calculation, including an analysis of the feasibility of using the Kragten-spreadsheet approach, is shown. In the specific case of the gamma spectrometric assay, the influence of each parameter, and the identification of the major contributor, in the relative difference between the methods of uncertainty calculation (Kragten and partial derivative) is described. The reliability of the uncertainty calculation results reported by the commercial software Gamma 2000 from Silena is analyzed.

  19. Determination of radionuclides in environmental test items at CPHR: Traceability and uncertainty calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazana Gonzalez, J.; Fernandez, I.M.; Capote Ferrera, E.; Rodriguez Castro, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information about how the laboratory of Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba establishes its traceability to the International System of Units for the measurement of radionuclides in environmental test items is presented. A comparison among different methodologies of uncertainty calculation, including an analysis of the feasibility of using the Kragten-spreadsheet approach, is shown. In the specific case of the gamma spectrometric assay, the influence of each parameter, and the identification of the major contributor, in the relative difference between the methods of uncertainty calculation (Kragten and partial derivative) is described. The reliability of the uncertainty calculation results reported by the commercial software Gamma 2000 from Silena is analyzed

  20. A Model of Traceability for Equipments Using RFID Tehnologies within an Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LIXANDROIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tagss or transponders. An advanced automatic identification technology such as the Auto-ID system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology has two values for inventory systems. First, the visibility provided by this technology allows an accurate knowledge on the inventory level by eliminating the discrepancy between inventory record and physical inventory. Second, the RFID technology can prevent or reduce the sources of errors. Benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs, the simplification of business processes and the reduction of inventory inaccuracies. Also, RFID technology allows an knowledge on the traceability of equipments in a organization.

  1. A novel reliable method of DNA extraction from olive oil suitable for molecular traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raieta, Katia; Muccillo, Livio; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil production has a worldwide economic impact. The use of this brand, however, is of great concern to Institutions and private industries because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts to the market products. Here, we present a novel, reliable and not expensive method for extracting the DNA from commercial virgin and extra virgin olive oils. The DNA is stable overtime and amenable for molecular analyses; in fact, by carrying out simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers analysis, we characterise the genetic profile of monovarietal olive oils. By comparing the oil-derived pattern with that of the corresponding tree, we can unambiguously identify four cultivars from Samnium, a region of Southern Italy, and distinguish them from reference and more widely used varieties. Through a parentage statistical analysis, we also identify the putative pollinators, establishing an unprecedented and powerful tool for olive oil traceability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Lanthanides in the Traceability of the Milk Production Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Musso, Davide; Calà, Elisa; Arieri, Fabio; Oddone, Matteo

    2017-05-24

    The traceability and authentication of milk were studied using trace and ultratrace elements as chemical markers. Among these variables, the group of lanthanides resulted in being particularly useful for this purpose as a result of their homogeneous distribution inside milk, which showed on the contrary to be intrinsically inhomogeneous from the elemental point of view. Using in this pilot study milk samples from a factory in Piedmont (Italy), we demonstrated that the distribution of lanthanides can be used as a fingerprint to put into relation the soil of the pasture land on which cows graze and the bottled milk produced in the factory. In fact, the distribution is maintained nearly unaltered along the production chain of milk, apart from the passage into the stomachs of the cows. Using the same variables, it was possible to discriminate between milk produced in the factory and milk samples taken from the large-scale retail trade.

  3. DNA markers as a tool for genetic traceability of primary product in agri-food chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Scarano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The agri-food components of the Made in Italy are well known all over the world, therefore they may significantly contribute to the Italian economy. However, also owing to a large number of cases of improper labelling, the Italian agro-food industry faces an ever-increasing competition. For this reason, there is a decline of consumers’ confidence towards food production systems and safety controls. To prevent erroneous classification of products and to protect consumers from false instore information, it is important to develop and validate techniques that are able to detect mislabelling at any stage of the food-chain. This paper describes some examples of genetic traceability of primary products in some important plant food chains such as durum wheat, olive and tomato, based on DNA analysis both of raw material and of processed food (pasta, olive oil, and peeled tomato.

  4. Perceived Traceability Costs and Benefits in the Italian Fisheries Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Asioli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a model in which it is hypothesized that firm characteristics influence both costs and benefits of traceability. The proposed model differentiates between aggregate measures and specific categories, as well as between expected costs and benefits on the one hand and perceived actual outcomes on the other, and is tested in a series of regression analyses based on a survey sample of 60 Italian fish processors. The findings indicate that firm characteristics are not strongly associated with any specific cost or benefit measure. However, expected overall benefits are highly significantly impacted by firm size and the number of quality management systems certified, while actual overall benefits only by firm size. Finally, the study also finds considerable discrepancies between expected and actual costs and benefits. The managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Boyer, J.C.; Corlier, M. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The CLIO FEL has been designed to lase between 2 and 20 {mu}m. The electrons are produced by a 32/50 MeV RF linear accelerator. The injector is a 100 keV thermoionic gun, followed by a subharmonic prebuncher at 0.5 GHz and a buncher at 3 GHz. The electron beam is then accelerated in a 4.5 m long travelling wave accelerating section, to the nominal energy. The undulator consisted of 48 periods of 40 mm and the optical cavity is 4.8 m long which corresponds to a 1.2 m Rayleigh length. The peak power extracted by a ZnSe Brewster plate is 10 MW at 10 {mu}. But, beyond 11{mu}m, the laser power decreases rapidely and no laser oscillation appears above 17 {mu}m. In order to lase at farther wavelengths, few changes have been made: First of all, the power limit is due to the diffraction losses of the undulator vaccuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Numerical calculations have been made and show that cavity losses reach 55 % at 15 {mu}m whereas the measured gain is 60 %. Consequently, the undulator vaccuum chamber have been replaced by a approximately twice bigger one. Then, the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter K is reduced by a factor 2: laser tunability is greatly reduced. This why a new undulator has been built. The main characteristics are summarized.

  6. Actuated polymer based dielectric mirror for visual spectral range applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pedro P.; Lunardi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Miniature dielectric mirrors are useful components for lasers, thin film beam splitters and high quality mirrors in optics. These mirrors usually made from rigid inorganic materials can achieve a reflectance of almost one hundred percent. Being structural components, as soon as fabricated their reflectance and/or bandwidth remains constant. Here it is presented a novel fabrication process of a dielectric mirror based on free standing polymer layers. By applying an electrostatic force between the top and the bottom layers the reflectance can be changed. The large difference between the polymers refractive index and the air allows to achieve a reflectance of more than 85% using only six pairs of nanolayers. Preliminary simulations indicate an actuation speed of less than 1ms. Experimental optical characterization of fabricated structures agrees well with simulation results. Furthermore, structures can be designed to reflect a particular set of colors and/or isolated by using color filters, so a color pixel is fabricated, where the reflectance for each isolated color can be voltage controlled. Potential applications include an active component in a reflective screen display.

  7. Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Müller, M.; Mann, K.; Pánek, D.; Parkman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 123301. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4998533

  8. Analytical Chemical Sensing in the Submillimeter/terahertz Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Benjamin L.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Neese, Christopher F.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sensitive and selective Terahertz sensor utilized to quantitatively analyze a complex mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds is reported. To best demonstrate analytical capabilities of THz chemical sensors we chose to perform analytical quantitative analysis of a certified gas mixture using a novel prototype chemical sensor that couples a commercial preconcentration system (Entech 7100A) to a high resolution THz spectrometer. We selected Method TO-14A certified mixture of 39 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) diluted to 1 part per million (ppm) in nitrogen. 26 of the 39 chemicals were identified by us as suitable for THz spectroscopic detection. Entech 7100A system is designed and marketed as an inlet system for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) instruments with a specific focus on TO-14 and TO-15 EPA sampling methods. Its preconcentration efficiency is high for the 39 chemicals in the mixture used for this study and our preliminary results confirm this. Here we present the results of this study which serves as basis for our ongoing research in environmental sensing and analysis of exhaled human breath.

  9. Dispersion free full range spectral intensity optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Maria, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique with many applications and widespread use in ophthalmology [1]. The axial resolution in OCT is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the optical source used, but the improved axial resolution comes at the price of more...

  10. Towards a traceable clinical guidelines application. A model-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, E; Pérez, B; Zapata, M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide an overall framework to enable model-based development of clinical guideline-based decision support systems (GBDSSs). The automatically generated GBDSSs are aimed at providing guided support to the physician during the application of guidelines and automatically storing guideline application data for traceability purposes. The development process of a GBDSS for a guideline is based on model-driven development (MDD) techniques which allow us to carry out such a process automatically, making development more agile and saving on human resource costs. We use UML Statecharts to represent the dynamics of guidelines and, based on this model, we use a MDD-based tool chain to generate the guideline-dependent components of each GBDSS in an automatic way. In particular, as for the traceability capabilities of each GBDSS, MDD techniques are combined with database schema mappings for metadata management in order to automatically generate the GBDSS-persistent component as one of the main contributions of this paper. The complete framework has been implemented as an Eclipse plug-in named GBDSSGenerator which, starting from the statechart representing a guideline, allows the development process to be carried out automatically by only selecting different menu options the plug-in provides. We have successfully validated our overall approach by generating the GBDSS for different types of clinical guidelines, even for laboratory guidelines. The proposed framework allows the development of clinical guideline-based decision support systems in an automatic way making this process more agile and saving on human resource costs.

  11. Piloting a livestock identification and traceability system in the northern Tanzania-Narok-Nairobi trade route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Florence; Kihara, Absolomon; Rogena, Jason; Ngwili, Nicholas; Aboge, Gabriel; Wabacha, James; Bett, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    We designed and piloted a livestock identification and traceability system (LITS) along the Northern Tanzania-Narok-Nairobi beef value chain. Animals were randomly selected and identified at the primary markets using uniquely coded ear tags. Data on identification, ownership, source (village), and the site of recruitment (primary market) were collected and posted to an online database. Similar data were collected in all the markets where tagged animals passed through until they got to defined slaughterhouses. Meat samples were collected during slaughter and later analyzed for tetracycline and diminazene residues using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Follow up surveys were done to assess the pilot system. The database captured a total of 4260 records from 741 cattle. Cattle recruited in the primary markets in Narok (n = 1698) either came from farms (43.8%), local markets (37.7%), or from markets in Tanzania (18.5%). Soit Sambu market was the main source of animals entering the market from Tanzania (54%; n = 370). Most tagged cattle (72%, n = 197) were slaughtered at the Ewaso Ng'iro slaughterhouse in Narok. Lesions observed (5%; n = 192) were related to either hydatidosis or fascioliasis. The mean diminazene aceturate residue level was 320.78 ± 193.48 ppb. We used the traceability system to identify sources of animals with observable high drug residue levels in tissues. Based on the findings from this study, we discuss opportunities for LITS-as a tool for surveillance for both animal health and food safety, and outline challenges of its deployment in a local beef value chain-such as limited incentives for uptake.

  12. Electric field metrology for SI traceability: Systematic measurement uncertainties in electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher L.; Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Dienstfrey, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Raithel, Georg

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between the Rabi frequency (ΩRF, related to the applied electric field) and Autler-Townes (AT) splitting, when performing atom-based radio-frequency (RF) electric (E) field strength measurements using Rydberg states and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. The AT splitting satisfies, under certain conditions, a well-defined linear relationship with the applied RF field amplitude. The EIT/AT-based E-field measurement approach derived from these principles is currently being investigated by several groups around the world as a means to develop a new SI-traceable RF E-field measurement technique. We establish conditions under which the measured AT-splitting is an approximately linear function of the RF electric field. A quantitative description of systematic deviations from the linear relationship is key to exploiting EIT/AT-based atomic-vapor spectroscopy for SI-traceable field measurement. We show that the linear relationship is valid and can be used to determine the E-field strength, with minimal error, as long as the EIT linewidth is small compared to the AT-splitting. We also discuss interesting aspects of the thermal dependence (i.e., hot- versus cold-atom) of this EIT-AT technique. An analysis of the transition from cold- to hot-atom EIT in a Doppler-mismatched cascade system reveals a significant change of the dependence of the EIT linewidth on the optical Rabi frequencies and of the AT-splitting on ΩRF.

  13. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  14. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  15. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  16. Correction for spectral mismatch effects on the calibration of a solar cell when using a solar simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, C.H.

    1981-01-15

    A general expression has been derived to enable calculation of the calibration error resulting from simulator-solar AMX spectral mismatch and from reference cell-test cell spectral mismatch. The information required includes the relative spectral response of the reference cell, the relative spectral response of the cell under test, and the relative spectral irradiance of the simulator (over the spectral range defined by cell response). The spectral irradiance of the solar AMX is assumed to be known.

  17. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  18. Spectral quality requirements for effluent identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, R. N.; Seeley, J. A.; Wack, E. C.

    2005-11-01

    We consider the problem of remotely identifying gaseous materials using passive sensing of long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral features at hyperspectral resolution. Gaseous materials are distinguishable in the LWIR because of their unique spectral fingerprints. A sensor degraded in capability by noise or limited spectral resolution, however, may be unable to positively identify contaminants, especially if they are present in low concentrations or if the spectral library used for comparisons includes materials with similar spectral signatures. This paper will quantify the relative importance of these parameters and express the relationships between them in a functional form which can be used as a rule of thumb in sensor design or in assessing sensor capability for a specific task. This paper describes the simulation of remote sensing datacontaining a gas cloud.In each simulation, the spectra are degraded in spectral resolution and through the addition of noise to simulate spectra collected by sensors of varying design and capability. We form a trade space by systematically varying the number of sensor spectral channels and signal-to-noise ratio over a range of values. For each scenario, we evaluate the capability of the sensor for gas identification by computing the ratio of the F-statistic for the truth gas tothe same statistic computed over the rest of the library.The effect of the scope of the library is investigated as well, by computing statistics on the variability of the identification capability as the library composition is varied randomly.

  19. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  20. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  1. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  2. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  3. From spectral holeburning memory to spatial-spectral microwave signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Harrington, Calvin; Mohan, R Krishna; Sharpe, Tia; Bekker, Scott H; Chase, Michael D; Merkel, Kristian D; Stiffler, Colton R; Traxinger, Aaron S; Woidtke, Alex J

    2014-01-01

    Many storage and processing systems based on spectral holeburning have been proposed that access the broad bandwidth and high dynamic range of spatial-spectral materials, but only recently have practical systems been developed that exceed the performance and functional capabilities of electronic devices. This paper reviews the history of the proposed applications of spectral holeburning and spatial-spectral materials, from frequency domain optical memory to microwave photonic signal processing systems. The recent results of a 20 GHz bandwidth high performance spectrum monitoring system with the additional capability of broadband direction finding demonstrates the potential for spatial-spectral systems to be the practical choice for solving demanding signal processing problems in the near future. (paper)

  4. Traceable accounts of subjective probability judgments in the IPCC and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    One of the major sources of controversy surrounding the reports of the IPCC has been the characterization of uncertainty. Although arguably the IPCC has paid more attention to the process of uncertainty analysis and communication than any comparable assessment body, its efforts to achieve consistency have produced mixed results. In particular, the extensive use of subjective probability assessment has attracted widespread criticism. Statements such as "Average Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of the 20th century were very likely higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years" are ubiquitous (one online database lists nearly 3000 such claims), and indeed are the primary way in which its key "findings" are reported. Much attention is drawn to the precise quantitative definition of such statements (e.g., "very likely" means >90% probability, vs. "extremely likely" which means >95% certainty). But there is no process by which the decision regarding the choice of such uncertainty level for a given finding is formally made or reported, and thus they are easily by disputed by anyone, expert or otherwise, who disagrees with the assessment. In the "Uncertainty Guidance Paper" for the Third Assessment Report, Richard Moss and Steve Schneider defined the concept of a "traceable account," which gave exhaustive detail regarding how one ought to provide documentation of such an uncertainty assessment. But the guidance, while appearing straightforward and reasonable, in fact was an unworkable recipe, which would have taken near-infinite time if used for more than a few key results, and would have required a different structuring of the text than the conventional scientific assessment. And even then it would have left a gap when it came to the actual provenance of any such specific judgments, because there simply is no formal step at which individuals turn their knowledge of the evidence on some finding into a probability judgment. The

  5. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  6. Investigation on the traceability of three dimensional scanning electron microscope measurements based on the stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning the traceability of dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. A theoretical description of the effects that the main instrumental variables...... with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. A theoretical description of the effects that the main instrumental variables and measurement parameters have on the reconstruction accuracy of any point on the surface of the object being imaged......-dimensional topography of the type C roughness standards showed good agreement with the nominal profile wavelength values. An investigation was carried out concerning the traceability of dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using reconstruction of surface topography through...

  7. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis for evaluating the traceability of interventional devices using blood vessel phantom models made of PVA-H or silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-Ho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Park, Chan Hee; Ohta, Makoto; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the parameters with effective traceability to assess the mechanical properties of interventional devices. In our evaluation system, a box-shaped poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H) and silicone were prepared with realistic geometry, and the measurement and evaluation of traceability were carried out on devices using load hand force. The phantom models had a total of five curve pathways to reach the aneurysm sac. Traceability depends on the performance of the interventional devices in order to pass through the curved part of the model simulation track. The traceability of the guide wire was found to be much better than that of the balloon and stent loading catheter, as it reached the aneurysm sac in both phantom models. Observation using the video record is another advantage of our system, because the high transparency of the materials with silicone and PVA-H can allow visualization of the inside of an artery.

  9. Mercury Science Objectives and Traceability Within the BepiColombo Project: Optimising the Science Output of the Next Mission to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Benkhoff, J.; Bentley, M.; Cornet, T.; Moissl, R.; Munoz, C.; Zender, J.

    2018-05-01

    The BepiColombo Science Ground Segment is developing, in collaboration with the instrument teams, targeted science traceability matrix of each instrument. They are defined in such a way that they can be tracked during the observation lifecycle.

  10. Toward fish and seafood traceability: anchovy species determination in fish products by molecular markers and support through a public domain database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Marc; Martinsohn, Jann Thorsten; Ortega, Delphine; Carreau, Philippe; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Mouchel, Olivier

    2008-05-28

    Traceability in the fish food sector plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection and confidence building. This is reflected by the introduction of legislation and rules covering traceability on national and international levels. Although traceability through labeling is well established and supported by respective regulations, monitoring and enforcement of these rules are still hampered by the lack of efficient diagnostic tools. We describe protocols using a direct sequencing method based on 212-274-bp diagnostic sequences derived from species-specific mitochondria DNA cytochrome b, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences which can efficiently be applied to unambiguously determine even closely related fish species in processed food products labeled "anchovy". Traceability of anchovy-labeled products is supported by the public online database AnchovyID ( http://anchovyid.jrc.ec.europa.eu), which provided data obtained during our study and tools for analytical purposes.

  11. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  12. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  13. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  14. Validation of novel calibration scheme with traceable point-like (22)Na sources on six types of PET scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Oda, Keiichi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Sato, Yasushi; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio; Murayama, Hideo; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Abe, Yutaka; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Wagatsuma, Kei

    2013-05-01

    To improve the reliability and convenience of the calibration procedure of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, we have been developing a novel calibration path based on traceable point-like sources. When using (22)Na sources, special care should be taken to avoid the effects of 1.275-MeV γ rays accompanying β (+) decays. The purpose of this study is to validate this new calibration scheme with traceable point-like (22)Na sources on various types of PET scanners. Traceable point-like (22)Na sources with a spherical absorber design that assures uniform angular distribution of the emitted annihilation photons were used. The tested PET scanners included a clinical whole-body PET scanner, four types of clinical PET/CT scanners from different manufacturers, and a small-animal PET scanner. The region of interest (ROI) diameter dependence of ROI values was represented with a fitting function, which was assumed to consist of a recovery part due to spatial resolution and a quadratic background part originating from the scattered γ rays. The observed ROI radius dependence was well represented with the assumed fitting function (R (2) > 0.994). The calibration factors determined using the point-like sources were consistent with those by the standard cross-calibration method within an uncertainty of ±4 %, which was reasonable considering the uncertainty in the standard cross-calibration method. This novel calibration scheme based on the use of traceable (22)Na point-like sources was successfully validated for six types of commercial PET scanners.

  15. TRACEABILITY OF PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT BY USING CALIBRATED WORPIECES ON CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with one exercise 30 minutes duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercise concerns establishment of traceability of precision measurements on coordinate measuring machines. This document contains...... a short description of each step in the exercise, the uncertainty budget as described in the ISO/TS 15530 part 3 and tables from the excel spreadsheets....

  16. Review: Authentication and traceability of foods from animal origin by polymerase chain reaction-based capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2011-01-31

    This work presents an overview of the applicability of PCR-based capillary electrophoresis (CE) in food authentication and traceability of foods from animal origin. Analytical approaches for authenticating and tracing meat and meat products and fish and seafood products are discussed. Particular emphasis will be given to the usefulness of genotyping in food tracing by using CE-based genetic analyzers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of traceability among livestock traders in south-western Nigeria: implications for sustainable livestock industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ocheja, Samuel E

    2014-01-01

    Livestock diseases and other animal health events are a threat to achieving sustainable livestock industry. The knowledge of trace-back and the practice of providing feedback on diseases encountered in slaughtered animals from the abattoir to the farm can help limit the spread as well as manage potential future incidents of such diseases. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 200 willing livestock traders on traceability in Bodija Municipal Abattoir, south-western Nigeria. The results reveal that the majority of these traders had poor knowledge (79.5 %) and practices (74.0 %) of traceability, though 89.5 % demonstrated good attitudes. While 22.9 % knew that traceability could be an effective means to control diseases, only a lower proportion (9.0 %) knew the health status of the animals being purchased. Though 29.0 % reported the diseases encountered in their animals during slaughter to the farm, only 9.5 % followed up to ensure the farmers take steps at preventing further occurrence of the reported diseases. While age (p = 0.000; 0.014) and education (p = 0.000; 0.000) were both significant for good knowledge and attitudes, frequency of condemned cases (p = 0.000) and length of years in the trade (p = 0.004) were, respectively, significant for good knowledge and attitudes with none associated with practice. These poor levels of knowledge and practices of traceability are a threat to sustainable livestock industry, food security and human health; hence, there is an urgent need to institute national feedback mechanism on slaughtered animals in order to strengthen interventions against diseases at farm levels.

  18. Failure mode and effects analysis of witnessing protocols for ensuring traceability during IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Laura; Bariani, Fiorenza; Dalla Zorza, Michela; Romano, Stefania; Scarica, Catello; Maggiulli, Roberta; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2015-10-01

    Traceability of cells during IVF is a fundamental aspect of treatment, and involves witnessing protocols. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method of identifying real or potential breakdowns in processes, and allows strategies to mitigate risks to be developed. To examine the risks associated with witnessing protocols, an FMEA was carried out in a busy IVF centre, before and after implementation of an electronic witnessing system (EWS). A multidisciplinary team was formed and moderated by human factors specialists. Possible causes of failures, and their potential effects, were identified and risk priority number (RPN) for each failure calculated. A second FMEA analysis was carried out after implementation of an EWS. The IVF team identified seven main process phases, 19 associated process steps and 32 possible failure modes. The highest RPN was 30, confirming the relatively low risk that mismatches may occur in IVF when a manual witnessing system is used. The introduction of the EWS allowed a reduction in the moderate-risk failure mode by two-thirds (highest RPN = 10). In our experience, FMEA is effective in supporting multidisciplinary IVF groups to understand the witnessing process, identifying critical steps and planning changes in practice to enable safety to be enhanced. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AN INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGICAL TRACEABILITY MODEL IN THE OLIVE GROWING PRODUCTION CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Giametta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indication of the “path” travelled by all European agrofood products has by now become compulsory: starting from January the 1st, 2005 EC Regulation 178/2002 has established the notions of food tracking and tracing as well as the concept of food safety. Food traceability and safety are becoming notions of crucial importance to those who work in this sector in view of their potentially positive influence on produce competitiveness and appreciation on the part of consumers. This specific line of research is focused on the analysis and the use of both tracking and tracing systems of olive and olive oil products throughout the entire territory of Calabria. A detailed analysis of the productive processes has been made possible through the definition of the socalled “dynamic lot”: a unit of product processed (either directly or indirectly in a time unit (usually a day, as a function of the peculiarities of the olive growing farms involved (orographic features, level of mechanization, etc.. The software architecture (which is currently being updated has been studied considering the reality of the territory in question, and the average level of computer/software literacy of the operators asked to use it.

  20. A Middleware Architecture for RFID-enabled traceability of air baggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhouche T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 1980 marked the start of a boom in radiofrequency identification (RFID technology, initially associated with a growing need for traceability. In view of the technological progress and lower costs, RFID’s area of application became much broader and, today, multiple business sectors take advantage of this technology. However, in order to achieve the maximum benefits of RFID technology, the data collected should be delivered in the best conditions to the whole applications that have need of its exploitation. For that, a dedicated middleware solution is required to ensure the collection of RFID data and their integration in information systems. The issues and key points of this integration as the description of the RFID technology will be summarized in the present paper, with a new middleware architecture. We focus mainly on components and the design of our middleware MedRFID, solution developed in our Lab, and which integrates mobility and provides extensibility, scalability, abstraction, ease of deployment and compatibility with IATA standards and EPCglobal standards. Moreover, we have developed an application (FindLuggage allowing a real time tracking of luggage in the airport, based on the proposed middleware MedRFID.