WorldWideScience

Sample records for spectral index studies

  1. SNR radio spectral index distribution and its correlation with polarization. a case study: the Lupus Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borka Jovanović, V.; Jovanović, P.; Borka, D.

    2017-04-01

    We use radio-continuum all-sky surveys at 1420 and 408 MHz with the aim to investigate properties of the Galactic radio source Lupus Loop. The survey data at 1435 MHz, with the linear polarization of the southern sky, are also used. We calculate properties of this supernova remnant: the brightness temperature, surface brightness and radio spectral index. To determine its borders and to calculate its properties, we use the method we have developed. The non-thermal nature of its radiation is confirmed. The distribution of spectral index over its area is also given. A significant correlation between the radio spectral index distribution and the corresponding polarized intensity distribution inside the loop borders is found, indicating that the polarization maps could provide us information about the distribution of the interstellar medium, and thus could represent one additional way to search for new Galactic loops.

  2. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, Milan; Richter, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    For diffraction effects inside photopolymer materials, which act as volume diffraction systems (e.g. gratings), refractive index modulation is one of the key parameters. Due to its importance it is necessary to study this parameter from many perspectives, one of which is its value for different spectral components, i.e. its spectral dispersion. In this paper, we discuss this property and present an approach to experimental and numerical extraction and analysis (via rigorous coupled wave analysis and Cauchy’s empirical relation) of the effective dispersion of refractive index modulation based on an analysis of transmittance maps measured in an angular-spectral plane. It is indicated that the inclusion of dispersion leads to a significantly better description of the real grating behavior (which is often necessary in various design implementations of diffraction gratings) and that this estimation can be carried out for all the diffraction orders present.

  3. Spectral Cross-Calibration of VIIRS Enhanced Vegetation Index with MODIS: A Case Study Using Year-Long Global Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI was spectrally cross-calibrated with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS EVI using a year-long, global VIIRS-MODIS dataset at the climate modeling grid (CMG resolution of 0.05°-by-0.05°. Our cross-calibration approach was to utilize a MODIS-compatible VIIRS EVI equation derived in a previous study [Obata et al., J. Appl. Remote Sens., vol.7, 2013] and optimize the coefficients contained in this EVI equation for global conditions. The calibrated/optimized MODIS-compatible VIIRS EVI was evaluated using another global VIIRS-MODIS CMG dataset of which acquisition dates did not overlap with those used in the calibration. The calibrated VIIRS EVI showed much higher compatibility with the MODIS EVI than the original VIIRS EVI, where the mean error (MODIS minus VIIRS and the root mean square error decreased from −0.021 to −0.003 EVI units and from 0.029 to 0.020 EVI units, respectively. Error reductions on the calibrated VIIRS EVI were observed across nearly all view zenith and relative azimuth angle ranges, EVI dynamic range, and land cover types. The performance of the MODIS-compatible VIIRS EVI calibration appeared limited for high EVI values (i.e., EVI > 0.5 due likely to the maturity of the VIIRS dataset used in calibration/optimization. The cross-calibration methodology introduced in this study is expected to be useful for other spectral indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and two-band EVI.

  4. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  5. Bispectral index and spectral entropy in neuroanesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Martorano, Pietro; Falzetti, Gabriele; Pelaia, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    Spectral Entropy (SpEn) is an alternative tool to the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring depth of hypnosis. SpEn measures response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). This open-label prospective study was designed to evaluate SpEn and BIS in 20 patients undergoing elective supratentorial neurosurgery with craniotomy and resection of brain tumors. SpEn and BIS were obtained continuously by Datex Ohmeda M-entropy module S/5 (Helsinki, Finland) and Aspect Medical System BIS (Newton), respectively. Total intravenous anesthesia was performed in all patients by Fresenius Vial infusion system (Brezins, France) to maintain a plasma concentration of propofol of 2.5 to 5 microg mL(-1) and sufentanil of 0.2 to 0.4 etag mL(-1). SpEn, BIS, the estimated propofol effect-site concentrations (Ce), the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the heart rate (HR) were recorded during 12 specific events: induction of anesthesia, patient stop counting, loss of blinking reflex, intubation, mayfield pinning, craniotomy, termination of propofol infusion, recovery of blinking reflex, coughing, limb movement, order execution, and extubation. Stated that prediction probability or P(K) represents an indicator probability to predict correctly the rank order of an arbitrary pair of distinct observed indices of depth of hypnosis (ie, clinical settings and SpEn indices, or BIS, Ce, MAP, HR), PK of BIS, SE, RE, and Ce provided a better depth of hypnosis than MAP and HR; RE being the best for rapidity, SE for sensitivity, and BIS for specificity. There is good correlation between the 3 hypnosis indices and Ce. This study demonstrates that SpEn provides a reproducible hypnosis index for patients undergoing supratentorial neurosurgical procedures.

  6. Development of fragility curves by incorporating new spectral shape indicators and a weighted damage index: case study of steel braced frames in the city of Mashhad, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Hamid; Ghafory-Ashtiany, Mohsen; Azarbakht, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    In this study, strong ground motion record (SGMR) selection based on Eta ( η) as a spectral shape indicator has been investigated as applied to steel braced frame structures. A probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis for the definition of the target Epsilon ( ɛ) and the target Eta ( η) values at different hazard levels is presented, taking into account appropriately selected SGMR's. Fragility curves are developed for different limit states corresponding to three representative models of typical steel braced frames having significant irregularities in plan, by means of a weighted damage index. The results show that spectral shape indicators have an important effect on the predicted median structural capacities, and also that the parameter η is a more robust predictor of damage than searching for records with appropriate ɛ values.

  7. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretic relation of spectral index changes depending on -ray brightness is obtained. The correlations between the ratio of -ray flux densities and the differences of the -ray spectral indices are discussed for the three subclasses of HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the differences for the ...

  8. Study of the Composition and Spectral Characteristics of a HDG-Prism Disperse System (GRISM) by Refractive Index Phase Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Chon-Gyu; Choe, Chol-Gyu; Im, Song-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The composition and characteristics of a GRISM gained by refractive index matching between a refractive index modulation type HDG and a prism is investigated, the HDG being built by processing silver halide emulsion with halide vapor. The GRISM has been stable under external influences like humidity or ultraviolet light exposure. The mercury atomic spectrum obtained by a GRISM based on a HDG with a spatial frequency of 600mm-1 shows yellow dual lines with the wavelength difference of 2.1nm su...

  9. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, M.; Richter, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 045603. ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : volume gratings * holography * dispersion * refractive index modulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.741, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2040-8986/aa6092/meta

  10. The Dust Emissivity Spectral Index in Cores and Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Scott; Chitsazzadeh, Shadi; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel; Makiwa, Gibion; Mason, Brian; Naylor, David; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Stanke, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Thermal dust emission is a tracer of mass within star-forming regions, so continuum maps trace the distribution of dense material involved in the star formation process. Deriving the mass from measurements of dust continuum emission is complicated by also needing to know (or simultaneously determine) the dust temperature and dust opacity. This opacity has a frequency dependence in the form of a power law, with the exponent called the emissivity spectral index. By deriving accurate values of the emissivity spectral index, we will be able to determine more accurate core masses, temperatures, and the dust grain size distribution. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the emissivity spectral index in the OMC-2/3 filament and a sample of nearby starless and protostellar cores.

  11. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Relativistic beaming effect is important for blazars. In a very recent work, γ-ray Doppler factors were calculated for a sample of Fermi blazars (Fan et al. 2013). In this work, we investigated the correlation between the Doppler factor and the effective spectral index, αOX, and found an anticorrelation between them.

  12. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Relativistic beaming effect is important for blazars. In a very recent work, -ray Doppler factors were calculated for a sample of Fermi blazars (Fan et al. 2013). In this work, we investigated the correlation between the Doppler factor and the effective spectral index, 4OX, and found an anticorrelation ...

  13. The radio spectral index of the Vela supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, H.; Aparici, J.; May, J.; Reich, P.

    2001-06-01

    We have calculated the integrated flux densities of the different components of the Vela SNR between 30 and 8400 MHz. The calculations were done using the original brightness temperature maps found in the literature, a uniform criterion to select the background temperature, and a unique method to compute the integrated flux density. We have succeeded in obtaining separately, and for the first time, the spectrum of Vela Y and Vela Z. The index of the flux density spectrum of Vela X, Vela Y and Vela Z are -0.39, -0.70 and -0.81, respectively. We also present a map of brightness temperature spectral index over the region, between 408 and 2417 MHz. This shows a circular structure in which the spectrum steepens from the centre (Vela X) towards the periphery (Vela Y and Vela Z). X-ray observations show also a circular structure. We compare our spectral indices with those previously published.

  14. Estimating Leaf Area Index for an arid region using Spectral Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of the important crop parameters that can be used to assess crop conditions or drought severity. Estimating LAI for arid regions presents challenge due to the high spatial variability in precipitation and in crop canopies found in such regions. In this study, spectral reflectance of pearl millet was ...

  15. Thermal analysis, spectral characterization and refractive index studies of lithium doped PbO-ZnO-B2O3 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaramakrishna, R.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2012-06-01

    Lithium containing lead zinc borate glasseshave been prepared by melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction reveals the amorphous nature of the glass. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) study was carried out in the temperature range RT to 600°C temperature and found glass transition temperature of these glasses decreases with increase in inter substitution of Pb and Zn lithium content. PZB glasses are stable, IR spectra of these glasses show characteristics band originating from borate groups namely [BO3] [BO4]and B-O-B stretching vibrations respectively, and found that structure is not affected with effect of lithium content. Refractive index of these glasses are in the range of 1.47 with increasing lithium content refractive index decreases indicating decrease in scattering of light.

  16. [Research on Accuracy and Stability of Inversing Vegetation Chlorophyll Content by Spectral Index Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-ling; Yang, Hang; Chen, Xiao-ping; Wang, Shu-dong; Li, Xue-ke; Liu, Kai; Cen, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Spectral index method was widely applied to the inversion of crop chlorophyll content. In the present study, PSR3500 spectrometer and SPAD-502 chlorophyll fluorometer were used to acquire the spectrum and relative chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of winter wheat leaves on May 2nd 2013 when it was at the jointing stage of winter wheat. Then the measured spectra were resampled to simulate TM multispectral data and Hyperion hyperspectral data respectively, using the Gaussian spectral response function. We chose four typical spectral indices including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVD, triangle vegetation index (TVI), the ratio of modified transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) to optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) (MCARI/OSAVI) and vegetation index based on universal pattern decomposition (VIUPD), which were constructed with the feature bands sensitive to the vegetation chlorophyll. After calculating these spectral indices based on the resampling TM and Hyperion data, the regression equation between spectral indices and chlorophyll content was established. For TM, the result indicates that VIUPD has the best correlation with chlorophyll (R2 = 0.819 7) followed by NDVI (R2 = 0.791 8), while MCARI/OSAVI and TVI also show a good correlation with R2 higher than 0.5. For the simulated Hyperion data, VIUPD again ranks first with R2 = 0.817 1, followed by MCARI/OSAVI (R2 = 0.658 6), while NDVI and TVI show very low values with R2 less than 0.2. It was demonstrated that VIUPD has the best accuracy and stability to estimate chlorophyll of winter wheat whether using simulated TM data or Hyperion data, which reaffirms that VIUPD is comparatively sensor independent. The chlorophyll estimation accuracy and stability of MCARI/OSAVI also works well, partly because OSAVI could reduce the influence of backgrounds. Two broadband spectral indices NDVI and TVI are weak for the chlorophyll estimation of simulated Hyperion data mainly because of

  17. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Askins, Steve, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  18. Spectral State Evolution of 4U 1820-30: the Stability of the Spectral Index of Comptonization Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev G.; Seifina, Elena; Frontera, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the X-ray spectra and their timing properties of the compact Xray binary 4U 1820-30. We establish spectral transitions in this source seen with BeppoSAX and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). During the RXTE observations (1996 - 2009), the source were approximately approximately 75% of its time in the soft state making the lower banana and upper banana transitions combined with long-term low-high state transitions. We reveal that all of the X-ray spectra of 4U 1820-30 are fit by a composition of a thermal (blackbody) component, a Comptonization component (COMPTB) and a Gaussian-line component. Thus using this spectral analysis we find that the photon power-law index Gamma of the Comptonization component is almost unchangeable (Gamma approximately 2) while the electron temperature kTe changes from 2.9 to 21 keV during these spectral events. We also establish that for these spectral events the normalization of COMPTB component (which is proportional to mass accretion rate ?M) increases by factor 8 when kTe decreases from 21 keV to 2.9 keV. Before this index stability effect was also found analyzing X-ray data for Z-source GX 340+0 and for atolls, 4U 1728-34, GX 3+1. Thus, we can suggest that this spectral stability property is a spectral signature of an accreting neutron star source. On the other hand in a black hole binary G monotonically increases with ?Mand ultimately its value saturates at large ?M.

  19. Galactic cosmic ray spectral index: the case of Forbush decreases of March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livada, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Plainaki, C.

    2018-01-01

    During the burst of solar activity in March 2012, close to the maximum of solar cycle 24, a number of X-class and M-class flares and halo CMEs with velocity up to 2684 km/s were recorded. During a relatively short period (7-21 March 2012) two Forbush decreases were registered in the ground-level neutron monitor data. In this work, after a short description of the solar and geomagnetic background of these Forbush decreases, we deduce the cosmic ray density and anisotropy variations based on the daily cosmic ray data of the neutron monitor network (http://www.nmdb.eu; http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr). Applying to our data two different coupling functions methods, the spectral index of these Forbush decreases was calculated following the technique of Wawrzynczak and Alania (Adv. Space Res. 45:622-631, 2010). We pointed out that the estimated values of the spectral index γ of these events are almost similar for both cases following the fluctuation of the Forbush decrease. The study and the calculation of the cosmic ray spectrum during such cosmic ray events are very important for Space Weather applications.

  20. A novel spectral index to automatically extract road networks from WorldView-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Shahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a spectral index to automatically extract asphalt road networks named road extraction index (REI. This index uses WorldView-2 (WV-2 imagery, which has high spatial resolution and is multispectral. To determine the best bands for WV-2, field spectral data using a field spectroradiometer were collected. These data were then analyzed statistically. The bands were selected through the methodology of stepwise discriminant analysis. The appropriate WV-2 bands were distinguished from one another as per significant wavelengths. The proposed index is based on this classification. By applying REI to WV-2 imagery, we can extract asphalt roads accurately. Results demonstrate that REI is automated, transferable, and efficient in asphalt road extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery.

  1. The Solar Spectral Irradiance as a Function of the Mg II Index for Atmosphere and Climate Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Gerard; DeLand, Matthew; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Bolsee, David; Melo, Stella

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to reconstruct the solar spectrum irradiance in the Ly alpha-400 nm region, and its variability, based on the Mg II index and neutron monitor. Measurements of the solar spectral irradiance available in the literature have been made with different instruments at different times and different spectral ranges. However, climate studies require harmonized data sets. This new approach has the advantage of being independent of the absolute calibration and aging of the instruments. First, the Mg II index is derived using solar spectra from Ly alpha (121 nm) to 410 nm measured from 1978 to 2010 by several space missions. The variability of the spectra with respect to a chosen reference spectrum as a function of time and wavelength is scaled to the derived Mg II index. The set of coefficients expressing the spectral variability can be applied to the chosen reference spectrum to reconstruct the solar spectra within a given time frame or Mg II index values. The accuracy of this method is estimated using two approaches: by direct comparison with particular cases where solar spectra are available from independent measurements, and by calculating the standard deviation between the measured spectra and their reconstruction. From direct comparisons with measurements we obtain an accuracy of about 1 to 2 %, which degrades towards Ly alpha. In a further step, we extend our solar spectral irradiance reconstruction back to the Maunder Minimum introducing the relationship between the Mg II index and the neutron monitor data. Consistent measurements of the Mg II index are not available prior to 1978. However, we observe that over the last three solar cycles, the Mg II index shows strong correlation with the modulation potential determined from the neutron monitor data. Assuming that this correlation can be applied to the past, we reconstruct the Mg II index from the modulation potential back to the Maunder Minimum, and obtain the corresponding solar

  2. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the dif- ferences for the three subclasses. It is consistent with the theoretical result and it indicates that the spectrum becomes flat as the source brightens in the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1.

  3. All-Sky Observational Evidence for An Inverse Correlation Between Dust Temperature and Emissivity Spectral Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gold, B.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a one-component variable-emissivity-spectral-index model (the free- model) provides more physically motivated estimates of dust temperature at the Galactic polar caps than one- or two-component fixed-emissivity-spectral-index models (fixed- models) for interstellar dust thermal emission at far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths. For the comparison we have fit all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to a new and improved version of the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100-240 micrometer maps from the COBE-DIRBE and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. The best model, the free-alpha model, is well constrained by data at 60-3000 GHz over 86 per cent of the total sky area. It predicts dust temperature (T(sub dust)) to be 13.7-22.7 (plus or minus 1.3) K, the emissivity spectral index (alpha) to be 1.2-3.1 (plus or minus 0.3) and the optical depth (tau) to range 0.6-46 x 10(exp -5) with a 23 per cent uncertainty. Using these estimates, we present all-sky evidence for an inverse correlation between the emissivity spectral index and dust temperature, which fits the relation alpha = 1/(delta + omega (raised dot) T(sub dust) with delta = -.0.510 plus or minus 0.011 and omega = 0.059 plus or minus 0.001. This best model will be useful to cosmic microwave background experiments for removing foreground dust contamination and it can serve as an all-sky extended-frequency reference for future higher resolution dust models.

  4. Non-Standard Hierarchies of the Runnings of the Spectral Index in Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Longden

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of cosmic microwave background surveys have revealed hints that there may be a non-trivial running of the running of the spectral index. If future experiments were to confirm these hints, it would prove a powerful discriminator of inflationary models, ruling out simple single field models. We discuss how isocurvature perturbations in multi-field models can be invoked to generate large runnings in a non-standard hierarchy, and find that a minimal model capable of practically realising this would be a two-field model with a non-canonical kinetic structure. We also consider alternative scenarios such as variable speed-of-light models and canonical quantum gravity effects and their implications for runnings of the spectral index.

  5. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-26

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match.

  6. Mapping plastic greenhouse with medium spatial resolution satellite data: Development of a new spectral index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dedi; Chen, Jin; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Xuehong; Cao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Plastic greenhouses (PGs) are an important agriculture development technique to protect and control the growing environment for food crops. The extensive use of PGs can change the agriculture landscape and affects the local environment. Accurately mapping and estimating the coverage of PGs is a necessity to the strategic planning of modern agriculture. Unfortunately, PG mapping over large areas is methodologically challenging, as the medium spatial resolution satellite imagery (such as Landsat data) used for analysis lacks spatial details and spectral variations. To fill the gap, the paper proposes a new plastic greenhouse index (PGI) based on the spectral, sensitivity, and separability analysis of PGs using medium spatial resolution images. In the context of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, the paper examines the effectiveness and capability of the proposed PGI. The results indicate that PGs in Landsat ETM+ image can be successfully detected by the PGI if the PG fraction is greater than 12% in a mixed pixel. A kappa coefficient of 0.83 and overall accuracy of 91.2% were achieved when applying the proposed PGI in the case of Weifang District, Shandong, China. These results show that the proposed index can be applied to identifying transparent PGs in atmospheric corrected Landsat image and has the potential for the digital mapping of plastic greenhouse coverage over a large area.

  7. Determination of the Spectral Index in the Fission Spectrum Energy Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Neutron reaction cross sections play a vital role in tracking the production and destruction of isotopes exposed to neutron fluence. They are central to the process of reconciling the initial and final atom inventories. Measurements of irradiated samples by radiochemical methods in tangent with an algorithm are used to evaluate the fluence a sample is exposed to over the course of the irradiation. This algorithm is the Isotope Production Code (IPC) created and used by the radiochemistry data assessment team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An integral result is calculated by varying the total neutron fluence seen by a sample. A sample, irradiated in a critical assembly, will be exposed to a unique neutron flux defined by the neutron source and distance of the sample from the source. Neutron cross sections utilized are a function of the hardness of the neutron spectrum at the location of irradiation. A spectral index is used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum. Cross sections fit forms applied in IPC are collapsed from a LANL 30-group energy structure. Several decades of research and development have been performed to formalize the current IPC cross section library. Basis of the current fission spectrum neutron reaction cross section library is rooted in critical assembly experiments performed from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s at LANL. The focus of this report is development of the spectral index used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum in the fission spectrum energy regime.

  8. Improved measurement of the spectral index of the diffuse radio background between 90 and 190 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, T. J.; Bowman, J. D.; Monsalve, R. A.; Rogers, A. E. E.

    2017-02-01

    We report absolutely calibrated measurements of diffuse radio emission between 90 and 190 MHz from the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES). EDGES employs a wide beam zenith-pointing dipole antenna centred on a declination of -26.7°. We measure the sky brightness temperature as a function of frequency averaged over the EDGES beam from 211 nights of data acquired from 2015 July to 2016 March. We derive the spectral index, β, as a function of local sidereal time (LST) and find -2.60 > β > -2.62 ± 0.02 between 0 and 12 h LST. When the Galactic Centre is in the sky, the spectral index flattens, reaching β = -2.50 ± 0.02 at 17.7 h. The EDGES instrument is shown to be very stable throughout the observations with night-to-night reproducibility of σβ GSM) of de Oliveira-Costa et al. and with fits between the Guzmán et al. 45 MHz and Haslam et al. 408 MHz maps. We find good agreement at the transit of the Galactic Centre. Away from transit, the GSM tends to overpredict (GSM less negative) by 0.05 < Δβ = βGSM - βEDGES < 0.12, while the 45-408 MHz fits tend to overpredict by Δβ < 0.05.

  9. [New index for soil moisture monitoring based on deltaT(s)-albedo spectral information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yun-Jun; Qin, Qi-Ming; Zhao, Shao-Hua; Shen, Xin-Yi; Sui, Xin-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring soil moisture by remote sensing has been an important problem for both agricultural drought monitoring and water resources management. In the present paper, we acquire the land surface temperature difference (deltaT(s)) and broadband albedo using MODIS Terra reflectance and land surface temperature products to construct the deltaT(s)-albedo spectral feature space. According to the soil moisture variation in spectral feature space, we put forward a simple and practical temperature difference albedo drought index (TDADI) and validate it using ground-measured 0-10 cm averaged soil moisture of Ningxia plain The results show that the coefficient of determination (R2) of both them varies from 0.36 to 0.52, and TDADI has higher accuracy than temperature albedo drought index (TADI) for soil moisture retrieval. The good agreement of TDADI, Albedo/LST, LST/ NDVI and TVDI for analyzing the trends of soil moisture change supports the reliability of TDADI. However, TDADI has been designed only at Ningxia plain and still needs further validation in other regions.

  10. Gender differences in autonomic cardiovascular regulation: spectral, hormonal, and hemodynamic indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. M.; Ziegler, M. G.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Ott, J. B.; Kim, C. S.; Leonelli, F. M.; Knapp, C. F.

    2001-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system drives variability in heart rate, vascular tone, cardiac ejection, and arterial pressure, but gender differences in autonomic regulation of the latter three parameters are not well documented. In addition to mean values, we used spectral analysis to calculate variability in arterial pressure, heart rate (R-R interval, RRI), stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and measured circulating levels of catecholamines and pancreatic polypeptide in two groups of 25 +/- 1.2-yr-old, healthy men and healthy follicular-phase women (40 total subjects, 10 men and 10 women per group). Group 1 subjects were studied supine, before and after beta- and muscarinic autonomic blockades, administered singly and together on separate days of study. Group 2 subjects were studied supine and drug free with the additional measurement of skin perfusion. In the unblocked state, we found that circulating levels of epinephrine and total spectral power of stroke volume, TPR, and skin perfusion ranged from two to six times greater in men than in women. The difference (men > women) in spectral power of TPR was maintained after beta- and muscarinic blockades, suggesting that the greater oscillations of vascular resistance in men may be alpha-adrenergically mediated. Men exhibited muscarinic buffering of mean TPR whereas women exhibited beta-adrenergic buffering of mean TPR as well as TPR and heart rate oscillations. Women had a greater distribution of RRI power in the breathing frequency range and a less negative slope of ln RRI power vs. ln frequency, both indicators that parasympathetic stimuli were the dominant influence on women's heart rate variability. The results of our study suggest a predominance of sympathetic vascular regulation in men compared with a dominant parasympathetic influence on heart rate regulation in women.

  11. Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    , broadleaf forest and prairies show different post-fire behavior in terms of land surface phenology descriptors. In addition to the above analysis, another method is proposed, which derives from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. The (time dependent) spectral index of a burned area over the period of one year was plotted against its counterpart from the control site. Yearly plots (or scattergrams) before and after the fire were obtained. Each plot is a sequence of points on the plane, which are the vertices of a generally self-intersecting polygonal chain. Some geometrical descriptors were obtained from the yearly chains of each fire. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geometrical descriptors was applied to a set of case studies and the obtained results provide a system dynamics interpretation of the natural process.

  12. An integrated approach to fingerprint indexing using spectral clustering based on minutiae points

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngenge, NA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available this problem by constructing a rotational, scale and translation (RST) invariant fingerprint descriptor based on minutiae points. The proposed RST invariant descriptor dimensions are then reduced and passed to a spectral clustering algorithm which automatically...

  13. [Study on the arc spectral information for welding quality diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun

    2009-03-01

    Through collecting the spectral signals of TIG and MIG welding arc with spectrometer, the arc light radiations were analyzed based on the basic theory of plasma physics. The radiation of welding arc distributes over a broad range of frequency, from infrared to ultraviolet. The arc spectrum is composed of line spectra and continuous spectra. Due to the variation of metal density in the welding arc, there is great difference between the welding arc spectra of TIG and MIG in both their intensity and distribution. The MIG welding arc provides more line spectra of metal and the intensity of radiation is greater than TIG. The arc spectrum of TIG welding is stable during the welding process, disturbance factors that cause the spectral variations can be reflected by the spectral line related to the corresponding element entering the welding arc. The arc spectrum of MIG welding will fluctuate severely due to droplet transfer, which produces "noise" in the line spectrum aggregation zone. So for MIG welding, the spectral zone lacking spectral line is suitable for welding quality diagnosis. According to the characteristic of TIG and MIG, special spectral zones were selected for welding quality diagnosis. For TIG welding, the selected zone is in ultraviolet zone (230-300 nm). For MIG welding, the selected zone is in visible zone (570-590 nm). With the basic theory provided for welding quality diagnosis, the integral intensity of spectral signal in the selected zone of welding process with disturbing factor was studied to prove the theory. The results show that the welding quality and disturbance factors can be diagnosed with good signal to noise ratio in the selected spectral zone compared with signal in other spectral zone. The spectral signal can be used for real-time diagnosis of the welding quality.

  14. Using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis of MODIS Data for Computing the Fire Potential Index in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Roberts, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Fire Potential Index (FPI) is currently the only operationally used wildfire susceptibility index in the United States that incorporates remote sensing data in addition to meteorological information. Its remote sensing component utilizes relative greenness derived from a NDVI time series as a proxy for computing the ratio of live to dead vegetation. This study investigates the potential of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) as a more direct and physically reasonable way of computing the live ratio and applying it for the computation of the FPI. A time series of 16-day reflectance composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to perform the analysis. Endmember selection for green vegetation (GV), non- photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and soil was performed in two stages. First, a subset of suitable endmembers was selected from an extensive library of reference and image spectra for each class using Endmember Average Root Mean Square Error (EAR), Minimum Average Spectral Angle (MASA) and a count-based technique. Second, the most appropriate endmembers for the specific data set were selected from the subset by running a series of 2-endmember models on representative images and choosing the ones that modeled the majority of pixels. The final set of endmembers was used for running MESMA on southern California MODIS composites from 2000 to 2006. 3- and 4-endmember models were considered. The best model was chosen on a per-pixel basis according to the minimum root mean square error of the models at each level of complexity. Endmember fractions were normalized by the shade endmember to generate realistic fractions of GV and NPV. In order to validate the MESMA-derived GV fractions they were compared against live ratio estimates from RG. A significant spatial and temporal relationship between both measures was found, indicating that GV fraction has the potential to substitute RG in computing the FPI. To further test

  15. Real Time Monitoring and Prediction of the Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations: An index based on Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherumadanakadan Thelliyil, S.; Ravindran, A. M.; Giannakis, D.; Majda, A.

    2016-12-01

    An improved index for real time monitoring and forecast verification of monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISO) is introduced using the recently developed Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis (NLSA) algorithm. Previous studies has demonstrated the proficiency of NLSA in capturing low frequency variability and intermittency of a time series. Using NLSA a hierarchy of Laplace-Beltrami (LB) eigen functions are extracted from the unfiltered daily GPCP rainfall data over the south Asian monsoon region. Two modes representing the full life cycle of complex northeastward propagating boreal summer MISO are identified from the hierarchy of Laplace-Beltrami eigen functions. These two MISO modes have a number of advantages over the conventionally used Extended Empirical Orthogonal Function (EEOF) MISO modes including higher memory and better predictability, higher fractional variance over the western Pacific, Western Ghats and adjoining Arabian Sea regions and more realistic representation of regional heat sources associated with the MISO. The skill of NLSA based MISO indices in real time prediction of MISO is demonstrated using hindcasts of CFSv2 extended range prediction runs. It is shown that these indices yield a higher prediction skill than the other conventional indices supporting the use of NLSA in real time prediction of MISO. Real time monitoring and prediction of MISO finds its application in agriculture, construction and hydro-electric power sectors and hence an important component of monsoon prediction.

  16. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  17. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  18. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and we seek to find the same kind of flux states (low/average/high), and we define the minimum flux in ... According to the definition of composite spectral indices (Ledden & O'Dell 1985) and the data compiled by ... (U1231202, 11063004), the innovation team of gravitation theory research in Yun- nan Normal University ...

  19. Group index dispersion of holey fibres measured by a white-light spectral interferometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, P.; Ciprian, D.; Chlebus, R.

    2008-08-01

    We present a new white-light interferometric technique to measure the group index of holey fibres over a wide wavelength range. The technique utilizes an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fibre under test of known length placed in one of the interferometer arms and the other arm with adjustable path length. In a first step, the differential group index of the fibre is measured over a wide wavelength range. In a second step, the fibre is replaced by the reference sample of known thickness and group dispersion to determine precisely the group index of the fibre at one specific wavelength. The group index as a function of wavelength is measured for two different holey fibres, one made of pure silica glass and the other made of SK222 glass. For both fibres, the wavelength dependence of the group index of the outer cladding and modes supported by the fibre is measured.

  20. Monthly values of the standardized precipitation index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: trends and spectral features under the normality assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe monthly series of the Standardized Precipitation Index obtained from four weather stations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were carried out by evaluating the normality assumption of the SPI distributions, the spectral features of these series and, the presence of climatic trends in these datasets. It was observed that the Pearson type III distribution was better than the gamma 2-parameter distribution in providing monthly SPI series closer to the normality assumption inherent to the use of this standardized index. The spectral analyses carried out in the time-frequency domain did not allow us to establish a dominant mode in the analyzed series. In general, the Mann-Kendall and the Pettitt tests indicated the presence of no significant trend in the SPI series. However, both trend tests have indicated that the temporal variability of this index, observed at the months of October over the last 60 years, cannot be seen as the result of a purely random process. This last inference is due to the concentration of decreasing trends, with a common beginning (1983/84 in the four locations of the study.

  1. Differential group refractive index dispersion of glasses of optical fibres measured by a white-light spectral interferometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, Petr; Chlebus, Radek; Ciprian, Dalibor

    2007-05-01

    We report on a white-light interferometric technique employing a low-resolution spectrometer to measure the differential group refractive index of glasses of optical fibres over a wide wavelength range. The technique utilizes an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fibre under test of known length inserted in one of the interferometer arms and the other arm with adjustable path length. We record a series of spectral interferograms to measure the equalization wavelength as a function of the path length difference, or equivalently the group dispersion. Subtracting the group dispersion of the optical components present in the interferometer along with the fibre, we measure the wavelength dependence of differential group refractive index for pure silica and SK222 glasses. We confirm that the differential group dispersion measured for pure silica glass agrees well with that described by the dispersion equation.

  2. Using GIS servers and interactive maps in spectral data sharing and administration: Case study of Ahvaz Spectral Geodatabase Platform (ASGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Rangzan, Kazem; Saberi, Azim

    2013-10-01

    With emergence of air-borne and space-borne hyperspectral sensors, spectroscopic measurements are gaining more importance in remote sensing. Therefore, the number of available spectral reference data is constantly increasing. This rapid increase often exhibits a poor data management, which leads to ultimate isolation of data on disk storages. Spectral data without precise description of the target, methods, environment, and sampling geometry cannot be used by other researchers. Moreover, existing spectral data (in case it accompanied with good documentation) become virtually invisible or unreachable for researchers. Providing documentation and a data-sharing framework for spectral data, in which researchers are able to search for or share spectral data and documentation, would definitely improve the data lifetime. Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) are main candidates for spectral data management and their efficiency is proven by many studies and applications to date. In this study, a new approach to spectral data administration is presented based on spatial identity of spectral samples. This method benefits from scalability and performance of RDBMS for storage of spectral data, but uses GIS servers to provide users with interactive maps as an interface to the system. The spectral files, photographs and descriptive data are considered as belongings of a geospatial object. A spectral processing unit is responsible for evaluation of metadata quality and performing routine spectral processing tasks for newly-added data. As a result, by using internet browser software the users would be able to visually examine availability of data and/or search for data based on descriptive attributes associated to it. The proposed system is scalable and besides giving the users good sense of what data are available in the database, it facilitates participation of spectral reference data in producing geoinformation.

  3. Calibration of a Species-Specific Spectral Vegetation Index for Leaf Area Index (LAI Monitoring: Example with MODIS Reflectance Time-Series on Eucalyptus Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerric le Maire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI is a key characteristic of forest ecosystems. Estimations of LAI from satellite images generally rely on spectral vegetation indices (SVIs or radiative transfer model (RTM inversions. We have developed a new and precise method suitable for practical application, consisting of building a species-specific SVI that is best-suited to both sensor and vegetation characteristics. Such an SVI requires calibration on a large number of representative vegetation conditions. We developed a two-step approach: (1 estimation of LAI on a subset of satellite data through RTM inversion; and (2 the calibration of a vegetation index on these estimated LAI. We applied this methodology to Eucalyptus plantations which have highly variable LAI in time and space. Previous results showed that an RTM inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS near-infrared and red reflectance allowed good retrieval performance (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.41, but was computationally difficult. Here, the RTM results were used to calibrate a dedicated vegetation index (called “EucVI” which gave similar LAI retrieval results but in a simpler way. The R2 of the regression between measured and EucVI-simulated LAI values on a validation dataset was 0.68, and the RMSE was 0.49. The additional use of stand age and day of year in the SVI equation slightly increased the performance of the index (R2 = 0.77 and RMSE = 0.41. This simple index opens the way to an easily applicable retrieval of Eucalyptus LAI from MODIS data, which could be used in an operational way.

  4. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of pyrazinecarboxylic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carboxylic acid) have been prepared by neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids in appropriate molar ratios. The free acids and their hydrazinium salts have been characterized by analytical, IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. IR spectra of all the salts show N–N stretching frequencies of the ...

  5. [Study on spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Chen; Jia, Kun; Wu, Bing-Fang; Li, Qiang-Zi

    2010-12-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a special economic crop and widely used in many field. It is significative for the government to master the information about planting acreage and spatial distribution of hemp for hemp industrial policy decision in China. Remote sensing offers a potential way of monitoring large area for the cultivation of hemp. However, very little study on the spectral properties of hemp is available in the scientific literature. In the present study, the spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopy were systematically analyzed based on the spectral data acquired with ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer. The wavebands and its spectral resolution for discriminating hemp from other plants were identified using difference analysis. The major differences in canopy reflectance of hemp and other plants were observed near 530, 552, 734, 992, 1 213, 1 580 and 2 199 nm, and the maximal difference is near 734 nm. The spectral resolution should be 30 nm or less in visible and near infrared regions, and 50 nm or less in middle infrared regions.

  6. Topological index theorem on the lattice through the spectral flow of staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azcoiti, V., E-mail: azcoiti@azcoiti.unizar.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Follana, E., E-mail: efollana@unizar.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Vaquero, A., E-mail: Alejandro.Vaquero@mib.infn.it [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Di Carlo, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dicarlo@lngs.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Via G. Acitelli, 22, 67100 Assergi L' Aquila (Italy)

    2015-05-11

    We investigate numerically the spectral flow introduced by Adams for the staggered Dirac operator on realistic (quenched) gauge configurations. We obtain clear numerical evidence that the definition works as expected: there is a clear separation between crossings near and far away from the origin, and the topological charge defined through the crossings near the origin agrees, for most configurations, with the one defined through the near-zero modes of large taste-singlet chirality of the staggered Dirac operator. The crossings are much closer to the origin if we improve the Dirac operator used in the definition, and they move towards the origin as we decrease the lattice spacing.

  7. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hai -Chou [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b559 and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Qy-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of ~1 cm-1/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  8. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  9. The Spectral Index and Beaming Effect for Radio Sources J. Pan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Pan & J. H. Fan. ∗. Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: jhfan_cn@yahoo.com.cn. Abstract. In this paper, we revisited the relationship between the spec- tral index and the core-dominance parameter using a larger sample of blazars. Conclusively, we explain that the ...

  10. Far-infrared spectral studies of magnesium and aluminum co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 5. Far-infrared spectral studies of magnesium and aluminum co-substituted lithium ferrites. K B Modi J D Gajera M P Pandya H G Vora H H Joshi. Brief Reports Volume 62 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 1173-1180 ...

  11. Synthetic, spectral and solution studies on imidazolate-bridged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, spectral and solution studies on 2-ethyl imidazolate-bridged (2-EtIm) homo-binuclear copper(II)-copper(II) and hetero-binuclear copper(II)-zinc(II) homologue are described. Magnetic moment values of homo-binuclear complexes indicate that the imidazolate group can mediate antiferromagnetic interactions.

  12. Study of land surface temperature and spectral emissivity using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LST) and spectral emissivities over a hard rock terrain using multi-sensor satellite data. The study area, of about 6000 km2, is a part of Singhbhum–Orissa craton situated in the eastern part of India. TIR data from ASTER, MODIS and Landsat ...

  13. Very-large-scale spectral solutions for spherical polytropes of index m > 5 and the isothermal sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuta; Poje, Andrew; Lancellotti, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    In view of astrophysical applications, we obtain very large scale numerical solutions to the Lane-Emden equations for spherical polytropes of index m > 5 and for the isothermal sphere (m = ∞), by considering ϕ-1 , the inverse function of the gravitational potential. Since the domain of ϕ-1 is bounded, and the asymptotic behavior of its end-point singularities is known, highly accurate solutions can be obtained by spectral collocation methods. This leads to solutions for ϕ that extend accurately to extremely large radii, well beyond those achieved by traditional numerical schemes on [0, ∞). As a reference, we include a table of values for the isothermal sphere (Lane-Emden function of the 2nd kind) spanning r =10-4 through r =10150 with at least nine significant figures. The corresponding semi-analytical asymptotic solution as r → ∞ is

  14. Magnetar-like Spectral Index Flattening of the High Magnetic Field Pulsar PSR J1119-6127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron B.; Majid, Walid A.; Horiuchi, Shinji; Kocz, Jonathon; Lippuner, Jonas; Prince, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    Dramatic changes in pulsed radio emission have been reported by Majid et al. (2016; arXiv:1612.02868) from the high magnetic field pulsar PSR J1119-6127 at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.4 GHz) following the reactivation of its radio emission (Burgay et al., ATel #9366). Magnetar-like outbursts have also been observed in X-rays and gamma-rays (Kennea et al., GCN Circular #19735; Younes et al., GCN Circular #19736; Kenna et al., ATel #9274; Archibald et al. (2016); Göǧüş, et al. (2016)). We report our observations of PSR J1119-6127, spanning 1.7 hours on 03 December 2016 starting at UT 15:36:52, using the 70-m diameter Deep Space Network (DSN) radio dish (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia. The data were recorded in filterbank search mode using 512 us time resolution. The receivers and data acquisition system are described in detail in Majid et al. (2016; arXiv:1612.02868). Pulsations were detected at S-band (2.3 GHz, 96 MHz bandwidth) and X-band (8.4 GHz, 480 MHz bandwidth) in dual circular polarization mode at a period of 0.40996974(6) s using the PRESTO pulsar search package (http://www.cv.nrao.edu/~sransom/presto). Both polarizations were combined in quadrature, and pulsed emission was seen at S/X-band with a peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 17.2/54.5. The pulse profile at S-band appears roughly singly peaked, with a smaller secondary peak near the dominant emission component. At X-band, the pulse profile shows a strong, narrow single peak. We measure a mean flux density of 0.18(4)/0.08(2) mJy at S/X-band, which represents an order of magnitude decrease at S-band and roughly a factor of 2 decrease at X-band compared to previous measurements by Majid et al. (2016; arXiv:1612.02868). Using these flux density values, we derive a spectral index -0.6(2). We also divided the X-band data into five equal 96 MHz bandwidths and detected pulsations in each subband. Mean flux densities at each subband were measured, and together with our mean flux density value at S

  15. Integrated Strategy for Unknown EI-MS Identification Using Quality Control Calibration Curve, Multivariate Analysis, EI-MS Spectral Database, and Retention Index Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Teruko; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Hiromi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-06-20

    Compound identification using unknown electron ionization (EI) mass spectra in gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is challenging in untargeted metabolomics, natural product chemistry, or exposome research. While the total count of EI-MS records included in publicly or commercially available databases is over 900 000, efficient use of this huge database has not been achieved in metabolomics. Therefore, we proposed a "four-step" strategy for the identification of biologically significant metabolites using an integrated cheminformatics approach: (i) quality control calibration curve to reduce background noise, (ii) variable selection by hypothesis testing in principal component analysis for the efficient selection of target peaks, (iii) searching the EI-MS spectral database, and (iv) retention index (RI) filtering in combination with RI predictions. In this study, the new MS-FINDER spectral search engine was developed and utilized for searching EI-MS databases using mass spectral similarity with the evaluation of false discovery rate. Moreover, in silico derivatization software, MetaboloDerivatizer, was developed to calculate the chemical properties of derivative compounds, and all retention indexes in EI-MS databases were predicted using a simple mathematical model. The strategy was showcased in the identification of three novel metabolites (butane-1,2,3-triol, 3-deoxyglucosone, and palatinitol) in Chinese medicine Senkyu for quality assessment, as validated using authentic standard compounds. All tools and curated public EI-MS databases are freely available in the 'Computational MS-based metabolomics' section of the RIKEN PRIMe Web site ( http://prime.psc.riken.jp ).

  16. 9C spectral-index distributions and source-count estimates from 15 to 93 GHz - a re-assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, E. M.; Bolton, R. C.; Riley, J. M.; Pooley, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    In an earlier paper (2007), we used follow-up observations of a sample of sources from the 9C survey at 15.2 GHz to derive a set of spectral-index distributions up to a frequency of 90 GHz. These were based on simultaneous measurements made at 15.2 GHz with the Ryle telescope and at 22 and 43 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We used these distributions to make empirical estimates of source counts at 22, 30, 43, 70 and 90 GHz. In a later paper (2013), we took data at 15.7 GHz from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) and data at 93.2 GHz from the Combined Array for Research in Millimetre-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and estimated the source count at 93.2 GHz. In this paper, we re-examine the data used in both papers and now believe that the VLA flux densities we measured at 43 GHz were significantly in error, being on average only about 70 per cent of their correct values. Here, we present strong evidence for this conclusion and discuss the effect on the source-count estimates made in the 2007 paper. The source-count prediction in the 2013 paper is also revised. We make comparisons with spectral-index distributions and source counts from other telescopes, in particular with a recent deep 95 GHz source count measured by the South Pole Telescope. We investigate reasons for the problem of the low VLA 43-GHz values and find a number of possible contributory factors, but none is sufficient on its own to account for such a large deficit.

  17. Flux and Photon Spectral Index Distributions of Fermi-LAT Blazars and Contribution to the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2011-12-09

    We present a determination of the distributions of gamma-ray flux - the so called LogN-LogS relation - and photon spectral index for the 352 blazars detected with a greater than approximately seven sigma detection threshold and located above {+-} 20{sup o} Galactic latitude by the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in its first year catalog. Because the flux detection threshold depends on the photon index, the observed raw distributions do not provide the true LogN-LogS counts or the true distribution of the photon index. We use the non-parametric methods developed by Efron and Petrosian to reconstruct the intrinsic distributions from the observed ones which account for the data truncations introduced by observational bias and includes the effects of the possible correlation among the two variables. We demonstrate the robustness of our procedures using a simulated data set of blazars and then apply these to the real data and find that for the population as a whole the intrinsic flux distribution can be represented by a broken power law of slopes -2.37 {+-} 0.13 and -1.70 {+-} 0.26, and the intrinsic photon index distribution can be represented by a Gaussian with mean 2.41 {+-} 0.13 and 1{sigma} width of 0.25 {+-} 0.03. We also find the intrinsic distributions for the sub-populations of BL Lac and FSRQs type blazars separately. We then calculate the contribution of blazars to the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background radiation to be 28% {+-} 19%.

  18. Spectral Doppler Waveforms for Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Potential Utility of Point Peak Systolic Velocity and Resistive Index Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Berry, Gerald J; Olcott, Eric W

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that appendiceal spectral Doppler waveforms can distinguish patients with and patients without appendicitis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, Doppler waveforms were obtained from intramural appendiceal arteries identified with color Doppler imaging in 60% (93 of 155) of consecutive patients whose appendices were visualized at graded compression ultrasonography (US) performed for suspected appendicitis (53 male and 40 female; age, 1-56 years; mean, 14.5 years) over the 5-month period from November 2015 through March 2016. Point, non-angle-corrected peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) values were compared between patients with and patients without appendicitis by utilizing histopathologically proven appendicitis and 6-week clinical follow-up as diagnostic reference standards. Data were assessed by using the Student t test, exact binomial distribution, two-sample test of proportions, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Among the 93 patients, 36 (38.7%) had proven appendicitis (mean PSV, 19.7 cm/sec; mean RI, 0.69) and 57 patients (61.2%) did not (mean PSV, 7.1 cm/sec, P appendicitis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.00) for PSV and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95; P = .011) for RI. Chosen discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 94.7% and 96.5% with sensitivity of 88.9% and 63.9% (P = .013) and negative predictive value of 93.1% and 80.9% (P = .045), respectively. Original clinical graded compression US interpretations based on established US findings demonstrated specificity of 96.2% and sensitivity of 100.0%. Considering the subset of 20 patients whose maximum outer diameter measured 6-8 mm, the discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 88.9% each, with sensitivity of 100.0% and 63.6% and negative predictive value of 100

  19. Spectral collocation method with a flexible angular discretization scheme for radiative transfer in multi-layer graded index medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linyang; Qi, Hong; Sun, Jianping; Ren, Yatao; Ruan, Liming

    2017-05-01

    The spectral collocation method (SCM) is employed to solve the radiative transfer in multi-layer semitransparent medium with graded index. A new flexible angular discretization scheme is employed to discretize the solid angle domain freely to overcome the limit of the number of discrete radiative direction when adopting traditional SN discrete ordinate scheme. Three radial basis function interpolation approaches, named as multi-quadric (MQ), inverse multi-quadric (IMQ) and inverse quadratic (IQ) interpolation, are employed to couple the radiative intensity at the interface between two adjacent layers and numerical experiments show that MQ interpolation has the highest accuracy and best stability. Variable radiative transfer problems in double-layer semitransparent media with different thermophysical properties are investigated and the influence of these thermophysical properties on the radiative transfer procedure in double-layer semitransparent media is also analyzed. All the simulated results show that the present SCM with the new angular discretization scheme can predict the radiative transfer in multi-layer semitransparent medium with graded index efficiently and accurately.

  20. How to Distinguish Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray Binaries? Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nickolai

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong correlations between 1-10 Hz frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several Black Hole (BH) candidate sources when seen in the low/hard state, the steep power-law (soft) state, and in transition between these states. In the soft state these index-QPO frequency correlations show a saturation of the photon index GAMMA approximately equal to 2.7 at high values of the low frequency nu(sub L). This saturation effect was previously identified as a black hole signature. In this paper we argue that this saturation does not occur, at least for one neutron star (NS) source 4U 1728-34, for which the index GAMMA monotonically increases with nu(sub L) to the values of 6 and higher. We base this conclusion on our analysis of approximately 1.5 Msec of RXTE archival data for 4U 1728-34. We reveal the spectral evolution of the Comptonized blackbody spectra when the source transitions from the hard to soft states. The hard state spectrum is a typical thermal Comptonization spectrum of the soft photons which originate in the disk and the NS outer photospheric layers. The hard state photon index is GAMMA approximately 2. The soft state spectrum consists of two blackbody components which are only slightly Comptonized. Thus we can claim (as expected from theory) that in NS sources thermal equilibrium is established for the soft state. To the contrary in BH sources, the equilibrium is never established due to the presence of the BH horizon. The emergent BH spectrum, even in the high/soft state, has a power law component. We also identify the low QPO frequency nu(sub L) as a fundamental frequency of the quasi-spherical component of the transition layer (presumably related to the corona and the NS and disk magnetic closed field lines). The lower frequency nu(sub SL) is identified as the frequency of oscillations of a quasi-cylindrical configuration of the TL (presumably related to the NS and disk magnetic

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Colour and spectral index from the SLUGGS survey (Usher+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, C.; Forbes, D. A.; Brodie, J. P.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Strader, J.; Conroy, C.; Foster, C.; Pastorello, N.; Pota, V.; Arnold, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The SLUGGS survey is an ongoing study of 25 massive, nearby, early-type galaxies and their GC systems using Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy and wide-field imaging from Suprime-Cam (Miyazaki et al. 2002, PASJ, 54, 833) on the Subaru telescope. The spectra were all observed with DEIMOS in multislit mode between 2006 and 2013 with the primary aim of measuring GC radial velocities. Exposure times averaged two hours per slit mask. All observations used a central wavelength of 7800 Å, the 1200 line/mm grating and 1 arcsec slits. This setup yields a resolution of Δλ~1.5 Å and covers the Na I doublet to CaT wavelength region. In roughly half of the slits, Hα is also covered. (3 data files).

  2. Spectral study of Rhodamine dyes in binary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchea, Andreea Celia; Babusca, Daniela; Morosanu, Ana Cezarina; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2017-07-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of two Rhodamine dyes (Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G) in binary solutions are studied in this paper. The excited state dipole moments have been computed using the correlation coefficients obtained by linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) applied to electronic spectra and the values of the dipole moments in the ground state of Rhodamines computed by HyperChem 8.0.6. The nature and the contributions of each type of interactions to the spectral shifts from visible range are established based on solvatochromic analysis.

  3. Direction-dependent spectral sensitivity and interaural spectral difference in a dolphin: evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V

    1993-06-01

    Sensitivity and interaural intensity difference (IID) dependence on sound frequency and direction was measured in an Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis by recording the auditory nerve evoked response from the body surface. The maximal sensitivity in the horizontal plane was found when the sound direction was 5 degrees to 10 degrees ipsilateral to the recorded ear; the direction dependence of sensitivity was more pronounced at higher frequencies than at lower ones. The IID reached its peak at small azimuthal angles (7.5 degrees to 15 degrees) and higher sound frequencies (100 kHz), or at large azimuthal angles (30 degrees to 45 degrees) and lower sound frequencies (20 to 30 kHz). Each sound direction featured its specific pattern of spectral sensitivity and of interaural spectral difference. The interaural spectral difference fluctuated within a range of more than 20 dB depending on sound direction. The data indicate that interaural intensity as well as spectral difference may be cues for binaural localization of sound direction by dolphins.

  4. Studies on price indexes and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon-Rodriguez, Victor G.

    This thesis develops two studies on price indexes and innovation. The first one analyzes the problems on the computation of price indexes when there are improvements in the goods' quality. These problems arise because we use price indexes that measure the prices of the goods that consumers buy rather than the prices of the services that consumers enjoy. In order to see this, I compute a true price for gasoline that is based on the services that it provides. We ask for the cost of moving one ton at a speed of 40 mph for a distance of 100 miles. This true price is compared with the official price for gasoline. The average annual bias (the rise in the official price relative to the true price) is 3.2% per year. We also compute the hours of work required to cover that cost. We find that in 1925 there were needed almost 1.5 hours of work, while by 1992 there were just needed about 8 minutes to move one ton as specified above. The second one develops a model of Cournot competition in innovation. This model introduces two new features. First, firm's investment in research and development is divided into two pieces, expenditures in human capital and expenditures in all other inputs (called R&D for simplicity). Second, the government also allocates resources to research and development, which affect the stock of knowledge available to the firms. Some interesting results arise from this model. First, investments in human capital and in R&D are increasing in the past government's investment. Second, investments per firm are decreasing in the number of firms in the industry, but the totals are larger if some conditions on the elasticities are satisfied. Third, the welfare analysis tells us that if there are entry barriers, each firm is overinvesting in both inputs. On the other hand, if there is free entry, there are too many firms engaged in the innovative race. Finally, we perform an empirical analysis and we find that there are lagged effects of the government's investment

  5. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ∼14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o age by comparing the continuum distribution and line strenghts of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters. We thus provide spectroscopic information independent from that derived through color-magnitude diagram studies. We found three clusters (Collinder 249, NGC 4463 and Ruprecht 122) younger than ∼40 Myr, four moderately young ones (BH 92, Harvard 5, Hogg 14 and Pismis 23) with ages within 200-400 Myr, and two intermediate-age ones (Ruprecht 158 and ESO 065-SC07) with ages within 1.0-2.2 Gyr. The derived foreground E(B - V) color excesses vary from around 0.0 in Ruprecht 158 to ∼1.1 in Pismis 23. In general terms, the results obtained show good agreement with previous photometric results. In Ruprecht 158 and BH 92, however, some differences are found between the parameters here obtained and previous values in the literature. Individual spectra of some comparatively bright stars located in the fields of 5 out of the 9 clusters here studied, allowed us to evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  6. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, C., E-mail: claudia.monte@ba.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Perri, M. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Richards, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-02-21

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  7. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.

    2011-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  8. Emotion processing in Parkinson's disease: an EEG spectral power study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Satiyan, M

    2014-07-01

    Although an emotional deficit is a common finding in Parkinson's disease (PD), its neurobiological mechanism on emotion recognition is still unknown. This study examined the emotion processing deficits in PD patients using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in response to multimodal stimuli. EEG signals were investigated on both positive and negative emotions in 14 PD patients and 14 aged-matched normal controls (NCs). The relative power (i.e., ratio of EEG signal power in each frequency band compared to the total EEG power) was computed over three brain regions: the anterior (AF3, F7, F3, F4, F8 and AF4), central (FC5 and FC6) and posterior (T7, P7, O1, O2, P8 and T8) regions for theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-60 Hz) frequency sub-bands, respectively. Behaviorally, PD patients showed decreased performance in classifying emotional stimuli as measured by subjective ratings. EEG power at theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands in all regions were significantly different between the NC and PD groups during both the emotional tasks, with p-values less than 0.05. Furthermore, an increase of relative spectral powers in the theta and gamma bands and a decrease of relative powers in the alpha and beta bands were observed for PD patients compared with NCs during emotional information processing. The results suggest the possibility of the existence of a distinctive neurobiological substrate of PD patients during emotional information processing. Also, these distributed spectral powers in different frequency bands might provide meaningful information about emotional processing in PD patients.

  9. Estimation of Mass of Compact Object in H 1743-322 from 2010 and 2011 Outbursts using TCAF Solution and Spectral Index-QPO Frequency Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Aslam Ali; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak; Mondal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    The well-known black hole candidate (BHC) H 1743-322 exhibited temporal and spectral variabilities during several outbursts. The variation of the accretion rates and flow geometry that change on a daily basis during each of the outbursts can be very well understood using the recent implementation of the two-component advective flow solution of the viscous transonic flow equations as an additive table model in XSPEC. This has dramatically improved our understanding of accretion flow dynamics. Most interestingly, the solution allows us to treat the mass of the BHC as a free parameter and its mass could be estimated from spectral fits. In this paper, we fitted the data of two successive outbursts of H 1743-322 in 2010 and 2011 and studied the evolution of accretion flow parameters, such as two-component (Keplerian and sub-Keplerian) accretion rates, shock location (i.e., size of the Compton cloud), etc. We assume that the model normalization remains the same across the states in both these outbursts. We used this to estimate the mass of the black hole and found that it comes out in the range of 9.25{--}12.86 {M}⊙ . For the sake of comparison, we also estimated mass using the Photon index versus Quasi Periodic Oscillation frequency correlation method, which turns out to be 11.65+/- 0.67 {M}⊙ using GRO J1655-40 as a reference source. Combining these two estimates, the most probable mass of the compact object becomes {11.21}-1.96+1.65 {M}⊙ .

  10. A New Study of Mountain Snowpack through Graph Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, J. A.; Marshall, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to accurately quantify snowpack variability has major impacts on estimations of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Complex physics based models have attempted to constrain the physical mechanisms that most affect snowpack properties and have been successful in producing results that are comparable to the average changes seasonal snowpack undergoes during the accumulation and melt periods. However they fail to accurately model any abrupt changes, especially in mountainous terrain; in part, due to the lack of in-situ measurements that contain the detailed forcing data required by such models. This study approaches the problem using a merger of Graph Theory, Spectral and K-means Cluster Analysis, as well as Radial Basis Function Neural Network to partition a complete data set of SNODAS product in addition to LiDAR datasets at the 1 km scale. These partitions are used to implement machine learning techniques to make predictions about current and future snowpack conditions. This system leverages the ability of Graphs, collections of nodes and edges, to represent nonlinear systems, such as the continuous spatiotemporal changes in seasonal snowpack and has unique properties that allow optimal sampling design for monitoring and studying snowpack patterns.

  11. Early Drought Detection by Spectral Analysis of Satellite Time Series of Precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijn van Hoek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The time lag between anomalies in precipitation and vegetation activity plays a critical role in early drought detection as agricultural droughts are caused by precipitation shortages. The aim of this study is to explore a new approach to estimate the time lag between a forcing (precipitation and a response (NDVI signal in the frequency domain by applying cross-spectral analysis. We prepared anomaly time series of image data on TRMM3B42 precipitation (accumulated over antecedent durations of 10, 60, and 150 days and NDVI, reconstructed and interpolated MOD13A2 and MYD13A2 to daily interval using a Fourier series method to model time series affected by gaps and outliers (iHANTS for a dry and a wet year in a drought-prone area in the northeast region of China. Then, the cross-spectral analysis was applied pixel-wise and only the phase lag of the annual component of the forcing and response signal was extracted. The 10-day antecedent precipitation was retained as the best representation of forcing. The estimated phase lag was interpreted using maps of land cover and of available soil water-holding capacity and applied to investigate the difference in phenology responses between a wet and dry year. In both the wet and dry year, we measured consistent phase lags across land cover types. In the wet year with above-average precipitation, the phase lag was rather similar for all land cover types, i.e., 7.6 days for closed to open grassland and 14.5 days for open needle-leaved deciduous or evergreen forest. In the dry year, the phase lag increased by 7.0 days on average, but with specific response signals for the different land cover types. Interpreting the phase lag against the soil water-holding capacity, we observed a slightly higher phase lag in the dry year for soils with a higher water-holding capacity. The accuracy of the estimated phase lag was assessed through Monte Carlo simulations and presented reliable estimates for the annual component.

  12. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  13. Spectral and spatial characterization of perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for the distribution of optical wireless communication cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Hani Al; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C; Vázquez, Carmen; Fracasso, Bruno

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, the characterization of a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PF-GIPOF) for a high-bitrate indoor optical wireless system is reported. PF-GIPOF is used here to interconnect different optical wireless access points that distribute optical free-space high-bitrate wireless communication cells. The PF-GIPOF channel is first studied in terms of transmission attenuation and frequency response and, in a second step, the spatial power profile distribution at the fiber output is analyzed. Both characterizations are performed under varying restricted mode launch conditions, enabling us to assess the transmission channel performance subject to potential connectorization errors within an environment where the end users may intervene by themselves on the home network infrastructure.

  14. Spectral studies of Donepezil release from streched PVA polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechifor, Cristina-Delia; Zelinschi, Carmen-Beatrice; Stoica, Iuliana; Closca, Valentina; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2013-07-01

    The focus of this research is to obtain poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer foils containing Donepezil in different concentration, in order to be used in controlled drug release as a palliative treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The influence of polymeric foil stretching degree on drug release was analyzed using spectral measurements.

  15. Anthropometric Study of Nasal Index of the Kosovo Albanian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Staka; Fatmir Dragidella; Metush Disha

    2012-01-01

    Human nose occurs in many shapes and sizes and ethnic influences my results in different appearances of the nose. Nasal index is an ethnic sensitive anthropometric index. It is an important athropometric parameter for classifying the race and sex of the individual whose identity is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the nasal index of the Kosovo Albanian population. The study sample comprised 204 subjects (101 males and 103 females) aged 18-25 years. Nasal height and nasal width ...

  16. Henri Cartier Bresson's decisive instante and indexation: an exploratory study of photography indexing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Rodrigo Zanon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research presents photography indexing methods from the perspective of Henri Cartier Bresson's work and the decisive instant. The methodology is exploratory and descriptive, with a qualitative approach, using documental research procedures, survey and content analysis. The research was based on the method of classification and indexing by studying the best indexing method for the photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson, in order to extract as much information as possible from the visual representation of the document (photographs, and to minimize the losses in this transcription. For this, we used the four methods of indexing of photographs developed by the authors Panofsky (1986, Smit (1986, Manini (2002 and Rodrigues (2007, applying them to three (03 Bresson photographs. After the application, we performed a comparative analysis and discussion of the results.

  17. [Studies on fluorescence spectral characteristics of fulvic acid (FA) from Xingkai Lake sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xu, Qi-Gong; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Four samples (sample No. HXXD, HXXX, HXDX and HXDB) were taken from Xingkai Lake Sediments in Heilongjiang province and fluorescence spectral characteristics of Fulvic acid (FA) from sediments were studied. Conventional and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) all indicated that FA from HXXD sediment exhibited primary peaks at longer wavelengths. The analysis of fluorescence characteristic parameters indicated that the degree of humification of FA from all sample points were in the order: HXXD > HXDX > HXDB > HXXX. Fluorescence index (f450/500) suggested that FA from HXXD mainly originated from terrestrial sources, while the FA from other samples mainly originated from aquatic organism sources and terrestrial sources. Based on EEM fluorescence regional integration (FIR), the percent fluorescence responses (P(i, n)) of five regions in 3EEMs was calculated. The distributions of P(V, n) (humic acid-like region) and P(III, n) (fulvic acid-like region) were the largest in all samples. The conclusion of the degree of humification of FA based on FIR was consistent with the analysis of conventional fluorescence parameters. The correlation analysis showed that, gamma(A, C) was significantly correlative with P(V, n)/P(III, n), (P(V, n) + P(III, n))/(P(I, n) + P(II, n) + P(III, n)) and P(V, n). The results suggest that gamma(A, C) index is a reasonable tool for assessing humification degree of FA from Xingkai Lake sediments.

  18. A further study of spectral energetics in the winter atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.-C.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions of standing (time-mean) and transient (time-departure) waves to the atmospheric spectral energetics are analyzed using the NMC (National Meteorological Center) data of winter 1976-1977. It is found that the standing long waves are responsible for the major horizontal sensible heat transport and also for the significant horizontal momentum transport. Furthermore, the major contents of eddy available energy and eddy kinetic energy of standing waves are in the long-wave regime. However, the spectral energetics analysis indicates that the standing long waves are energetically less efficient than the transient long and short waves. It is suggested that the lower efficiency of the standing long waves in the atmospheric energetics may be one of the physical factors causing the underforecast of the standing long waves in the numerical weather prediction models.

  19. [The study of spectral characteristics of several organophosphate pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Chen, Guo-Qing; Gao, Shu-Mei; Kong, Fan-Biao; Li, Run; Huang, Qi-Feng

    2012-06-01

    Using Edinburgh FLS920P spectrometer, the authors obtained the UV-visible spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of parathion, metaphos and isocarbophos in their solution of methanol and ethanol respectively, and discussed their spectral characteristics and their mechanisms. Results show that they all have obvious absorption and fluorescence under the excitation of ultraviolet. The absorption peaks of parathion, metaphos and isocarbophos in their methanol and ethanol solution respectively are at 304 nm/298 nm, 304 nm/304 nm and 286 nm/286 nm. The peak wavelengths of fluorescence are at 404 nm/403 nm, 407 nm/ 402 nm and 423 nm/415 nm, fitting fluorescence characteristics of conjugated aromatic compounds that the peak will have red shift with the increasing solvent polarity. The results may contribute to the application of spectral technique in the distinction of pesticides and detection of residues of pesticides in the area of food security supervision.

  20. On the Spectral Singularities and Spectrality of the Hill Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Veliev, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    First we study the spectral singularity at infinity and investigate the connections of the spectral singularities and the spectrality of the Hill operator. Then we consider the spectral expansion when there is not the spectral singularity at infinity.

  1. Synthesis, spectral studies, antimicrobial and insect antifeedant potent keto oxiranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesamoorthy Thirunarayanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of ee (αS, βR biphenyl keto oxiranes (biphenyl-4-yl[3-(substituted phenyloxiran-2-yl]methanones have been synthesized by phase transfer catalysed epoxidation of biphenyl 2E-chalcones. The yields of oxiranes are more than 95%. The synthesized oxiranes have been characterized by IR, 1H, 13C and GC–MS spectra. The spectral data are correlated with Hammett substituent constants and Swain–Lupton parameters. From the regression analyses, the effect of substituent on the group frequencies has been predicted. The antimicrobial and insect antifeedant activities of all synthesized oxiranes have been evaluated.

  2. Stay-green in spring wheat can be determined by spectral reflectance measurements (normalized difference vegetation index) independently from phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2012-06-01

    The green area displayed by a crop is a good indicator of its photosynthetic capacity, while chlorophyll retention or 'stay-green' is regarded as a key indicator of stress adaptation. Remote-sensing methods were tested to estimate these parameters in diverse wheat genotypes under different growing conditions. Two wheat populations (a diverse set of 294 advanced lines and a recombinant inbred line population of 169 sister lines derived from the cross between Seri and Babax) were grown in Mexico under three environments: drought, heat, and heat combined with drought. In the two populations studied here, a moderate heritable expression of stay-green was found-when the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at physiological maturity was estimated using the regression of NDVI over time from the mid-stages of grain-filling to physiological maturity-and for the rate of senescence during the same period. Under heat and heat combined with drought environments, stay-green calculated as NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence, showed positive and negative correlations with yield, respectively. Moreover, stay-green calculated as an estimation of NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence regressed on degree days give an independent measurement of stay-green without the confounding effect of phenology. On average, in both populations under heat and heat combined with drought environments CTgf and stay-green variables accounted for around 30% of yield variability in multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that stay-green traits may provide cumulative effects, together with other traits, to improve adaptation under stress further.

  3. Indexing of diagnosis accuracy studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2007-10-11

    STAndards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) were published in 2003 and endorsed by some journals but not others. To determine whether the quality of indexing of diagnostic accuracy studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE has improved since the STARD statement was published. Evaluate the change in the mean number of "accurate index terms" assigned to diagnostic accuracy studies, comparing STARD (endorsing) and non-STARD (non-endorsing) journals, for 2 years before and after STARD publication. In MEDLINE, no differences in indexing quality were found for STARD and non-STARD journals before or after the STARD statement was published in 2003. In EMBASE, indexing in STARD journals improved compared with non-STARD journals (p = 0.02). However, articles in STARD journals had half the number of accurate indexing terms as articles in non-STARD journals, both before and after STARD statement publication (p < 0.001).

  4. Gallium nitride nanorod arrays as low-refractive-index transparent media in the entire visible spectral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ying; Lin, Hon-Way; Wu, Chen-Ying; Chen, Wei-Chun; Chen, Jyh-Shin; Gwo, Shangjr

    2008-05-26

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanorod arrays grown by the catalyst-free, self-organized method based on plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy are shown to behave as subwavelength optical media with low effective refractive indices. In the reflection spectra measured in the entire visible spectral region, strong reflectivity modulations are observed for all nanorod arrays, which are attributed to the effects of Fabry-Pérot microcavities formed within the nanorod arrays by the optically flat air/nanorods and nanorods/substrate interfaces. By analyzing the reflectivity interference fringes, we can quantitatively determine the refractive indices of GaN nanorod arrays as functions of light wavelength. We also propose a model for understanding the optical properties of GaN nanorod arrays in the transparent region. Using this model, good numerical fitting can be achieved for the reflectivity spectra.

  5. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  6. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, David

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  7. Study of the spectral and the temporal properties of few black hole candidates with TCAF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Santanu; Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    We study spectral and temporal properties of outbursting black hole candidates (BHCs) using Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model in XSPEC as a local additive table model. Evolution of spectral and temporal properties of BHCs can easily be explained with spectral analysis using TCAF. From TCAF model fit of black hole spectra one can extract two types of flow rates (Keplerian and sub-Keplerian rates) and shock parameters (location and strength), which give new insight into the problem of accretion dynamics. Depending upon accretion rate ratio (ARR) and nature of QPOs (if present) we can classify total outburst phases of transient BHCs in different spectral states. This classification qualitatively match with the classifications based on spectral properties alone. However, in our process, use the physical quantities, such as accretion rates gave a complete, meaning of what exactly happens in a state transition. We also compare TCAF model fitted spectral results with combined disk black body and power-law model fitted results, which almost matches. In our study, evolution of quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) also explained from the movement of shock location. It is also clear from the analysis that the rising and declining phases may not retrace the same path always and form a hysteresis loop.

  8. A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahamida Yesmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial analysis is anthropologically useful to identify the racial, ethnical, and sexual differences. The present study was done to see the sex difference and variation of facial index among Malaysian population. Cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done in Anatomy Department in UniKL RCMP which was performed on 81 Malay people (40 males, 41 females aged 19–30 years. To measure the morphological parameters (facial height, facial width, and facial index, digital slide calliper and scale were used. There were significant differences found in all facial parameters of males compared with the females. The mean morphological facial height was 111.9 ± 8.4 and morphological facial width was 127.3 ± 8.0. The range of facial index was 67.44–106.90 for males and 75.21–97.99 for females. The total facial index was calculated according to the formula and the results obtained were analyzed statistically using the t-test which was statistically significant (0.003. The dominant phenotype in Malay population was mesoprosopic or round face (45% and least common face type was hyperleptoprosopic or very long face (5%. There were significant variations in the face index between Malay males and females; further study with large sample size in different races in Malaysia is recommended.

  9. Mapping impervious surfaces in the Xiangjiang River basin based on remote sensing spectral indices: a case study in Chang-Zhu-Tan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lyu, Ying; Zhang, Huaguo; Gong, Fang; Zhang, Yongxin; Li, Chaokui

    2017-10-01

    Increased impervious surfaces pose significant threats to the hydrologic cycle of the Xiangjiang River basin as a consequence of urbanization. Quantifying the percentage of imperviousness within the Xiangjiang River basin is important to pollution control and watershed management. Per-pixel and sub-pixel methods have been widely used for analyzing impervious surface changes, but these methods are considered as complicated, computationally intensive, and sometimes subjective, especially when applied to a large geographic area. In this paper, normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), normalized difference impervious surface index (NDISI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI) were respectively used to estimate impervious surfaces in Chang-ZhuTan region (CZT) of the Xiangjiang River basin, and a comparative analyses was conducted. Then the optimum spectral index was chosen to map the percentage of impervious surfaces for the study area. The results show that the spectral index of NDBI has the optimum estimation of large-scale impervious surfaces, and the percentage of imperviousness in CZT was 13.87%. The water quality in CZT was characterized as "protected", indicating that water quality protection in the plain areas of CZT is imperative.

  10. Application of Satellite-Based Spectrally-Resolved Solar Radiation Data to PV Performance Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gracia Amillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite-based solar radiation data resolved in spectral bands have become available. This has for the first time made it possible to produce maps of the geographical variation in the solar spectrum. It also makes it possible to estimate the influence of these variations on the performance of photovoltaic (PV modules. Here, we present a study showing the magnitude of the spectral influence on PV performance over Europe and Africa. The method has been validated using measurements of a CdTe module in Ispra, Italy, showing that the method predicts the spectral influence to within ±2% on a monthly basis and 0.1% over a 19-month period. Application of the method to measured spectral responses of crystalline silicon, CdTe and single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si modules shows that the spectral effect is smallest over desert areas for all module types, higher in temperate Europe and highest in tropical Africa, where CdTe modules would be expected to yield +6% and single- junction a-Si modules up to +10% more energy due to spectral effects. In contrast, the effect for crystalline silicon modules is less than ±1% in nearly all of Africa and Southern Europe, rising to +1% or +2% in Northern Europe.

  11. Emergency general surgery specific frailty index: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouji Jokar, Tahereh; Ibraheem, Kareem; Rhee, Peter; Kulavatunyou, Narong; Haider, Ansab; Phelan, Herb A; Fain, Mindy; Mohler, Martha Jane; Joseph, Bellal

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of operative risk in geriatric patients undergoing emergency general surgery (EGS) is challenging. Frailty is an established measure for risk assessment in surgical cases. The aim of our study was to validate a modified 15-variable EGS-specific frailty index (EGSFI). We prospectively collected geriatric (age older than 65 years) EGS patients for 2 years. Postoperative complications were collected. Frailty index was calculated for 200 patients based on their preadmission condition using 50-variable modified Rockwood frailty index. Emergency general surgery-specific frailty index was developed based on the regression model for complications and the most significant factors in the frailty index. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine cutoff for frail status. We validated our results using 60 patients for predicting complications. A total of 260 patients (developing, 200; validation, 60) were enrolled in this study. Mean age was 71 ± 11 years, and 33% developed complications. Most common complications were pneumonia (12%), urinary tract infection (9%), and wound infection (7%). Univariate analysis identified 15 variables significantly associated with complications that were used to develop the EGSFI. A cutoff frailty score of 0.325 was identified using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for frail status. Sixty patients (frail, 18; nonfrail, 42) were enrolled in the validation cohort. Frail patients were more likely to have postoperative complications (47% vs. 20%; p II.

  12. Mitotic index studies on edible cocoyams (Xanthosoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitotic index studies were carried out on three cultivars of Xanthosoma and four cultivars of Colocasia. Young healthy roots (about 15 mm) were collected at 2 hourly intervals from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm. Root tips were fixed in 1:3 ethanol : acetic acid for 24 h and stored in 70% ethanol prior to squashing in FLP orcein.

  13. Study of genetic determinism of harvest index in durum wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of six varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), two local varieties with a low harvest index and four others with high harvest indices and short straw imported from France were studied in a diallel cross. The experiment was done in a complete randomized block design with three replications. It was done at the ...

  14. Psychosocial health indexing in marriage: a pilot study of empathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial health indexing in marriage: a pilot study of empathic-accuracy, personal-relational dialectics, and gender in relationship maintenance among Ibibio ... The social psychological literature contains numerous illustrations of how the social-cognitive perspective can inform our understanding of close relationships.

  15. Spectral effects on Symbiodinium photobiology studied with a programmable light engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wangpraseurt

    Full Text Available The spectral light field of Symbiodinium within the tissue of the coral animal host can deviate strongly from the ambient light field on a coral reef and that of artificial light sources used in lab studies on coral photobiology. Here, we used a novel approach involving light microsensor measurements and a programmable light engine to reconstruct the spectral light field that Symbiodinium is exposed to inside the coral host and the light field of a conventional halogen lamp in a comparative study of Symbiodinium photobiology. We found that extracellular gross photosynthetic O2 evolution was unchanged under different spectral illumination, while the more red-weighted halogen lamp spectrum decreased PSII electron transport rates and there was a trend towards increased light-enhanced dark respiration rates under excess irradiance. The approach provided here allows for reconstructing and comparing intra-tissue coral light fields and other complex spectral compositions of incident irradiance. This novel combination of sensor technologies provides a framework to studying the influence of macro- and microscale optics on Symbiodinium photobiology with unprecedented spectral resolution.

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectral studies on chalcocite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md.; Frost, Ray L.; Endo, Tamio

    2007-11-01

    A chalcocite mineral sample of Shaha, Congo is used in the present study. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on powdered sample confirms the presence of Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(III) impurity is present in octahedral structure whereas Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. Mid-infrared results are due to water and sulphate fundamentals.

  17. Early drought detection by spectral analysis of satellite time series of precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoek, Mattijn; Jia, Li; Zhou, J.; Zheng, Chaolei; Menenti, M.

    2016-01-01

    The time lag between anomalies in precipitation and vegetation activity plays a critical role in early drought detection as agricultural droughts are caused by precipitation shortages. The aim of this study is to explore a new approach to estimate the time lag between a forcing (precipitation)

  18. Spectral study of the complexation of Nd (III) with glutathione ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies on the difference in energy parameters and comparative absorption spectrophotometry involving 4-4 transitions on Nd(III) and glutathione reduced (GSH) in the absence and presence of Zn(II) have been carried out in aquated organic solvents (50 : 50) like methanol, dioxane, acetonitrile and dimethylformamide.

  19. Equilibrium and spectral studies on ligational behaviour of N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ligand N,N'-diformylhydrazine (DFH) is a resonance hybrid of its keto- and enol-forms. The resonance structures indicate enolisation of one as well as both the carbonyl groups. This indicates the presence of dissociable protons in the molecule. Equilibrium studies carried out with DFH indicate the presence of one ...

  20. Statistical Study of Turbulence: Spectral Functions and Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkiel, Francois N.

    1958-01-01

    In reading the publications on turbulence of different authors, one often runs the risk of confusing the various correlation coefficients and turbulence spectra. We have made a point of defining, by appropriate concepts, the differences which exist between these functions. Besides, we introduce in the symbols a few new characteristics of turbulence. In the first chapter, we study some relations between the correlation coefficients and the different turbulence spectra. Certain relations are given by means of demonstrations which could be called intuitive rather than mathematical. In this way we demonstrate that the correlation coefficients between the simultaneous turbulent velocities at two points are identical, whether studied in Lagrange's or in Euler's systems. We then consider new spectra of turbulence, obtained by study of the simultaneous velocities along a straight line of given direction. We determine some relations between these spectra and the correlation coefficients. Examining the relation between the spectrum of the turbulence measured at a fixed point and the longitudinal-correlation curve given by G. I. Taylor, we find that this equation is exact only when the coefficient is very small.

  1. Evaluation of the methodologies used to generate random pavement profiles based on the power spectral density: An approach based on the International Roughness Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jesús Goenaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pavement roughness is the main variable that produces the vertical excitation in vehicles. Pavement profiles are the main determinant of (i discomfort perception on users and (ii dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface, hence its evaluation constitutes an essential step on a Pavement Management System. The present document evaluates two specific techniques used to simulate pavement profiles; these are the shaping filter and the sinusoidal approach, both based on the Power Spectral Density. Pavement roughness was evaluated using the International Roughness Index (IRI, which represents the most used index to characterize longitudinal road profiles. Appropriate parameters were defined in the simulation process to obtain pavement profiles with specific ranges of IRI values using both simulation techniques. The results suggest that using a sinusoidal approach one can generate random profiles with IRI values that are representative of different road types, therefore, one could generate a profile for a paved or an unpaved road, representing all the proposed categories defined by ISO 8608 standard. On the other hand, to obtain similar results using the shaping filter approximation a modification in the simulation parameters is necessary. The new proposed values allow one to generate pavement profiles with high levels of roughness, covering a wider range of surface types. Finally, the results of the current investigation could be used to further improve our understanding on the effect of pavement roughness on tire pavement interaction. The evaluated methodologies could be used to generate random profiles with specific levels of roughness to assess its effect on dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface and user’s perception of road condition.

  2. Spectral Study of the Interaction of Myoglobin with Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, K. R.; Sargsyan, L. S.

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of myoglobin with tannin (tannic acid) at 298.15 and 303.15 K was studied by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in the UV region. The physicochemical and thermodynamic binding parameters (the fluorescence quenching mechanism, the bonding constant, the number of binding sites, the type of interaction) and parameters of the formed complex were determined. It was found that binding of myoglobin with tannic acid does not lead to significant changes in the electronic state of the heme ring of myoglobin.

  3. Spatiotemporal Built-up Land Density Mapping Using Various Spectral Indices in Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS (Case Study: Surakarta City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risky, Yanuar S.; Aulia, Yogi H.; Widayani, Prima

    2017-12-01

    Spectral indices variations support for rapid and accurate extracting information such as built-up density. However, the exact determination of spectral waves for built-up density extraction is lacking. This study explains and compares the capabilities of 5 variations of spectral indices in spatiotemporal built-up density mapping using Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS in Surakarta City on 2002 and 2015. The spectral indices variations used are 3 mid-infrared (MIR) based indices such as the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and Built-up and 2 visible based indices such as VrNIR-BI (visible red) and VgNIR-BI (visible green). Linear regression statistics between ground value samples from Google Earth image in 2002 and 2015 and spectral indices for determining built-up land density. Ground value used amounted to 27 samples for model and 7 samples for accuracy test. The classification of built-up density mapping is divided into 9 classes: unclassified, 0-12.5%, 12.5-25%, 25-37.5%, 37.5-50%, 50-62.5%, 62.5-75%, 75-87.5% and 87.5-100 %. Accuracy of built-up land density mapping in 2002 and 2015 using VrNIR-BI (81,823% and 73.235%), VgNIR-BI (78.934% and 69.028%), NDBI (34.870% and 74.365%), UI (43.273% and 64.398%) and Built-up (59.755% and 72.664%). Based all spectral indices, Surakarta City on 2000-2015 has increased of built-up land density. VgNIR-BI has better capabilities for built-up land density mapping on Landsat-7 ETM + and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS.

  4. Growth, spectral and thermal studies of ibuprofen crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramukutty, S.; Ramachandran, E. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar College, Papanasam (India)

    2012-01-15

    RS -Ibuprofen was crystallized for the first time in silica gel under suitable pH conditions by reduction of solubility method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and density measurement. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical bandgap energy of ibuprofen was estimated as 3.19(3) eV from UV-Vis spectrum. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that ibuprofen is thermally stable upto 102.9 C and the initial loss of mass was due to evaporation only. Morphological study showed that the growth is prominent along b-axis and the prominent face is {l_brace}100{r_brace}. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Synthesis, Spectral and Thermal Studies of New Rutin Vanadyl Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Olar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexes between oxovanadium (IV cation and flavonoid derivatives were developed recently in order to increase the intestinal absorption and to reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. For these reasons, is interesting to investigate the complexation process between flavonoid rutin (Rut and vanadyl cation in order to isolate new complexes. Two new complexes [VO(Rut(H2O2](SO40.5×2H2O and [VO(Rut2]×4H2O have been obtained and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses and several spectroscopic techniques (ESI-MS, IR, UV-Vis, fluorescence. The studies concerning complex formation between vanadyl and rutin (Rut performed in different solutions show the formation of mononuclear complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 metal to ligand stoichiometry.

  6. Single Molecule Study of Photoconversion and Spectral Heterogeneities of Fluorophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu

    of conformational changes and dynamics. The photophysical properties of organic dyes directly determine the quality of the experiments. So the better understanding of the photophysical properties of organic dyes, the better we are able to design the experiments and interpret the data, especially in single molecule...... 104 single molecule measurements. A simple and practical method is introduced to study the characteristics of the photoproducts at the ensemble level. Control experiments reveal that the reaction leading to photobleaching is oxygen related, but the composition of the photoproducts remains inconclusive...... stimulate new pathways in engineering and designing photoconvertible fluorophores, based on the reaction with oxygen or other chemicals. Besides, this results show that dyes that convert into other emissive species could give problems when interpreting single molecule FRET systems. The revealed mechanism...

  7. Bioactive alkaloid extracts from Narcissus broussonetii: mass spectral studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Pigni, Natalia Belén; Torras-Claveria, Laura; Berkov, Strahil; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Plants of the Amaryllidaceae family are a well-known source of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities, including antiviral, antitumoral, antiparasitic, psychopharmacological, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, among others. Recent advances in the use of GC or LC coupled to MS have allowed a chemically guided isolation of uncommon and bioactive alkaloids. In the present work, analytical methods were applied to study the alkaloid profile of Narcissus broussonetii, a plant endemic to North Africa. Using the GC-MS technique and an in-home mass fragmentation database, twenty-three alkaloids were identified, including the very rare dinitrogenous alkaloids obliquine, plicamine, and secoplicamine. Applying LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS, fragmentation profiles were found to be similar for obliquine and plicamine but different for secoplicamine. Pretazettine, a potent cytotoxic alkaloid, was also isolated from N. broussonetii, although its identification by GC-MS was only possible after a BSTFA-derivatization. The silylated crude methanolic extract only showed the presence of pretazettine-TMS, confirming that tazettine was formed after the alkaloid extraction. The same observation was made in Narcissus cultivars in which tazettine had been detected as the major alkaloid. As part of an ongoing project on MS of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, the silylated tazettine and pretazettine were studied by GC-MS/MS, and found to differ in their fragmentation routes. Finally, the EtOAc extract of N. broussonetii showed notable in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, with an IC(50) value of 1.77 μg/ml. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Spectral study of two Bi (III) contained heteropolymate compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Han-Hui; Huang, Chang-Cang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Sun, Rui-Qing

    2006-02-01

    Two Bi (III) contained heteropolymate compounds Cos [Bi2 Co2 W20 O70 (H2O)6] x 44H2O (I)and Na3 H2 [Ce3 (H2O)18 Bi2 W22 O76] x 23H2O (II) have been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. The relationship between their properties and structures was studied by using FTIR, NIR FT-Raman, and UV-Vis DRS etc. The characteristic vibrational frequencies nu(as) (M = O(d)) and nu(s) (M-O(b)-M) is related to the structure of the materials. Nu(as) (M-O(b)-M) is demonstrated to explain why the the oxidative ability becomes stronger when W atoms are substituted by Co atoms. In UV-Vis DRS spectra of compound I and II, there are two characteristic peaks at 254, 319 nm and 220, 310 nm coresponding O(d) --> W and to O(b), c --> W charge transfer, respectively. The wide and weak absorption band of compound I at 529 nm can be assigned as Co2+ d-d transfer. Finally, quantum chemistry calculation of compound I was performed to explain the structure characteristic.

  9. An X-ray spectral study of 24 type-1 AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    I present a study of the X-ray spectral properties of a sample containing 24 type-1 active galactic nuclei using the medium spectral resolution of ``ASCA''. The sample consists of 20 radio-quiet objects and 4 radio-loud objects. A simple power-law continuum absorbed by Galactic material provides a very poor description of the spectra of most objects. Deviations from the power-law form are interpreted in terms of X-ray reprocessing/absorption processes. In particular, at least half of the obje...

  10. X-ray diffraction and spectral studies of biological native and modified tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazina, A.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of RAS, 142290 Pushchino Institutskaya st., 3, Moscow region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vazina@iteb.ru; Budantsev, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of RAS, 142290 Pushchino Institutskaya st., 3, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Bras, W. [DUBBLE-CRG/ESRF, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    2005-05-01

    X-ray diffraction and spectral data obtained by studying different types of native and modified human and animal tissues are reported. It has been found that the proteoglycan structure undergoes transformation upon interaction with calcium cations. The role of the extracellular matrix in the structure of the native tissue is discussed.

  11. Studies of multifrequency phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for spectral fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGown, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the past two project periods (7/1/88--12/31/90), we have made significant advances towards our goal of characterizing samples in terms of their dynamic spectral characteristics through the use of phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Specific achievements are discussed, each of which describes a particular area of focus in our studies.

  12. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  13. Study of stratified dielectric slab medium structures using pseudo-spectral time domain (PSTD) algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Lu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A planar stratified dielectric slab medium, which is an interesting problem in optics and geophysics, is studied using a pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) algorithm. Time domain electric fields and frequency domain propagation characteristics of both single and periodic dielectric slab...

  14. Spectral analysis in microscopy : a study of FRET and single quantum dot luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederix, Patrick Louis Theodorus Martin

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of new techniques and luminescent markers, to improve the quality of luminescence studies in microscopy. A sensitive spectrograph that can be used for spectrally resolved emission spectroscopy in the microscope is described, including design considerations,

  15. A Study on Spectral Signature Analysis of Wetland Vegetation Based on Ground Imaging Spectrum Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chengxing; Liu, Hua; Ju, Hongbo; Zhang, Huaiqing; You, Jia; Li, Weina

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the application of imaging spectrometer in wetland vegetation remote sensing monitoring, based on analysis of wetland vegetation spectral features. Spectral information of Carex vegetation spectral data under different water environment was collected bySOC710VP and ASD FieldSpec 3; Meanwhile, the chlorophyll contents of wheat leaves were tested in the lab. A total 9 typical vegetation indices were calculated by using two instruments’ data which were spectral values from 400nm to 1000 nm. Then features between the same vegetation indices and soil water contents for two applications were analyzed and compared. The results showed that there were same spectrum curve trends of Carex vegetation (soil moisture content of 51%, 32%, 14% and three regional comparative analysis)reflectance between SOC710VP and ASD FieldSpec 3, including the two reflectance peak of 550nm and 730 nm, two reflectance valley of 690 nm and 970nm, and continuous near infrared reflectance platform. However, The two also have a very clear distinction: (1) The reflection spectra of SOC710VP leaves of Carex Carex leaf spectra in the three soil moisture environment values are greater than ASD FieldSpec 3 collected value; (2) The SOC710VP reflectivity curve does not have the smooth curve of the original spectrum measured by the ASD FieldSpec 3, the amplitude of fluctuation is bigger, and it is more obvious in the near infrared band. It is concluded that SOC710VP spectral data are reliable, with the image features, spectral curve features reliable. It has great potential in the research of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in the development of wetland near earth, remote sensing monitoring of wetland resources.

  16. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  17. Impact of spectral nudging and domain size in studies of RCM response to parameter modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Separovic, Leo; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre pour l' Etude et la Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale (ESCER), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Montreal, QC (Canada); Elia, Ramon de [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre pour l' Etude et la Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale (ESCER), Montreal, QC (Canada); Consortium Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The paper aims at finding an RCM configuration that facilitates studies devoted to quantifying RCM response to parameter modification. When using short integration times, the response of the time-averaged variables to RCM modification tend to be blurred by the noise originating in the lack of predictability of the instantaneous atmospheric states. Two ways of enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio are studied in this work: spectral nudging and reduction of the computational domain size. The approach followed consists in the analysis of the sensitivity of RCM-simulated seasonal averages to perturbations of two parameters controlling deep convection and stratiform condensation, perturbed one at a time. Sensitivity is analyzed within different simulation configurations obtained by varying domain size and using the spectral nudging option. For each combination of these factors multiple members of identical simulations that differ exclusively in initial conditions are also generated to provide robust estimates of the sensitivities (the signal) and sample the noise. Results show that the noise magnitude is decreased both by reduction of domain size and the spectral nudging. However, the reduction of domain size alters some sensitivity signals. When spectral nudging is used significant alterations of the signal are not found. (orig.)

  18. Raman spectral imaging of single living cancer cells: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draux, Florence; Jeannesson, Pierre; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Tfayli, Ali; Fourre, Nicolas; Manfait, Michel; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2009-03-01

    Raman microspectroscopy allows probing subcellular compartments and provides a unique spectral fingerprint indicative of endogenous molecular composition. Although several spectroscopic cell studies have been reported on fixed samples, only few attempts concern single growing cells. Here, we have tested different optical substrates that would best preserve cell integrity and allow direct measurement of Raman spectra at the single living cell level. Calu-1 lung cancer cells were used as a model and their morphology and growth were assessed on Raman substrates like quartz, calcium fluoride, and zinc selenide. Data show that quartz was the most appropriate taking into consideration both cell morphology and proliferation rate (47% on quartz vs. 55% of BrdU-positive cells on conventional plastic). Using quartz, 40 cells were analysed and Raman spectra were collected from nuclei and cytoplasms using a 785 nm laser excitation of 30 mW at the sample, in the spectral range of 580-1750 cm(-1), and an acquisition time of 2 x 10 sec/spectrum. Discriminant spectral information related to nucleus and cytoplasm were extracted by multivariate statistical methods and attributed to nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Finally, Raman spectral imaging was performed to show the distribution of these components within the cell.

  19. [Study on relationship between new characteristic parameters of spectral curve and chlorophyll content for rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Huang, Wen-Jiang; Li, Cun-Jun; Liu, Huan-Jun

    2011-01-01

    It is of significance to monitor chlorophyll content with hyperspectral data for crop growth diagnosis in field. In the study, with the point of view that spectral curve shapes display "tall, low, fat and thin" morphological changes, we proposed some new characteristic parameters from spectral curve such as the ascensive or degressive velocities of segments composing peak or valley shapes in spectral curve, and angles formed by the lines fitting the segments of two sides of peak or valley curves, and used the normalized spectra to analyze correlation between these parameters and rice chlorophyll content. The result shows that (1) there is a good negative correlation between rice chlorophyll content and normalized reflectance spectra from 520-740 nm; (2) characteristic parameters from green peak region of spectral curve display better correlation with rice chlorophyll content, which makes it possible to utilize the parameters to monitor crop chlorophyll content, and will provide new ideas and methods for carrying out crop growth diagnosis with hyperspectral data.

  20. Quantum-mechanical study and spectral analysis on some derivatives of Rhodamine in solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchea, Andreea-Celia; Babusca, Daniela; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2017-02-01

    Rhodamine derivatives (B and 6G) are heterocyclic compounds, related to florone. They are widely used as dyes with numerous biotechnological applications. The quantum-mechanical, electro-optical and spectral properties of the isolated molecules in the ground state were determined using molecular modeling programs. The visible electronic absorption spectra of 6G and B Rhodamine were recorded in solvents with different macroscopic parameters. Dipolar moments and polarizabilities of the studied Rhodamines in the excited state were determined by solvatochromic study.

  1. [Study on canopy spectral characteristics of paddy polluted by heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Pan, Jian-Jun; Shi, Xue-Zheng; Shi, Run-He; Wang, Hong-Jie

    2010-02-01

    Because of frequent mining, heavy metals are brought into environment like soils, water and atmosphere, resulting heavy metal contamination in the agricultural region beside mines. Heavy metals contamination causes vegetation stress like destruction of chloroplast structure, chlorophyll content decrease, blunt photosynthesis, etc. Spectral responses to changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis make it possible that remote sensing is applied in monitoring heavy metals stress on paddy plants. Field spectroradiometer was used to acquire canopy reflectance spectra of paddy plants contaminated by heavy metals released from local mining. The present study was conducted to (1) investigate discrimination of canopy reflectance spectra of heavy metal polluted and normal paddy plants; (2) extract spectral characteristics of contaminated paddy plants and compare them. By means of correlation analysis, sensitive bands (SB) were firstly picked out from canopy spectra. Secondly, on the basis of these sensitive bands, normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) were established, and then red edge position (REP) was extracted from canopy spectra via curve fitting of inverted Gaussian model. As a result of correlation analysis, 460, 560, 660 and 1 100 nm were considered respectively as sensitive band for Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentration in paddy leaves. Furthermore, heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cu and As) were significantly correlated with NDVIs (Pb, NDV(510, 810); Zn, NDVI(510, 870; Cu, NDVI(660, 870); As, NDVI(510, 810)). Heavy metals were also significantly correlated with REP, however, the inflexion termed as spectral critical value (SCV) between low and high heavy metals concentrations should be considered during applying REP in remote sensing monitoring. Moreover, NDVI and REP are much better than SB in terms of capability of expressing spectral information. Therefore, heavy metals contamination in paddy plants can be remotely monitored via ground

  2. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF LAND COVER USING LANDSAT 8 OLI SURFACE REFLECTANCE PRODUCT AND SPECTRAL PATTERN ANALYSIS CONCEPT - CASE STUDY IN HANOI, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nguyen Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently USGS released provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance product, which allows conducting land cover mapping over large composed of number of image scenes without necessity of atmospheric correction. In this study, the authors present a new concept for automated classification of land cover. This concept is based on spectral patterns analysis of reflected bands and can be automated using predefined classification rule set constituted of spectral pattern shape, total reflected radiance index (TRRI and ratios of spectral bands. Given a pixel vector B6 = {b1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6} where b1, b2,...,b6 denote bands 2, 3, ...,7 of OLI sensor respectively. By using the pixel vector B6 we can construct spectral reflectance curve. Each spectral curve is featured by a shape, which can be described in simplified form of an analogue pattern, which is consisted of 15 digits of 0, 1 and 2 showing mutual relative position of spectral vertices. Value of comparison between band i and j is 2 if bj > bi, 1 if bj = bi and 0 if bj i. Simplified spectral pattern is defined by 15 digits as m1,2m1,3m1,4m1,5m1,6m2,3m2,4m2,5m2,6m3,4m3,5m3,6m4,5m4,6m5,6 where mi,j is result of comparison of reflectance between bi and bj and has values of 0, 1 and 2. After construction of SSP for each pixel in the input image, the original image will be decomposed to component images, which contain pixels with the same SRCS pattern. The decomposition can be written analytically by equation A = Σnk=1Ck where A stands for original image with 6 spectral bands, n is number of component images decomposed from A and Ck is component image. For this study, we use Landsat 8 OLI reflectance image LC81270452013352LGN00 and LC81270452015182LGN00. For the decomposition, we use only six reflective bands. Each land cover class is defined by SSP code, threshold values for TRRI and band ratios. Automated classification of land cover was realized with 8 classes: forest, shrub, grass, water, wetland

  3. Relation of Core Dominance Parameter and Extended Spectral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The correlations between differences of two core domi- nance parameters and core/extended spectral index are investigated. The extended spectral index is associated with the differences very well, while there is a weak relationship between core spectral index and the differences. The average core spectral index ...

  4. The Dental Aesthetic Index and Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need as Tools in Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Chrystiane F.; Drummond, Alexandre F.; Lages, Elisabeth M.B.; Pretti, Henrique; Ferreira, Efigênia F.; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N.G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study assesses the validity and reproducibility of two occlusal indices for epidemiological studies—the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (DHC-IOTN) for the identification of orthodontic treatment needs. The total of 131 study models was examined by an examiner (orthodontic specialist) for the determination of the DAI and DHC-IOTN. Thirty days later, further assessment was performed to determine the reproducibil...

  5. The spectral length of a map between Riemannian manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.L.M.; de Jong, J.W.W.

    2012-01-01

    To a closed Riemannian manifold, we associate a set of (special values of) a family of Dirichlet series, indexed by functions on the manifold. We study the meaning of equality of two such families of spectral Dirichlet series under pullback along a map. This allows us to give a spectral

  6. Spectral and photometric study of the symbiotic nova RS ophiuchus in quiet phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyeva, L.; Rspaev, F.; Krugov, M.; Serebryanskiy, A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of spectral and photometric study of the recurrent Nova RS Ophiuchus are presented and discussed. Observations were carried out in 2009-2016. During these eight years the fluxes of HI and FeII emission lines have slightly decreased by a factor of 3 - 4. Hα and Hβ exhibit double-peaked profiles with a central absorption. The ratio of the blue and red peaks intensities(V/R) varies from 0.3 to 1.0 for Hβ and from 0.4 to 0.7 for Hα. Possible correlations between changes of the ratio and other spectral parameters were investigated. Dependence of V/R on the radial velocity of absorbtion component is found out.

  7. A Moessbauer Spectral Study of the Hull Steel and Rusticles Recovered from the Titanic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Gary J., E-mail: glong@umr.edu; Hautot, Dimitri [University of Missouri-Rolla, Department of Chemistry (United States); Grandjean, Fernande; Vandormael, D. [University of Liege, Institute of Physics, B5 (Belgium); Leighly, H. P. [University of Missouri-Rolla, Department of Metallurgical Engineering (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The recent recovery of steel from the Titanic has permitted a 295 K conversion electron Moessbauer spectral study of the Titanic hull plate steel oriented with the gamma-ray direction either perpendicular or parallel to the microstructural banding directions. The two spectra reveal virtually identical average orientations of the magnetization close to the plane of the plate. The hyperfine parameters are virtually identical to those of {alpha}-iron, a finding which agrees with the chemical analysis which reveals at most 0.21 wt% carbon corresponding to 3 wt% of cementite in pearlite. A 4.2 to 295 K transmission Moessbauer spectral study of the rusticles reveals small particles of geothite undergoing superparamagnetic relaxation with a blocking temperature of ca. 300 K. In addition approximately two percent of the Moessbauer spectral absorption area corresponds to a quadrupole doublet with hyperfine parameters typical of green rust. The identified iron containing components in therusticles agree with the powder X-ray diffraction results which reveal the predominant presence of small particles of poorly crystallized goethite and traces of quartz and green rust. An average size of 20{+-}5 nm for the goethite particles is obtained from both the average hyperfine field and the broadening of the X-ray diffraction peaks. The magnetic anisotropy constant of the goethite particles deduced from the hyperfine field and the particle size is 8x10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}.

  8. The study of glycemic index of Gen-Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyavarakul, Apussanee

    2013-08-01

    To determine the glycemic index of Gen-Premium. Ten healthy volunteers were included for testing glycemic index of Gen-Premium. After the overnight fast, the subjects consumed 50 grams of glucose (reference food) within five minutes. The blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes for measuring of plasma glucose. One day later the same subjects consumed 50 grams of carbohydrate from Gen-Premium (test food) within five minutes. After complete the data, the glycemic index was calculated by the standard method. The glycemic index of Gen-Premium was 27.29, which classify in low GI food. According to the methodology of glycemic index determination, the glycemic index of Gen-Premium is 27.29, which is considered to be favorably low.

  9. Sensitivity to auditory spectral width in the fetus and infant - a fMEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eMuenssinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Auditory change detection is crucial for the development of the auditory system and a prerequisite for language development. In neonates, stimuli with broad spectral width like white noise elicit the highest response compared to pure tone and combined tone stimuli. In the current study we addressed for the first time the question how fetuses react to white noise-(WN stimulation. Twenty-five fetuses (Mage = 34.59 weeks GA, SD ± 2.35 and 28 healthy neonates and infants (Mage = 37.18 days, SD ± 15.52 were tested with the 1st paradigm, wherein 500Hz tones, 750Hz tones and WN segments were randomly presented and auditory evoked responses (AERs were measured using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG. In the 2nd paradigm, 10 fetuses (Mage = 25.7 weeks GA, SD ± 2.4 and 6 healthy neonates (Mage = 23 days and SD ± 6.2 were presented with two auditory oddball conditions: Condition 1 consisted of attenuated WN as standard and 500Hz tones and WN as deviants. In condition 2, standard 500Hz tones were intermixed with WN and attenuated WN. AERs to volume change and change in spectral width were evaluated.In both paradigms, significantly higher AER amplitudes to WN than to pure tones replicated prior findings in neonates and infants. In fetuses, no significant differences were found between the auditory evoked response amplitudes of WN segments and pure tones (both paradigms. A trend towards significance was reached when comparing the auditory evoked response amplitudes elicited by attenuated WN with those elicited by WN (loudness change, 2nd paradigm.As expected, we observed high sensibility to spectral width in newborns and infants. However, in the group of fetuses, no sensibility to spectral width was observed. This negative finding may be caused by different attenuation levels of the maternal tissue for different frequency components.

  10. Remote estimation of cyanobacterial blooms using the risky grade index (RGI) and coverage area index (CAI): a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Botian; Shang, Mingsheng; Wang, Guoyin; Feng, Li; Shan, Kun; Liu, Xiangnan; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Xuerui

    2017-08-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are exemplified as a major environmental concern due to producing toxin, and have generated a serious threat to public health. Knowledge on the spatial-temporal distribution of cyanobacterial blooms is therefore crucial for public health organizations and environmental agencies. In this study, field data and charge coupled device (CCD) image were collected in Lakes Gaoyang and Hanfeng of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. We conducted the risky grade index (RGI) and coverage area index to develop a feasible estimation framework of cyanobacterial blooms. First, the close relationships between CCD reflectance spectral indices and water quality parameters were constructed based on water optical classification. Then, a regional algorithm for the RGI classification was established by density peaks. Finally, our proposed algorithm was applied to investigate dynamics of cyanobacterial blooms in the two lakes from 6-year series of CCD images. Encouraging results demonstrated that satellite remote sensing in conjunction with field observation can aid in the estimation of cyanobacterial blooms in the TGR.

  11. Study on lubricating oil characteristics using viscosity index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanprateep, T.

    The objective of this research is to investigate the characteristics of lubricating oil sold in the market by using viscosity index. The lubricating oil of both single grade and multigrade of some trade names for gasoline engines and one without trade name are used in the test and the viscosity index is determined for each type. The test shows that every type of lubricating oil with trade name has viscosity index of more than 100, the highest standard value, and the multigrade oil has more viscosity index than the single grade oil. The oil without trade name has viscosity index rather low and therefore is not suitable for lubrication over a wide range of working temperature, such as in gasoline engines.

  12. Feasibility study of spectral pattern recognition reveals distinct classes of volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglert, K.; Jellinek, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    Systematic investigations of the similarities and differences among volcanic tremor at a range of volcano types may hold crucial information about the plausibility of inferred source mechanisms, which, in turn, may be important for eruption forecasting. However, such studies are rare, in part because of an intrinsic difficulty with identifying tremor signals within very long time series of volcano seismic data. Accordingly, we develop an efficient tremor detection algorithm and identify over 12,000h of volcanic tremor on 24 stations at Kīlauea, Okmok, Pavlof, and Redoubt volcanoes. We estimate spectral content over 5-minute tremor windows, and apply a novel combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering to identify patterns in the tremor spectra. Analyzing several stations from a given volcano together reveals different styles of tremor within individual volcanic settings. In addition to identifying tremor properties common to all stations in a given network, we find localized tremor signals including those related to processes such as lahars or dike intrusions that are only observed on some of the stations within a network. Subsequent application of our analysis to a combination of stations from the different volcanoes reveals that at least three main tremor classes can be detected across all settings. Whereas a regime with a ridge of high power distributed over 1-2Hz and a gradual decay of spectral power towards higher frequencies is observed dominantly at three volcanoes (Kīlauea, Okmok, Redoubt) with magma reservoirs centered at less than 5km below sea level (b.s.l.), a spectrum with a steeper slope and a narrower peak at 1-2Hz is observed only in association with open vents (Kīlauea and Pavlof). A third regime with a peak at approximately 3Hz is confined to two stratovolcanoes (Pavlof and Redoubt). These observations suggest generic relationships between the spectral character of the observed signals and volcano

  13. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    2010-01-01

    New ultrasound techniques for blood flow estimation have been investigated in-vivo. These are vector velocity estimators (Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane Wave Excitation) and adaptive spectral estimators (Blood spectral Power Capon and Blood...... Amplitude and Phase Estimation). It was shown that the vector velocity estimators can provide reliable angle independent estimates and new insight to the complexity of blood flow, and that adaptive spectral estimators can produce useful spectrograms faster than the conventional spectral Doppler method....

  14. Characteristics of AVIRIS bands measurements in agricultural: crops at Blythe Area, California: IV: studies on cotton varieties spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir Hanna, Safwat H.; Rethwisch, Michael D.

    2004-02-01

    AVIRIS data from Blythe were acquired in June 1997 to study the agricultural spectra from different crops and for identification of crops in other areas with similar environmental factors and similar spectral properties. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to compare the spectral and radiometric characteristics of AVIRIS data from verities of cotton crop with the spectra measured by FieldSpecR ASD radiometer; 2) to explore the use of AVIRIS images in identifying agricultural crops; 3) to study the impact of environmental factors on selected crops and; 4) to build a spectral library for the cotton crop varieties that were studied. A long-term goal is to extend the spectral library for different vegetation or crops in different stages of growth or different varieties. In order to support our study, on June 26, 2001 we collected spectral data using the FieldSpec spectrometer from selected fields planted with different cotton varieties at Blythe area, California (at the Longitude 114° 41.88 W and Latitude 33° 24.27N to Longitude 114° 41.86 W and Latitude 33° 24.00N). The spectral data of cotton varieties were studied. Environmental parameters were studied such as the soil water content (WC), pH, organic matter (OM), C% and nitrogen (N%). The results of this study showed that there were differences in the signatures of different cotton varieties. Also, there was a significant correlation between the data that were collected by AVIRIS image scene in 1997 and spectral data collected by the FieldSpec spectrometer. This correlation allowed us to build a spectral library to be used in ENVI-IDL software. This leads to identification of different cotton varieties and in particular the visible part of the spectra. AVIRIS data are in agreement with FieldSpec data. Using IDL algorithms of Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Spectral Binary Encoding (SPE) showed that there is an excellent agreement between the predicted and the

  15. Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlie, Nathan; Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.; Petit, Laticia; Musgraves, Jonathan D.; Richardson, Kathleen

    2011-05-01

    The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5–10.6 μm range. The instrumental error was found to be ±0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to that of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.

  16. A Twin Study of Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Noonan, Carolyn; Goldberg, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the relative importance of genetic and environmental contributions to the association between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Twins from the University of Washington Twin Registry, a community-based sample of U.S. twins, provided self-reported height and weight for BMI calculation and habitual sleep duration. A generalized estimating equation model evaluated the overall and within twin pair effects of sleep duration on BMI with and without stratification by twin zygosity. A structural equation model was used to assess genetic and non-genetic contributions to BMI and sleep duration. Results: The study sample included 1,224 twins comprised of 423 monozygotic, 143 dizygotic, and 46 indeterminate pairs. The mean age was 36.9 years; 69% were female. A multivariate adjusted analysis of all twins revealed an elevated mean BMI (26.0 kg/m2) in short sleeping twins (sleeping 7–8.9 h/night (BMI 24.8 kg/m2; p sleeping twins having a mean BMI of 25.8 kg/m2 compared to 24.9 kg/m2 for the 7–8.9 h/night sleep duration group (p = 0.02). When restricted to monozygotic twins, the within-twin pair analysis continued to reveal an elevated BMI in the short sleeping twins (25.7 kg/m2) compared to the 7–8.9 h/night reference group (24.7 kg/m2; p = 0.02). No differences in mean BMI were observed between the 7–8.9 h/night reference group twins and longer sleeping twins (≥ 9 h/night) in the analysis of all twins, the overall within-twin pair analysis, or the within-twin pair analysis stratified by zygosity. The heritability of sleep duration was 0.31 (p = 0.08) and BMI 0.76 (p sleep duration and BMI (p = 0.28). Conclusions: Short sleep was associated with elevated BMI following careful adjustment for genetics and shared environment. These findings point toward an environmental cause of the relationship between sleep duration and BMI. Citation: Watson NF; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Noonan C; Goldberg J. A twin study of sleep duration

  17. Batse/Sax and Batse/RXTE-ASM Joint Spectral Studies of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    We proposed to make joint spectral analysis of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE data base that are located within the fields of view of either the BeppoSAX wide field cameras (WFCs) or the RXTE all-sky monitor (ASM). The very broad-band coverage obtained in this way would facilitate various studies of GRB spectra that are difficult to perform with BATSE data alone. Unfortunately, the termination of the CGRO mission in June 2000 was not anticipated at the time of the proposal, and the sample of common events turned out to be smaller than we would have liked.

  18. A Prospective Study of Fatty Liver Index and Incident Hypertension: The KoGES-ARIRANG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, its influence on hypertension development is poorly understood. We investigated whether fatty liver disease, as assessed by the fatty liver index, could predict the development of hypertension independently of systemic insulin resistance, inflammatory status and adipokine levels.Prospective cohort study of 1,521 adults (484 men and 1037 women aged 40 to 70 years without baseline hypertension examined. An equation was used to calculate fatty liver index and classify patients as follows: fatty liver index <30, no non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; fatty liver index ≥ 60, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; and 30 ≤ fatty liver index <60, intermediate fatty liver index.During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 153 subjects (10.06% developed hypertension. Fatty liver index was positively associated with baseline blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, urinary albumin/creatinine excretion, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. After adjustment for confounding factors, including markers of insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and adiponectin levels, the odds ratio [95% confidence interval] for the incident hypertension increased in a graded manner with fatty liver index (<30 vs. 30-59 vs. ≥ 60 = 1 vs. 1.83 [1.16~2.88] vs. 2.09 [1.08~4.055], respectively.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessed by fatty liver index was an independent risk factor for hypertension. Our findings suggest that fatty liver index, a simple surrogate indicator of fatty liver disease, might be useful for identifying subjects at high risk for incident hypertension in clinical practice.

  19. An X-ray spectral study of 24 type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    1997-04-01

    I present a study of the X-ray spectral properties of a sample containing 24 type 1 active galactic nuclei using the medium spectral resolution of ASCA. The sample consists of 20 radio-quiet objects (18 Seyfert 1 galaxies and two radio-quiet quasars) and four radio-loud objects (three broad-line radio galaxies and one radio-loud quasar). A simple power-law continuum absorbed by Galactic material provides a very poor description of the spectra of most objects. Deviations from the power-law form are interpreted in terms of X-ray reprocessing/absorption processes. In particular, at least half of the objects show K-shell absorption edges of warm oxygen (Ovii and Oviii) characteristic of optically thin, photoionized material along the line of sight to the central engine, the so-called warm absorber. The amount and presence of this absorption are found to depend on either the luminosity or radio properties of the objects: luminous and/or radio-loud objects are found to possess less ionized absorption. This ambiguity exists because the radio-loud objects are also amongst the most luminous of the sample. It is also found that objects with significant optical reddening display deep Ovii edges. The converse is true with two possible exceptions (NGC 3783 and NGC 3516). Coupled with other evidence resulting from detailed study of particular objects, this suggests the existence of dusty warm plasma. A radiatively driven outflow originating from the molecular torus is probably the source of this plasma. Rapid variability of the warm absorber also points to there being another component closer to the central source and probably situated within the broad-line region (BLR). Independent evidence for such an optically thin, highly ionized BLR component comes from detailed optical/UV studies. Spectral features at energies characteristic of cold iron Kalpha emission are common. Such emission is expected to arise from the fluorescence of cold iron in optically thick material when

  20. Numerical Simulations of Kinetic Alfvén Waves to Study Spectral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Index in Solar Wind Turbulence and Particle Heating. R. P. Sharma. ∗. & H. D. Singh. Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110 016, India. ∗ e-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ernet.in. Abstract. We present numerical simulations of the modified nonlinear. Schrödinger equation satisfied by kinetic Alfvén ...

  1. A simple solar radiation index for wildlife habitat studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Kim A.; Gogan, Peter J.; Vore, John N.; Irby, Lynn R.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a potentially important covariate in many wildlife habitat studies, but it is typically addressed only indirectly, using problematic surrogates like aspect or hillshade. We devised a simple solar radiation index (SRI) that combines readily available information about aspect, slope, and latitude. Our SRI is proportional to the amount of extraterrestrial solar radiation theoretically striking an arbitrarily oriented surface during the hour surrounding solar noon on the equinox. Because it derives from first geometric principles and is linearly distributed, SRI offers clear advantages over aspect-based surrogates. The SRI also is superior to hillshade, which we found to be sometimes imprecise and ill-behaved. To illustrate application of our SRI, we assessed niche separation among 3 ungulate species along a single environmental axis, solar radiation, on the northern Yellowstone winter range. We detected no difference between the niches occupied by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and elk (Cervus elaphus; P = 0.104), but found that mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) tended to use areas receiving more solar radiation than either of the other species (P solar radiation component.

  2. Spectral and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug Flutamide by density functional theoretical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, G.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive screening of the more recent DFT theoretical approach to structural analysis is presented in this section of theoretical structural analysis. The chemical name of 2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide is usually called as Flutamide (In the present study it is abbreviated as FLT) and is an important and efficacious drug in the treatment of anti-cancer resistant. The molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, electronic and NMR spectral interpretation of Flutamide have been studied with the aid of density functional theory method (DFT). The vibrational assignments of the normal modes were performed on the basis of the PED calculations using the VEDA 4 program. Comparison of computational results with X-ray diffraction results of Flutamide allowed the evaluation of structure predictions and confirmed B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as accurate for structure determination. Application of scaling factors for IR and Raman frequency predictions showed good agreement with experimental values. This is supported the assignment of the major contributors of the vibration modes of the title compound. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its bioactivity, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The comparison of measured FTIR, FT-Raman, and UV-Visible data to calculated values allowed assignment of major spectral features of the title molecule. Besides, Frontier molecular orbital analyze was also investigated using theoretical calculations.

  3. Synthesis, XRD, TEM, EPR, and Optical Absorption Spectral Studies of CuZnO2 Nanocompound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano CuZnO2 compound is carried out by thermal decomposition method. The crystalline phase of the material is characterized by XRD. The calculated unit cell constants are a=3.1 Å and c=3.4786 Å and are of tetragonal structure. The unit cell constants are different from wurtzite (hexagonal which indicate that a nanocompound is formed. Further TEM images reveal that the metal ion is in tetragonal structure with oxygen ligands. The prepared CuZnO2 is then characterized for crystallite size analysis by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size is found to be 100 nm. Uniform bright rings are noticed in the TEM picture suggesting that the nanocrystals have preferential instead of random orientations. The selected-area electron diffraction (SAED pattern clearly indicates the formation of CuO-ZnO nanocompound. The nature of bonding is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The covalency character is about 0.74 and thus the compound is electrically less conductive. Optical absorption spectral studies suggest that Cu(II is placed in tetragonal elongation crystal field. The spin-orbit coupling constant, λ, is calculated using the EPR and optical absorption spectral results suggest some covalent bond between metal and ligand. Near infrared (NIR spectra are due to hydroxyl and water fundamentals.

  4. [Comparative Study on the Molecular Structures and Spectral Properties of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhu, Chun; Hu, Yang-jun

    2015-11-01

    of the spectral characteristics between them were found out. The results can provide references for the study of the relationship between the spectral properties and the configuration of isomers.

  5. A Multi-Epoch Timing and Spectral Study of the ULX NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Dheeraj, Pasham R.

    2012-01-01

    We report results from extensive new XMM- Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic X-ray variability. We detect quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in each of four new (approximately equal 100 ks each) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies and rms amplitudes observed from the source to 10-40 mHz and 10-45 %, respectively. However, similarly significant variations in the power-law photon spectral index, Gamma, are not observed. We use the results of timing and energy spectral modeling to compare with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass systems. We find that the qualitative nature of the timing and energy spectra of NGC 5408 X-1 are very similar to stellar-mass black holes in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency - photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of approx greater than 800 Solar Mass. Alternatively, the QPO centroid frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy of NGC 5408 X-1's mHz QPOs with Type-C QPOs in stellar systems is problematic. Measurement of the source's timing properties over a greater range of spectral parameters (in particular the spectral index) is needed in order to definitively resolve this ambiguity. We searched all the available data for both a broad Fe emission line as well as high frequency QPO analogs (0.1 - 1 Hz), but detected neither. We place upper limits on the equivalent width of any Fe emission feature in the 6 - 7 keY band, and of the amplitude (rms) of a high frequency QPO analog of approx equal 10 eV and approx equal 4%, respectively.

  6. Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Risk of Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    George, Stephanie Materese; Mayne, Susan T.; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Park, Yikyung; Schatzkin, Arthur; Flood, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have provided limited evidence for a harmful effect of high glycemic index and dietary glycemic load on cancer. The authors analyzed associations among glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of cancer in women and men in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. Published glycemic index values were assigned to 225 foods/food groups. Glycemic load was calculated by multiplying the glycemic index, carbohydrate content, and intake frequency of individual foo...

  7. a Comparative Study of Alto Saxophone Reeds Through Spectral and Subjective Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Caroline Blythe

    The purpose of this study was to analyze six brands of cane reeds and five brands of synthetic reeds to determine the differences in tone quality produced by each. Spectral analysis was used to determine the individual reed which conformed most closely to the average profile of each brand. A panel of seven saxophone performers then presented their opinions of the each reed's tone quality upon hearing a live performance of an excerpt from Eugene Bozza's Aria for alto saxophone and piano performed on the reeds most representative of each brand. The evaluation form used by the judges included ten sets of bipolar adjectives: good-bad, harmonious-dissonant, clean-dirty, light-dark, pleasurable-painful, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, complex -simple, masculine-feminine, and interesting-boring. The results indicated that the primary factors influencing the tone quality of a given reed were the strength of the overtones present regardless of their order and the dominance of either the fundamental or the first overtone. Although professional musicians normally hand-select their reeds for performance, this research based on both spectral and subjective analyses provides clear evidence for both musicians and music educators to refine and improve their reed selection process.

  8. Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Migden, Michael R.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Ross, Merrick I.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic capability of a multimodal spectral diagnosis (SD) for in vivo noninvasive disease diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We acquired reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients using custom-built optical fiber-based clinical systems. Biopsies of lesions were classified using standard histopathology as malignant melanoma (MM), nonmelanoma pigmented lesion (PL), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Using multiple diagnostically relevant principal components, we built leave-one-out logistic regression classifiers. Classification results were compared with histopathology of the lesion. Sensitivity/specificity for classifying MM versus PL (12 versus 17 lesions) was 100%;/100%;, for SCC and BCC versus AK (57 versus 14 lesions) was 95%;/71%, and for AK and SCC and BCC versus normal skin (71 versus 71 lesions) was 90%/85%. The best classification for nonmelanoma skin cancers required multiple modalities; however, the best melanoma classification occurred with Raman spectroscopy alone. The high diagnostic accuracy for classifying both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions demonstrates the potential for SD as a clinical diagnostic device.

  9. Field Studies of Broadband Aerosol Optical Extinction in the Ultraviolet Spectral Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. In the case of brown carbon, its wavelength-dependent absorption in the ultraviolet spectral region has been suggested as an important component of aerosol radiative forcing. We describe a new field instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We deployed this instrument during the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment during Fall 2012 to measure biomass burning aerosol, and again during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study in summer 2013 to measure organic aerosol in the Southeastern U.S. In both field experiments, we determined aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength and can interpret this together with size distribution and composition measurements to characterize the aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing.

  10. Comparative studies on spectral properties of R-phycoerythrin from the red seaweeds from Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhongzheng; Zhou, Baicheng; Zeng, Chengkui

    1986-12-01

    The present paper reports on comparative studies of R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) from 30 species of the red seaweeds in Bangiophyceae and in Florideophyceae from Qingdao. The measured absorption spectra show that R-PE from these red seaweeds have two spectral types, namely type I having two absorption peaks and type II having three absorption peaks. 9 specise of a lower red seaweed belonging to Bangiophyceae are all type I R-PE. 3 species of a higher red seaweed belonging to Florideophyceae are also type I R-PE. The remaining 18 species are all type II R-PE. According to the distribution of two types of R-PE in red algae, an evolutionary trend from type I R-PE to type II R-PE, can be seen, but this evolutionary process is more complicated and without a definite line of demarcation between the two spectral types of R-PE. The occurrence of two types of R-PE in red algae is of taxonomic significance.

  11. Synthesis, growth, spectral, optical and thermal studies of thiourea family crystal: TTPB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, A.; Rajarajan, K.; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, bulk size single crystal of tetrakis thiourea potassium bromide [K(N2H4CS)4Br]; (TTPB) has been grown from an aqueous solution using slow evaporation solution growth method. The XRD result proved that the compound crystallize in tetragonal crystal system with space group P41. The FT-IR spectrum of TTPB has clearly identified the functional groups of thiourea in the resulting compound. The TG-DTA and DSC studies have been carried out on the grown sample of TTPB and the results are reported. The etching and scanning electron microscope studies were also carried out to understand the growth pattern and surface morphology of TTPB. The spectral, optical and thermal studies of TTPB are compared with the similar thiourea complex crystal [K(N2H4CS)4I]; (TTPI) and reported.

  12. Study on spectral calibration of an ultraviolet Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with high precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the laboratory spectral calibration of an ultraviolet (UV) Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS). A short overview of the designed UV-FTIS, which feature with a Cassegrain objective, an Offner relay optics system and a spatial-and-temporal modulation Michelson structure, is given. The experimental setup of spectral calibration is described, including details of the light source and integrating sphere. A high pressure mercury lamp was used to acquire reference spectrum. We calculated the all optical path difference (OPD) to achieve spectral response of every wavelength sample and divided the position of reference peak to subpixel to increase the precision of spectral calibration. The spectrum of spectral calibration show two weakly responded peaks, which was validated by reference spectrum of fiber optic spectrometer. The deviation of wavelength calibration is low to establish a best spectrometer resolution. The results of spectral calibration can meet the requirements of the UV-FTIS application.

  13. Use of polydispersity index as control parameter to study melting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using polydispersity index as an additional order parameter we investigate freezing/melting transition of Lennard-Jones polydisperse systems (with Gaussian polydispersity in size), especially to gain insight into the origin of the terminal polydispersity. The average inherent structure (IS) energy and root mean square ...

  14. Pregnancy and Glycemic Index Outcomes study: effects of low glycemic index compared with conventional dietary advice on selected pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert G; Casey, Shelly A; Quinn, Eleanor G; Cleary, Jane M; Tapsell, Linda C; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2014-03-01

    Eating carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index (GI) has been postulated to result in fetoplacental overgrowth and higher infant body fat. A diet with a low glycemic index (LGI) has been shown to reduce birth percentiles and the ponderal index (PI). We investigated whether offering LGI dietary advice at the first antenatal visit would result in a lower fetal birth weight, birth percentile, and PI than providing healthy eating (HE) advice. This advice had to be presented within the resources of routine antenatal care. The Pregnancy and Glycemic Index Outcomes study was a 2-arm, parallel-design, randomized, controlled trial that compared the effects of LGI dietary advice with HE advice on pregnancy outcomes. Eligible volunteers who attended for routine antenatal care at glycemic load was the only significant dietary predictor (P = 0.046) of primary outcomes but explained <1% of all variation. A low-intensity dietary intervention with an LGI diet compared with an HE diet in pregnancy did not result in any significant differences in birth weight, fetal percentile, or PI.

  15. Sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere near the ground: an approach based on the spectral representation of refractive-index fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, E M; Ostashev, V E; Clifford, S F; Lataitis, R J

    2001-05-01

    A new, rigorous approach is presented for the computation of the fluctuating field of a monopole source in a nonrefracting, turbulent atmosphere above a ground surface. The time-averaged sound pressure level is considered, as well as statistical distributions of the sound pressure level. The computation is based on the Rytov solution of the wave equation for a turbulent medium, evaluated for the half-space above the ground surface. The solution takes into account the ground reflection of scattered waves, which has been neglected in previous work on this subject. The present approach is based on a Fourier-Stieltjes representation of refractive-index fluctuations, and makes use of a turbulent image atmosphere to account for the ground reflection of scattered waves. This approach is rigorous only for a rigid ground surface, but it is shown that it also yields a good approximation for a finite-impedance ground surface. The accuracy of the solution is demonstrated by comparison with results of numerical computations with the parabolic equation method for a turbulent atmosphere. The assumption of a nonrefracting atmosphere implies that direct application of the solution is limited to propagation over relatively small distances. However, this study can also be considered as a basis for a generalized solution for a downward refracting atmosphere, which can be applied for larger propagation distances.

  16. Fluorescent spectral studies of the toxic effect of chlororganic pesticides on the biochemical parameters of synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Bekshokov, K. S.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Abdullaeva, N. M.; Israpov, E. Kh.; Gashimov, I. Sh.

    2017-04-01

    The results of the study of the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of synaptosomes, which have been exposed to a chlororganic pesticide, thiamethoxam, at a concentration of 50 MPC during different time periods, at the excitation/emission wavelengths of 290 ± 5/310-600, 340 ± 5/360-700, and 420 ± 5/450-800 nm are given for the first time. It has been demonstrated that the development of intoxication results in weakening of the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan, NAD(P)·H, derivatives of vitamin B6, and vitamin A and in an increase in the fluorescence of pyridoxic acid, lipofuscin, and flavin and porphyrin complexes. The results of the spectral studies indicate that the toxic effect of the chlororganic pesticide for the functioning of living systems is based on free radical toxicity.

  17. 31P NMR first spectral moment study of the partial magnetic orientation of phospholipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, F; Paquet, M J; Levesque, J; Bélanger, A; Auger, M

    1999-01-01

    Structural data can be obtained on proteins inserted in magnetically oriented phospholipid membranes such as bicelles, which are most often made of a mixture of long and short chain phosphatidylcholine. Possible shapes for these magnetically oriented membranes have been postulated in the literature, such as discoidal structures with a thickness of one bilayer and with the short acyl chain phosphatidylcholine on the edges. In the present paper, a geometrical study of these oriented structures is done to determine the validity of this model. The method used is based on the determination of the first spectral moment of solid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. From this first moment, an order parameter is defined that allows a quantitative analysis of partially oriented spectra. The validity of this method is demonstrated in the present study for oriented samples made of DMPC, DMPC:DHPC, DMPC:DHPC:gramicidin A and adriamycin:cardiolipin. PMID:10423434

  18. Spectral, DFT and X-ray diffraction studies on regioselective synthesis of thiazolo-quinazoline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Deepika; Gautam, Poonam; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2017-10-01

    Unsymmetrical quinazoline-3-thione 2, obtained from one pot condensation of 2-tetralone, p-chlorobenzaldehyde and thiourea in acidic medium, on reaction with α-halo acids afforded thiazolo-quinazoline derivatives 3, 7 and not their regioisomers 4 and 8 respectively. The cyclised product obtained by the reaction of thione 2 with 1,2-dibromoethane has been assigned structure 5. Condensation of thione 2 with 3-chloropropionic acid and 1,3-dibromopropane furnished thiazino-quinazoline derivatives 10 and 12 instead of their regioisomers 11 and 13 respectively. The structure of the cyclised products has been established by means of spectral data (IR, NMR and Mass). X-ray diffraction studies of a representative compound supported our claim on structural assignments. DFT studies on regioisomers further validated the claim for assigned structures. The reaction of thione 2 with 3-chloropropionc acid in presence of acetic acid yielded thiazinan-4-one 10.

  19. HEALTH INDEX AS CONDITION ESTIMATOR FOR POWER SYSTEM EQUIPMENT : A CRITICAL DISCUSSION AND CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgensen, Jan Henning; Scheutz Godin, Axel; Hilber, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the health index has become an increasingly popular asset management tool in utilities. The health index as a condition indicator can improve the decision making process. However, it also has challenges which need to be considered during development and implementation. This paper addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the health index as a condition indicator in a critical discussion. Moreover, a case study is presented where a health index is calculated for three...

  20. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies of some new tri metallic biologically active ceftriaxone complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alaa E.

    2011-01-01

    Iron, cobalt, nickel and copper complexes of ceftriaxone were prepared in 1:3 ligand:metal ratio to examine the ligating properties of the different moieties of the drug. The complexes were found to have high percentages of coordinated water molecules. The modes of bonding were discussed depending on the infrared spectral absorption peaks of the different allowed vibrations. The Nujol mull electronic absorption spectra and the magnetic moment values indicated the Oh geometry of the metal ions in the complexes. The ESR spectra of the iron, cobalt, and copper complexes were determined and discussed. The thermal behaviors of the complexes were studied by TG and DTA techniques. The antimicrobial activities of the complexes were examined and compared to that of the ceftriaxone itself.

  1. Synthesis, Spectral and Anthelmintic Activity Studies on Some Novel Imidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Dahiya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the synthesis of a novel series of 3,5-diiodo-4-(5-nitro-1H-2-imidazolylbenzoyl amino acids and di/tri/tetrapeptides using diisopropylcarbodiimide/dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DIPC/DCC as coupling agents and N-methylmorpholine/triethylamine (NMM/TEA as bases. Structure elucidation of all the newly synthesized compounds was done by elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. Synthesized imidazolopeptides were screened for their anthelmintic activity and found to possess moderate to good bioactivity against earthworms Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea when compared to reference drugs - albendazole and mebendazole at dose level of 2 mg mL−1.

  2. ESR and spectral studies of Er{sup 3+} ions in soda-lime silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewwiset, W., E-mail: opticslaser@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thamaphat, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Limsuwan, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-01-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR), optical absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra of Er{sup 3+} ions in soda-lime silicate glasses doped with different concentrations of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied. The glasses of the composition (in mol%) (65-x)SiO{sub 2}:25Na{sub 2}O:10CaO:xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x=0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) were prepared by the melt quenching method. ESR measurements were carried out at room temperature down to 1.62 K. Absorption spectra were investigated in the UV-VIS-NIR region from 300 to 1800 nm. Photoluminescence spectra were observed in the spectral range 500-800 nm under 514.5 nm argon-ion laser line excitation.

  3. Synthesis, Spectral and Antimicrobial Studies of Some N(2)-Substituted Tetrahydroindazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirthaganesan, Shanmugasundaram; Aridoss, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Keun Soo; Lim, Kwon Taek; Jeong, Yeon Tae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    A series of N(2)-benzothiazolyl substituted tetrahydroindazoles has been synthesized via cyclic β keto esters. Optimum reaction condition was found as acidic toluene and effect of higher acidity towards substituted hydrazines in situ was described. Synthesized compounds have been achieved as single isomer and characterized by using 1D and 2D NMR spectral reports. Antimicrobial screening was carried out for the synthesized compounds along with a series of N(2)-pyridyl tetrahydroindazoles.{sup 1} The results of the in vitro antimicrobial screening studies revealed that compounds 13, 16 against Staphylococcus aureus, 11 against Escherichia coli, 10-12, 16 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 12 against Klebsiella pneumoniae recorded almost two-fold better activity compared to the standard drug used.

  4. Study of $\\tau$ decays involving kaons, spectral functions and determination of the strange quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Park, I.C.; Riu, I.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Boix, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Halley, A.W.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I.R.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Buchmuller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E.B.; Marinelli, N.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Spagnolo, P.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; Williams, M.D.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A.P.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Robertson, N.A.; Williams, M.I.; Giehl, I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Thulasidas, M.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Hocker, Andreas; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D.W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Schune, M.H.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foa, L.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Johnson, R.P.; Kim, H.Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M.S.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Prange, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Greening, T.C.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nachtman, J.M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1999-01-01

    All ALEPH measurements of branching ratios of tau decays involving kaons are summarized including a combination of results obtained with K^0_S and K^0_L detection. The decay dynamics are studied, leading to the determination of contributions from vector K^*(892) and K^{*}(1410), and axial-vector K_1(1270) and K_1(1400) resonances. Agreement with isospin symmetry is observed among the different final states. Under the hypothesis of the conserved vector current, the spectral function for the K\\bar{K}\\pi mode is compared with the corresponding cross section for low energy e^+e^- annihilation, yielding an axial-vector fraction of (94^{+6}_{-8})% for this mode. The branching ratio for tau decay into all strange final states is determined to be B(\\tau^-\\to X^-(S=-1)\

  5. A RICH with aerogel: a study of refractive index uniformity

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L; Easo, S

    2004-01-01

    The use of aerogel as a radiator in the RICH detectors of LHCb is a challenge due to the hot environment of the hadron collider LHC. Large size tiles of silica aerogel were recently produced with unprecedented optical quality for such dimensions. Results of laboratory measurements and beam tests are briefly reported. A description of a method to measure the uniformity of the index of refraction within the tile is given.

  6. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  7. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters.

  8. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a hemispherical sky imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images, non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated using spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelengths 380–760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less than 20% for all sky conditions.

  9. Unifying Spectral and Timing Studies of Relativistic Reflection in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher

    X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) contain a wealth of information relevant for understanding the structure of AGN, the process of accretion, and the gravitational physics of supermassive black holes. A particularly exciting development over the past four years has been the discovery and subsequent characterization of time delays between variability of the X-ray power-law continuum and the inner disk reflection spectrum including the broad iron line. The fact that the broad iron line shows this echo, or reverberation, in XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR data is a strong confirmation of the disk reflection paradigm and has already been used to place constraints on the extent and geometry of the X-ray corona. However, current studies of AGN X-ray variability, including broad iron line reverberation, are only scratching the surface of the available data. At the present time, essentially all studies conduct temporal analyzes in a manner that is largely divorced from detailed spectroscopy - consistency between timing results (e.g., conclusions regarding the location of the primary X-ray source) and detailed spectral fits is examined after the fact. We propose to develop and apply new analysis tools for conducting a truly unified spectraltiming analysis of the X-ray properties of AGN. Operationally, this can be thought of as spectral fitting except with additional parameters that are accessing the temporal properties of the dataset. Our first set of tools will be based on Fourier techniques (via the construction and fitting of the energy- and frequency-dependent cross-spectrum) and most readily applicable to long observations of AGN with XMM-Newton. Later, we shall develop more general schemes (of a more Bayesian nature) that can operate on irregularly sampled data or quasi-simultaneous data from multiple instruments. These shall be applied to the long joint XMM-Newton/NuSTAR and Suzaku/NuSTAR AGN campaigns as well as Swift monitoring campaigns. Another

  10. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng

    2016-06-07

    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of [Formula: see text] mm(2), offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10-25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, [Formula: see text], with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, [Formula: see text]dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference

  11. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.

  12. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  13. A Global Spectral Study of Stellar-Mass Black Holes with Unprecedented Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garci, Javier

    There are two well established populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, many millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range millions to billions of solar masses, which reside in the nucleus of most galaxies. Supermassive black holes play a leading role in shaping galaxies and are central to cosmology. However, they are hard to study because they are dim and they scarcely vary on a human timescale. Luckily, their variability and full range of behavior can be very effectively studied by observing their stellar-mass cousins, which display in miniature the full repertoire of a black hole over the course of a single year. The archive of data collected by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during its 16 year mission is of first importance for the study of stellar-mass black holes. While our ultimate goal is a complete spectral analysis of all the stellar-mass black hole data in the RXTE archive, the goal of this proposal is the global study of six of these black holes. The two key methodologies we bring to the study are: (1) Our recently developed calibration tool that increases the sensitivity of RXTE's detector by up to an order of magnitude; and (2) the leading X-ray spectral "reflection" models that are arguably the most effective means currently available for probing the effects of strong gravity near the event horizon of a black hole. For each of the six black holes, we will fit our models to all the archived spectral data and determine several key parameters describing the black hole and the 10-million-degree gas that surrounds it. Of special interest will be our measurement of the spin (or rate of rotation) of each black hole, which can be as high as tens of thousands of RPM. Profoundly, all the properties of an astronomical black hole are completely defined by specifying its spin and its mass. The main goal of this

  14. Study on Evaluation Index System of Green mine construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, xin; Yang, JunJie; Yan, Hongcai; Cao, Hongjun

    2017-11-01

    Green mine is a new and science comprehensive construction mode of mine, which runs the concept of green development through the whole process of mineral resources development and utilization, promotes the transformation and upgrading of mineral enterprises and achieves the healthy and sustainable development of mining industry. This paper is based on “the basic conditions of national green mine”, combined with the current situation of green mine construction, constructing green mine construction evaluation index system which is divided into five areas, including management, comprehensive utilization of mineral resources. technological innovation. ecological environment and cultural construction.

  15. Antenatal Umbilical Coiling Index and Newborn Outcomes: Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Mwikali Ndolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to test the predictive value of antenatal umbilical coiling index (aUCI among a prospectively recruited cohort of antenatal women. Methods: Women with singleton pregnancies were recruited at their second-trimester scan. Images of the umbilical cord were used to calculate the aUCI. Pregnancy and birth outcomes were recorded and statistical associations between aUCI and small for gestational age (SGA using international standard birth weight centiles and preterm birth were investigated (n = 430. Results: aUCI results were consistent with the literature and showed good reproducibility between observers. Abnormal aUCI was not associated with SGA, but there was a statistical association with preterm birth (odds ratio 3.3 (95% confidence interval 1.4–7.7,P = 0.003. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for preterm birth were 47.6%, 76.9%, 9.6%, and 96.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The coiling index is unlikely to be useful in clinical practice as a screening tool for preterm birth owing to limited predictive value. We exclude a statistically or clinically significant association between abnormal coiling and SGA.

  16. Antenatal Umbilical Coiling Index and Newborn Outcomes: Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndolo, Josephine Mwikali; Vinayak, Sudhir; Silaba, Micah Ominde; Stones, William

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test the predictive value of antenatal umbilical coiling index (aUCI) among a prospectively recruited cohort of antenatal women. Women with singleton pregnancies were recruited at their second-trimester scan. Images of the umbilical cord were used to calculate the aUCI. Pregnancy and birth outcomes were recorded and statistical associations between aUCI and small for gestational age (SGA) using international standard birth weight centiles and preterm birth were investigated (n = 430). aUCI results were consistent with the literature and showed good reproducibility between observers. Abnormal aUCI was not associated with SGA, but there was a statistical association with preterm birth (odds ratio 3.3 (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.7, P = 0.003). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for preterm birth were 47.6%, 76.9%, 9.6%, and 96.6%, respectively. The coiling index is unlikely to be useful in clinical practice as a screening tool for preterm birth owing to limited predictive value. We exclude a statistically or clinically significant association between abnormal coiling and SGA.

  17. Positive Flash High-Speed Spectral Characteristics in the Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, R. E.; Warner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The spectral properties of positive lightning flashes have been recorded for the first time. Two high-speed cameras, each operating at 35,000 fps, have recorded the positive leaders in the UPLIGHTS experiment in Rapid City, South Dakota. One of the cameras is modified to a spectrograph with a transmission diffraction grating to capture the lightning emissions from 400 to 900 nm. The positive leader infrared spectral emissions are relatively more intense compared to the visible spectral emissions. The positive lightning return stroke peak currents range from 24 to 91 kA.

  18. A parametric study based on spectral fatigue analysis for 170k LNGC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yoon Park

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spectral Fatigue Analysis is representative fatigue life assessment method for vessels. This Analysis is performed generally for the whole vessel and many assessment sites. The spectral fatigue analysis is performed through the process of hydrodynamic response analysis, global structural analysis, local structural analysis and calculation of fatigue damage. In these processes, fatigue damage is affected by many variables. The representative variables are S-N curve data, wave scatter data, wave spectrum, bandwidth effect and etc. In this paper, the effects of these variables to the fatigue damage are analyzed through the spectral fatigue analysis for 170k LNGC.

  19. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  20. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  1. A simulation study of spectral Čerenkov luminescence imaging for tumour margin estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Nick; Helo, Yusef; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Tuch, David S.; Arridge, Simon R.; Stoyanov, Danail

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the world. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a standard surgical treatment for breast cancer with the key objective of removing breast tissue, maintaining a negative surgical margin and providing a good cosmetic outcome. A positive surgical margin, meaning the presence of cancerous tissues on the surface of the breast specimen after surgery, is associated with local recurrence after therapy. In this study, we investigate a new imaging modality based on Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for the purpose of detecting positive surgical margins during BCS. We develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4 nuclear physics simulation toolbox to study the spectrum of photons emitted given 18F-FDG and breast tissue properties. The resulting simulation spectra show that the CLI signal contains information that may be used to estimate whether the cancerous cells are at a depth of less than 1 mm or greater than 1 mm given appropriate imaging system design and sensitivity. The simulation spectra also show that when the source is located within 1 mm of the surface, the tissue parameters are not relevant to the model as the spectra do not vary significantly. At larger depths, however, the spectral information varies significantly with breast optical parameters, having implications for further studies and system design. While promising, further studies are needed to quantify the CLI response to more accurately incorporate tissue specific parameters and patient specific anatomical details.

  2. [Study on physique index set for Chinese children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-feng; Liang, Li; Fu, Jun-fen; Gong, Chun-xiu; Xiong, Feng; Liu, Ge-li; Luo, Fei-hong; Chen, Shao-ke

    2012-05-01

    To provide data as age-gender dependent mean, standard deviation and percentile on height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR) among 7-16 year-olds Chinese children and adolescents, towards setting up diagnostic criteria on metabolic syndrome for them. A representative sample involving 22,197 children and adolescence aged 7 to 16 years were randomly surveyed and they were from 6 representative geographical areas, including Beijing, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Chongqing and Nanning. A total of 21 858 had available data, with male/female ratio as: 11,460/10,398. Using the standard methods, we measured height, weight, WC, HC, BMI, WHtR and other data in all age groups. Physique indexes among different geographic regions (North, Mid-west and East) were compared. (1) Both male and female showed an increasing trend of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and BMI along with the increase of age. WHR of girls decreased gradually from 0.84 to 0.76 went from 7 to 16 years old while WHR of boys changed from 0.87 to 0.81 accordingly. (2) WHtR was rarely affected by age. It fluctuated between 0.42-0.43 in all girls and 0.44-0.45 in boys less than 11 years. WHtR of boys older than 12 years showed a slight decline from 0.45 to 0.42 of WHtR. (3) The average height, weight, BMI of children and adolescents from the northern regions (Beijing, Tianjin) were significantly higher than that of the mid-western (Chongqing, Nanning) and the eastern regions (Shanghai, Hangzhou) (P<0.001), while those from the mid-western region were slightly higher than that of the eastern region (P<0.05) in each of the age group. Reference values and percentile curves for WC and WHtR of Chinese children and adolescents were provided. For the assessment of central obesity. WHtR had the advantages of relative stability and small degree of variation and rarely affected by age and gender, when

  3. SOCl2 catalyzed cyclization of chalcones: Synthesis and spectral studies of some bio-potent 1H pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ranganathan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some aryl-aryl 1H pyrazoles have been synthesised by cyclization of aryl chalcones and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of SOCl2. The yields of the pyrazoles are more than 85%. These pyrazoles are characterized by their physical constants and spectral data. The infrared, NMR spectral group frequencies of these pyrazolines have been correlated with Hammett substituent constants, F and R parameters. From the results of statistical analyses the effects of substituent on the spectral frequencies have been studied. The antimicrobial activities of all synthesised pyrazolines have been studied using Bauer-Kirby method. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.11

  4. [Study on flame temperature measurement of pyrotechnics using multi-spectral thermometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-ying; Xi, Lan-xia; Chen, Jun; Guo, Chong-xing; Liu, Chun-jian; Liu, Huan-yang

    2010-08-01

    The radiation spectrum of pyrotechnics' burning flame was analyzed using transient spectrum radiometer. The working principle of multi-spectral thermometry was described. Combined with the radiation spectrum of pyrotechnics' burning flame, the multi-spectral thermometer system was designed which had twelve working channels. The tester can choose the right working channels to calculate according to the radiation spectrum of the flame to be tested. The system is composed by optics part, electronic part, data acquisition part and data processing part. In this paper, the emissive power of black powder's flame has been tested using the multi-spectral thermometer system. The burning flame temperature-time curve was showed after iteration calculation Experiments indicate that the multi-spectral thermometer system can be well used to measure the flame temperature of pyrotechnics based on analyzing the emissive power when choosing the right working channels. This method lays a foundation for the research of combustion output characteristics of pyrotechnics.

  5. Bacterial Bioluminescence: Spectral Study of the Emitters in the In Vivo Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheson, I.B.C.; Lee, J.; Muller, F.

    1981-01-01

    Transient fluorescent species are observed in the bioluminescent reactions of three reduced flavin mononucleotides with aliphatic aldehydes and oxygen, catalyzed by bacterial luciferase. In each case the fluorescence spectral distribution is similar to that of the bioluminescence but is readily

  6. The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone: A DFT/TD-DFT and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud; Al-Balawi, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone (NIF), a pyrazole-nicotinamide drug, were experimentally and computationally investigated in several neat solvents and in hydro-organic binary systems such as water-acetonitrile and water-dioxane systems. The bathochromic spectral shift observed in NIF absorption spectra when reducing the polarity of the solvent was correlated with the orientation polarizability (?f). Unlike aprotic solvents, a satisfactory correlation bet...

  7. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.

    2003-08-26

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric {approx} 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (< 1 s) timing properties of Cir X-1 are studied by performing FFT analyses of the USA data. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the 1-50 Hz range are found and discussed in the context of recent correlations which question the leading models invoked for their generation. The energy dependence of the QPOs (rms increasing with energy) argues against them being generated in the disk and favors models in which the QPOs are related to a higher energy Comptonizing component. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its soft state is compared to that of Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1), the prototypical black hole candidate. Using scaling arguments the author argues that the mass of Cir X-1 could exceed significantly the canonical 1.4 M{circle_dot} mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is

  8. The spectral shift function and spectral flow

    OpenAIRE

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A.L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends Krein's spectral shift function theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples. We define the spectral shift function under these hypotheses via Birman-Solomyak spectral averaging formula and show that it computes spectral flow.

  9. The Dental Aesthetic Index and dental health component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need as tools in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Chrystiane F; Drummond, Alexandre F; Lages, Elisabeth M B; Pretti, Henrique; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2011-08-01

    The present study assesses the validity and reproducibility of two occlusal indices for epidemiological studies--the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (DHC-IOTN) for the identification of orthodontic treatment needs. The total of 131 study models was examined by an examiner (orthodontic specialist) for the determination of the DAI and DHC-IOTN. Thirty days later, further assessment was performed to determine the reproducibility. The duration of each exam was measured in seconds with a stopwatch. The indices were compared by a panel of three experts in orthodontics to evaluate validity. The intra-examiner reliability evaluation resulted in an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the DAI (95% CI = 0.64 to 1.0) and 0.87 for the DHC-IOTN (95% CI = 0.56 to 0.96). The time spent on the evaluation of the DHC-IOTN was less than the time spent on that of the DAI (P < 0.001). The accuracy of the indices, as reflected by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, was 61% for the DAI (95% CI = 51 to 70; p = 0.037) and 67% for the DHC-IOTN (95% CI = 58 to 77; p = 0.001). Both indices presented good reproducibility and validity.

  10. Synthesis and spectral, antibacterial, molecular studies of biologically active organosilicon(IV complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har Lal Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of new organosilicon(IV complexes have general formulae R3SiL and RSiLOEt with Schiff bases (R = Me and Ph. The Schiff bases (LH have been derived from the condensation of (2-hydroxyphenyl(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethanone with semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide, and phenylthiosemicarbazide, respectively. The compounds have been characterized by the elemental analysis, molar conductance, and spectral (UV, IR, 1H, 13C, and 29Si NMR studies. These studies showed that the ligands coordinate with the silicon atom in a tridentate manner through phenolic oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and thiolic sulfur. Further applying experimental spectroscopic techniques, theoretical data calculated using density functional theory by B3LYP/6.31+g(d,p has also been used for structural determination. The resulting complexes have been proposed to have trigonal bipyramidal and distorted octahedral geometries. Few representative Schiff base and their silicon complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of selected compounds was determined. The screening results show that organosilicon(IV complexes have better antibacterial activity than the free ligands.

  11. Surface enhanced Raman spectral studies of 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, K.; Umadevi, M.; Sathe, G. V.; Vanelle, P.; Terme, T.; Khoumeri, O.

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and inexpensive solution combustion method with urea as fuel. The structural and morphology of the silver nanoparticles were investigated through X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersion Spectra (EDS) techniques. Structural and morphological results confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were also performed to study the ground and excited state behavior of 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-BrNQ) and 2-BrNQ on silver nanoparticles. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-BrNQ adsorbed on silver nanoparticles were investigated. The Cdbnd O, Csbnd H in-plane bending and Csbnd Br stretching modes were enhanced in SERS spectrum with respect to normal Raman spectrum. The spectral analysis reveals that the 2-BrNQ adsorbed 'stand-on' orientation on the silver surface. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations are also performed to study the vibrational features of 2-BrNQ molecule and 2-BrNQ molecule on silver surface.

  12. Differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies with CT spectral imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Ning; Yuan, Huishu [Peking University Third Hospital, No.49 North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare, CT imaging Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. This study was institutional review board-approved, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-seven patients were examined by DESCT during venous phase. Twenty patients had malignant vertebral tumours, 17 had non-malignant vertebral tumours. The iodine/water densities for the lesion, the lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio for iodine density measurements were calculated and compared between the two groups with the two-tailed Student t test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. The iodine density, lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio of the iodine density measurement for malignant vertebral tumours were significantly different from the respective values for non-malignancies (all p < 0.05). Using 0.52 as the threshold value for the lesion-to-artery iodine density ratio, one could obtain sensitivity of 85 % and specificity of 100 % for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies, significantly higher than the qualitative diagnosis. DESCT imaging enables analysis of a number of additional quantitative CT parameters to improve the accuracy for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. (orig.)

  13. New 14-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of divalent transition metal ions with their antimicrobial and spectral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. P.; Kumar, Krishan; Sharma, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A novel series of macrocyclic complexes of the type [M(C 18H 14N 10S 2)X 2]; where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II); X = Cl -, NO 3-, CH 3COO - has been synthesized by [2+2] condensation of thiocarbohydrazide and isatin in the presence of divalent metal salts in methanolic medium. The complexes have been characterized with the help of elemental analyses, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, electronic, NMR and infrared spectral studies. The low value of molar conductance indicates them to be non-electrolytes. On the basis of various studies a distorted octahedral geometry may be proposed for all of these complexes. These metal complexes were also tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against some Gram-positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and some Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal strains Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus (molds), Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeasts). The results obtained were compared with standard antibiotic: Ciprofloxacin and the standard antifungal drug: Amphotericin-B.

  14. Relation of Core Dominance Parameter and Extended Spectral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The correlations between differences of two core dominance parameters and core/extended spectral index are investigated. The extended spectral index is associated with the differences very well, while there is a weak relationship between core spectral index and the differences. The average core ...

  15. New GOES High-Res Magnetic Measurements: Spectral Properties and Studies of Field Line Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Abdelqader, A.; Chi, P. J.; Singer, H. J.; Boudouridis, A.; Tilton, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present on our efforts to create a new 20+ year archive of science-quality, high-cadence geostationary measurements of the magnetic field from eight NOAA spacecraft, GOES-8 through GOES-15 and on scientific findings afforded by the new data set. The era of NOAA operational, high-resolution observations of the geomagnetic field started with GOES-8 in 1995 and continues to this day with GOES-13-16 (on-orbit). Uses of these geomagnetic observations are diverse. They provide an early warning of impending space weather, they are the core geostationary data set used for the construction of empirical models of the geomagnetic field and their spectral properties are used to develop estimates of electromagnetic wave power in bands important for magnetospheric plasma processes. Many science grade improvements are being made across the GOES archive to unify the format and content from GOES-8 through the new GOES-R series. A majority of the 2 Hz GOES-8 through GOES-12 magnetic observations have never before been publicly accessible due to processing constraints. Now, a NOAA Big Earth Data Initiative project is underway to process these measurements starting from original telemetry records. Overall the new archive will include the highest temporal cadence, recomputed means, comprehensive documentation, the best calibration parameters, updated quality flagging, vector measurements in geophysically relevant coordinates (EPN, GSM, VDH), full ephemeris information, a unified standard format and public access. We have also developed spectral characterization tools for estimating power in standard bands, and detecting quasi-sinusoidal waves related to field-line resonances. We will present our initial findings in the context of past research, including in situ statistical properties and case studies where the oscillations along the same field line were observed simultaneously by GOES near the equator in the magnetosphere, the ST-5 satellites at low altitudes, and ground

  16. The Dental Aesthetic Index and Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need as Tools in Epidemiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre F. Drummond

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the validity and reproducibility of two occlusal indices for epidemiological studies—the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI and the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (DHC-IOTN for the identification of orthodontic treatment needs. The total of 131 study models was examined by an examiner (orthodontic specialist for the determination of the DAI and DHC-IOTN. Thirty days later, further assessment was performed to determine the reproducibility. The duration of each exam was measured in seconds with a stopwatch. The indices were compared by a panel of three experts in orthodontics to evaluate validity. The intra-examiner reliability evaluation resulted in an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the DAI (95% CI = 0.64 to 1.0 and 0.87 for the DHC-IOTN (95% CI = 0.56 to 0.96. The time spent on the evaluation of the DHC-IOTN was less than the time spent on that of the DAI (P < 0.001. The accuracy of the indices, as reflected by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, was 61% for the DAI (95% CI = 51 to 70; p = 0.037 and 67% for the DHC-IOTN (95% CI = 58 to 77; p = 0.001. Both indices presented good reproducibility and validity.

  17. Spectral Generation from the Ames Mars GCM for the Study of Martian Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, David R.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Wolff, Michael J.; Haberle, Robert; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2017-10-01

    Studies of martian clouds come from two distinct groups of researchers: those modeling the martian system from first principles and those observing Mars from ground-based and orbital platforms. The model-view begins with global circulation models (GCMs) or mesoscale models to track a multitude of state variables over a prescribed set of spatial and temporal resolutions. The state variables can then be processed into distinct maps of derived product variables, such as integrated optical depth of aerosol (e.g., water ice cloud, dust) or column integrated water vapor for comparison to observational results. The observer view begins, typically, with spectral images or imaging spectra, calibrated to some form of absolute units then run through some form of radiative transfer model to also produce distinct maps of derived product variables. Both groups of researchers work to adjust model parameters and assumptions until some level of agreement in derived product variables is achieved. While this system appears to work well, it is in some sense only an implicit confirmation of the model assumptions that attribute to the work from both sides. We have begun a project of testing the NASA Ames Mars GCM and key aerosol model assumptions more directly by taking the model output and creating synthetic TES-spectra from them for comparison to actual raw-reduced TES spectra. We will present some preliminary generated GCM spectra and TES comparisons.

  18. Infrared and electron spin resonance spectral studies of some copper purine and pyrimidine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Abd El-Kaway, Marwa Y.

    2013-02-01

    Copper guanine and barbital complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses and spectral measurements. The data typified the formation of stoichiometries 1:1 (M:L) with possible Cu-Cu interaction "association". The complexes are with different geometries: square planar, square pyramidal and tetrahedral. The mode of bonding was identified by IR spectra. EPR spectra of the powdered complexes were recorded at X band at the room temperature. Different ESR parameters were calculated and discussed: g//, g⊥, A//, , G, F, K, α2. Molecular modeling techniques and quantum chemical methods have been performed for copper complexes to correlate the chemical structures of the complexes with their physical molecular properties. Bond lengths, bond orders, bond angles, dihedral angles, close contact, dipole moment (μ), sum of the total negative charge (STNC), electronegativity (χ), chemical potential (Pi), global hardness (η), softness (σ), the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO) and the energy gap (ΔE) were calculated using PM3 semi-empirical and Molecular Mechanics (MM+) methods. The study displays a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental data which confirms the reliability of the quantum chemical methods.

  19. Spectral studies of erbium doped soda lime silicate glasses in visible and near infrared regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.; Surana, S. S. L.; Singh, R. K.; Dubedi, R. P.

    2007-02-01

    Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of Er 3+ doped soda lime silicate glasses of the composition (in wt.%) 68.94SiO 2-22.55Na 2O-1.91CaO-4.96K 2O-0.85B 2O 3-0.29As 2O 3- xEr 2O 3 where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 have been studied in the UV-VIS/NIR regions. From the measured intensities of the various absorption bands of these glasses, the Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 have been evaluated. Judd-Ofelt theory has been successfully applied to characterize the absorption and luminescence spectra of these glasses. From this theory various radiative properties like spontaneous emission probability, radiative life time, fluorescence branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section for various emission bands of these glasses in the visible and NIR spectral regions have been determined and reported. An attempt has been made to through some light on the environment of Er 3+ in this glass system. Radiative properties of fluorescence band at ˜1.54 μm suggest the suitability of this glass system for broadband amplifier in the third telecom window.

  20. A study of flow patterns for staggered cylinders at low Reynolds number by spectral element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Lin; Ye, Jian-Zhi [National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the pattern of flow past two staggered array cylinders using the spectral element method by varying the distance between the cylinders and the angle of incidence (α) at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 100-800). Six flow patterns are identified as Shear layer reattachment (SLR), Induced separation (IS), Vortex impingement (VI), Synchronized vortex shedding (SVS), Vortex pairing and enveloping (VPE), and Vortex pairing splitting and enveloping (VPSE). These flow patterns can be transformed from one to another by changing the distance between the cylinders, the angle of incidence, or Re. SLR, IS and VI flow patterns appear in regimes with small angles of incidence (i.e., α ≤ 30° ) and hold only a single von Karman vortex shedding in a wake with one shedding frequency. SVS, VPE and VPSE flow patterns appear in regimes with large angles of incidence (i.e., 30° ≤ α ≤ 50° ) and present two synchronized von Karman vortices. Quantitative analyses and physical interpretation are also conducted to determine the generation mechanisms of the said flow patterns.

  1. Molecular structure, vibrational spectral analysis, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and conformational studies of ninhydrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Anitha Rexalin, D.

    2013-03-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational spectra of ninhydrin have been recorded in the range 4000-400 cm-1and 3600-50 cm-1, respectively. A detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, atomic charges, dipole moment, rotational constants and several thermodynamic parameters in the ground state are calculated using ab initio HF and density functional B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set combination. In order to find the most optimized geometry, the energy calculations are carried out for various possible conformers. Keto and enol forms of ninhydrin are also studied. The condensed summary of the principal NBOs shows the occupancy, orbital energy and the qualitative pattern of delocalization interactions of ninhydrin. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies reveal that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The predicted first hyperpolarizability also shows that the ninhydrin molecule have good optical quality and nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior. With the help of specific scaling procedures, the observed vibrational wave numbers in FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule.

  2. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  3. A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole: Microwave assisted synthesis, spectral, thermal, XRD and biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmane, S. V.; Ubale, V. P.; Lawand, A. S.; Nalawade, A. M.; Karale, N. N.; More, P. G.

    2013-11-01

    A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole (CPAT) has been synthesized by reacting o-chloroacetophenone, iodine and thiourea under microwave irradiation as a green chemistry approach. The reactions proceed selectively and within a couple of minutes giving high yields of the products. The compound was characterized by elemental, spectral (UV-visible, IR, NMR and GC-MS), XRD and thermal analyses. The TG curve of the compound was analyzed to calculate various kinetic parameters (n, E, Z, ΔS and ΔG) by using Coats-Redfern (C.R.), MacCallum-Tanner (M.T.) and Horowitz-Metzger (H.M.) method. The compound was tested for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans. The compound was evaluated for their in vitro nematicidal activity on plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and molluscicidal activity on fresh water helminthiasis vector snail Lymnea auricularia. The compound is biologically active in very low concentration. X-ray diffraction study suggests a triclinic crystal system for the compound.

  4. Spectral and time-resolved photoluminescence studies of Eu-doped GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyein, Ei Ei; Hömmerich, U.; Heikenfeld, J.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Zavada, J. M.

    2003-03-01

    We report on spectral and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies performed on Eu-doped GaN prepared by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. Using above-gap excitation, the integrated PL intensity of the main Eu3+ line at 622.3 nm (5D0→7F2 transition) decreased by nearly 90% between 14 K and room temperature. Using below-gap excitation, the integrated intensity of this line decreased by only ˜50% for the same temperature range. In addition, the Eu3+ PL spectrum and decay dynamics changed significantly compared to above-gap excitation. These results suggest the existence of different Eu3+ centers with distinct optical properties. Photoluminescence excitation measurements revealed resonant intra-4f absorption lines of Eu3+ ions, as well as a broad excitation band centered at ˜400 nm. This broad excitation band overlaps higher lying intra-4f Eu3+ energy levels, providing an efficient pathway for carrier-mediated excitation of Eu3+ ions in GaN.

  5. IR spectral similarity studies of geothermal silica-bentonite based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvianas, Muhammad; Widiyatmoko, Achmad; Petrus, Himawan Tri Bayu Murti

    2017-09-01

    The geopolymer structures are formed through polymerization of silicate and aluminate species. The resulted structure is predicted to be similar with zeolite. In this study, geopolymer samples were made from mix powder of geothermal silica and bentonite, then activated with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. The effect of silica content, NaOH molarity and curing temperature effect were investigated on geopolymer IR spectra and compared with 3A zeolite IR spectra. Pearson correlation value (r) and spectral similarity correlation (Corr) were used to assess spectra similarity between geopolymer samples and zeolite. The development of geopolymer bond and microstructure of samples were then investigated by FTIR technique. IR spectra of geopolymer samples show that Si-O-Al absorption bands are formed around 900-1300 cm-1 and 400-800 cm-1. The optimum of silica contents, NaOH molarity and curing temperature obtained from the experiment were 140 grams, 10 M and 80°C with Corr value of 922 and compressive strength of 7,59 MPa. Corr value is proven to have relation with material strength. Higher Corr value is identified to have higher aluminosilicate species which contributes to higher compressive strength.

  6. An Exercise on Calibration: DRIFTS Study of Binary Mixtures of Calcite and Dolomite with Partially Overlapping Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi Pezzolo, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most spectroscopic calibrations that are based on the study of well-separated features ascribable to the different components, this laboratory experience is especially designed to exploit spectral features that are nearly overlapping. The investigated system consists of a binary mixture of two commonly occurring minerals, calcite and…

  7. Improving classification accuracy of spectrally similar tree species: a complex case study in the Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation to the SASA Eastern Cape Chapter at Rhodes University studies the variability within a species class and the variability between the species classes of seven spectrally similar tree species and presents ways in which the within...

  8. Stopped-flow studies of spectral changes in human serum albumin following an alkaline pH jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    1987-01-01

    A stopped-flow technique was used to study the spectral changes occurring in albumin following a pH jump from 11.3 to 11.8 at 25 degrees C. Ultraviolet difference spectra between various albumin species participating in the process are reported. These spectra are similar in shape to the difference...

  9. Structural, spectral and birefringence studies of semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal: Calcium5-sulfosalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, D.; Kalainathan, S.; Ambika, V. Revathi; Hema, N.; Jayalakshmi, D.

    2017-11-01

    Semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal Calcium5-Sulfosalicylate (CA5SS) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The cell parameters and molecular structure of the grown crystal were studied by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of various functional groups of the grown crystal was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that CA5SS crystals have high transmittance in the range of 330-900 nm. The refractive index, birefringence and transient photoluminescence properties of the grown crystal were analyzed. The frequency doubling of the grown crystal (CA5SS) were studied and compared with that of KDP.

  10. A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Chand Jain; Rameshwar Prasad Gupta; Deepak Gupta; Madhu Kanta Jain

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index is also known as obesity index. Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. The present study has been done with the objective of finding correlation ...

  11. A new diagnostic index for bacterial conjunctivitis in primary care. A re-derivation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Henk C P M; Tellegen, Ellinore; Ter Riet, Gerben

    2014-09-01

    Eighty per cent of primary care patients with infectious conjunctivitis are treated with antibiotics, although in only 30%, there is a bacterial cause. An accurate diagnostic index to distinguish bacterial from viral conjunctivitis may help reduce unnecessary antibiotics. To validate and, if necessary, improve an existing diagnostic index for bacterial conjunctivitis. Non-experimental validation and updating study of an existing diagnostic index in Dutch General Practice. We collected 210 adult patients with incident symptoms suggestive for acute infectious conjunctivitis. GPs completed a standardized questionnaire and a physical examination of the eye(s) and took a conjunctival sample for culture. Cultures were analysed masked for the GPs' findings. On bad performance of the existing index on the new patients, we developed a new index combining the dataset on which the original model had been developed (n = 176) and the new dataset (n = 210). Bootstrapped backward variable selection and shrinkage of regression coefficients was used to protect the new index against bad performance in future patients. The bacterial culture was positive in 36.3%. The items age and number of glued eyes at awakening were consistent predictors. This model classified 48% (107/386) of patients at a low ( 70%) chance. Correction of a previously derived diagnostic index for bacterial conjunctivitis yielded a simple index, based on history only. The index is potentially useful to rule out bacterial conjunctivitis in patients below 50 years of age with no history of glued eyes at awakening. This study underscores the importance of external validation of diagnostic indices.

  12. Identification of a Robust Lichen Index for the Deconvolution of Lichen and Rock Mixtures Using Pattern Search Algorithm (case Study: Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S.; Karami, M.; Fensholt, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lichens are the dominant autotrophs of polar and subpolar ecosystems commonly encrust the rock outcrops. Spectral mixing of lichens and bare rock can shift diagnostic spectral features of materials of interest thus leading to misinterpretation and false positives if mapping is done based on perfect spectral matching methodologies. Therefore, the ability to distinguish the lichen coverage from rock and decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of pure reflectance spectra, can improve the applicability of hyperspectral methods for mineral exploration. The objective of this study is to propose a robust lichen index that can be used to estimate lichen coverage, regardless of the mineral composition of the underlying rocks. The performance of three index structures of ratio, normalized ratio and subtraction have been investigated using synthetic linear mixtures of pure rock and lichen spectra with prescribed mixing ratios. Laboratory spectroscopic data are obtained from lichen covered samples collected from Karrat, Liverpool Land, and Sisimiut regions in Greenland. The spectra are then resampled to Hyperspectral Mapper (HyMAP) resolution, in order to further investigate the functionality of the indices for the airborne platform. In both resolutions, a Pattern Search (PS) algorithm is used to identify the optimal band wavelengths and bandwidths for the lichen index. The results of our band optimization procedure revealed that the ratio between R894-1246 and R1110 explains most of the variability in the hyperspectral data at the original laboratory resolution (R2=0.769). However, the normalized index incorporating R1106-1121 and R904-1251 yields the best results for the HyMAP resolution (R2=0.765).

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF A ROBUST LICHEN INDEX FOR THE DECONVOLUTION OF LICHEN AND ROCK MIXTURES USING PATTERN SEARCH ALGORITHM (CASE STUDY: GREENLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salehi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are the dominant autotrophs of polar and subpolar ecosystems commonly encrust the rock outcrops. Spectral mixing of lichens and bare rock can shift diagnostic spectral features of materials of interest thus leading to misinterpretation and false positives if mapping is done based on perfect spectral matching methodologies. Therefore, the ability to distinguish the lichen coverage from rock and decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of pure reflectance spectra, can improve the applicability of hyperspectral methods for mineral exploration. The objective of this study is to propose a robust lichen index that can be used to estimate lichen coverage, regardless of the mineral composition of the underlying rocks. The performance of three index structures of ratio, normalized ratio and subtraction have been investigated using synthetic linear mixtures of pure rock and lichen spectra with prescribed mixing ratios. Laboratory spectroscopic data are obtained from lichen covered samples collected from Karrat, Liverpool Land, and Sisimiut regions in Greenland. The spectra are then resampled to Hyperspectral Mapper (HyMAP resolution, in order to further investigate the functionality of the indices for the airborne platform. In both resolutions, a Pattern Search (PS algorithm is used to identify the optimal band wavelengths and bandwidths for the lichen index. The results of our band optimization procedure revealed that the ratio between R894-1246 and R1110 explains most of the variability in the hyperspectral data at the original laboratory resolution (R2=0.769. However, the normalized index incorporating R1106-1121 and R904-1251 yields the best results for the HyMAP resolution (R2=0.765.

  14. Study on the Characteristic Spectral Properties for Species Identification of Animal-Derived Feedstuff Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Simiao; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia; Liu, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the effective spectral bands related to lipid characteristics in spectra of raw animal-derived feedstuff and figure out which marked spectral regions (single or combined) contributed more to species discrimination. A total of 82 meat and bone meals, including porcine, poultry, bovine, ovine, and fish, were studied. Raw materials, extracted lipid, and defatted samples were simultaneously analyzed and calculated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods. Taking the spectra of lipid as references, five marked spectral regions considered the main lipid characteristic regions were found in the raw animal-derived feedstuff spectra. In the study, single and combined marked spectral bands were investigated and proved to have better performance than the whole spectra of raw terrestrial animal-derived feedstuff and fishmeal. For the discrimination of five animal species, the regions of 1800-1650 cm-1, 1500-1330 cm-1, 1260-1060 cm-1, and 790-640 cm-1 presented better results; for the classification of three categories, the regions of 3100-2800 cm-1, 1800-1650 cm-1, and 1500-1330 cm-1 showed the best results.

  15. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions; Le rayonnement de transition optique. I: etude numerique des distributions angulaires et spectrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G

    1999-07-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  16. Realization and study of spectral properties of the ISGRI gamma-ray camera; Mise en oeuvre et etude des proprietes spectrales de la gamma-camera ISGRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, O

    2001-11-01

    This work evaluates spectroscopic and physical properties of CdTe detectors in view of assembling a large number on a new generation spectro-imager for space gamma-ray astronomy. Study, optimization, realization and calibration of modular detection units of the ISGRI camera are described. After a description of the experimental context of the INTEGRAL program and a review of the physical processes involved in gamma-ray photon detectors, we present an analysis of the properties of CdTe detectors attempting to be so exhaustive as possible. We propose the base point of a global model, which relates charge transport properties, spectral response and possible instabilities in the detectors. We propose a new formulation of the Hecht relation that describes charge loss as a function of the detector charge transport properties. We discuss at length the method of charge loss correction and its consequences on the associated integrated electronics definition. Finally, we illustrate our instrument capabilities using as an example the observation of titanium 44 lines in historical supernovae. (author)

  17. Spectral, structural, optical and dielectrical studies of UV irradiated Rose Bengal thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeyada, H.M., E-mail: hzeyada@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Youssif, M.I.; El-Ghamaz, N.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Aboderbala, M.E.O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, University of Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, AlJabl Al Gharbi University (Libya)

    2017-02-01

    Optical properties of pristine and UV irradiated Rose Bengal (RB) films have been investigated using transmittance and reflectance methods. The refractive index(n) and extinction coefficient (k) have been calculated from the absolute values of transmission and reflection spectrum. Single oscillator parameters and Drude model of free carrier absorption have been applied for analysis of the refractive index dispersion. Within the frame work of the band-to-band electron transitions theory; the fundamental absorption edge data were analyzed. Our results suggest that thickness of RB films has no effect on the absorption or the refractive indices in the investigated thicknesses range and within the experimental error. Structural transformation of films from amorphous to polycrystalline has been observed upon UV irradiation. Accordingly, the decreases of all of the absorption coefficient, the energy gap and the refractive index of RB films have been detected. Furthermore, the dependence of the optical functions on UV exposure times has been discussed based on the spectral distribution of the dielectric constant.

  18. Ranking Romanian Academic Departments in Three Fields of Study Using the "g"-Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroiu, Adrian; Paunescu, Mihai; Vîiu, Gabriel-Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    The scientific performance of 64 political science, sociology and marketing departments in Romania is investigated with the aid of the "g"-index. The assessment of departments based on the "g"-index shows, within each of the three types of departments that make up the population of the study, a strong polarisation between top…

  19. Alveolar index as a means of skull classification: a radiological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alveolar index is an important parameter in intra and inter-ethnic classification of skull and in defining the positional relation of the maxilla to the mandible. The objective of the study was to evaluate the alveolar index of Nigerians using radiographs. 130 (90 males and 40 females) normal lateral view skull radiographs of ...

  20. Spectral, stoichiometric ratio, physicochemical, polarity and photostability studies of newly synthesized chalcone dye in organized media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwani, Hadi M., E-mail: hmarwani@kau.edu.sa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Salman A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-04-15

    The main focus of this study was to investigate spectroscopic properties, stoichiometric ratios, physicochemical parameters, polarity and photostability behaviors of newly synthesized chalcone dye in organized media. The chalcone dye, 1-(2,5-Dimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)-3-(9-etnyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-propenone (DTEP), was prepared by the reaction of carbazole aldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethythiophene. Data obtained from FT-IR, {sup 1}H-–NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and elemental analysis were consistent with chemical structure of newly prepared DTEP. Increases in fluorescence intensities of DTEP with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were observed. In comparison of fluorescence intensities for DTEP with CTAB, reductions in fluorescence intensities for DTEP with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were noticed under the same experimental and instrumental conditions. Additionally, Benesi–Hildebrand method was applied to determine stoichiometric ratios and association constants of DTEP with CTAB and SDS. Stern–Volmer plot was used in order to further confirm the stoichiometric ratio and association constant of DTEP with SDS. Physicochemical parameters such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, oscillator strength, dipole moment and fluorescence quantum yield of DTEP were also determined. Fluorescence polarity study displayed that DTEP was sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents. Finally, fluorescence steady-state measurements revealed that DTEP has high photostability against photobleaching. -- Highlights: ► Mechanistic understanding of molecular structure of newly synthesized chalcone dye. ► Exploring spectral behaviors and physicochemical parameters of chalcone dye. ► Determination of stoichiometric ratios and association constants of chalcone dye. ► Determination of fluorescence quantum yield in different solvents. ► High photostability against photobleaching of chalcone dye was observed.

  1. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika K; Ranjbar, Sara; Wu, Teresa; Pockaj, Barbara A; Li, Jing; Zhang, Nan; Lobbes, Mark; Zhang, Bin; Mitchell, J Ross

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of a computer-aided diagnosis-contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CAD-CESM) tool can further increase the diagnostic performance of CESM compared with that of experienced radiologists. This IRB-approved retrospective study analyzed 50 lesions described on CESM from August 2014 to December 2015. Histopathologic analyses, used as the criterion standard, revealed 24 benign and 26 malignant lesions. An expert breast radiologist manually outlined lesion boundaries on the different views. A set of morphologic and textural features were then extracted from the low-energy and recombined images. Machine-learning algorithms with feature selection were used along with statistical analysis to reduce, select, and combine features. Selected features were then used to construct a predictive model using a support vector machine (SVM) classification method in a leave-one-out-cross-validation approach. The classification performance was compared against the diagnostic predictions of 2 breast radiologists with access to the same CESM cases. Based on the SVM classification, CAD-CESM correctly identified 45 of 50 lesions in the cohort, resulting in an overall accuracy of 90%. The detection rate for the malignant group was 88% (3 false-negative cases) and 92% for the benign group (2 false-positive cases). Compared with the model, radiologist 1 had an overall accuracy of 78% and a detection rate of 92% (2 false-negative cases) for the malignant group and 62% (10 false-positive cases) for the benign group. Radiologist 2 had an overall accuracy of 86% and a detection rate of 100% for the malignant group and 71% (8 false-positive cases) for the benign group. The results of our feasibility study suggest that a CAD-CESM tool can provide complementary information to radiologists, mainly by reducing the number of false-positive findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral optimization of warm-white light-emitting diode lamp with both color rendering index (CRI and special CRI of R9 above 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing He

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimal spectra of the warm-white LED (WWLED lamp consisting of AlGaInP red LED and the p-W LED packaged by combining silicate green and orange phosphors with a InGaN blue LED die was obtained by nonlinear program for maximizing the luminous efficacy of radiation while both color rendering index (CRI and special CRI of R9 for strong red above 90 at correlated color temeratures (CCTs of 2700 K. The optimal peak wavelengths of red LED, blue LED die, silicate green and orange phosphors are 626 nm, 454 nm, 535 nm and 584 nm, respectively. Their optimal relative radation fluxs are 9.7%, 33.4 %, 26.1 %, 30.8 %, respectively. The real WWLED lamp with CCT of 2653 K, CRI of 90, R9 of 94 and R(9-12 of 88, as well as luminous efficacy (LE of 80.2 lm/W have been realized. Furthermore, the WWLED lamp can realized CCT tunable warm-white-light with CRIs of 86 ∼ 93, R9s of 86 ∼ 95 and LEs of 78.2 ∼ 80.3 lm/W at CCTs of 2392 K to 3014 K by adjusting drive current of the red LED.

  4. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  5. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  6. Study on the key technology of spectral reflectance reconstruction based on a single pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Zhang, Haojun; Zhang, Leihong; Kang, Yi; Zhan, Wenjie; Yi, Wenjuan; Zhang, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    In order to realize an accurate reconstruction of images, this article explores image reconstruction from a spectrum point of view. Combined with a principal component analysis method and compressed sensing algorithm, this article puts forward a spectral reflectance reconstruction algorithm based on a single pixel detector, and compares the different modulation matrixes for DMD in the experiment. From subjective evaluation and three objective evaluation methods: color difference, peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity, we compare and analyze the reconstruction effects of two modulation methods: random modulation and Hadamard modulation. The experimental results show that the color difference of the spectral reflectance reconstruction method of a single pixel detector based on random modulation is smaller, the similarity of the structure is higher, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio is greater than Hadamard modulation. To sum up, the spectral reflectance reconstruction algorithm of a single pixel detector based on random modulation is better than Hadamard modulation, which is more conducive to an accurate reconstruction of spectral reflectance.

  7. Time, space, and spectrally resolved studies on J-aggregate interactions in zeolite L nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, Michael; Blum, Christian; Tibben, Marc; Fibikar, Sandra; Calzaferri, Gion; Subramaniam, Vinod; De Cola, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Temporally and spectrally resolved confocal microscopy has been used to explore the behavior of pyronine intercalated zeolite L crystals at different loadings. The low pyronine loading of 0.6% exhibits photophysical behavior similar to that of the free molecule in solution, indicating molecules are

  8. 31 P-NMR, 77 Se-NMR and mass spectral studies on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of aminophosphines were prepared by controlled condensation reaction between PCl3 or PhPCl2 and amines, and they were converted into the corresponding chalcogenides. 31P-NMR and mass spectral data were collected for characterization of these asymmetrically substituted phosphines, and in addition, ...

  9. Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

  10. EPR and UV spectral study of gamma-irradiated white and burned sugar, fructose and glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Georgieva, Elka

    2004-05-01

    The EPR and UV spectral properties of γ-irradiated white and burned sugar, fructose and glucose are studied with the accent on their suitability as dosimetric materials. It is shown that γ-irradiation of solid samples of white sugar and fructose yields stable EPR spectra whereas glucose signal remains time-dependent even 11 months later. Sugar and glucose exhibit linear EPR dose response in the region 0.44-21 kGy and fructose only up to ca. 10 kGy. The relative radiation sensitivity obtained for sugar and fructose is up to 10 kGy and slightly lower for glucose. Burned saccharides provide 2-3 orders of magnitude lower EPR radiation sensitivity making them not suitable for the proposed designation. According to the UV spectra water solutions of γ-irradiated solid white saccharides show well pronounced absorption bands at 267 and 286 nm for sugar and fructose with time-dependent intensities reaching steady values ca. 11 days after dissolution. The intensities of these absorption bands are in linear relation with the absorbed dose of γ-radiation. Glucose shows low sensitively because irradiation with 5.5 kGy yields only a shoulder at about 260-280 nm with decreasing to ca. 40% intensity in the first few days after dissolution. Excellent correlation between the intensities of the EPR- and UV-absorbed dose response is found for sugar and fructose in the region 0.44-10 kGy. This opens new possibilities for independent calibration the EPR dose response. Finally, the comparison suggests sugar as the best, universal material for EPR- and/or UV-dosimetry in the region 0.44-160 kGy.

  11. Accuracy of bone mineral density quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Harder, Annemarie M. den; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de; Willemink, Martin J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Engelke, Klaus [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Keizer, Bart de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, Harald J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    To investigate the accuracy of bone mineral density (BMD) quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) at various scan protocols. Two validated anthropomorphic phantoms containing inserts of 50-200 mg/cm{sup 3} calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were scanned using a 64-slice SDCT scanner at various acquisition protocols (120 and 140 kVp, and 50, 100 and 200 mAs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in each insert and mean attenuation profiles at monochromatic energy levels (90-200 keV) were constructed. These profiles were fitted to attenuation profiles of pure HA and water to calculate HA concentrations. For comparison, one phantom was scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations (R = 0.97, P < 0.001) were found between true and measured HA concentrations. Mean error for all measurements at 120 kVp was -5.6 ± 5.7 mg/cm{sup 3} (-3.6 ± 3.2%) and at 140 kVp -2.4 ± 3.7 mg/cm{sup 3} (-0.8 ± 2.8%). Mean measurement errors were smaller than 6% for all acquisition protocols. Strong linear correlations (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.970, P < 0.001) with DXA were found. SDCT allows for accurate BMD quantification and potentially opens up the possibility for osteoporosis evaluation and opportunistic screening in patients undergoing SDCT for other clinical indications. However, patient studies are needed to extend and translate our findings. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, potentiometric and antimicrobial studies of transition metal complexes of tridentate ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika M. Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of metal complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, Fe(III and Mn(II have been synthesized with newly synthesized biologically active tridentate ligand. The ligand was synthesized by condensation of dehydroacetic acid (3-acetyl-6-methyl-(2H pyran-2,4(3H-dione or DHA, o-phenylene diamine and fluoro benzaldehyde and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, IR, 1H-NMR, UV–Vis spectroscopy and mass spectra. From the analytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:2 (metal:ligand with octahedral geometry. The molar conductance values suggest the non-electrolyte nature of metal complexes. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as a dibasic tridentate ligand with ONN donor atoms sequence towards central metal ion. Thermal behaviour (TG/DTA and kinetic parameters calculated by the Coats–Redfern and Horowitz–Metzger method suggest more ordered activated state in complex formation. To investigate the relationship between stability constants of metal complexes and antimicrobial activity, the dissociation constants of Schiff bases and stability constants of their binary metal complexes have been determined potentiometrically in THF–water (60:40% solution at 25 ± 1 °C and at 0.1 M NaClO4 ionic strength. The potentiometric study suggests 1:1 and 1:2 complexation. Antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro were performed against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma, respectively. The stability constants of the metal complexes were calculated by the Irving–Rosotti method. A relation between the stability constant and antimicrobial activity of complexes has been discussed. It is observed that the activity enhances upon complexation and the order of antifungal activity is in accordance with stability order of metal ions.

  13. High Spectral Resolution Infrared Studies of Titan: Winds, Temperature and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Fast, K. E.; Hewagama, T.; Annen, J.; Buhl, D.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Results from the most recent analyses of resolved ethane Line emission profiles from the stratosphere of Titan, measured before (2003) [1, 2], near the time of (2005) [3, 4], and after (2008) Huygens descent, will be presented. Wind velocity, temperature and ethane abundance are retrieved from 11.7 micron measurements at spectral resolving, powers > 1000000 using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) interfaced with the 8.2 meter Subaru telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Retrieved wind velocities (approx.190 m/s at 230 km) from Doppler shifts of measured emission lines are compared to previous infrared heterodyne studies and compared to results front either direct wired measurements - Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment [5], Doppler shifts of reflected visible radiation [6], and mm-wave investigations [7]. Comparison to indirect wind retrievals from stellar occultation [8] observations and Cassini CIRS thermal maps [9] is also made, An empirical altitude-dependent wired model will be presented. The narrow ethane emission lines are analyzed to retrieve the ethane mole fraction and an attempt is made to evaluate the altitude distribution of ethane in the stratosphere for thermal profiles derived from measurements from Cassini and Huygens. Resultant ethane altitude distributions will be discussed and comparison to results front earlier HIPWAC and other remote sensing measurements and from contemporaneous Cassini/Huygens investigations [10, 11] will be made. Preliminary comparison suggests temporal or spatial variability in the line emission and retrieved ethane abundance in Titan's stratosphere:. Possible detection of minor hydrocarbon constituents and evidence of possible probing of Titan's mesosphere and of mesospheric wind shear will be discussed.

  14. MULTI-WAVELENGTH POLARIMETRY AND SPECTRAL STUDY OF THE M87 JET DURING 2002–2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avachat, Sayali S.; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Boulevard, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Adams, Steven C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30605 (United States); Cara, Mihai; Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Owen, Frazer [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Array Operations Center, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present a multi-wavelength polarimetric and spectral study of the M87 jet obtained at sub-arcsecond resolution between 2002 and 2008. The observations include multi-band archival VLA polarimetry data sets along with Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) imaging polarimetry. These observations have better angular resolution than previous work by factors of 2–3 and in addition, allow us to explore the time domain. These observations envelop the huge flare in HST-1 located 0.″86 from the nucleus. The increased resolution enables us to view more structure in each knot, showing several resolved sub-components. We also see apparent helical structure in the polarization vectors in several knots, with polarization vectors turning either clockwise or counterclockwise near the flux maxima in various places as well as showing filamentary undulations. Some of these characteristics are correlated with flux and polarization maxima while others are not. We also examine the total flux and fractional polarization and look for changes in both radio and optical since the observations of Perlman et al. (1999) and test them against various models based on shocks and instabilities in the jet. Our results are broadly consistent with previous spine-sheath models and recollimation shock models; however, they require additional combinations of features to explain the observed complexity, e.g., shearing of magnetic field lines near the jet surface and compression of the toroidal component near shocks. In particular, in many regions we find apparently helical features both in total flux and polarization. We discuss the physical interpretation of these features.

  15. Multi-wavelength Polarimetry and Spectral Study of the M87 Jet During 2002-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Sayali S.; Perlman, Eric S.; Adams, Steven C.; Cara, Mihai; Owen, Frazer; Sparks, William B.; Georganopoulos, Markos

    2016-11-01

    We present a multi-wavelength polarimetric and spectral study of the M87 jet obtained at sub-arcsecond resolution between 2002 and 2008. The observations include multi-band archival VLA polarimetry data sets along with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging polarimetry. These observations have better angular resolution than previous work by factors of 2-3 and in addition, allow us to explore the time domain. These observations envelop the huge flare in HST-1 located 0.″86 from the nucleus. The increased resolution enables us to view more structure in each knot, showing several resolved sub-components. We also see apparent helical structure in the polarization vectors in several knots, with polarization vectors turning either clockwise or counterclockwise near the flux maxima in various places as well as showing filamentary undulations. Some of these characteristics are correlated with flux and polarization maxima while others are not. We also examine the total flux and fractional polarization and look for changes in both radio and optical since the observations of Perlman et al. (1999) and test them against various models based on shocks and instabilities in the jet. Our results are broadly consistent with previous spine-sheath models and recollimation shock models; however, they require additional combinations of features to explain the observed complexity, e.g., shearing of magnetic field lines near the jet surface and compression of the toroidal component near shocks. In particular, in many regions we find apparently helical features both in total flux and polarization. We discuss the physical interpretation of these features. Based on the observations made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Hubble Sapce Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.

  16. Using Visible Spectral Information to Predict Long-Wave Infrared Spectral Emissivity: A Case Study over the Sokolov Area of the Czech Republic with an Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing platforms are often comprised of a cluster of different spectral range detectors or sensors to benefit from the spectral identification capabilities of each range. Missing data from these platforms, caused by problematic weather conditions, such as clouds, sensor failure, low temporal coverage or a narrow field of view (FOV, is one of the problems preventing proper monitoring of the Earth. One of the possible solutions is predicting a detector or sensor’s missing data using another detector/sensor. In this paper, we propose a new method of predicting spectral emissivity in the long-wave infrared (LWIR spectral region using the visible (VIS spectral region. The proposed method is suitable for two main scenarios of missing data: sensor malfunctions and narrow FOV. We demonstrate the usefulness and limitations of this prediction scheme using the airborne hyperspectral scanner (AHS sensor, which consists of both VIS and LWIR spectral regions, in a case study over the Sokolov area, Czech Republic.

  17. The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone: a DFT/TD-DFT and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud; Al-Balawi, Mona

    2014-08-07

    The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone (NIF), a pyrazole-nicotinamide drug, were experimentally and computationally investigated in several neat solvents and in hydro-organic binary systems such as water-acetonitrile and water-dioxane systems. The bathochromic spectral shift observed in NIF absorption spectra when reducing the polarity of the solvent was correlated with the orientation polarizability (Δf). Unlike aprotic solvents, a satisfactory correlation between λ(max) and Δf was determined (linear correlation of regression coefficient, R, equal to 0.93) for polar protic solvents. In addition, the medium-dependent spectral properties were correlated with the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (α, β, and π*) by applying a multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA). The results obtained from this analysis were then employed to establish MLRA relationships for NIF in order to estimate the spectral shift in different solvents, which in turn exhibited excellent correlation (R > 0.99) with the experimental values of ν(max). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT theory calculations coupled with the integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) were performed to investigate the solvent-dependent spectral and geometrical properties of NIF. The calculations showed good and poor agreements with the experimental results using the CAM-B3LYP and B3LYP functionals, respectively. Experimental and theoretical results confirmed that the chemical properties of NIF are strongly dependent on the polarity of the chosen medium and its hydrogen bonding capability. This in turn supports the hypothesis of the delocalization of the electron density within the pyrazole ring of NIF.

  18. [Study on Application of NIR Spectral Information Screening in Identification of Maca Origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang

    2016-02-01

    Medicinal and edible plant Maca is rich in various nutrients and owns great medicinal value. Based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra, 139 Maca samples collected from Peru and Yunnan were used to identify their geographical origins. Multiplication signal correction (MSC) coupled with second derivative (SD) and Norris derivative filter (ND) was employed in spectral pretreatment. Spectrum range (7,500-4,061 cm⁻¹) was chosen by spectrum standard deviation. Combined with principal component analysis-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD), the appropriate number of principal components was selected as 5. Based on the spectrum range and the number of principal components selected, two abnormal samples were eliminated by modular group iterative singular sample diagnosis method. Then, four methods were used to filter spectral variable information, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), monte carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and subwindow permutation analysis (SPA). The spectral variable information filtered was evaluated by model population analysis (MPA). The results showed that RMSECV(SPA) > RMSECV(CARS) > RMSECV(MC-UVE) > RMSECV(GA), were 2. 14, 2. 05, 2. 02, and 1. 98, and the spectral variables were 250, 240, 250 and 70, respectively. According to the spectral variable filtered, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build the model, with random selection of 97 samples as training set, and the other 40 samples as validation set. The results showed that, R²: GA > MC-UVE > CARS > SPA, RMSEC and RMSEP: GA Maca. The method was aimed to lay the foundation for traditional Chinese medicine identification and quality evaluation.

  19. A new method study of spectral measurement and prediction based on the nonlinear solution concentration of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Xie, Lei; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Liu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Bao-Liang; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Hong-Wei

    2017-07-01

    The configuration and the detection of solution concentration are the basic steps of scientific research. Most of solution concentrations can be obtained by indirect method. In this paper, by using the numerical relationship known between the alcohol concentration and refractive index, the relationship between the alcohol concentration and spectral transmission characteristics of the resonance peak can be calculated. The relationship between transmittance and concentration of alcohol solution can be described in a certain nonlinear mathematical expression, which is simple and inversible. Such method provides a novel way to detect alcohol solution concentration and puts forward the expression of the nonlinear correction. The linear relationship that has been using for long time is revised. And it can be reasonable to predict relative parameter that is unknown. This paper provides a new way to reasonable configuration and application for the concentration of solution.

  20. Spectral and DFT studies of anion bound organic receptors: Time dependent studies and logic gate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangannaya, Srikala; Purayil, Neethu Padinchare; Dabhi, Shweta; Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K; Shinde, Satyam; Trivedi, Darshak R

    2017-01-01

    New colorimetric receptors R1 and R2 with varied positional substitution of a cyano and nitro signaling unit having a hydroxy functionality as the hydrogen bond donor site have been designed, synthesized and characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The receptors R1 and R2 exhibit prominent visual response for F(-) and AcO(-) ions allowing the real time analysis of these ions in aqueous media. The formation of the receptor-anion complexes has been supported by UV-vis titration studies and confirmed through binding constant calculations. The anion binding process follows a first order rate equation and the calculated rate constants reveal a higher order of reactivity for AcO(-) ions. The (1)H NMR titration and TDDFT studies provide full support of the binding mechanism. The Hg(2+) and F(-) ion sensing property of receptor R1 has been utilized to arrive at "AND" and "INHIBIT" molecular logic gate applications.

  1. Spectral and DFT studies of anion bound organic receptors: Time dependent studies and logic gate applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikala Pangannaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New colorimetric receptors R1 and R2 with varied positional substitution of a cyano and nitro signaling unit having a hydroxy functionality as the hydrogen bond donor site have been designed, synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The receptors R1 and R2 exhibit prominent visual response for F− and AcO– ions allowing the real time analysis of these ions in aqueous media. The formation of the receptor–anion complexes has been supported by UV–vis titration studies and confirmed through binding constant calculations. The anion binding process follows a first order rate equation and the calculated rate constants reveal a higher order of reactivity for AcO− ions. The 1H NMR titration and TDDFT studies provide full support of the binding mechanism. The Hg2+ and F− ion sensing property of receptor R1 has been utilized to arrive at “AND” and “INHIBIT” molecular logic gate applications.

  2. Measuring Scholastic Production by Dermatopathologists Using the H-Index: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Garth R

    2017-10-16

    Academic advancement in dermatopathology requires evidence of scientific production. The H-index is a useful bibliometric for measuring scientific production because it weights both volume and impact of an individual's scholastic production. The H-index distribution among academic dermatopathologists is unknown. In this cross-sectional study of 299 dermatopathologists with academic appointments in North America, H-index, publication counts, and citation counts were retrieved from Thomas Reuters Web of Science. Analytic statistics were performed to identify best predictors of academic rank and cutoff points between academic ranks. The H-index was a superior predictor of overall academic rank than publication or citation counts. The median H-index for assistant, associate, and full professors was 4, 6, and 11, respectively. H-index cutoff scores of 8 and 10 favored associate and full professor rank, respectively. These data provide benchmarks for dermatopathologists to gauge their scientific productivity against that of their peers. Although advancement decisions will depend on a careful examination of the scope and impact of a candidate's work, assistant professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >7 and associate professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >9 may wish to consider application for promotion.

  3. Ankle-Brachial Index as a Predictor of Mortality in Hemodialysis: A 5-Year Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jair Baptista Miguel; Jorge Paulo Strogoff de Matos; Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon

    Abstract Background: Abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) has been found to be a strong predictor of mortality in some hemodialysis populations in studies with relatively short periods of follow-up, lower than 2 years. Objective...

  4. Spectral studies related to dissociation of HBr, HCl and BrO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Concern over halogen catalyzed decomposition of O3 in the upper atmosphere has generated need for data on the atomic and molecular species X, HX and XO (where X is Cl and Br). Of special importance are Cl produced from freon decomposition and Cl and Br produced from natural processes and from other industrial and agricultural chemicals. Basic spectral data is provided on HCl, HBr, and BrO necessary to detect specific states and energy levels, to enable detailed modeling of the processes involving molecular dissociation, ionization, etc., and to help evaluate field experiments to check the validity of model calculations for these species in the upper atmosphere. Results contained in four published papers and two major spectral compilations are summarized together with other results obtained.

  5. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    In this PhD project new ultrasound techniques for blood flow measurements have been investigated in-vivo. The focus has mainly been on vector velocity techniques and four different approaches have been examined: Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane...... estimate blood velocities angle independently with a high frame rate. Complex vessel geometries in the cardiovascular system were explored in-vivo on four volunteers using the technique. Flow patterns previously visualized with magnetic resonance angiography and predicted by models of computational fluid...... Wave Excitation. Furthermore two different adaptive spectral estimators have been investigated: Blood spectral Power Capon method (BPC) and Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation method (BAPES). The novel techniques investigated in this thesis are developed to circumvent some of the main limitations...

  6. Microwave Synthesis Under Solvent-Free Conditions and Spectral Studies of Some Mesoporphyrinic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of A3B and A4 type mesoporphyrinic complexes were synthesized with superior yields using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. The structures of the complexes were confirmed using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and NMR spectral data. The influence of environmental polarity on spectral properties of the mesoporphyrinic complexes was investigated. The obtained results indicate that the shape of absorption and fluorescence spectra does not depend on the solvent polarity under the experimental conditions used. The small shifts of the absorption and emission maximums that occur by increasing of solvent polarity reflects the physical interaction between the porphyrinic substituents and the solvent molecules.

  7. Integrated study of biomass index in La Herreria (Sierra de Guadarrama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G.

    2016-04-01

    . Selection of vegetation indices to estimate pasture production in Dehesas. PASTOS, 44(2), 6-18, 2014. Kogan, F. N., 1990. Remote sensing of weather impacts on vegetation in non-homogeneous areas. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 11(8), pp. 1405-1419. Kogan, F. N., Gitelson, A., Edige, Z., Spivak, l., and Lebed, L., 2003. AVHRR-Based Spectral Vegetation Index for Quantitative Assessment of Vegetation State and Productivity: Calibration and Validation. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 69(8), pp. 899-906. Niemeyer, S., 2008. New drought indices. First Int. Conf. on Drought Management: Scientific and Technological Innovations, Zaragoza, Spain, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Palmer, W.C., 1968. Keeping track of crop moisture conditions, nationwide: The new Crop Moisture Index. Weatherwise 21, 156-161. Rao, K.N. 2010. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, 193-203. Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo and the GuMNet Consortium Team (2015). GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network. Installation and set up of a high altitude monitoring network, north of Madrid. Spain. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 17, EGU2015-13989-2 Web: http://www.ucm.es/gumnet/

  8. X-ray spectral studies of the electronic structure of uranyl fluorite UO2F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Igor O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work interpreted the fine X-ray photoelectron spectral structure of the low binding energy electrons (0-40 eV and X-ray O4,5(U emission spectral structure from UO2F2 taking into account the relativistic Xα discrete variation (RXα-DV calculation for the [(UO2F6]4–(D6h cluster reflecting an uranium close environment in UO2F2. The U5f electrons were shown to participate directly in the chemical bond formation. The U6p electrons were shown to participate not only information of the inner valence molecular orbitals, but also information of the outer valence molecular orbitals. The inner valence molecular orbitals sequence order in the binding energy range 12-40 eV was established. It is important for development of the technique of interatomic distance determination in the axial direction and equatorial plane of uranyl compounds on the X-ray photoelectron spectral basis.

  9. A comparative study between transport and criticality safety indexes for fissile uranium nuclearly pure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN (Brazil)]. e-mail: tmsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The international and national standards determine that during the transport of radioactive materials the package to be sent should be identified by labels of risks specifying content, activity and the transport index. The result of the monitoring of the package to 1 meter identifies the transport index, TI, which represents the dose rate to 1 meter of this. The transport index is, by definition, a number that represents a gamma radiation that crosses the superficial layer the radioactive material of the package to 1 meter of distance. For the fissile radioactive material that is the one in which a neutron causes the division of the atom, the international standards specify criticality safety index CSI, which is related with the safe mass of the fissile element. In this work it was determined the respective safe mass for each considered enrichment for the compounds of uranium oxides UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. In the study of CSI it was observed that the value 50 of the expression 50/N being N the number of packages be transported in subcriticality conditions it represents a fifth part of the safe mass of the element uranium or 9% of the smallest mass critical for a transport not under exclusive use. As conclusion of the accomplished study was observed that the transport index starting from 7% of enrichment doesn't present contribution and that criticality safety index is always greater than the transport index. Therefore what the standards demand to specify, the largest value between both indexes, was clearly identified in this study as being the criticality safety index. (Author)

  10. Synthesis and NMR Spectral Studies of the 7-C60-Adduct of N,N-(Tetrachlorophthaloyl Dehydroabietylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 7-C60-adduct of N,N-(tetrachlorophthaloyldehydroabietylamine was synthesized for the first time and characterized by IR, UV-vis, mass and NMR spectral studies. The 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR resonance signals of the new compound are unambiguously assigned by using homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques such as COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC. The C1 symmetric structure with 6,6-junction of compound was determined.

  11. Reflectance and thermal properties of the urban fabric studied with aerial spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burud, Ingunn; Thiis, Thomas; Gaitani, Niki

    2017-09-01

    The properties of materials used in the urban fabric play an essential role to the microclimate. Their thermal performance, one of the main impacting factors to urban heat island effects, is mainly determined by the physical characteristics, optical and thermal. The present research approach aims at analyzing the relation between material properties and their thermal behavior using airborne multispectral imaging in VIS/NIR and IR with sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), at a survey in Athens. The images have been combined to form maps of surface temperature distribution and of material properties. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps were computed from the VIS/NIR images and were used to classify the surface material. Calibration of the temperatures was obtained by applying correct emissivity for different materials from the classified surface material map. Maps of estimated albedo and of apparent thermal inertia were derived from the VIS/NIR images and the temperature images. Combining the surface temperature maps with maps of NDVI, albedo and apparent thermal inertia makes it is possible to identify reflectance characteristics of a variety materials utilized in the urban setting in Athens and to relate these to their thermal properties. The applied multisensory technique demonstrates how novel advances in sensor development combined with advanced data analysis provide new and unique tools for urban climate studies. The results give new perspectives of urban features for revealing the complex mechanisms that lead to microclimatic modifications and to quantify their relative contribution.

  12. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  13. Spectral transmittance reference standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, M.A.; Belyaeva, O.N.; Nikitin, M.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents spectral transmittance reference standards for UV and IR spectrophotometers, developed, studied, and certified by a precision spectrophotometry laboratory (the RSP Complex). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Sleep quality and body mass index: a co-twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2017-08-01

    There is a consistent relationship between body mass index and sleep quality. However, the directionality and possible confounding factors of this relationship are unclear. Our aim is to confirm the association between sleep quality and body mass index, independent of possible genetic confounding, as well as to provide some indirect inferences about the directionality of this association. The co-twin study design was used to analyse the body mass index-sleep relationship in a sample of 2150 twins. We selected two parallel sub-samples of twins discordant for body mass index (n = 430 pairs), or discordant for sleep quality (n = 316 pairs). Sleep quality and body mass index showed an inverse relationship (b = 0.056, P = 0.032) in the global sample. When twins discordant for body mass index were selected, this association maintained a similar effect size and statistical significance, at all levels of the case-control analysis (all discordant pairs b = 0.173, P sleep quality, the association between body mass index and sleep quality appeared weaker and lost significance (b = 0.021, P = 0.508). The analyses including only dizygotic (b = 0.028, P = 0.526) or monozygotic (b = 0.001, P = 0.984) pairs produced similar non-significant results. Our results confirm the relationship between sleep quality and body mass index, even after applying high levels of control, including genetic factors. Moreover, this study suggests a possible directionality of this relationship, such that sleep quality would strongly affect body mass index, while the opposite would be less robust and consistent in non-clinical samples. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Arterial compliance across the spectrum of ankle-brachial index: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Scott M; Jacobs, David R; Kronmal, Richard; Bluemke, David A; Criqui, Michael; Lima, Joao; Allison, Matthew; Duprez, Daniel; Segers, Patrick; Chirinos, Julio A

    2014-04-01

    A low ankle-brachial index is associated with cardiovascular disease and reduced arterial compliance. A high ankle-brachial index is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that subjects with a high ankle-brachial index demonstrate a lower arterial compliance. In addition, we assessed whether pulse pressure amplification is increased among subjects with a high ankle-brachial index. We studied 6814 adults enrolled in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were, by definition, free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Differences in total arterial compliance (ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure), aortic and carotid distensibility (measured with magnetic resonance imaging and duplex ultrasound, respectively) were compared across ankle-brachial index subclasses (≤0.90, 0.91-1.29; ≥1.30) with analyses adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Peripheral arterial disease was detected in 230 (3.4%) and high ABI in 648 (9.6%) of subjects. Those with high ankle-brachial index demonstrated greater aortic/radial pulse pressure amplification than those with a normal ankle-brachial index. In adjusted models aortic and carotid distensibility as well as total arterial compliance, were lowest among those with ankle-brachial index≤0.9 (p<0.01 vs. all), but were not reduced in subjects with an ankle-brachial index≥1.3. Lower aortic, carotid and total arterial compliance is not present in subjects free of overt cardiovascular disease and with a high ankle-brachial index. However, increased pulse pressure amplification contributes to a greater ankle-brachial index in the general population and may allow better characterization of individuals with this phenotype. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Spectral phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malacrida, Leonel; Astrada, Soledad; Briva, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Using LAURDAN spectral imaging and spectral phasor analysis we concurrently studied the growth and hydration state of subcellular organelles (lamellar body-like, LB-like) from live A549 lung cancer cells at different post-confluence days. Our results reveal a time dependent two-step process...

  17. Estimating search engine index size variability: a 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; de Kunder, Maurice

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel method of estimating the size of a Web search engine's index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing's indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006 until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find that much, if not all of this variability can be explained by changes in the indexing and ranking infrastructure of Google and Bing. This casts further doubt on whether Web search engines can be used reliably for cross-sectional webometric studies.

  18. Contribution to the study of nonstationary signals emitted by moving jet engine - Application to spectral analysis and imaging. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J.; Ernoult, M.

    1980-08-01

    In order to install microphones closer to the trajectory of a swiftly moving noise source and deduce the directivities comparable to those measured in the far field but less sensitive to propagation conditions, a special class of nonstationary random processes has been studied. Conventional short time spectral analysis is discussed (periodogram smoothing and autoregressive model evaluation), and a time frequency spectrum is defined which is shown capable of giving back the correct results of the stationary case (far field). Knowing the motion of the source helps in improving the spectral resolution and particularly the spatial resolution of a synthetic antenna. The so-called 'de-Dopplerization' signal processing provides resolutions similar to those obtained in static tests. Some results of experiments on a point source and a jet are given to illustrate these reflections.

  19. Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A ...

  20. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  1. Potential Risk Estimation Drowning Index for Children (PREDIC): a pilot study from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, N N; Hyder, A A; Bishai, D; Baker, T; Arifeen, S E

    2011-11-01

    Childhood drowning is a major public health problem that has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries. In Matlab, rural Bangladesh, more than 40% of child deaths aged 1-4 years are due to drowning. The main objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate a childhood drowning risk prediction index. A literature review was carried out to document risk factors identified for childhood drowning in Bangladesh. The Newacheck model for special health care needs for children was adapted and applied to construct a childhood drowning risk index called "Potential Risk Estimation Drowning Index for Children" (PREDIC). Finally, the proposed PREDIC Index was applied to childhood drowning deaths and compared with the comparison group from children living in Matlab, Bangladesh. This pilot study used t-tests and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the results. The PREDIC index was applied to 302 drowning deaths and 624 children 0-4 years old living in Matlab. The results of t-test indicate that the drowned children had a statistically (t=-8.58, p=0.0001) significant higher mean PREDIC score (6.01) than those in comparison group (5.26). Drowning cases had a PREDIC score of 6 or more for 68% of the children however, the comparison group had 43% of the children with score of 6 or more which was statistically significant (t=-7.36, p<0.001). The area under the curve for the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.662. Index score construction was scientifically plausible; and the index is relatively complete, fairly accurate, and practical. The risk index can help identify and target high risk children with drowning prevention programs. PREDIC index needs to be further tested for its accuracy, feasibility and effectiveness in drowning risk reduction in Bangladesh and other countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  3. New Insights into AGN Mass Outflows: Detailed Study of the Spectral Properties of NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes Couto, Jullianna

    2017-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) exist in a few percent of all massive galaxies. It is believed that AGNs are powered by accretion of matter onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH), generating in the process huge amounts of radiation that span the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In turn, this also triggers the so-called AGN Feedback phenomenon, by inducing the formation of accretion disk winds (or outflows) that accelerate highly ionized gas outwards and affect the intergalactic medium of the host galaxy, reducing star formation rates and preventing bulge growth. It has been suggested that a dominant component of mass outflows is observable in the X-rays, and there are a limited number of detailed studies of single objects for which the relation between outflows and power of the central engine can be determined directly. The Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 is a great study candidate, given its proximity (14.077 Mpc, z = 0.0033), X-ray brightness and orientation. Over the past decades, it has been the target of many single and multiwavelength observations, and its heavily absorbed X-ray spectrum and complex absorption features have been extensively stud- ied and characterized. I have investigated the relationship between the long term X-ray spectral variability in and its intrinsic absorption, by comparing our 2014 simultaneous ultraviolet/X-Ray observations taken with Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer (STIS) Echelle and Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) with archival observations from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The observations were divided into "high" and "low" flux states, with the low states showing strong and unabsorbed extended emission at energies below 2 keV. The X-ray model consists of a broken powerlaw, neutral reflection and two dominant absorption components, a high and a low ionization component, which are present in all epochs. The model fittings suggest that the absorbers are very stable, with the principal changes

  4. Initial clinical experience with dual-layer detector spectral CT in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage: A single-centre pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Buem Cho

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of spectral analyses using dual-layer detector spectral computed tomography (CT in acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH.We retrospectively reviewed patients with acute ICH who underwent CT angiography on a dual-layer detector spectral CT scanner. A spectral data analysis was performed to detect contrast enhancement in or adjacent to acute ICH by using spectral image reconstructions including monoenergetic (MonoE, virtual noncontrast (VNC, and iodine overlay fusion images. We also acquired a spectral plot to assess material differentiation within lesions.Among the 30 patients, the most common cause of acute ICH was chronic hypertension (18/30, 60% followed by trauma (5/30, 16.7%, brain tumour (3/30, 10%, Moyamoya disease (2/30, 6.7%, and haemorrhagic diathesis from anticoagulation therapy (2/30, 6.7%. Of 30 patients, 13 showed suboptimal iodine suppression in the subcalvarial spaces on VNC images compared with true noncontrast images. The CT angiographic spot sign within the acute ICH was detected in four patients (4/30, 13.3%. All three tumours were metastatic and included lung cancer (n = 2 and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1 which showed conspicuous delineation of an enhancing tumour portion in the spectral analysis. Spectral analyses allowed the discrimination of acute haemorrhage and iodine with enhanced lesion visualization on the MonoE images obtained at lower keVs (less than 70 keV and spectral plot.Even though the image quality of VNC is perceived to be inferior, it is feasible to evaluate acute ICH in clinical settings using dual-layer detector spectral CT. The MonoE images taken at lower keVs were useful for depicting contrast enhancing lesion, and spectral plot might be helpful for material differentiation in patients with acute ICH.

  5. Free radicals induced by sunlight in different spectral regions - in vivo versus ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Silke B; Müller, Robert; Albrecht, Stephanie; Mink, Kathrin; Tscherch, Kathrin; Ismaeel, Fakher; Lademann, Jürgen; Rohn, Sascha; Meinke, Martina C

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight represents an exogenous factor stimulating formation of free radicals which can induce cell damage. To assess the effect of the different spectral solar regions on the development of free radicals in skin, in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations with human volunteers and ex vivo studies on excised human and porcine skin were carried out. For all skin probes, the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region stimulates the most intensive radical formation, followed by the visible (VIS) and the near infrared (NIR) regions. A comparison between the different skin models shows that for UV light, the fastest and highest production of free radicals could be detected in vivo, followed by excised porcine and human skin. The same distribution pattern was found for the VIS/NIR spectral regions, whereby the differences in radical formation between in vivo and ex vivo were less pronounced. An analysis of lipid composition in vivo before and after exposure to UV light clearly showed modifications in several skin lipid components; a decrease of ceramide subclass [AP2] and an increase of ceramide subclass [NP2], sodium cholesterol sulphate and squalene (SQ) were detectable. In contrast, VIS/NIR irradiation led to an increase of ceramides [AP2] and SCS, and a decrease of SQ. These results, which are largely comparable for the different skin models investigated in vivo and ex vivo, indicate that radiation exposure in different spectral regions strongly influences radical production in skin and also results in changes in skin lipid composition, which is essential for barrier function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Designing, synthesis and spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal complexes: DNA cleavage and antimicrobial activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new series of transition metal complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and Zn(II have been designed and synthesized using a Schiff base (L derived from 4-aminoantipyrine, benzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine. The structural features were derived from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity, as well as from mass, IR, UV–Vis, 1H-NMR and ESR spectral studies. The FAB mass spectral data and elemental analyses showed that the complexes had a composition of the ML type. The UV–Vis and ESR spectral data of the complexes suggested a square-planar geometry around the central metal ion. The magnetic susceptibility values of the complexes indicated that they were monomeric in nature. Antimicrobial screening tests were also performed against four bacteria, viz. Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis and three fungi, viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizoctonia bataicola. These data gave good results in the presence of metal ion in the ligand system. The nuclease activity of the above metal complexes shows that only the copper complex cleaves CT DNA in the presence of an oxidant.

  7. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the cooper center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Halton, Thomas L; Haskell, William L

    2010-12-01

    Previous research examining the relationships among glycemic index, glycemic load, and the metabolic syndrome has resulted in inconsistent findings. The objective of this study was to examine whether glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components after adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective measure of physical activity habitus. Cross-sectional study. Women (n=1,775) and men (n=9,137) who completed a comprehensive medical examination between October 1987 and March 1999, including maximal treadmill exercise test and 3-day dietary records at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, TX. Metabolic syndrome and its components, defined by the revised Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the associations among glycemic index, glycemic load, and prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components, while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24% in men and 9% in women. A positive association across quintiles of glycemic index and metabolic syndrome, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in men was observed in the fully adjusted model (P for trendglycemic index was positively associated with large waist girth, low HDL-C, and elevated triglycerides (P for trendglycemic index, glycemic load, and metabolic syndrome that control for cardiorespiratory fitness are needed. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral Predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  9. The Nurses' Well-Being Index and Factors Influencing This Index among Nurses in Central China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtang Meng

    Full Text Available A discussion and analysis of factors that contribute to nurses' happiness index can be useful in developing effective interventions to improve nurses' enthusiasm, sense of honor and pride and to improve the efficiency and quality of medical services.In this study, 206 registered nurses at the 2011 annual encounter for 12 Hanchuan hospitals completed a questionnaire survey that covered three aspects of the well-being index and thus served as a comprehensive well-being and general information tool.Based on their index score, the nurses' overall happiness level was moderate. The dimensions of the happiness index are listed in descending order of their contribution to the nurses' comprehensive happiness levels: health concerns, friendly relationships, self-worth, altruism, vitality, positive emotions, personality development, life satisfaction and negative emotions. Four variables (positive emotion, life satisfaction, negative emotions, and friendly relationships jointly explained 47.80% of the total variance of the happiness index; positive emotions had the greatest impact on the happiness index.Appropriate nursing interventions can improve nurses' happiness index scores, thereby increasing nurses' motivation and promoting the development of their nursing practice.

  10. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  11. Study on Emission Spectral Lines of Iron, Fe in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Lahna, Kurnia; Fadhli; Ramli, Muliadi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, LIBS technique has been used for detection of heavy metal especially iron, Fe in soil sample. As there are a large number of emission spectral lines due to Fe and other constituents in soil, this study is intended to identify emission spectral lines of Fe and finally to find best fit emission spectral lines for carrying out a qualitative and quantitative analysis. LIBS apparatus used in this work consists of a laser system (Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a spectrograph (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny- Turner) and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) 1024x256 pixels (Andor I*Star). The soil sample was collected from Banda Aceh city, Aceh, Indonesia. For spectral data acquisition, the soil sample has been prepared by a pressing machine in the form of pellet. The laser beam was focused using a high density lens (f=+150 mm) and irradiated on the surface of the pellet for generating luminous plasma under 1 atmosphere of air surrounding. The plasma emission was collected by an optical fiber and then sent to the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for acquisition of the emission spectra. It was found that there are many Fe emission lines both atomic lines (Fe I) and ionic lines (Fe II) appeared in all detection windows in the wavelength regions, ranging from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The emission lines of Fe with strong intensities occurs together with emission lines due to other atoms such as Mg, Ca, and Si. Thus, the identification of emission lines from Fe is complicated by presence of many other lines due to other major and minor elements in soil. Considering the features of the detected emission lines, several emission spectral lines of Fe I (atomic emission line), especially Fe I 404.58 nm occurring at visible range are potential to be good candidate of analytical lines in relation to detection

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption, IR and Raman spectral studies on pelecypod shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Reddy, K. N. M.; Siva Reddy, G.; Reddy, B. J.; Frost, R. L.; Endo, Tamio

    2008-02-01

    Pelecypod shell originated from Kolleru lake of Andhra Pradesh is used in the present work. It contains Mn(II) and Fe(III) in traces. The EPR spectrum of the compound is due to Mn(II) which is in three independent sites. The three g values are evaluated with slight differences. The hyperfine component varies from 9.33 to 9.49 mT. The zero field splitting parameter is also ranges from 43.8(1) to 44.1(1) mT. Using the covalence parameter the number of ligands around metal is estimated as 20. In EPR spectrum Fe(III) is identified. The optical absorption spectrum is attributed to Mn(II) in octahedral geometry. Further 10 Dq band is attributed to Fe(II) in the optical absorption spectrum. NIR spectral results are due to water fundamentals, whereas IR and Raman spectrum is due to carbonate ion fundamentals.

  13. Spectral studies of copper(II) complexes of 6-(3-thienyl) pyridine-2-thiosemicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Omima Abdalla; Farina, Yang

    2014-09-01

    Two novel copper(II) complexes [Cu(HL)Cl]Cl˙H2O (1) and [Cu(L)NO3]˙H2O (2) of the three NNS donor thiosemicarbazone ligand 6-(3-thienyl) pyridine-2-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesized. The ligand and its copper(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N, and S), FT-IR, UV-visible, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance. The thiosemicarbazone is present either as the thione form in complex 1 or as thiol form in complex 2 and is coordinated to copper(II) atom via the pyridine nitrogen atom, the azomethine nitrogen atom and the sulfur atom. The physicochemical and spectral data suggest square planar geometry for copper(II) atoms.

  14. A series of novel oxovanadium(IV) complexes: Synthesis, spectral characterization and antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, M. K.; Pandey, S. K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    Oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized by reacting vanadyl sulfate with Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(substitutedphenoxyacetic acid)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and benzil. All these complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO; low molar conductance values indicate that they are non-electrolytes and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral techniques (UV-Vis, IR, EPR and XRD) and magnetic moment measurements. The EPR spectra indicate that the free electron is in dxy orbital. In vitro antifungal activity of ligands and synthesized compounds was determined against fungi Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum falcatum and Colletotrichum pallescence and in vitro antibacterial activity was determined by screening the compounds against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains. The antimicrobial activities have shown that the activity increases upon complexation.

  15. Myopic traction maculopathy: Study with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, V; Androudi, S; Brazitikos, P

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe the tomographic findings of a case of myopic traction maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and present the results of its surgical intervention. Design: Observational case report and review of the literature. Methods: A 61-year-old male with metamorphopsia was examined clinically and with the use of SD-OCT. The diagnosis of myopic traction maculopathy was made. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the vitreomacular adhesions, the epiretinal and the internal limiting membrane. Results: Visual acuity increased by two Snellen lines, metamorphopsia disappeared, macular morphology was improved and myopic traction maculopathy was resolved. Conclusions: Imaging with SD-OCT is capable of documentation and measurement of the early stages of myopic traction maculopathy. Moreover, vitrectomy was beneficial for the visual and anatomic outcome of the patient. PMID:19561782

  16. Inclusion complexation of sulfapyridine with α- and β-cyclodextrins: Spectral and molecular modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, N.; Siva, S.; Saravanan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The inclusion complexes of sulfapyridine (SFP) with α-CD and β-CD were investigated by absorption, fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, FTIR, DSC, XRD, 1H NMR, SEM, TEM and molecular modeling methods. The normal fluorescence takes place from locally excited (LE) state while twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) is responsible for highly Stokes shifted fluorescence. The enhancement of TICT emission in both CDs suggesting that the inclusion process plays the major role in this emission. The spectral shifts revealed that part of pyridine ring of SFP is entrapped in the CDs cavities. TEM images confirmed round shaped nanoparticles with the average size about 20-50 nm were observed in SFP with α-CD and β-CD inclusion complexes. PM3 calculations have suggested that the large stabilization of excited singlet state of SFP with twisted conformation occurring at the amide SN bond between the electron donor group (aniline ring) and the electron acceptor group (pyridine ring).

  17. Spectral Classifications for 212 Little-Studied K and M Dwarfs in the LHS Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robert F.; MacConnell, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained two-dimensional spectral classifications for 212 stars listed in the LHS Catalogue (Luyten 1979). Stars selected for our observing program have southern declinations, red colors, and in most cases only color-equivalent types (k or m) in the Catalogue. The observations were originally motivated by the hope of finding dwarf carbon stars; since LHS stars by definition have proper motions exceeding 0.5 arcsec/yr, any relatively faint LHS star displaying a C-type spectrum would necessarily be dC. Observations were acquired at the CTIO 1.0-m telescope during the period 1993-95. Our data consist of narrow-band photoelectric TiO/CN photometry using the first 6 filters of Wing's eight-color system. Temperature classes are based on the strength of the strong TiO band near 7120 A; they are given to a tenth of a subtype and are on the same scale as we use for giant stars, tied to the MK scale through observations of Keenan giant standards. Our luminosity criterion is CN absorption measured at 8120 A; this feature is invariably present in giants and supergiants but is absent (depression less than 0.03 mag) in K and M dwarfs. We do not distinguish subdwarfs from main-sequence dwarfs. No new dC stars were found; 189 of the program stars were found to have measurable TiO absorption indicating spectral types ranging from K3.5 V to M6.5 V. In addition, 23 stars have too little TiO to be classified by this method but have colors consistent with being early K dwarfs.

  18. Impact of Cirrus Crystal Shape on Solar Spectral Irradiance: A Case Study for Subtropical Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pilewskie, Peter; Pommier, John; Howard, Steve; Yang, Ping; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Mayer, Barnhard

    2005-01-01

    Profiles of in situ measurements of ice crystal size distribution of subtropical cirrus were used to calculate solar spectral irradiances above and below the clouds. Spheres and nonspherical ice crystal habits (columns, hollows, plates, bullets, and aggregates) were assumed in the calculations. The simulation results were compared to irradiance measurements from the NASA Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer. The microphysical and radiation data were collected by three aircraft during CRYSTAL-FACE. Two cirrus cases (optical thickness of about 1 and 7) from two mission dates (26 and 23 July 2002) were investigated in detail. The measured downwelling and upwelling irradiance spectra above the cirrus could mostly be reproduced by the radiation model to within +/- 5-10% for most ice crystal habits. Below the cirrus the simulations disagreed with the measured irradiances due to surface albedo variability along the flight track, and nonoptimal colocation between the microphysical and irradiance measurements. The impact of shape characteristics of the crystals was important for the reflected irradiances above the optically thin cirrus, especially for small solar zenith angles, because in this case single-scattering dominated the solar radiation field. For the cirrus of moderate optical thickness the enhanced multiple scattering tended to diminish particular shape features caused by nonspherical single-scattering. Within the ice absorption bands the shape-related differences in the absorption characteristics of the individual nonspherical ice crystals were amplified if multiple scattering prevailed. Furthermore, it was found that below the cloud the shape sensitivity of the downwelling irradiance spectra is larger compared to the nonsphericity effects on reflected irradiances above the cirrus. Finally, it was shown that the calculated cirrus solar radiative forcing could vary by as much as 26% depending on the ice crystal habit.

  19. Carrea's Index and Tooth Dimensions- An Avant-Garde in Stature Estimation: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruthi, Rayapureddy; Reddy, Reddy Sudhakara; Rajesh, Nallakunta; Jyothirmai, Koneru; Preethi, Madgula; Teja, Thungala Navya

    2016-12-01

    Identifying victims in case of mass disasters when only human remains are present is quite a challenging task. Although other peripheral extremities of human body are used in estimating stature, in situations where only skull is available, teeth play an important role in personal identification. The present study used Carrea's index in stature estimation using tooth dimensions. This study is intended to correlate the anterior mandibular tooth dimensions with that of real stature using Carrea's index and also to know the applicability and validity of this index to the current study population. A total of 82 subjects (both males and females) which makes 164 hemiarches (normal, crowded and diastema) were included. Actual height of each subject was measured using anthropometer and tooth measurements from each cast were recorded and analyzed using Carrea's index. The results showed a strong correlation between estimated stature and real stature. Moreover, this correlation is more valid on male sample and right side of the inferior hemiarches (Normal-81.8% and 87.2%; Crowded-76.4% and 80%; Diastema-52.9% and 60% respectively). Although a correlation between actual stature and estimated stature was established, Carrea's index as a predictor tool may not give accurate estimations. Nevertheless, it could only act as an auxiliary tool in person identification.

  20. An empirical study on impact of index futures trading on spot market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employ an event study approach to test whether the introduction of index futures trading has resulted in significant change in volatility and efficiency of the stock returns. The study compares spot price volatility changes before and after futures trading is introduced in the stock indices. The result shows that the introduction ...

  1. Study of molecular iodine, iodate ions, iodide ions, and triiodide ions solutions absorption in the UV and visible light spectral bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-07-01

    The paper reports on experimental studies concerning the absorption spectra of molecular iodine and its \\text{IO}3- , I-, \\text{I}3- anions in the spectral band of 180-600 nm. Values of the absorption cross-sections of the above mentioned substances have been measured, and relations of absorption coefficients to concentrations have been studied. The results obtained demonstrate that the spectral band under consideration is likely to be successfully used for simultaneous real-time detection of substances containing iodine with an absorption method using laser emission sources in the UV and visible light spectral bands.

  2. Spectral reflectance properties of major objects in desert oasis: a case study of the Weigan-Kuqa river delta oasis in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Sawut, Mamat; Tashpolat, Nigara; Kung, Hsiangte; Han, Guihong; Gui, Dongwei

    2012-08-01

    Aiming at the remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics. In order to further research the spectral reflectance characteristics in arid area, this study was performed in the typical delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located north of Tarim Basin. Data were collected from geo-targets at multiple sites in various field conditions. The spectra data were collected for different soil types including saline-alkaline soil, silt sandy soil, cotton field, and others; vegetations of Alhagi sparsifolia, Phragmites australis, Tamarix, Halostachys caspica, etc., and water bodies. Next, the data were processed to remove high-frequency noise, and the spectral curves were smoothed with the moving average method. The derivative spectrum was generated after eliminating environmental background noise so that to distinguish the original overlap spectra. After continuum removal of the undesirable absorbance, the spectrum curves were able to highlight features for both optical absorbance and reflectance. The spectrum information of each ground object is essential for fully utilizing the multispectrum data generated by remote sensing, which will need a representative spectral library. In this study using ENVI 4.5 software, a preliminary spectral library of surface features was constructed using the data surveyed in the study area. This library can support remote sensing activities such as feature investigation, vegetation classification, and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis region. Future plan will focus on sharing and standardizing the criteria of professional spectral library and to expand and promote the utilization of the spectral databases.

  3. A Novel Index Using Soluble CD36 Is Associated with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Comparison Study with Triglyceride-Glucose Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPlasma soluble cluster determinant 36 (sCD36 level is closely related with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, but little is known whether it could be a surrogate for estimating risk of developing diabetes or not. To address this, we evaluated association between sCD36 index, the product of sCD36 and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and then compared with triglyceride-glucose (TyG index which has been suggested simple index for insulin resistance.MethodsThis was cross-sectional study, and participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM according to glucose tolerance. The formula of TyG index was ‘ln [FPG (mg/dL×triglyceride (mg/dL/2],’ and the sCD36 index was ‘ln [sCD36 (pg/mL×FPG (mg/dL/2].’ResultsOne hundred and fifty-five subjects (mean age, 55.2 years were enrolled, and patients with T2DM were 75. Both indexes were significantly increased in prediabetes and T2DM rather than NGT, and sCD36 index was positively correlated with both glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=0.767 and r=0.453, respectively; P<0.05 and negatively with homeostasis model assessment estimate of β-cell function (r=−0.317. The odds ratio (OR of sCD36 index for T2DM was 4.39 (95% confidential interval, 1.51 to 12.77 after adjusting age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, OR of TyG index did not remained significance after adjustment.ConclusionsCD36 index has an independent association with the risk of T2DM, and showed better correlation than TyG index. These results suggest sCD36 index might be useful surrogate marker for the risk of diabetes.

  4. Quantitative studies of the morphology of the south Poland using Relief Index (RI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypuła Bartłomiej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a new morphometric index named Relief Index (RI. RI is the ratio of the total length of the contour lines and the surface area at which they occur. This easily calculated index provides an objective quantitative measure of relief variability as an important feature in geomorphological studies. To achieve this goal, a highly detailed morphometric analysis was carried out using a high-resolution (1m×1m DEM. Twenty one sample areas in southern Poland were examined. These analyses showed RI, as a good tool for rapidly evaluating topography heterogeneity in division into relief classes. I distinguished 4 classes of the Relief Index that classify earth surface considering the variability of the relief. Results of the calculations demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between RI and the local relief and slopes, but there is no correlation between RI and planar curvatures and TWI. The relief of the sample areas were analysed using geomorphometric parameters (slopes, local relief, planar curvatures. Moreover the influence of the DEM resolution on Relief Index values was examined.

  5. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization and EPR spectral studies on transition metal complexes with a novel tetradentate, 12-membered macrocyclic ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lokesh Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2006-11-01

    Complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) containing a tetradentate macrocyclic N-donor ligand have been prepared via template reaction of 2,3-pentanedione, ethylene-di-ammine and transition metal ions. The complexes have been characterized on the basis of the elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment susceptibility, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The complexes are of high spin type and possess four coordinate tetrahedral five coordinate square pyramidal and six coordinated octahedral/tetragonal geometry.

  7. A surface energy spectral study on the bone heterogeneity and beam obliquity using the flattened and unflattened photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L; Owrangi, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Using flattened and unflattened photon beams, this study investigated the spectral variations of surface photon energy and energy fluence in the bone heterogeneity and beam obliquity. Surface dose enhancement is a dosimetric concern when using unflattened photon beam in radiotherapy. It is because the unflattened photon beam contains more low-energy photons which are removed by the flattening filter of the flattened photon beam. We used a water and bone heterogeneity phantom to study the distributions of energy, energy fluence and mean energy of the 6 MV flattened and unflattened photon beams (field size = 10 cm × 10 cm) produced by a Varian TrueBEAM linear accelerator. These elements were calculated at the phantom surfaces using Monte Carlo simulations. The photon energy and energy fluence calculations were repeated with the beam angle turned from 0° to 15°, 30° and 45° in the water and bone phantom. Spectral results at the phantom surfaces showed that the unflattened photon beams contained more photons concentrated mainly in the low-energy range (0-2 MeV) than the flattened beams associated with a flattening filter. With a bone layer of 1 cm under the phantom surface and within the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam, it is found that both the flattened and unflattened beams had slightly less photons in the energy range beams were rotated from 0° to 45°, the number of photon and mean photon energy increased. This indicates that both photon beams became more hardened or penetrate when the beam angle increased. In the presence of bone, the mean energies of both photon beams increased. This is due to the absorption of low-energy photons by the bone, resulting in more beam hardening. This study explores the spectral relationships of surface photon energy and energy fluence with bone heterogeneity and beam obliquity for the flattened and unflattened photon beams. The photon spectral information is important in studies on the patient's surface dose

  8. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  9. A case study of HF radar spectral width in the post midnight magnetic local time sector and its relationship to the polar cap boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to advance the current understanding of the spectral width parameter observed by coherent high frequency (HF radars. In particular, we address the relationship of a frequently observed gradient, between low ( < 200 m/s and high ( > 200 m/s spectral width, to magnetospheric boundaries. Previous work has linked this gradient in the spectral width, in the nightside sector of magnetic local time, to the Polar Cap Boundary (PCB, and also to the boundary between the Central Plasma Sheet (CPS and the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL. The present case study investigates the former by comparison with the 630.0 nm optical emission. No suitable data were available to test the second of the two hypotheses. It is found that during the interval in question the spectral width gradient is within the region of the 630.0 nm optical emission. A comparison of coherent and incoherent scatter radar data is also conducted, which indicates that values of high spectral width are typically collocated with elevated F-region electron temperatures. We conclude that the high spectral width region in the interval under study is associated with particle precipitation and also that the spectral width gradient is not a reliable method for locating the PCB.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  10. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  11. X-Ray Spectral Study of the Photoionized Stellar Wind in Vela X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kahn, Steven M.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Nagase, Fumiaki; Paerels, Frederik; Takahashi, Tadayuki; /JAXA,

    2006-07-10

    We present results from quantitative modeling and spectral analysis of the high mass X-ray binary system Vela X-1 obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The observations cover three orbital phase ranges within a single binary orbit. The spectra exhibit emission lines from H-like and He-like ions driven by photoionization, as well as fluorescent emission lines from several elements in lower charge states. The properties of these X-ray lines are measured with the highest accuracy to date. In order to interpret and make full use of the high-quality data, we have developed a simulator, which calculates the ionization and thermal structure of a stellar wind photoionized by an X-ray source, and performs Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photons propagating through the wind. The emergent spectra are then computed as a function of the viewing angle accurately accounting for photon transport in three dimensions including dynamics. From comparisons of the observed spectra with results from the simulator, we are able to find the ionization structure and the geometrical distribution of material in the stellar wind of Vela X-1 that can reproduce the observed spectral line intensities and continuum shapes at different orbital phases remarkably well. We find that the stellar wind profile can be represented by a CAK-model with a star mass loss rate of (1.5-2.0) x 10{sup -6} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, assuming a terminal velocity of 1100 km s{sup -1}. It is found that a large fraction of X-ray emission lines from highly ionized ions are formed in the region between the neutron star and the companion star. We also find that the fluorescent X-ray lines must be produced in at least three distinct regions: (1) the extended stellar wind, (2) reflection off the stellar photosphere, and (3) in a distribution of dense material partially covering and possibly trailing the neutron star, which may be associated with an accretion wake. Finally, from

  12. USING THE FOURNIER INDEXES IN ESTIMATING RAINFALL EROSIVITY. CASE STUDY - THE SECAŞUL MARE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. COSTEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the Fournier Index in Estimating Rainfall Erosivity. Case Study - The Secaşul Mare Basin. Climatic aggressiveness is one of the most important factors in relief dynamic. Of all climatic parameters, rainfall is directly involved in versant dynamic, in the loss of soil quality and through pluvial denudation and the processes associated with it, through the erosivity of torrential rain. We analyzed rainfall aggressiveness based on monthly and annual average values through the Fournier's index (1970 and Fournier's index modified by Arnoldus (1980. They have the advantage that they can be used not only for evaluating the land susceptibility to erosion and the calculation of erodibility of land and soil losses, but also in assessing land susceptibility to sliding (Aghiruş, 2010. The literature illustrates the successful use of this index which provides a summary assessment of the probability of rainfall with significant erosive effects. The results obtained allow observation of differences in space and time of the distribution of this index.

  13. The Italian version of the "frailty index" based on deficits in health: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Pasquale; Basile, Claudia; Bulli, Giulia; Curcio, Francesco; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Langellotto, Assunta; Testa, Gianluca; Galizia, Gianluigi; Bonaduce, Domenico; Cacciatore, Francesco

    2017-07-07

    Several measurements were taken for frailty classification in geriatric population. "Frailty index" is based on "deficits in health," but it is still not available in Italian version. Thus, the aim of the present work was to validate a version of "frailty index" for the Italian geriatric community. The validation of Italian frailty index (IFi) is based on a cohort study that enrolled 1077 non-disabled outpatients aged 65 years or older (81.3 ± 6.5 years) in Naples (Italy). IFi has been expressed as a ratio of deficits present/deficits considered after a comprehensive geriatric assessment. IFi was stratified in light, moderate and severe frailty. Mortality, disability (considering an increase in ADL lost ≥1 from the baseline) and hospitalization were considered at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of follow-up. Area under curve (AUC) was evaluated for both Fried's and IFi frailty index. At the end of follow-up, mortality increased from 1.0 to 30.3%, disability from 40.9 to 92.3% and hospitalization from 0.0 to 59.0% (p frailty index when considering mortality (0.809 vs. 0.658, respectively), disability (0.800 vs. 0.729, respectively) and hospitalization (0.707 vs. 0.646, respectively). IFi is a valid measure of frailty after the comprehensive geriatric assessment in an Italian cohort of non-institutionalized patients.

  14. Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, R R; Damiani, A; Da Silva, L; Laroze, D; Labbe, F

    2013-07-01

    We have sampled the spatial distribution of the UV radiation (i.e. the UV radiance) at a station located on the southern pacific coastline (Valparaiso, Chile, 33.03°S-71.58°W). The site is characterized by the partial horizon obstruction (due to the surrounding topography). Our spectral measurements were carried out over the period January-March 2012 and were meant to weigh up the effects of the local cloudiness, the heterogeneous albedo, and the horizon obscuration. We found that a nearly translucent overcast sky affects the radiance distribution such that from its maximum (measured close to the solar zenith angle) the radiance is monotonically decreasing towards the horizon. Under cloudless conditions, the radiance distribution becomes less isotropic with the wavelength; we detected spatial variations in the distribution of radiation up to a factor of 5 at 320 nm, and up to a factor of 9 at 400 nm. We also observed that radiances measured at points over the sea are greater than those measured at the corresponding point over the land; we partially attributed this effect to the spatial variations in the albedo. Moreover, we found that the horizon obscuration leads to significant reductions in the radiance at points on the blocked horizon; these reductions range from 60% (at 400 nm) to 80% (at 300 nm). Methodological details are provided below.

  15. "Cat"-ology: Spectrally resolved neurophotonics in the mammalian brain and phantom studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice

    Physicists provide significant contributions to the field of Biology and Medical Sciences by applying basic physics principles to the field. Specifically, in this work, we probed the light-matter interactions in the NIR region to understand physiological processes in the mammalian brain. We sought to improve on existing principles and propose a new technique by which we can decipher these processes spectrally. This technique touted to be independent of the light transport regime allowed us to examine the hemodynamics and neuronal activity. The aim was then to test this technique and see if it produces results that were comparable to the well established Fd-NIRS in distinguishing physiological processes. Secondly, we wanted to prove that this technique was light transport regime independent which is not the case for the Fd-NIRS. The cat was chosen as an ideal test subject as its anatomy is such that photons are not fully diffusive before being detected as the total size of the grey matter in the cat is roughly 3mm thick. Additionally, we had a priori information about the activation of the visual cortex as a response to specific stimuli.

  16. Spectral X-ray Radiography for Safeguards at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2017-04-20

    The methods currently used by the International Atomic Energy Agency to account for nuclear materials at fuel fabrication facilities are time consuming and require in-field chemistry and operation by experts. Spectral X-ray radiography, along with advanced inverse algorithms, is an alternative inspection that could be completed noninvasively, without any in-field chemistry, with inspections of tens of seconds. The proposed inspection system and algorithms are presented here. The inverse algorithm uses total variation regularization and adaptive regularization parameter selection with the unbiased predictive risk estimator. Performance of the system is quantified with simulated X-ray inspection data and sensitivity of the output is tested against various inspection system instabilities. Material quantification from a fully-characterized inspection system is shown to be very accurate, with biases on nuclear material estimations of < 0.02%. It is shown that the results are sensitive to variations in the fuel powder sample density and detector pixel gain, which increase biases to 1%. Options to mitigate these inaccuracies are discussed.

  17. Wound inflammatory index: a "proof of concept" study to assess wound healing trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharara, Manish; Schoess, Jeffrey; Nouvong, Aksone; Armstrong, David G

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes around the globe results in one major limb amputation every 30 seconds, over 2500 limbs lost per day. The underlying pathophysiology sometimes leads to a chronic inflammatory stage, which may prevent appropriate healing, and therefore, the need for a clear strategy for assessing and classifying wounds and wound healing cannot be overstated. Temperature is a surrogate marker for inflammation. Quantitative thermography using a numerical index provides a useful way to assess wound healing. Advances in technology have afforded the availability of low-cost, high-resolution thermal imaging systems, which can be used to quantify sensitive changes on the skin surface and may be particularly useful to develop monitoring strategies for wounds. This article provides a standardized technique for calculating a thermal index (TI) supported with a case report from assessment of a diabetic foot ulcer. In this single case study, the TI/wound inflammatory index indicates a shift from negative to positive (p Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Hemodynamic effects of HPMA copolymer based doxorubicin conjugate: A randomized controlled and comparative spectral study in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Hoay Yan; Šarenac, Olivera; Arroyo, Juan J; Vasić, Marko; Lozić, Maja; Glumac, Sofija; Hoe, See Ziau; Hindmarch, Charles Colin Thomas; Murphy, David; Kiew, Lik Voon; Lee, Hong Boon; Vicent, María J; Chung, Lip Yong; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina

    2017-03-01

    Conjugation of Doxorubicin (DOX) to N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methylacrylamide copolymer (HPMA) has significantly reduced the DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. However, the reports on the impact of HPMA-DOX conjugates on the cardiovascular system such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were in restrained animals using tail cuff and/or other methods that lacked the resolution and sensitivity. Herein, we employed radiotelemetric-spectral-echocardiography approach to further understand the in vivo cardiovascular hemodynamics and variability post administration of free DOX and HPMA-DOX. Rats implanted with radio-telemetry device were administered intravenously with DOX (5 mg/kg), HPMA-DOX (5 mg DOX equivalent/kg) and HPMA copolymer and subjected to continuous cardiovascular monitoring and echocardiography for 140 days. We found that DOX-treated rats had ruffled fur, reduced body weight (BW) and a low survival rate. Although BP and HR were normal, spectral analysis indicated that their BP and HR variabilities were reduced. All rats exhibited typical signs of cardiotoxicity at histopathology. In contrast, HPMA-DOX rats gained weight over time and survived. Although BP, HR and related variabilities were unaffected, the left ventricular end diastolic volume (EDV) of these rats, as well as of the HPMA copolymer-treated rats, was found increased at the end of observation period. Additionally, HPMA copolymer caused microscopic injury of the heart tissue. All of these suggest the necessity of caution when employing HPMA as carrier for prolonged drug delivery. The current study also indicates the potential of radiotelemetric-spectral-echocardiography approach for improved preclinical cardiovascular risk assessment of polymer-drug conjugate and other nano-sized-drug constructs.

  19. Towards a Standard Plant Species Spectral Library Protocol for Vegetation Mapping: A Case Study in the Shrubland of Doñana National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jiménez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main applications of field spectroscopy is the generation of spectral libraries of Earth’s surfaces or materials to support mapping activities using imaging spectroscopy. To enhance the reliability of these libraries, spectral signature acquisition should be carried out following standard procedures and controlled experimental approaches. This paper presents a standard protocol for the creation of a spectral library for plant species. The protocol is based on characterizing the reflectance spectral response of different species in the spatiotemporal domain, by accounting for intra-species variation and inter-species similarity. A practical case study was conducted on the shrubland located in Doñana National Park (SW Spain. Spectral libraries of the five dominant shrub species were built (Erica scoparia, Halimium halimifolium, Ulex australis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Stauracanthus genistoides. An estimation was made of the separability between species: on one hand, the Student’s t-test evaluates significant intra-species variability (p < 0.05 and on the other hand, spectral similarity value (SSV and spectral angle mapper (SAM algorithms obtain significant separability values for dominant species, although it was not possible to discriminate the legume species Ulex australis and Stauracanthus genistoides.

  20. The Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals 30 Years Later: A Psychometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Killian, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors report a validation study of the Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IAH) to examine its ongoing usefulness. Method: Students (n = 331) completed surveys anonymously. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted and group differences analyzed. Results: Content validity was established conceptually, and preliminary…

  1. Alcohol consumption and augmentation index in healthy young men: The ARYA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, M.J.C.A. van; Beulens, J.W.J.; Bos, W.J.W.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, whereas increased alcohol intake is related to hypertension and intracerebral hemorrhage. We studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the augmentation index (AIx), a measure

  2. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  3. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert; Warwick Daw, E; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Sin Lo, Ken; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Vernon Smith, Albert; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Adrienne Cupples, L; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Kees Hovingh, G; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Wouter Jukema, J; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Eline Slagboom, P; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224

  4. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.; Justice, Anne E.; Pers, Tune H.; Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Sin Lo, Ken; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Vernon Smith, Albert; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, John R.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Esko, Tõnu; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Ziegler, Andreas; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cox, David; Do, Ron; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Groop, Leif; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Langford, Cordelia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Maouche, Seraya; Nikus, Kjell; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Song, Ci; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Tsun-Po, Yang; Basart, Hanneke; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kähönen, Mika; Kee, Frank; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Klopp, Norman; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Stark, Klaus; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Schreiber, Stefan; Ripatti, Samuli; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Reilly, Muredach P.; Collins, Rory; Roberts, Robert; Pattaro, Cristian; Köttgen, Anna; Garnaas, Maija; Böger, Carsten A.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Liu, Ching-Ti; Smith, Albert V.; Struchalin, Maksim; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chouraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; Hu, Frank B.; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Döring, Angela; Kolcic, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Endlich, Karlhans; Ernst, Florian; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völzke, Henry; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Giulianini, Franco; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Metzger, Marie; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Siscovick, David S.; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Curhan, Gary C.; Franke, Andre; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Goessling, Wolfram; Kao, W. H. Linda; de Boer, Ian H.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Kramer, Holly; Arking, Dan E.; Franceschini, Nora; Egan, Josephine; Hernandez, Dena; Reilly, Muredach; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lumley, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Haritunians, Talin; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Florez, Jose C.; Meigs, James B.; Lu, Xiaoning; Leak, Tennille S.; Aasarød, Knut; Skorpen, Frank; Baumert, Jens; Devuyst, Olivier; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Coassin, Stefan; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Curhan, Gary; Hallan, Stein; Navis, Gerjan; Shlipak, Michael G.; Bull, Shelley B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Kao, W. H. L.; Anderson, Carl A.; Guo, Qun; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Lee, Sang Hong; Kraft, Peter; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Macgregor, Stuart; Missmer, Stacey A.; Painter, Jodie N.; Roseman, Fenella; Treloar, Susan A.; Wallace, Leanne; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Dan; Mihai, Ioana; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Lajer, Maria; Waggott, Daryl; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Godson, Catherine; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Ganna, Andrea; Mora, Samia; Chang, Hsing-Y.; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Li, Xiaohui; Montasser, May E.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Sidore, Carlo; Surakka, Ida; Teslovich, Tanya M.; van den Herik, Evita G.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Wu, Ying; Asiki, Gershim; Been, Latonya F.; Burnett, Mary S.; Doring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gravito, Martha L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindstrom, Jaana; Muller, Gabrielle; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Tiret, Laurence; van Pelt, L. Joost; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Young, Elizabeth H.; Bennett, Franklyn; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Burnier, Michel; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrieres, Jean; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Jula, Antti; Kesäniemi, Antero; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Meneton, Pierre; Moilanen, Leena; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Caulfield, Mark; Chasman, Dan; Ehret, Georg; Johnson, Andrew; Johnson, Louise; Larson, Martin; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Reilly, Paul; Palmas, Walter; Psaty, Bruce; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Albert; Snider, Harold; Tobin, Martin; van Duijn, Cornelia; Verwoert, Germaine; Rice, Kenneth M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Pihur, Vasyl; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Launer, Lenore; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Go, Min Jin; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Najjar, Samer; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Li, Yali; Young, J. H.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Chaturvedi, Nish; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Howard, Philip; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Weder, Alan B.; Sun, Yan V.; Scott, Laura J.; Peltonen, Leena; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Hilton, Gina; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Laan, Maris; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uda, Manuela; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Rehnberg, Emil; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Lecoeur, Cecile; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Sennblad, Bengt; Salo, Perttu; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Esko, Tönu; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Willems, Sara M.; Kang, Hyun Min; Song, Kijoung; An, Ping; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Pankow, James S.; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Kong, Augustine; Herder, Christian; Antti, Jula; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Province, Michael A.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Watanabe, Richard M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Körner, Antje; Dupuis, Josée; Cucca, Francesco; Balkau, Beverley; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Purcell, Shaun; Musunuru, Kiran; Ardissino, Diego; Mannucci, Pier M.; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C.; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John A.; Stoll, Monika; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P.; Patterson, Chris C.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Berzuini, Carlo; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Peyvandi, Flora; Tubaro, Marco; Celli, Patrizia; Ferrario, Maurizio; Fetiveau, Raffaela; Marziliano, Nicola; Casari, Giorgio; Galli, Michele; Ribichini, Flavio; Rossi, Marco; Bernardi, Francesco; Zonzin, Pietro; Piazza, Alberto; Yee, Jean; Friedlander, Yechiel; Marrugat, Jaume; Subirana, Isaac; Sala, Joan; Ramos, Rafael; Williams, Gordon; Nathan, David M.; MacRae, Calum A.; Berglund, Goran; Asselta, Rosanna; Duga, Stefano; Spreafico, Marta; Daly, Mark J.; Nemesh, James; Korn, Joshua M.; Surti, Aarti; Gianniny, Lauren; Mirel, Daniel; Parkin, Melissa; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Ball, Stephen G.; Schunkert, I. Heribert; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Lieb, Wolfgang; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Preuss, Michael; Ouwehand, Willem; Scholz, Michael; Goodall, Alison; Li, Mingyao; Chen, Zhen; Wilensky, Robert; Matthai, William; Qasim, Atif; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Devaney, Joe; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Pichard, Augusto D.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Satler, Lowell; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Waksman, Ron; Knouff, Christopher W.; Walker, Max C.; Scheffold, Thomas; Berger, Klaus; Huge, Andreas; Martinelli, Nicola; Olivieri, Oliviero; Corrocher, Roberto; Hólm, Hilma; Xie, Changchun; Siscovick, David; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Hassanali, Neelam; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lowe, Christopher E.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Yang, Tsun-Po; Matise, Tara; Buyske, Steve; Higashio, Julia; Williams, Rasheeda; Nato, Andrew; Ambite, Jose Luis; Deelman, Ewa; Manolio, Teri; Hindorff, Lucia; Heiss, Gerardo; Taylor, Kira; Avery, Christy; Graff, Misa; Lin, Danyu; Quibrera, Miguel; Cochran, Barbara; Kao, Linda; Umans, Jason; Cole, Shelley; MacCluer, Jean; Person, Sharina; Pankow, James; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Durda, Peter; Jenny, Nancy; Patsy, Bruce; Arnold, Alice; Buzkova, Petra; Crawford, Dana; Haines, Jonathan; Murdock, Deborah; Glenn, Kim; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Dumitrescu, Logan; Jeff, Janina; Bush, William S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Goodloe, Robert; Wilson, Sarah; Boston, Jonathan; Malinowski, Jennifer; Restrepo, Nicole; Oetjens, Matthew; Fowke, Jay; Spencer, Kylee; Ritchie, Marylyn; Pendergrass, Sarah; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne; Park, Lani; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kolonel, Laurence; Cheng, Iona; Wang, Hansong; Shohet, Ralph; Haiman, Christopher; Stram, Daniel; Henderson, Brian; Monroe, Kristine; Schumacher, Fredrick; Anderson, Garnet; Carlson, Chris; Prentice, Ross; LaCroix, Andrea; Wu, Chunyuan; Carty, Cara; Rosse, Stephanie; Young, Alicia; Haessler, Jeff; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Rebecca; Duggan, David; Kuller, Lew; He, Chunyan; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; McArdle, Patick F.; Porcu, Eleonora; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhuang, Wei V.; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Broekmans, Frank J.; Burri, Andrea; Chen, Constance; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D.; D'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V. Z.; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Ferreli, Liana; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hass, Merli; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Karasik, David; Keyzer, Jules; Kiel, Douglas P.; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S. E.; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Marongiu, Mara; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; Melzer, David; Newman, Anne B.; Paré, Guillaume; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Plump, Andrew S.; Pop, Victor J. M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Salumets, Andres; Stacey, Simon N.; Starr, John M.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Tenesa, Albert; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gils, Carla H.; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Voorhuis, Marlies; Wichmann, H. Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J. M.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zgaga, Lina; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M.; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Murray, Anna; Visser, Jenny A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Koller, Daniel L.; Lin, Peng; McArdle, Patrick F.; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Alavere, Helen; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blackburn, Hannah; Busonero, Fabio; Chen, Wei; Couper, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Eriksson, Johan; Foroud, Tatiana; Hernandez, Dena G.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Li, Shengxu; Murray, Sarah S.; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Peacock, Munro; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tyrer, Jonathon; van Meurs, Joyve B. J.; Young, Lauren; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Econs, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339,224

  5. An empirical study on impact of index futures trading on spot market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of futures trading on the volatility and operating efficiency of the underlying Indian stock market by taking a sample of selected individual stocks. Specifically, the study examines whether the index futures trading in India has caused a significant change in spot price ...

  6. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator: A pilot study | van Rensburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator: A pilot study. Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg, Catharina Cornelia Grant, Audrey Jansen van Rensburg, Roelf Petrus Gerhardus Botha, Paola Silvia Wood, Kim Nolte, Lizelle Fletcher, Peet Jacobus du Toit, Michael Sean Pepper, Pieter Ernst Kruger ...

  7. Transition metal complexes of a new 15-membered [N5] penta-azamacrocyclic ligand with their spectral and anticancer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; Serag El-Din, Azza A.

    2014-11-01

    Novel penta-azamacrocyclic 15-membered [N5] ligand [L] i.e. 1,5,8,12-tetetraaza-3,4: 9,10-dibenzo-6-ethyl-7-methyl-1,12-(2,6-pyrido)cyclopentadecan-5,7 diene-2,11-dione and its transition metal complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On basis of IR, MS, UV-Vis 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for all complexes except Co(II), Cu(II) nitrate complexes and Pd(II) chloride complex that adopt tetrahedral, square pyramidal and square planar geometries, respectively. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.04-9.7, 2.5-3.7 μg/mL) showed potent antitumor activity comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 11.7, 3.45 μg/mL) against the above mentioned cell lines, respectively. The results evidently show that the activity of the ligand becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  8. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, N.; Howe, L.; Paternoster, L; Kaakinen, M; Herrala, S; Huikari, V.; Wu, Y.; Kemp, J.; Timpson, N; St Pourcain, B; Smith, G.; Tilling, K; Jarvelin, M.; Pennell, C; Evans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  9. Assessment of exposure to traffic pollution using the ExTra index: study of validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reungoat, Patrice; Chiron, Mireille; Gauvin, Stéphanie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2003-09-01

    The ExTra index, produced by the French Scientific Center for Building Physics, evaluates ambient concentrations of transport-related pollutants in front of the work and living places of urban dwellers. This study contributes to the validation of the ExTra index by carrying out measurements in four French cities. It compares nitrogen oxide concentrations (NOx) measured over 6 weeks with passive samplers, and NOx calculated concentrations using the ExTra index. The study takes into account traffic density, topographical parameters (building height, road, and pavement width), weather conditions (wind direction and strength), and background pollution levels. The model was tested at 100 street canyons sites. There were highly significant correlations (0.90 in Grenoble, 0.95 in Nice, 0.89 in Paris, and 0.89 in Toulouse) and good intraclass correlation coefficients (0.75 in Grenoble, 0.91 in Nice, 0.89 in Paris, and 0.86 in Toulouse) between the two series of values. These results suggest that if the ExTra index were to be applied to all the different residences and workplaces of a subject throughout his (her) life, it could be a useful epidemiological tool for studying the long-term health effects of transport-related emissions and for reconstructing individual exposure to such pollution in order to avoid misclassification.

  10. Simulation study of the aerosol information content in OMI spectral reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Veihelmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer and is designed and used primarily to retrieve trace gases like O3 and NO2 from the measured Earth reflectance spectrum in the UV-visible (270–500 nm. However, also aerosols are an important science target of OMI. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectral reflectance measurements in up to 20 wavelength bands. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA is performed to quantify the information content of OMI reflectance measurements on aerosols and to assess the capability of the multi-wavelength algorithm to discern various aerosol types. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for desert dust, biomass burning aerosols, and weakly absorbing anthropogenic aerosol with a variety of aerosol optical thicknesses, aerosol layer altitudes, refractive indices and size distributions. The range of aerosol parameters considered covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. This theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum is accurately known and clouds are absent, OMI reflectance measurements have 2 to 4 degrees of freedom that can be attributed to aerosol parameters. This information content depends on the observation geometry and the surface albedo spectrum. An additional wavelength band is evaluated, that comprises the O2-O2 absorption band at a wavelength of 477 nm. It is found that this wavelength band adds significantly more information than any other individual band.

  11. Acute central serous chorioretinopathy: a correlation study between fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Pierluigi; Battaglia, Parodi Maurizio; Papayannis, Alexandros; La Spina, Carlo; Varano, Monica; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the correlation between fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) morphological analysis in eyes with acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Thirty-one patients with a first episode of CSCR and symptom duration of less than 6 weeks were prospectively enrolled. FAF and SD-OCT examination were performed at baseline and at 2-month intervals. Main outcome measure was the correlation between FAF and SD-OCT retinal morphology. At baseline, 30/31 and 29/31 eyes showed a macular hypo-AF, corresponding to the neurosensory retinal detachment (SRD), on shortwave-FAF (SW-FAF) and near-infrared-FAF (NIR-FAF), respectively. While the SRD resolved, both FAF techniques showed a granular hyper-AF in 31 eyes. At first examination, SD-OCT confirmed the SRD with a photoreceptor outer-segment (OS) elongation in all cases. During SRD resolution, the photoreceptor layer appeared thicker and fragmented. Multiple hyper-reflective precipitates were detected in the outer plexiform and nuclear layer and between the photoreceptors and appeared colocalized with the hyper-AF dots composing the granular hyper-AF. After SRD resolution, the hypo-AF area reverted to a normal pattern on SW-FAF in all eyes and in 25/31 on NIR-FAF. Examination at 12 months showed that the granular hyper-AF was still detectable in 54 % eyes, whereas 6/31 eyes showed hypo-AF dots on NIR-FAF. On SD-OCT, the junction IS/OS was identifiable in 11/31 eyes soon after the SRD resolution and appeared completely restored in all patients at the final visit. The simultaneous acquisition of FAF and SD-OCT provides detailed findings of retinal abnormalities of CSCR and may help to understand the evolving process linked to CSCR.

  12. EEG Spectral Generators Involved in Motor Imagery: A swLORETA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Cebolla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the neural generators of the brain oscillations related to motor imagery (MI, we investigated the cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar localizations of their respective electroencephalogram (EEG spectral power and phase locking modulations. The MI task consisted in throwing a ball with the dominant upper limb while in a standing posture, within an ecological virtual reality (VR environment (tennis court. The MI was triggered by the visual cues common to the control condition, during which the participant remained mentally passive. As previously developed, our paradigm considers the confounding problem that the reference condition allows two complementary analyses: one which uses the baseline before the occurrence of the visual cues in the MI and control resting conditions respectively; and the other which compares the analog periods between the MI and the control resting-state conditions. We demonstrate that MI activates specific, complex brain networks for the power and phase modulations of the EEG oscillations. An early (225 ms delta phase-locking related to MI was generated in the thalamus and cerebellum and was followed (480 ms by phase-locking in theta and alpha oscillations, generated in specific cortical areas and the cerebellum. Phase-locking preceded the power modulations (mainly alpha–beta ERD, whose cortical generators were situated in the frontal BA45, BA11, BA10, central BA6, lateral BA13, and posterior cortex BA2. Cerebellar-thalamic involvement through phase-locking is discussed as an underlying mechanism for recruiting at later stages the cortical areas involved in a cognitive role during MI.

  13. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  14. MAPO index for risk assessment of patient manual handling in hospital wards: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battevi, N; Menoni, O; Ricci, M Grazia; Cairoli, S

    2006-06-10

    Manual handling of disabled patients - as regards movement - is one of the major factors affecting acute low back pain of exposed nursing staff. In the absence of quantitative methods assessing this kind of risk, the Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement of Milan developed in 1997 a risk assessment method called Movement and Assistance of Hospital Patients (MAPO), which is applicable in hospital wards.A first study conducted in 1999 allowed the identification of three levels of MAPO index corresponding with increasing probabilities of being affected by acute low back pain. In accordance with the well-known traffic light model, for MAPO index values between 0 and 1.5 the risk is considered to be absent or negligible. For values between 1.51 and 5.00 the risk is considered to be moderate. For values exceeding 5.00 the risk is considered to be high. In view of the limitations of the previous study, the results needed confirmation and so, in 2000-2001, another cross-sectional study was carried out, which included 191 hospital wards for acute and chronic patients and 2603 exposed subjects. This paper presents the analytical results of the association between the MAPO index and acute low back pain in this new data sample. The agreement between results of the two studies indicates that the MAPO index can be used as a risk index, although with some caution, as detailed in the paper. It can assess the risk exposure level of patient manual handling in wards and can be a useful tool for planning effective preventive actions to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in health-care workers looking after disabled patients.

  15. Spectral studies of ocean water with space-borne sensor SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vountas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods enabling the retrieval of oceanic parameter from the space borne instrumentation Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS are presented. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT measures back scattered solar radiation at a spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm. The DOAS method was used for the first time to fit modelled Vibrational Raman Scattering (VRS in liquid water and in situ measured phytoplankton absorption reference spectra to optical depths measured by SCIAMACHY. Spectral structures of VRS and phytoplankton absorption were clearly found in these optical depths. Both fitting approaches lead to consistent results. DOAS fits correlate with estimates of chlorophyll concentrations: low fit factors for VRS retrievals correspond to large chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa; large fit factors for phytoplankton absorption correspond with high chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa. From these results a simple retrieval technique taking advantage of both measurements is shown. First maps of global chlorophyll concentrations were compared to the corresponding MODIS measurements with very promising results. In addition, results from this study will be used to improve atmospheric trace gas DOAS-retrievals from visible wavelengths by including these oceanographic signatures.

  16. Umbilical Coiling Index as a Marker of Perinatal Outcome: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To measure umbilical coiling index (UCI postnatally and to study the association of normocoiling, hypocoiling and hypercoiling to maternal and perinatal outcome. Method(s. One thousand antenatal women who went into labour were studied and umbilical coiling index calculated at the time of delivery. UCI was determined by dividing the total number of coils by the total umbilical cord length in centimeters. Its association with various maternal and perinatal risk factors were noted. The statistical tests were the Chi-square test and assessed with SPSS version 13.0 software and statistically analyzed. P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results. The mean umbilical coiling index was found to be 0.24 ± 0.09. Hypocoiling (0.36 was found to be associated with diabetes mellitus, polyhydramnios, cesarean delivery, congenital anomalies, and respiratory distress of the newborn. Conclusion. Abnormal umbilical coiling index is associated with several antenatal and perinatal adverse features.

  17. Spectral similarity approach for mapping turbidity of an inland waterbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vaibhav; Senthil Kumar, A.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Kumar, Vinay; Dhote, Pankaj R.; Thakur, Praveen K.; Nikam, Bhaskar R.; Sambare, Rohit S.; Siddiqui, Asfa; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2017-07-01

    Turbidity is an important quality parameter of water from its optical property point of view. It varies spatio-temporally over large waterbodies and its well distributed measurement on field is tedious and time consuming. Generally, normalized difference turbidity index (NDTI), or band ratio, or regression analysis between turbidity concentration and band reflectance, approaches have been adapted to retrieve turbidity using multispectral remote sensing data. These techniques usually provide qualitative rather than quantitative estimates of turbidity. However, in the present study, spectral similarity analysis, between the spectral characteristics of spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data and spectral library generated on field, was carried out to quantify turbidity in the part of Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Spatial spectral contextual image analysis, spectral angle mapper (SAM) technique was evaluated for the same. The SAM spectral matching technique has been widely used in geological application (mineral mapping), however, the application of this kind of techniques is limited in water quality studies due to non-availability of reference spectral libraries. A spectral library was generated on field for the different concentrations of turbidity using well calibrated instruments like field spectro-radiometer, turbidity meter and hand held global positioning system. The field spectra were classified into 7 classes of turbidity concentration as 100 NTU for analysis. Analysis reveal that at each location in the lake under consideration, the field spectra matched with the image spectra with SAM score of 0.8 and more. The observed turbidity at each location was also very much falling in the estimated turbidity class range. It was observed that the spectral similarity approach provides more quantitative estimate of turbidity as compared to NDTI.

  18. A bibliometric analysis of evaluative medical education studies: characteristics and indexing accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Margaret; Horsley, Tanya; Doja, Asif

    2013-03-01

    To determine the characteristics of medical education studies published in general and internal medicine (GIM) and medical education journals, and to analyze the accuracy of their indexing. The authors identified the five GIM and five medical education journals that published the most articles indexed in MEDLINE as medical education during January 2001 to January 2010. They searched Ovid MEDLINE for evaluative medical education studies published in these journals during this period and classified them as quantitative or qualitative studies according to MEDLINE indexing. They also examined themes and learner levels targeted. Using a random sample of records, they assessed the accuracy of study-type indexing. Of 4,418 records retrieved, 3,853 (87.2%) were from medical education journals and 565 (12.3%) were from GIM journals. Qualitative studies and program evaluations were more prevalent within medical education journals, whereas GIM journals published a higher proportion of clinical trials and systematic reviews (χ=74.28, df=3, P<.001). Medical education journals had a concentration of studies targeting medical students, whereas GIM journals had a concentration targeting residents; themes were similar. The authors confirmed that 170 (56.7%) of the 300 sampled articles were correctly classified in MEDLINE as evaluative studies. The majority of the identified evaluative studies were published in medical education journals, confirming the integrity of medical education as a specialty. Findings concerning the study types published in medical education versus GIM journals are important for medical education researchers who seek to publish outside the field's specialty journals.

  19. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Nitin; Bosetti, Cristina; Zucchetto, Antonella; Serraino, Diego; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that various dietary components may be implicated in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer. However, the possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of pancreatic cancer has not yet been investigated. We examined the ability of a newly developed literature-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. This included 326 incident cases and 652 c...

  1. Riesz spectral systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, B.Z.; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study systems in which the system operator, $A$, has a Riesz basis of (generalized) eigenvectors. We show that this class is subset of the class of spectral operators as studied by Dunford and Schwartz. For these systems we investigate several system theoretic properties, like

  2. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  3. A comparative study for air pollution tolerance index of some terrestrial plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Lohe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although water and land pollution are very dangerous, air pollution has its own peculiarities due to its transboundary dispersion of pollutants over the entire world. In any well planned urban set up, industrial pollution takes a back seat and vehicular emissions take precedence as the major cause of urban air pollution. In the present study, Air pollution tolerance index was calculated for various plant species growing at two sites Nagal village at Sahastradhara Road and the Clock Tower (the experimental site of Dehradun city, India. The leaf samples were collected from 7 commonly present tree species. The results showed significant effects of various air pollutants on the vegetation in terms of four biochemical parameters analysed. Four physiological and biochemical parameters, which are leaf relative water content, Ascorbic acid content, total leaf chlorophyll content and leaf extract pH were used to compute the air pollution tolerance index values. Statistically significant difference was observed between control and experimental group for Ascorbic acid, t(6=-4.848,p=.003. Paired t test for air pollution tolerance index between the two groups showed a statistically significant difference, t (6 = -4.548, p=.004. On the basis of air pollution tolerance index values for above mentioned seven tree species, Eucalyptus globus exhibited the highest degree of tolerance at all the sites followed by Ficus religiosa > Mangifera indica > Polyalthia longifolia > Phyllanthus emblica > Citrus limon > Lantana camara.

  4. Remote Sensing Study of the Influence of Different Herbicides on the Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence of Pea Plants (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Yanev, Tony; Iliev, Ilko; Alexieva, Vera; Tsaneva, Mariana

    The effective use of airborne and satellite-based remote sensor systems in resource management, agriculture, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring requires an understanding of the nature and limitations of the high-resolution remote sensing data and of various strategies for processing and interpreting it. In developing the necessary knowledge base, ground-based measurements are the expedient source of information. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied in laboratory for detection of the influence of herbicides 2.4-D, glyphosate, fluridone and acifluorfen on the leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). According to the classification of the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee with reference to their mode of action they belong to different groups: synthetic auxins - O (2.4-D), inhibition of EPSP synthase - G (glyphosate), photobleaching - F1 (fluridone), and inhibition of PPO - E (acifluorfen). During the last 40 years, these herbicides are among the ones used most widely in agriculture worldwide. The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at two low concentrations (1 µM, 0.1 µM) with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice. High-resolution spectral data for leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected from freshly detached leaves using three multichannel spectrometers. Spectral reflectance characteristics were obtained from the leaf reflectance referenced against a standard (white diffuse screen) in the visible and near infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum (450÷850 nm). Fluorescence spectra were taken in the spectral range 650-850 nm. To assess the changes arising in leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action we developed and applied an analytical approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods. The spectral characteristics were analyzed in

  5. A new index for rating aesthetics of implant-supported single crowns and adjacent soft tissues - the Implant Crown Aesthetic Index : A pilot study on validation of a new index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, HJA; Stellingsma, K; Meijndert, L; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The important item of aesthetics is rarely included in evaluation studies. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an index for rating aesthetics of implant-supported single crowns and adjacent soft tissues. Material and methods: Nine items were selected, which have an

  6. A Multi-Epoch Timing and Spectral Study of the Ultraluminous X-Ray NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheeraj, Pasham; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of new XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We detect QPOs in each of four new (approximately equal to 100 ks) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies observed from 10 to 40 mHz. We compare our results with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass black hole systems, and find that the qualitative nature of the timing and spectral behavior of NGC 5408 X-1 is similar to systems in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency-photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of greater than or equal to 800 solar mass. Alternatively, the QPO frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy with the Type-C QPOs in stellar system is problematic. Measurement of the source's timing properties over a wider range of energy spectral index is needed to definitively resolve this ambiguity. We searched all the available data for both a broad Fe emission line as well as high-frequency QPO analogs (0.1- 1 Hz), but detected neither. We place upper limits on the equivalent width of any Fe emission feature in the 6-7 keV band and of the amplitude (rms) of a high-frequency QPO analog of approximately equal to 10 eV and approximately equal to 4%, respectively.

  7. ADE spectral networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro; Park, Chan Y.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new perspective and a generalization of spectral networks for 4d {N} = 2 theories of class S associated to Lie algebras {g} = A n , D n , E6, and E7. Spectral networks directly compute the BPS spectra of 2d theories on surface defects coupled to the 4d theories. A Lie algebraic interpretation of these spectra emerges naturally from our construction, leading to a new description of 2d-4d wall-crossing phenomena. Our construction also provides an efficient framework for the study of BPS spectra of the 4d theories. In addition, we consider novel types of surface defects associated with minuscule ccrepresentations of {g}.

  8. Glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2009-04-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A baseline self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake and exposure information. A total of 1,151 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified from 482,362 participants after excluding first-year of follow-up. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for pancreatic cancer. There were no associations between glycemic index, total or available carbohydrates, gycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk. Participants with high free fructose and glucose intake were at a greater risk of developing pancreatic cancer (highest compared with lowest quintile, RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.59; P trend = 0.004 and RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.67; P trend = 0.005, respectively). There were no statistically significant interactions by body mass index, physical activity, or smoking status. Our results do not support an association between glycemic index, total or available carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load and pancreatic cancer risk. The higher risk associated with high free fructose intake needs further confirmation and elucidation.

  9. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  10. Investigating the BOLD spectral power of the intrinsic connectivity networks in fibromyalgia patients: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Behnaz; Martucci, Katherine T; Nilakantan, Aneesha S; Mackey, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in multivariate statistical analysis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have provided novel insights into the network organization of the human brain. Here, we applied group independent component analysis, a well-established approach for detecting brain intrinsic connectivity networks, to examine the spontaneous BOLD fluctuations in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls before and after exposure to a stressor. The BOLD spectral power characteristics of component time courses were calculated using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, and group comparison was performed at six frequency bins between 0 and 0.24 Hz at 0.04 Hz intervals. Relative to controls, patients with fibromyalgia displayed significant BOLD spectral power differences in the default-mode, salience, and subcortical networks at the baseline level (PBon ferroni-corrected MANCOVA) further revealed significant effects of the cold water temperature, and pain rating on the spectral power of the sensorimotor, salience, and prefrontal networks, while the diagnosis of fibromyalgia influenced the BOLD spectral power of the salience and subcortical networks (PFDR-corrected <; 0.05). Since the BOLD spectral power reflects the degree of fluctuations within a network, future studies of the correlation between BOLD spectral power and pain processing can cast additional light on the nature of the central nervous system dysfunction in patients with chronic pain syndromes.

  11. Dietary glycemic index and retinal microvasculature in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Aguadero, Natalia; Alonso-Dominguez, Rosario; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-10-18

    To analyze the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) and retinal microvasculature in adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 300 subjects from the EVIDENT II study. Dietary GI was calculated using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Retinal photographs were digitized, temporal vessels were measured in an area 0.5-1 disc diameter from the optic disc and arteriolar-venular index (AVI) was estimated with semi-automated software. AVI showed a significant difference between the tertiles of GI, after adjusting for potential confounders. The lowest AVI values were observed among subjects in the highest tertile of GI, whereas the greatest were found among those in the lowest tertile (estimated marginal mean of 0.738 vs. 0.768, p = 0.014). In adults, high dietary GI implies lowering AVI values regardless of age, gender and other confounding variables. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02016014 . Registered 9 December 2013.

  12. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance....

  13. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339,224 individu......Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339......,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P ..., insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis....

  14. Mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies on transition metal complexes with a new tetradentate 12-membered new macrocyclic ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2004-11-01

    Complexes of Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) containing a novel macrocyclic tetradentate nitrogen donor (N 4) ligand prepared via reaction of 2,3-hexanedione and ethylenediamine has been prepared and characterized. The newly synthesized ligand (L) and its complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment susceptibility, EI-Mass, IR, Electronic and EPR spectral studies. The complexes are of high-spin type and four coordinated tetrahedral, five coordinated square pyramidal and six coordinated octahedral/tetragonal geometries. The ligand (L) and its soluble transition metal complexes have also been screened against different bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi in vitro.

  15. Synthesis, Spectral, and In Vitro Antibacterial Studies of Organosilicon(IV) Complexes with Schiff Bases Derived from Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur; Mukherjee, A

    2013-01-01

    The present work stems from our interest in the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial evaluation of organosilicon(IV) complexes of a class of amino-acid-based Schiff base which have been prepared by the interaction of ethoxytrimethylsilane with the Schiff bases (N OH) in 1 : 1 molar ratio. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and spectroscopic studies including electronic IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (29)Si) spectroscopy. The analytical and spectral data suggest trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the silicon atom in the resulting complexes. The ligands and their organosilicon complexes have also been evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Nocardia spp., E. aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Staphylococcus spp.). The complexes were found to be more potent as compared to the ligands.

  16. Growth and spectral-luminescent study of SrMoO4 crystals doped with Tm3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaeva, E. E.; Zverev, P. G.; Doroshenko, M. E.; Nekhoroshikh, A. V.; Ivleva, L. I.; Osiko, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    SrMoO4 crystals doped with Tm3+ ions have been produced from a melt using the Czochralski method; their spectral-luminescent characteristics have been studied, and laser radiation has been generated at the wavelength of 1.94 μm using laser-diode excitation. The high absorption section at the wavelength of 795 nm, the fairly high luminescence section, the long lifetime at the upper laser level 3F4 of 1.5 ms, and a wide luminescence band allow one to hope for developing efficient tunable Tm3+: SrMoO4 crystal lasers with diode pumping in the range of 1.7-2.0 μm, which are capable of implementing SRS self-transformation of radiation into the middle IR band.

  17. Uncertain viscoelastic models with fractional order: A new spectral tau method to study the numerical simulations of the solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, A.; Ismail, F.; Salahshour, S.; Baleanu, D.; Ghaemi, F.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of the behaviors of physical phenomena is important to discover significant features of the character and the structure of mathematical models. Frequently the unknown parameters involve in the models are assumed to be unvarying over time. In reality, some of them are uncertain and implicitly depend on several factors. In this study, to consider such uncertainty in variables of the models, they are characterized based on the fuzzy notion. We propose here a new model based on fractional calculus to deal with the Kelvin-Voigt (KV) equation and non-Newtonian fluid behavior model with fuzzy parameters. A new and accurate numerical algorithm using a spectral tau technique based on the generalized fractional Legendre polynomials (GFLPs) is developed to solve those problems under uncertainty. Numerical simulations are carried out and the analysis of the results highlights the significant features of the new technique in comparison with the previous findings. A detailed error analysis is also carried out and discussed.

  18. Spectrally resolved hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light emitting diodes: Magneto-electroluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooker, S. A.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, F.; Ruden, P. P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100 mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (ΔI/I ∼ 11%) than at the low-energy red end (∼4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.

  19. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Locke Adam E; Kahali Bratati; Berndt Sonja I; Justice Anne E; Pers Tune H; Day Felix R; Powell Corey; Vedantam Sailaja; Buchkovich Martin L.; Yang Jian; Croteau-Chonka Damien C; Esko Tonu; Fall Tove; Ferreira Teresa; Gustafsson Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better here we conduct a genome wide association study and Metabochip meta analysis of body mass index (BMI) a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity in up to 339224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI associated loci (P 20 of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new g...

  20. DFT/TDDFT study on the electronic structure and spectral properties in annulated analogue of phenyl heteroazulene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasiorski, P. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Danel, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Balicka Str. 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland); Matusiewicz, M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Uchacz, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena Str. 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kuznik, W. [Chemical Department, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, Gliwice (Poland); Piatek, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Kityk, A.V., E-mail: kityk@ap.univie.ac.at [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic voltammetry study of heteroazulene derivative PTNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT/TDDFT/PCM calculations of molecular geometry and electronic states in PTNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TDDFT/PCM calculations of the absorption and fluorescence spectra in PTNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between TDDFT/PCM calculated and measured optical spectra. - Abstract: Paper reports the DFT/TDDFT study on the electronic structure and spectral properties of the seven-membered annulated heteroazulene derivative 6-phenyl-6H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[f,h]naphtho[3,2,1-cd]azulene (PTNA) by means of polarizable continuum model (PCM) and Lippert-Mataga-Onsager reaction field (LM-ORF) model at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The results of calculations are compared with the measured optical absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as with the cyclic voltammetry data. The DFT/TDDFT methods exhibit rather good quantitative agreement regarding the spectral position of the first absorption band; the discrepancy between the experiment and theory is less than 0.1 eV. As for the fluorescence emission the TDDFT calculations underestimate the transition energy of about 0.45 eV. The discrepancy should be attributed to insufficient accuracy of the TDDFT optimization in the excited state. In the polar solvent environment, all the TDDFT/PCM approaches give the bathochromic (red) shift for the fluorescence emission and the hypsochromic (blue) shift for the optical absorption in accordance with the experimental observation. As for the fluorescence emission fairly good agreement with the experiment provides the hybrid approach being the combination of the TDDFT/PCM optimization with the semiempirical electronic structure calculations by PM3 method and solvation LM-ORF model predicting the emission energy in different solvents with the accuracy better than 0.06 eV.

  1. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  2. Validity of the Katz Index to assess activities of daily living by informants in neuropathological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the evidences of construct validity of the Katz Index for the retrospective assessment of activities of daily living (ADL by informants, to assist neuropathological studies in the elderly. METHOD A cross-sectional study analyzed the functional ability of ADL measure by the Katz Index, of 650 cases randomly selected from the Brazilian Brain Bank of the Ageing Brain Study Group (BBBABSG database. Sample was divided in two subsamples for the analysis (N=325, each and then stratified according to cognitive decline assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR. Factor analyses with calculations of internal consistency and invariance were performed. RESULTS Factor analysis evidenced a unidimensional instrument with optimal internal consistency, in all subgroups. Goodness of fit indices were obtained after two treatments of covariance, indicating adequacy of the scale for assessing ADL by informants. The scale is invariant to cognitive decline meaning that it can be used for subjects with or without cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION Katz Index is valid for the retrospective assessment of basic ADL by informants, with optimal reliability.

  3. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors of Disability in Nonagenarians: The Vitality 90+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Inna; Tiainen, Kristina; Raitanen, Jani; Jylhävä, Juulia; Hurme, Mikko; Hervonen, Antti; Jylhä, Marja; Stenholm, Sari

    2017-10-12

    Only scarce data exist on the association between obesity and disability in the oldest old. The purpose of this prospective study is to examine if body mass index and waist circumference (WC) are associated with incident mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) disability in nonagenarians. We used longitudinal data from the Vitality 90+ Study, which is a population-based study conducted at the area of Tampere, Finland. Altogether 291 women and 134 men, aged 90-91 years, had measured data on body mass index and/or WC and did not have self-reported mobility or ADL disability at baseline. Incident mobility and ADL disability was followed-up on median 3.6 years (range 0.6-7.8 years). Mortality was also followed-up. Multinomial logistic regression models were used for the analyses, as death was treated as an alternative outcome. The follow-up time was taken into account in the analyses. Neither low or high body mass index, nor low or high WC, were associated with incident mobility disability. In women, the lowest WC tertile (disability when compared to the middle WC tertile (odds ratio 3.98, 95% CI 1.35-11.77). Obesity is not associated with incident mobility or ADL disability in nonagenarians. Instead, low WC is associated with an increased risk of developing ADL disability in nonagenarian women.

  4. Links between sleep and body mass index in bipolar disorders: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudebesse, C; Geoffroy, P-A; Henry, C; Germain, A; Scott, J; Lajnef, M; Leboyer, M; Bellivier, F; Etain, B

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and excess bodyweight are highly prevalent in individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and are associated with adverse consequences. Multiple factors may explain increased bodyweight in BD including side effects of psychotropic medications, and reduced physical activity. Research in the general population demonstrates that sleep disturbances may also contribute to metabolic burden. We present a cross-sectional study of the associations between body mass index (BMI) and sleep parameters in patients with BD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Twenty-six French outpatients with remitted BD and 29 HC with a similar BMI completed a 21-day study of sleep parameters using objective (actigraphy) and subjective (PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) assessments. In BD cases, but not in HC, higher BMI was significantly correlated with lower sleep efficiency (P=0.009) and with several other sleep parameters: shorter total sleep time (P=0.01), longer sleep onset latency (P=0.05), higher fragmentation index (P=0.008), higher inter-day variability (P=0.05) and higher PSQI total score (P=0.004). The findings suggest a link between a high BMI and several sleep disturbances in BD, including lower sleep efficiency. Physiological mechanisms in BD cases may include an exaggeration of phenomena observed in non-clinical populations. However, larger scale studies are required to clarify the links between metabolic and sleep-wake cycle disturbances in BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S; Wahab, Moustafa A; Aboelil, Ahmed A

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed.

  6. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-11-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigation. In this paper, we consider a partially linear single index proportional hazard model, which includes a linear component for covariates of interest to yield easily interpretable results and a nonparametric single index component to adjust for multiple confounders effectively. We propose to approximate the nonparametric single index function by polynomial splines and estimate the parameters of interest using an iterative algorithm based on the partial likelihood. Asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators are established. The proposed methods are evaluated using simulations and applied to an NCC study of ovarian cancer.

  7. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    Full Text Available While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health.We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index.Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43 for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27 for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63.The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not

  8. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Carslake, David; Lund Nilsen, Tom Ivar; Linthorst, Astrid C E; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2015-01-01

    While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health. We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index. Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27) for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63). The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not for anxiety.

  9. A family smoking index to capture genetic influence in smoking: rationale and two validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobes, David J; Munafò, Marcus R; Leigh, Fiona; Saladin, Michael E

    2005-02-01

    Despite a growing appreciation that genetic factors may impart vulnerability toward smoking behavior, only a modest consensus has been created about the specific genetic mechanisms that may underlie various aspects of smoking. A core feature of genetic contribution toward any complex human behavior is familial resemblance. Most previous attempts to index familial smoking have classified individuals into discrete categories, based on the number of smokers in a family. We discuss the development of a continuous measure of familial smoking, the Family Smoking Index (FSI), which is based on the proportion of smokers in first- and second-degree family members and provides a more precise weighting according to genetic proximity. We present the psychometric characteristics of the FSI as well as initial validation data from two studies. We also describe current and future directions for continued FSI validation and application.

  10. Study on Roll Instability Mechanism and Stability Index of Articulated Steering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the roll instability mechanism and stability index of articulated steering vehicles (ASVs by taking wheel loaders as the research object. A seven-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics model of the ASVs is built on the basis of multibody dynamics. A physical prototype model of an ASV is designed and manufactured to validate the dynamic model. Test results reasonably agree with the simulation results, which indicates that the established dynamic model can reasonably describe ASV movements. Detailed analysis of the rollover stability of the wheel loader is performed with the use of the established dynamic model. Analysis results show that rollover will occur when the roll angular velocity exceeds a critical threshold, which is affected by lateral acceleration and slope angle. On this basis, a dynamic stability index applicable to the ASVs is presented.

  11. Social vulnerability effect over obesity anthropometric indexes: results from population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins de; Moraes, Suzana Alves de

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the contextual effects of social vulnerability over anthropometric indexes related to global and central obesity in adults living in Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil, in 2006. In a population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling, multilevel linear models were applied considering two levels: ecological and individual. The 81 census tracts drafted for sample composition were considered the ecological level and classified according to Paulista Social Vulnerability Index (IPVS). Individual correlates to body mass index (BMI) were age, familial and personal antecedents of overweight, and total fat consumption (direct relationship), exception to gender and schooling (inverse relationship). Individual correlates to waist circumference were age, familial antecedents of stroke, personal antecedent of overweight, BMI, number of medicines taken, time of smoking, and diet total energy (direct relationship), exception to gender (inverse relationship). Considering both outcomes (BMI and waist circumference), in the final models, the variance of IPVS showed statistical significance (p < 0.05), depicting the contextual effect (rho ≈ 8%) over global and central obesity, even after the adjustment for individual correlates. Results showed that interventions to promote healthy behaviors and to prevent obesity might be focused not only on individual factors but also on socioenvironmental context in which people are inserted.

  12. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Faerch, Kristine; Glümer, Charlotte; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-06-01

    To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. The Inter99 study is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30-60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. Intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P glycemic load and total carbohydrate and attenuated the association with fruit and vegetables. No significant associations were observed for daily glycemic index or sucrose. Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance.

  13. Accretion Flow Dynamics of MAXI J1659-152 from the Spectral Evolution Study of its 2010 Outburst using the TCAF Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Dipak; Molla, Aslam Ali; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Santanu

    2015-04-01

    Transient black hole candidates are interesting objects to study in X-rays as these sources show rapid evolutions in their spectral and temporal properties. In this paper, we study the spectral properties of the Galactic transient X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 during its very first outburst after discovery with the archival data of RXTE Proportional Counter Array instruments. We make a detailed study of the evolution of accretion flow dynamics during its 2010 outburst through spectral analysis using the Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) model as an additive table model in XSPEC. Accretion flow parameters (Keplerian disk and sub-Keplerian halo rates, shock location, and shock strength) are extracted from our spectral fits with TCAF. We studied variations of these fit parameters during the entire outburst as it passed through three spectral classes: hard, hard-intermediate, and soft-intermediate. We compared our TCAF fitted results with standard combined disk blackbody (DBB) and power-law (PL) model fitted results and found that variations of disk rate with DBB flux and halo rate with PL flux are generally similar in nature. There appears to be an absence of the soft state, unlike what is seen in other similar sources.

  14. ACCRETION FLOW DYNAMICS OF MAXI J1659-152 FROM THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION STUDY OF ITS 2010 OUTBURST USING THE TCAF SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Dipak; Molla, Aslam Ali; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Santanu, E-mail: dipak@csp.res.in, E-mail: aslam@csp.res.in, E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in, E-mail: santanu@csp.res.in [Indian Center for Space Physics, 43 Chalantika, Garia St. Road, Kolkata, 700084 (India)

    2015-04-20

    Transient black hole candidates are interesting objects to study in X-rays as these sources show rapid evolutions in their spectral and temporal properties. In this paper, we study the spectral properties of the Galactic transient X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 during its very first outburst after discovery with the archival data of RXTE Proportional Counter Array instruments. We make a detailed study of the evolution of accretion flow dynamics during its 2010 outburst through spectral analysis using the Chakrabarti–Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) model as an additive table model in XSPEC. Accretion flow parameters (Keplerian disk and sub-Keplerian halo rates, shock location, and shock strength) are extracted from our spectral fits with TCAF. We studied variations of these fit parameters during the entire outburst as it passed through three spectral classes: hard, hard-intermediate, and soft-intermediate. We compared our TCAF fitted results with standard combined disk blackbody (DBB) and power-law (PL) model fitted results and found that variations of disk rate with DBB flux and halo rate with PL flux are generally similar in nature. There appears to be an absence of the soft state, unlike what is seen in other similar sources.

  15. Feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for quantification of gadolinium: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Willemink, Martin J.; Jong, Pim A. de; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Milles, Julien [CT Clinical Science, Philips HealthCare, Best (Netherlands); Vlassenbroek, Alain [CT Clinical Science, Philips HealthCare, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) for the quantification of clinically encountered gadolinium concentrations. The cardiac chamber of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with 14 tubular inserts containing different gadolinium concentrations, ranging from 0 to 26.3 mg/mL (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.1, 10.6, 15.7, 20.7 and 26.3 mg/mL). Images were acquired using a novel 64-detector row SDCT system at 120 and 140 kVp. Acquisitions were repeated five times to assess reproducibility. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on three slices per insert. A spectral plot was extracted for every ROI and mean attenuation profiles were fitted to known attenuation profiles of water and pure gadolinium using in-house-developed software to calculate gadolinium concentrations. At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations between scan repetitions and true and measured gadolinium concentrations were found (R > 0.99, P < 0.001; ICCs > 0.99, CI 0.99-1.00). Relative mean measurement errors stayed below 10% down to 2.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 120 kVp and below 5% down to 1.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 140 kVp. SDCT allows for accurate quantification of gadolinium at both 120 and 140 kVp. Lowest measurement errors were found for 140 kVp acquisitions. (orig.)

  16. Spectral dependence on the correction factor of erythemal UV for cloud, aerosol, total ozone, and surface properties: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Jung, Yeonjin; Lee, Yun Gon

    2016-07-01

    Radiative transfer model simulations were used to investigate the erythemal ultraviolet (EUV) correction factors by separating the UV-A and UV-B spectral ranges. The correction factor was defined as the ratio of EUV caused by changing the amounts and characteristics of the extinction and scattering materials. The EUV correction factors (CFEUV) for UV-A [CFEUV(A)] and UV-B [CFEUV(B)] were affected by changes in the total ozone, optical depths of aerosol and cloud, and the solar zenith angle. The differences between CFEUV(A) and CFEUV(B) were also estimated as a function of solar zenith angle, the optical depths of aerosol and cloud, and total ozone. The differences between CFEUV(A) and CFEUV(B) ranged from -5.0% to 25.0% for aerosols, and from -9.5% to 2.0% for clouds in all simulations for different solar zenith angles and optical depths of aerosol and cloud. The rate of decline of CFEUV per unit optical depth between UV-A and UV-B differed by up to 20% for the same aerosol and cloud conditions. For total ozone, the variation in CFEUV(A) was negligible compared with that in CFEUV(B) because of the effective spectral range of the ozone absorption band. In addition, the sensitivity of the CFEUVs due to changes in surface conditions (i.e., surface albedo and surface altitude) was also estimated by using the model in this study. For changes in surface albedo, the sensitivity of the CFEUVs was 2.9%-4.1% per 0.1 albedo change, depending on the amount of aerosols or clouds. For changes in surface altitude, the sensitivity of CFEUV(B) was twice that of CFEUV(A), because the Rayleigh optical depth increased significantly at shorter wavelengths.

  17. Optical trigger: a Cherenkov effect discriminator for high energy physics. Realisation and characterisation of thin films whose refractive index allow discrimination over a wide spectral range.; Le Trigger Optique: un discriminateur a effet Cherenkov pour la physique des particules. Realisation et caracterisation de couches minces dont l`indice de refraction autorise la discrimination sur un large domaine spectral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbart, A.

    1996-06-19

    The first part of this thesis sets the physical principles, and properties of actual Optical Triggers. For each of them, the cupel is sapphire made, and the external medium is liquid because of refractive index. The theory of Cherenkov emitted light cone explain how sapphire birefringence affects discrimination conditions.The second parts of the thesis (the main one) is focussed on study and realization of thin films for Optical Trigger. A layer characterization method has been developed by spectrophotometry, based on Perkin-Elmer laboratory device. Computerized simulation helped us to determine characteristics and limits of the studied device. (D.L.). Refs.

  18. Adaptation of Index for Inclusion to the field of higher education: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marifa Salceda Mesa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our research focuses on a preliminary study on the adaptation of the Index for Inclusion to the university context. This tool would allow evaluating cultures, policies and practices of educational institutions, as well as to implement inclusive development actions in each of these areas, going from innovation to educational transformation. Design/methodology/approach: The descriptive design of the first phase of the study provides an overview of the scene in this area. Then, using the indicators from the original survey of the Index, it selects 48 items adapted to the Higher Education context. The analysis of agreement among expert judges proved the content validity of those items. Findings and Originality/value: The paper concludes with a revised version of the questionnaire, which includes the qualitative inputs gathered during the analysis of the expert judgment, and it updates the theoretical conclusions from the interpretation of the collected data. Research limitations/implications: There is not much published on this topic in Spain, and the overview of the university is still detected as inflexible organization. This attitude could hamper the development of alternatives to shape a new understanding of Higher Education in Spain. Practical implications: The Index for Inclusion could allow universities to perform a collaborative research project that would start from and draw on the organizational practice of the institution’s own reality to improve the teachers’ training. Social implications: The implementation of this tool would enable a comprehensive approach to the topic of diversity in Spain university context. The entire educational community and non-teaching personal would thus share this focus on social responsibility. Originality/value: The Index for Inclusion would help universities, understood as eminently social –not only academic– institutions, to strengthen the link between their academic

  19. Role of Spectral Studies in Detection of Antibacterial Phytoelements and Phytchemicals of Moringa Oleifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, S.; Rai, P.K.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.; Watal, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports, the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) studies and structure elucidation of compounds isolated from the fruit extract of Moringa oleifera and also deals with their possible effects on some bacterial strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia

  20. Visualizing and quantifying movement from pre-recorded videos: The spectral time-lapse (STL algorithm [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2qo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Madan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When studying animal behaviour within an open environment, movement-related data are often important for behavioural analyses. Therefore, simple and efficient techniques are needed to present and analyze the data of such movements. However, it is challenging to present both spatial and temporal information of movements within a two-dimensional image representation. To address this challenge, we developed the spectral time-lapse (STL algorithm that re-codes an animal’s position at every time point with a time-specific color, and overlays it with a reference frame of the video, to produce a summary image. We additionally incorporated automated motion tracking, such that the animal’s position can be extracted and summary statistics such as path length and duration can be calculated, as well as instantaneous velocity and acceleration. Here we describe the STL algorithm and offer a freely available MATLAB toolbox that implements the algorithm and allows for a large degree of end-user control and flexibility.

  1. Wound Inflammatory Index: A “Proof of Concept” Study to Assess Wound Healing Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharara, Manish; Schoess, Jeffrey; Nouvong, Aksone; Armstrong, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes around the globe results in one major limb amputation every 30 seconds, over 2500 limbs lost per day. The underlying pathophysiology sometimes leads to a chronic inflammatory stage, which may prevent appropriate healing, and therefore, the need for a clear strategy for assessing and classifying wounds and wound healing cannot be overstated. Temperature is a surrogate marker for inflammation. Quantitative thermography using a numerical index provides a useful way to assess wound healing. Advances in technology have afforded the availability of low-cost, high-resolution thermal imaging systems, which can be used to quantify sensitive changes on the skin surface and may be particularly useful to develop monitoring strategies for wounds. This article provides a standardized technique for calculating a thermal index (TI) supported with a case report from assessment of a diabetic foot ulcer. In this single case study, the TI/wound inflammatory index indicates a shift from negative to positive (p < .05) before it reaches zero. PMID:20663437

  2. Study of variations of the Bolton index in the Moroccan population depending on angle malocclusion class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerouaoui, Mohamed Fadel; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima; Regragui, Salwa

    2014-06-01

    Many difficulties may arise during the finishing phase of orthodontic treatment on account of discrepancy between mandibular and maxillary tooth size. In 1958, Bolton devised the index that bears his name and enables possible tooth-size discrepancy to be diagnosed. Use of this index in practice has shown that it can vary depending on the different angle malocclusion classes. The aim of this work is to study variations of the Bolton index as a function of the malocclusion class in the Moroccan population, and to compare the results obtained with those of other populations. Ninety models were therefore selected in different groups of dental Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The mesiodistal (MD) diameters of 12 maxillary and mandibular teeth were measured and the anterior and general Bolton indices were calculated. The results obtained show that there is no significant difference between the various groups of angle malocclusion classes, and that some other populations present results similar to those of the Moroccan sample. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on the effect of macroeconomics instability index on private investment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Saki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical study to investigate the impact of economical stability on the amount of investment coming from the private sector. We calculate macroeconomics instability index (MIX using the existing methods in the literature. We have also used Glezakos (1973 method [Glezakos,C.(1973. Export instability and economic growth: A statistical verification. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 21(3, 670-678.], which considers long-term deviation of real values as instability index. Therefore, we use four variables of inflation rate (TINF, the ratio of budget deficit on growth domestic product (GDP (TBD, foreign debt on GDP (TFD and the ratio of actual currency rate on nominate currency (TFD. The preliminary results show that the short-term changes on LNIP with one lag and LNIV have positive impact on LNIP. In addition, any short term changes on LNMII has negative and meaningful impact on LNIP and approximately 0.67 percent of difference between the actual and long term are discounted in each period. The results indicate that instability index has negative effect even in short term on Iran's industry. This shows the relevant importance of instability on economy.

  4. THE STUDY OF MICRONUCLUES INDEX IN PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH MALIGNANT LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micronucleus is the nucleus that expresses the genotypic alterations caused in the process of malignancy. It is characteristically seen in exfoliated epithelial cells like Buccal Mucosa and urinary bladder wall during pre - cancerous and cancerous conditions in less and large proportions respectively. It is commonly used as a Biomarker to assess the stage and severity of neoplasm. Aim of our study is to observe the micronucleus Index in patients presenting with malignant oral lesions. 30 patients with maligna nt lesions from the Department of oral medicine, Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre were screened for the presence of micronucleus . The buccal scrapings were obtained from the site of the lesion in the oral cavity by conventional metho ds. The obtained slides were stained by using Haematoxylin& Eosin stains and the micronucleus index was calculated. The results showed that the alteration of micronucleus count was observed in malignant conditions with respect to age and gender. Hence it c an be concluded that the micronucleus index can be used as a biomarker or as a screening test in patients presenting with pre malignant conditions

  5. Core Abilities Evaluation Index System Exploration and Empirical Study on Distributed PV-Generation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with the constraints of environmental problems and economic development, large-scale renewable-generation projects have been planned and constructed in recent years. In order to achieve sustainable power development and improve the power supply structure, China’s government has focused on distributed photovoltaic (PV generation projects due to their advantages of clean emission and local consumption. However, their unstable output power still brings a series of problems concerning reliability, investment income, and available substitution proportion to traditional power, and so on. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the competitive development abilities of distributed PV generation projects and measure them effectively. First, through various investigation methods such as literature reviews, feasibility report analysis and expert interviews, the factors that influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation projects were explored based on the micro-grid structure. Then, with the indexed exploration results, the factors were classified into 6 dimensions, i.e., investment and earning ability, production and operation ability, power-grid coordination ability, energy-conservation and emission-reduction ability, sustainable development ability, and society-serving ability. Meanwhile, an evaluation index system for core abilities of distributed PV-generation project was constructed using all quantitative indicators. Third, for examining the availability of the evaluation index system, combination weighting and techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS methods were adopted to assess the practical distributed PV-generation projects. The case study results showed that installed capacity, local economy development, and grid-connected power quantity will influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation project, obviously. The conclusions of the evaluation analysis on core abilities can

  6. Establishing normative foot posture index values for the paediatric population: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Montes-Alguacil, Jesus; Alfageme-Garcia, Pilar; Cervera-Marin, Jose Antonio; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is an observational tool designed to measure the position of the foot. Its reliability is well established, and it provides normative reference values for the general population. However, this is not so for the paediatric population. The aim of this study is to determine FPI reference values in childhood, taking into account age and gender. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,762 school children (863 boys and 899 girls) aged 6?11 years, from M...

  7. Comparison of Ki-67 proliferative index between eutopic and ectopic endometrium: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci Kahyaoglu

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Endometriosis shows some characteristics of tumors such as high rate of invasion, getting autonomy, and proliferation as the disease progresses with subsequent damage to target organs. When the stage of the disease increases, environment becomes more suitable for increased proliferation and invasion. In this study, the increase in proliferative activity as the severity increases is shown by the increase in Ki-67 index. As more studies are being conducted in this field, pathogenesis will be clarified, which could help in the development of new treatment modalities.

  8. Spectral multitude and spectral dynamics reflect changing conjugation length in single molecules of oligophenylenevinylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule study of phenylenevinylene oligomers revealed distinct spectral forms due to different conjugation lengths which are determined by torsional defects. Large spectral jumps between different spectral forms were ascribed to torsional flips of a single phenylene ring. These spectral changes reflect the dynamic nature of electron delocalization in oligophenylenevinylenes and enable estimation of the phenylene torsional barriers. © 2012 The Owner Societies.

  9. Introduction to finite and spectral element methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, Constantine

    2014-01-01

    The Finite Element Method in One Dimension. Further Applications in One Dimension. High-Order and Spectral Elements in One Dimension. The Finite Element Method in Two Dimensions. Quadratic and Spectral Elements in Two Dimensions. Applications in Mechanics. Viscous Flow. Finite and Spectral Element Methods in Three Dimensions. Appendices. References. Index.

  10. Spectral studies on CuO in sodium–calcium borophosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Transparent borophosphate glasses doped with CuO were prepared by melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and luminescence properties of sodium–calcium borophosphate glasses doped with. CuO have been studied. The XRD results showed the amorphous nature of the sample.

  11. Synthesis, spectral characterization, molecular structure and pharmacological studies of N'-(1, 4-naphtho-quinone-2yl) isonicotinohyWdrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha Rani, P. R.; Fernandez, Annette; George, Annie; Remadevi, V. K.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Laila, Shiny P.; Arif, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure was employed for the synthesis of N'-(1,4-naphtho-quinone-2-yl) isonicotinohydrazide (NIH) by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinone (lawsone) and isonicotinoyl hydrazine in methanol using ultrasonic irradiation. Lawsone is the principal dye, isolated from the leaves of henna (Lawsonia inermis). Structural modification was done on the molecule aiming to get a more active derivative. The structure of the parent compound and the derivative was characterized by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic, 1H, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectra. The fluorescence spectral investigation of the compound was studied in DMSO and ethanol. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that NIH crystallizes in monoclinic space group. The DNA cleavage study was monitored by gel electrophoresis method. The synthesized compound was found to have significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (IC50 = 58 μM). The in vitro cytotoxic studies of the derivative against two human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (human breast cancer) and HCT-15 (human colon carcinoma cells) using MTT assay revealed that the compound exhibited higher cytotoxic activity with a lower IC50 value indicating its efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations. These results suggest that the structural modifications performed on lawsone could be considered a good strategy to obtain a more active drug.

  12. Spectral characterization, electrochemical and anticancer studies on some metal(II) complexes containing tridentate quinoxaline Schiff base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaian, Justin Dhanaraj; Johnson, Jijo

    2014-06-05

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of a tridentate ONO donor Schiff base ligand derived from 3-(2-aminoethylamino)quinoxalin-2(1H)-one were synthesized. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, (1)H NMR, mass, magnetic susceptibility, electronic spectra and ESR spectral studies. Electrochemical behavior of the synthesized compounds was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The grain size of the synthesized compounds was determined by powder XRD. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activities against the bacterial species E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus; fungal species include, A. niger, and C. albicans by disc diffusion method. The results show that the complexes have higher activity than the free ligand. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) has been investigated by electronic absorption method. Furthermore, the DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was studied using agarose gel electrophoresis. In vitro anticancer studies of the ligand and its complexes using MTT assay was also done. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Guest:host interactions of lidocaine and prilocaine with natural cyclodextrins: Spectral and molecular modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, N.; Mohandoss, T.; Saravanan, J.

    2014-11-01

    Inclusion complex formation of two local anesthetics drugs (lidocaine (LC) and prilocaine (PC)) with α- and β-cyclodextrins (CDs) in aqueous solution were studied by absorption, fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and molecular modeling methods. The formation of inclusion complexes was confirmed by 1H NMR, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM, TEM and X-ray diffractometry. Both drugs formed 1:1 inclusion complex and exhibit biexponential decay in water whereas triexponential decay in the CD solution. Nanosized self-aggregated particles of drug: CD complexes were found by TEM. Both experimental and theoretical studies revealed that the phenyl ring with the amide group of the drug is encapsulated in the hydrophobic CD nanocavity. Investigations of energetic and thermodynamic properties confirmed the stability of the inclusion complexes. van der Waals interactions are mainly responsible for enthalpy driven complex formation of LC and PC with CDs.

  14. Transition metal complexes with oxygen donor ligands: a synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAIBHAV N. PATANGE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal complexes of chalcones derived from the conden¬sation of 3-acetyl-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H-dione (dehydroacetic acid and p-methoxybenzaldehyde (HL1 or p-nitrobenzaldehyde (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductometry, thermal analysis, magnetic measurements, IR, 1H-NMR, UV–Vis spectroscopy and a microbial study. From the analytical and thermal data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. The molar conductance data revealed that all the metal chelates were non-electrolytes. The thermal stability of the complexes was studied by thermogravimetry and the decomposition schemes of the complexes are given. The ligands and their metal complexes were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata and Penicillium notatum.

  15. Accurate study on the properties of spectral lines for Br-like W39+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. L.; Li, M. C.; Si, R.; He, X. D.; Wang, K.; Dai, Z. T.; Liu, Y. M.; Zhang, H. J.; Chen, C. Y.

    2018-01-01

    As a primary candidate in tokamak plasmas, the spectroscopic parameters of tungsten ions have been studied extensively over the past decade. In this paper, we perform calculations of excitation energies, lifetimes, wavelengths and transition rates for all levels of the 4{s}24{p}5, 4{s}24{p}44d, and 4s4{p}6 configurations of {{{W}}}39+ by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF) method, and also the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT) method. Detailed convergence studies on excitation energy from electron-correlation effects and relativistic effects are presented. It is necessary to include the core–valence correlation from deep lying subshells, e.g. 3d and 3p, to produce reliable atomic parameters. Results are compared with available theoretical and experimental work, and the accuracy of the results is confirmed.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, spectral, thermal analysis and computational studies of thiamine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ghareeb, Doaa A.; Ahmed, Shahenda Sh.

    2017-06-01

    Thiamine metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility, ESR spectra of Cu(II) complex and EDX for structural investigation of the complexes to know their geometries and mode of bonding. All the manganese, iron, copper, zinc, tungsten and mercury complexes are with octahedral geometry, while cobalt and nickel complexes are with tetrahedral geometry. The selenium and palladium complexes are with square planner geometry, while vanadium complex with stoichiometry (2:1) is with square pyramidal geometry. The thermal properties of the complexes were examined. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the TGA and DTA curves. Molecular modeling of the ligand and its complexes was performed using PC computer to give extra spot lights on the bonding properties of these compounds. Some theoretical studies were carried out to obtain the charges, bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles, energies of highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), energies of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), the separation energy (ΔE), chemical potential, electronegativity, hardness, softness, ionization potential and electron affinity of the studied ligand and its complexes. Correlation analysis was done to explore the relationships between some different parameters of the studied complexes.

  17. Spectral transmittance of UV-blocking soft contact lenses: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Saeed; Mohammadi Nia, Mohadeseh; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Nazari, Mohammad Reza; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Three major parts of sunlight consist of visible, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can result in a spectrum of skin and ocular diseases. UV-blocking contact lenses help provide protection against harmful UV radiation. We studied the ultraviolet and visible light rays transmission in some soft UV-blocking contact lenses. Four available tinted soft lenses (Acuvue Moist, Zeiss CONTACT Day 30 Air spheric, Pretty Eyes and Sauflon 56 UV) have been evaluated for UV and visible transmission. One-way ANOVA testing was performed to establish is there a statistically significant difference between the UV regions and visible spectra means for the contact lenses (α=0.05). Pretty Eyes, Zeiss CONTACT, Acuvue Moist and Sauflon 56 UV showed UV-B transmittance value of 0.65%, 10.69%, 1.22%, and 5.78%, respectively. Pretty Eyes and Acuvue Moist had UV-A transmittance values of 32% and 34%, Sauflon 56 UV and Zeiss CONTACT had transmittance values of 48% and 43%, respectively. All of the studied lenses transmitted at least 94.6% on the visible spectrum. The results of the one-way ANOVA statistical analysis show that a statistically significant difference exists within the group of contact lenses tested for the visible (pcontact lenses in this study. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel biphenyl ester derivatives as tyrosinase inhibitors: Synthesis, crystallographic, spectral analysis and molecular docking studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Chong Kwong

    Full Text Available Biphenyl-based compounds are clinically important for the treatments of hypertension and inflammatory, while many more are under development for pharmaceutical uses. In the present study, a series of 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl-2-oxoethyl benzoates, 2(a-q, and 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl-2-oxoethyl pyridinecarboxylate, 2(r-s were synthesized by reacting 1-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl-2-bromoethan-1-one with various carboxylic acids using potassium carbonate in dimethylformamide at ambient temperature. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed a more closely packed crystal structure can be produced by introduction of biphenyl moiety. Five of the compounds among the reported series exhibited significant anti-tyrosinase activities, in which 2p, 2r and 2s displayed good inhibitions which are comparable to standard inhibitor kojic acid at concentrations of 100 and 250 μg/mL. The inhibitory effects of these active compounds were further confirmed by computational molecular docking studies and the results revealed the primary binding site is active-site entrance instead of inner copper binding site which acted as the secondary binding site.

  19. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  20. Synthesis, Spectral, Magnetic and Thermal Studies of the Complexes of CoII and NiII With Some Bidentate and Tridentate Hydrazone Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan K. Modi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Co(NO32.6H2O and Ni(NO32.6H2O with hydrazones derived from 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-acyl-5-pyrazolone (where acyl = acetyl, propionyl, butyryl and benzoyl with 2-picolinic acid hydrazide have been studied and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, magnetic moments, molar conductivity measurements, IR and electronic spectral studies and thermogravimetric analysis. Various ligand field parameters have been calculated. Electronic spectral data and the magnetic moment values suggest an octahedral structure for all cobalt(II and nickel(II complexes.

  1. Supramolecular spectral studies on metal-ligand bonding of novel quinoline azodyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, M. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Barakat, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    A series of novel bidentate azodye quinoline ligands were synthesized with various p-aromatic amines like p-(OCH3, CH3, H, Cl and NO2). All ligands and their complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR data and spectroscopic studies. IR and 1H NMR studies reveal that the ligands (HLn) exists in the tautomeric azo/hydrazo form in both states with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The ligands obtained contain Ndbnd N and phenolic functional groups in different positions with respect to the quinoline group. IR spectra show that the azo compounds (HLn) act as monobasic bidentate ligand by coordinating via the azodye (sbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd ) and oxygen atom of the phenolic group. The ESR (g|| and g⊥) and bonding α2 parameters of the copper ion were greatly affected by substituting several groups position of ring of quinoline and p-aromatic ring. The ESR spectra of copper complexes in powder form show a broad signal with values in order g|| > g⊥ > ge > 2.0023. The value of covalency factor β and orbital reduction factor K accounts for the covalent nature of the complexes. All complexes possessed an octahedral and square planar geometry. The thermal properties of the complexes were investigated using TGA and DSC. It is found that the change of substituent affects the thermal properties of complexes.

  2. Encapsulation of labetalol, pseudoephedrine in β-cyclodextrin cavity: spectral and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, A Antony Muthu; Rajendiran, N

    2012-11-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of labetalol and pseudoephedrine have been studied in different polarities of solvents and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The inclusion complexation with β-CD is investigated by UV-visible, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra and PM3 method. In protic solvents, the normal emission originates from a locally excited state and the longer wavelength emission is due to intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). Labetalol forms a 1:2 complex and pseudoephedrine forms 1:1 complex with β-CD. Nanosecond time-resolved studies indicated that both molecules show triexponential decay. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) and HOMO, LUMO orbital investigations confirm the stability of the inclusion complex. The geometry of the most stable complex shows that the aromatic ring is deeply self included inside the β-CD cavity and intermolecular hydrogen bonds were established between host and guest molecules. This suggests that hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bond play an important role in the inclusion process.

  3. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  4. Investigation on the growth, spectral, lifetime, mechanical analysis and third-order nonlinear optical studies of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid single crystal: A promising material for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Sangeetha, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid (LMDMA) has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The crystallized LMDMA single crystal subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed monoclinic system with the acentric space group P21. The FTIR analysis gives information about the modes of vibration in the various functional groups present in LMDMA. The UV-visible spectral analysis assessed the optical quality and linear optical properties such as extinction coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and from which optical conductivity and electric susceptibility were also evaluated. The frequency doubling efficiency was observed using Kurtz Perry powder technique. A multiple shot laser was utilized to evaluate the laser damage threshold energy of the crystal. Discrete thermodynamic properties were carried out by TG-DTA studies. The hardness, Meyer's index, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, Knoop hardness, fracture toughness and brittleness index were analyzed using Vickers microhardness tester. Layer growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by chemical etching studies using optical microscope. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and lifetime was also studied. The electric field response of crystal was investigated from the dielectric studies at various temperatures at different frequencies. The third-order nonlinear optical response in LMDMA has been investigated using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm and nonlinear parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ3) investigated extensively for they are in optical phase conjucation, high-speed optical switches and optical dielectric devices.

  5. Spectral methods for study of the G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin: I. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struts, A. V.; Barmasov, A. V.; Brown, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Here we review the application of modern spectral methods for the study of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using rhodopsin as a prototype. Because X-ray analysis gives us immobile snapshots of protein conformations, it is imperative to apply spectroscopic methods for elucidating their function: vibrational (Raman, FTIR), electronic (UV-visible absorption, fluorescence) spectroscopies, and magnetic resonance (electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In the first of the two companion articles, we discuss the application of optical spectroscopy for studying rhodopsin in a membrane environment. Information is obtained regarding the time-ordered sequence of events in rhodopsin activation. Isomerization of the chromophore and deprotonation of the retinal Schiff base leads to a structural change of the protein involving the motion of helices H5 and H6 in a pH-dependent process. Information is obtained that is unavailable from X-ray crystallography, which can be combined with spectroscopic studies to achieve a more complete understanding of GPCR function.

  6. Unsymmetrical Schiff base (ON) ligand on complexation with some transition metal ions: synthesis, spectral characterization, antibacterial, fluorescence and thermal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omyma A M; El-Medani, Samir M; Abu Serea, Maha R; Sayed, Abeer S S

    2015-02-05

    A series of eight metal Schiff base complexes were synthesized by the thermal reaction of Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), La(III) or Sm(III) with a Schiff base "L" produced by the condensation of furfuraldehyde and 1,2-diaminobenzene. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, FT-IR, molar conductance, mass spectrometry, thermal and fluorescence studies. The studies suggested the coordination of the ligand L to metal through azomethine imine nitrogen and furan oxygen atoms of Schiff base moiety. Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses data were studied and indicated high stability for all complexes and suggested the presence of lattice and/or coordinated water molecules in the complexes. Coats-Redfern method has been used to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the metal complexes. The spectral and thermal analysis reveal that all complexes have octahedral geometry except Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes which can attain a square planner arrangements. The ligand and its complexes exhibited intraligand (π-π(∗)) fluorescence and can potentially serve as photoactive materials. Both the ligand and its complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectral studies on sulfur poisoning of Pd/Mg6Ni by NEXAFS and XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, S.; Nambu, M.; Tsukada, C.; Ogawa, S.; Kutluk, G.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2013-02-01

    We have studied on the hydrogen storage materials based on Mg-Ni alloy and fabricated the sample constructed with the Pd thin layer (TL) on Mg6Ni alloy substrate. The adsorption behavior of the dimethyl disulfide (DMS) molecules on the sample has been measured to reveal the sulfur poisoning of the Pd TL/Mg6Ni by means of XPS and Sulfur K-edge NEXAFS techniques. The chemisorbed DMS, methanethiolate (MT) and atomic S have been observed on the surface. Especially, it is clear that some atomic S has been oxidized by air and detected the adsorbate of the SO32- and SO42- species. During exposure to the atmosphere, most of the adsorbed DMS and MT adsorbates desorb from the Pd TL surface. We thus conclude the Pd TL might be able to prevent the hydrogen storage materials from the sulfur poisoning.

  8. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Antibacterial and Antifungal Studies of PANI/V2O5 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakradhar Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 nanoparticles and their antibacterial and antifungal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, respectively, by agar diffusion method. The metal oxide has been synthesized by employing the sol-gel method, polyaniline (PANI has been synthesized by chemical oxidation, and PANI/V2O5 composites have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method with different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 weight% of V2O5 in PANI. The newly prepared composites were characterized by FTIR and powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD techniques and are found to be formed of PANI/V2O5 nanocomposites, and also the compounds showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  9. Synthesis of trimethoprim metal complexes: Spectral, electrochemical, thermal, DNA-binding and surface morphology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezen, Nihat; Tarınç, Derya; Polat, Duygu; Ceşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Complexes of trimethoprim (TMP), with Cu(II), Zn(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Fe(III) have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques involving UV-vis, IR, mass and (1)H NMR. CHN elemental analysis, electrochemical and thermal behavior of complexes have also been investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that these compounds can bind to CT DNA. The binding constants of the complexes with CT DNA have also been calculated. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes in the presence of CT DNA have shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA by both the intercalative and the electrostatic binding mode. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with the reference drug TMP. Almost all types of complexes show excellent activity against all type of bacteria and fungi. The morphology of the CT DNA, TMP, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with CT DNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at CT DNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Spectral Study on Coordination Reaction Between metMyoglobin and Nitric Oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Hong-yu; Shi, Shan-shan; Zheng, Xue-fang

    2015-07-01

    As we all known, the instantaneous reaction between protein and ligands are very important to adjust the normal playing of biological function. And nitric oxide interactions with iron are the most important biological reactions in which NO participates. Unlike carbon monoxide or oxygen, NO can also bind reversibly to ferric iron. In this paper, UV-Vis absorption and CD spectra were used to study coordination reaction process between horse heart metMb and NO, to demonstrate the coordination reaction mechanism and to explore the influencing factors of metMb with NO. The experimental results showed that metMb could react with NO, and obtained three new peaks at 420 nm, 534 and 568 nm, respectively, which implied metMb and NO have reacted and generated a new complex-nitrosylmetmyoglobin (metMbNO). Then as time went on, NO concentration decreased in the solution, and the Fe-N bond fractured under the attack of H2O, then NO leaves slowly from metMbNO, and met-Mb was regenerated. In this experiment, we also found that external conditions such as buffer medium, ionic strength, pH, temperature, etc, had an important influence on the coordination reaction between metMb and NO. It was favorable for the coordination reaction, when the 0.01 mol x L(-1) phosphate buffer. solution is near neutral condition, the temperature is 280 K, the coordination reaction could reach equilibrium at a fastest speed. In addition, the CD date show that NO only reacts with Fe atom in the center of heme and has less effect on the secondary structuers of protein. The research of metMb and NO played an important role to further study the function of NO. Especially the establish of equilibrium reaction mechanism between NO and heme protein has an important research value on maintaining the balance of NO in vivo and keeping the normal function in the body's cells.

  11. Polymer complexes. XLXI. Supramolecular spectral studies on metal-ligand bonding of novel rhodanine sulphadrugs hydrazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sonbati, Adel Z., E-mail: elsonbatisch@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Demiatta (Egypt); Diab, Mostafa A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Demiatta (Egypt); El-Halawany, Mohamed M.; Salam, Naglaa E. [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2010-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The ESR spectra of copper complexes in powder form show a broad signal with values in order g{sub ||} > g{sub (} > g{sub e} (2.0023). The value of covalency factor {beta} and orbital reduction factor K accounts for the covalent nature of the complexes. -- Abstract: Novel polymeric complexes with 5-sulphadiazineazo-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidine (HL{sub 1}), 5-sulphamethazineazo-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidine (HL{sub 2}) and 5-sulphamethoxazoleazo-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidine (HL{sub 3}) and various anions were prepared. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been studied on the basis of elemental analyses, infrared spectra, {sup 1}HNMR spectra, electronic spectra, magnetic measurements and ESR. IR and {sup 1}H NMR studies reveal that the ligands (HL{sub n}) exists in the tautomeric enol/hydrazo form in both states with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The analytical data and the molar conductance measurements of the polymeric complexes reveal that three molecules of the ligand and four/two(Cl/SO{sub 4}) of the anions are coordinated to the two metal atoms in all complexes. The infrared spectra of the ligands and their polymeric complexes, confirmed that the ligands coordinate to Cu(II) as a neutral and tetradentate via NH(hydrazone), oxygen of the carbonyl group (CO), nitrogen of the NH(3-phenylamine) and thion sulphur (CS) group. All the polymer complexes were found to have magnetic moments corresponding to one unpaired electrons. The ESR (g{sub ||} and g{sub perpendicular}) and bonding {alpha}{sup 2} parameters of the copper ion were greatly affected by substituting several groups position of ring of sulphadrug. The ESR spectra of copper complexes in powder form show a broad signal with values in order g{sub ||} > g{sub perpendicular} > g{sub e} (2.0023). The value of covalency factor {beta} and orbital reduction factor K accounts for the covalent nature of the complexes.

  12. Spectral, morphological and antibacterial studies of β-cyclodextrin stabilized silver - Chitosan nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, N.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial properties and characterization of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) stabilized silver - chitosan nanocomposite (Ag-Cts NCs). An effective and eco-friendly technique for the synthesis of Ag-Cts NCs in the presence of a strong stabilizing agent β-CD is described. The well formed nanocomposites were characterized by the Ultraviolet Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDS), Atomic force microscope (AFM), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Zeta potential measurement (ZP). The results confirmed that the poly dispersed Ag-Cts NCs are less than 15 nm in size with spherical shape and show good stability. The antibacterial activity was also investigated and β-CD coated Ag-Cts NCs showed a promising bacterial activity against gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) micro-organism.

  13. Comparative study of the structural and spectral properties of tetraaza- and tetraoxaannelated tetracirculenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaeva, V. A.; Karaush, N. N.; Minaev, B. F.; Baryshnikov, G. V.; Chen, F.; Tanaka, T.; Osuka, A.

    2017-04-01

    The IR spectrum of a recently synthesized tetraaza[8]circulene ( 4N) molecule has been investigated and completely interpreted based on the calculation of the molecular structure and force field within the density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The calculation has also successfully explained the X-ray diffraction data. The same method has been used to calculate the tetraoxa[8]circulene ( 4O) molecule and perform a comparative analysis of the IR spectra of both molecules. In contrast to 4O, the 4N molecule exhibits strong fluorescence, which hinders measurement of its Raman spectrum; hence, it is only predicted based on the DFT calculation in this study. A comparison of the IR and Raman spectra of the 4N molecule with the experimental and theoretical analogs for the 4O molecule has made it possible to assign all the observed vibrational transitions and explain the nature of normal vibrations in these complex molecules.

  14. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Marchand, Loic Le; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2015-02-12

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

  15. Study on Thermal and Hydrodynamic Indexes of a Nanofluid Flow in a Micro Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper numerically presents laminar forced convection of a nanofluid flowing in a duct at microscale. Results were compared with both analytical and experimental data and observed good concordance with previous studies available in the literature. Influences of Brinkman and Reynolds number on thermal and hydrodynamic indexes have been investigated. For a given nanofluid, no change in efficiency (heat dissipation to pumping power was observed with an increasing in Reynolds number. It was shown that the pressure was decrease with an increase in Brinkman number. Dependency of Nu increment changes with substrate material.

  16. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van ’t Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Marchand, Loic Le; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413

  17. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs.

  18. Urdu version of the neck disability index: a reliability and validity study

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Muhammad Nazim; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad A.; Gilani, Syed Amir; Hafeez, Ambreen

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the wide use of the neck disability index (NDI) for assessing disability in patients with neck pain, the NDI has not yet been translated and validated in Urdu. The first purpose of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the NDI into the Urdu language (NDI-U). The second purpose was to investigate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the NDI-U in Urdu-speaking patients experiencing chronic mechanical neck pain (CMNP). Methods Translation and...

  19. Hostility and Trajectories of Body Mass Index Over 19 Years: The Whitehall II Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimaki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine; Dugravot, Aline; Lajnef, Mohamed; Marmot, Michael,; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The authors examined the associations of hostility measured in adulthood with subsequent body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) assessed at 4 time points over a 19-year period (1985-2004) in a United Kingdom cohort study. A total of 6,484 participants (4,494 men and 1,990 women) aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-1988) completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. BMI was assessed upon medical examination in phases 1 (1985-1988), 3 (1991-1993), 5 (1997-1999), an...

  20. COMPUTER-AIDED INDEXING OF A SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS JOURNAL BY THE UDC WITH UNIDEK--A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; RUSSELL, MARTIN

    THIS PAPER IS A CASE STUDY OF THE ADOPTION BY GEOSCIENCE ABSTRACTS OF UNIDEK, A COMPUTER-COMPILED SYSTEMATIC SUBJECT INDEX BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION (UDC). EVENTS LEADING TO A DECISION TO ADOPT THE SYSTEM, SOME THEORY OF INDEXES, PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION, AND SOME OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED ARE REVIEWED. UNIDEK MAKES…

  1. The application of near-infared spectral data in studying the chloritized rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yang, Junlu; Ren, Guangli; Li, Jianqiang; Gao, Ting; Yi, Huan; Han, Haihui; Zhang, Zhuan; Nan, Liang

    2014-11-01

    Chlorite minerals present in altered rocks could characterised by field portable near-infrared spectroscopy. It is a kind of low-temperature altered mineral that cristal at between 100 to 400 degree centigrade. Six kinds of major alteration rocks, andesite, dacite, sillite, granite, sandstone and phyllite are shown the spectruml characteristic of chlorite. The characteristic absorption bands of chlorite are always due to OH stretch absorption and metal-OH bend absorption, but different lithology behaves different wavelengths of the absorption bands espetially for basic rocks, intermediate rocks and acid rocks. This behavior could help geologists to study the lithology and diagenetic environment. The diagnostic absorption bands of chlorite are appear at wavelengths between 2249nm and 2260nm, it dues to Fe-OH absorption and called Fe-OH band; and another important absorption band between 2335nm to 2355nm, it is caused by Mg-OH absorption and named Mg-OH band. Fe-OH band and Mg-OH band are always existence proof of chlorite. Basic rocks such as andesite and sillite, their Fe-OH bands are occured at wavelength between 2256nm and 2260nm; Mg-OH bands are located at wavelength between 2338nm to 2339nm. Intermediate rocks such as dacite and sandstone, their Fe-OH bands are appeared at wavelength between 2253nm and 2256nm; Mg-OH bands are shown at between 2237nm and 2251nm. Acid rocks such as granite and phyllite, their Fe-OH bands are shown at wavelength between 2249nm and 2252nm; Mg-OH bands are occurred at wavelength between 2340nm and 2351nm. Contrast with X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer measurement, the wavelength of the Fe-OH band correlates positively with the (FeO+Fe2O3) values. It varies from Mg-rich to Fe-rich varieties, and it can help us to analysis the diagenetic environment, and it could also distinguish basic rocks, intermediate rocks and acid rocks that be rich in chlorite.

  2. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P

    2001-01-01

    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  3. Copper(II) complexes with 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: Spectral studies and toxicity against Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Karina O.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Wardell, James L.; Louro, Sonia R. W.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2009-07-01

    The copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2Am4DH)Cl 2] ( 1), [Cu(H2Am4Me)Cl 2] ( 2), [Cu(H2Am4Et)Cl 2] ( 3) and [Cu(2Am4Ph)Cl] ( 4) with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me), N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Am4Ph) derivatives were studied by means of infrared and EPR spectral techniques. The crystal structure of 4 was determined. The studied compounds proved to be toxic to Artemia salina, suggesting that they could present cytotoxic activity against solid tumors. Among the free thiosemicarbazones H2Am4Ph presented higher toxicity than all other compounds, which showed comparable effects. In the case of complexes 2 and 3 toxicity is probably attributable to the complex as an entity or to a synergistic effect involving the thiosemicarbazone and copper. H2Am4Ph and complexes 2 and 3 revealed to be the most promising compounds as potential antineoplasic agents.

  4. The effect of center point shift on the measurement of macular thickness: a spectral domain-optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Nam; Shin, Il Hwan; Sung, Jae Yun; Kwak, Baek Soo; Lim, Hyung Bin; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) measurement center shift on the measurement of macular thickness. This was a prospective observational case series. A total of 60 normal eyes of 60 subjects included in the study. SD-OCT macular scanning (macular cube 512 × 128 scan) was performed twice by an experienced examiner. The average retinal thicknesses of the nine macular sectors as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) were recorded. Each coefficient of repeatability was calculated for the macular thickness measurements of the ETDRS subfields. Thereafter, the measurement center was manually decentered to a seven scan point, each from the central fovea in steps of 58.7 μm horizontally and 47.2 μm vertically. At each shift point, the change in the macular thickness was compared. When the displacement distance between the measurement center point and the foveal center was within 117.4 μm horizontally and 141.6 μm vertically, the macular thickness measurements did not show any significant differences. However, if the offset of the EDTRS grid center from the anatomic fovea exceeded, we noted that the thickness at the fovea increased and the opposite-direction region at the inner circle was significantly thinner than the displaced point. The effect of measurement center shift needs to be considered when analyzing the macular thickness measurements in various ophthalmologic diseases.

  5. ESTIMATING LEAF AREA INDEX FOR AN ARID REGION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of the important crop parameters that can be used to assess crop conditions or drought severity. Estimating LAI for arid regions presents challenge due to the high spatial variability in precipitation and in crop canopies found in such regions. In this study, spectral reflectance of pearl millet was ...

  6. [Study on second filtering algorithm based on tracing the interfering spectral peaks of radar non-contact life-parameter detection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guohua; Yang, Guosheng; Wang, Jianqi; Ni, Ansheng; Jing, Xijing

    2006-08-01

    To develop a filtering algorithm which could trace the spectral peaks of the interference and which was used to extract the breath signal with the same band interference in radar non-contact life-detecting system, second filtering algorithm was studied. Through first filtering,the probable interfering spectral peaks (ISP) could be detected by Yule-Walker spectrum estimating and could be located by calculating the coefficients of normalized cross-correlation function according to standard breath signal. Thus the breath signal could be extracted through a second filtering. By using the second filtering algorithm (SFA), the same band interfering spectral peaks with breath signal could be recognized and inhibited. So we conclude that the same band mono-ISP could be inhibited by using SFA and breath signals could be effectively extracted.

  7. Migrants and HIV stigma: findings from the Stigma Index Study (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinouya, Martha; Hildreth, Anthony; Goodall, Deborah; Aspinall, Peter; Hudson, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on data collected in 2009 for the international Stigma Index Study which measured the experiences of stigma among participants living with HIV in the UK. Data were collected using a self-completed survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, while qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. The Stigma Index attempts to establish a baseline for documenting the experience of stigma and discrimination by people living with HIV while also acting as an advocacy tool whose power lay in the involvement of people living with HIV in the design of study instruments and data collection. Participants were recruited through collaborations with a broad range of UK HIV support organisations. The ethics protocols used were those described in the Stigma Index guidebook. A total of 867 people living with HIV took part, of whom 276 described themselves as 'immigrants'. Most of this 'migrant' subsample (70%) was women. Nearly, all (91%) identified as heterosexual, while 9% were attracted to someone of the same sex as them. Socioeconomic deprivation was a key theme and they reported other stigmatised chronic conditions in addition to HIV. It is not possible to ascertain from the questionnaire, the migrants' countries of origin and length of stay in the UK. Control of information about HIV was critically managed, with respect to family and partners. Felt stigma increased anxieties about personal safety, particularly among men. Strategies for safeguarding against the negative impact of stigma included avoiding social gatherings, intimacy, and clinical and HIV social care settings. Most participants were unaware of policies and declarations that protected them as persons living with HIV. Specific recommendations include creating awareness about rights as enshrined in various legal frameworks that protect the right of people living with HIV, which has been reconfigured as a 'disability'. © 2014 John Wiley

  8. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 and risk for pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Reedy, Jill; Sampson, Josh; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Risch, Harvey; Mayne, Susan T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2013-09-04

    Dietary pattern analyses characterizing combinations of food intakes offer conceptual and statistical advantages over food- and nutrient-based analyses of disease risk. However, few studies have examined dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk and none focused on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We used the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) to estimate the association between meeting those dietary guidelines and pancreatic cancer risk. We calculated the HEI-2005 score for 537 218 men and women in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study using responses to food frequency questionnaires returned in 1995 and 1996. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of pancreatic cancer according to HEI-2005 quintiles and explored effect modification by known risk factors. P interaction values were calculated using the Wald test. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 2383 incident, exocrine pancreatic cancer cases (median = 10.5 years follow-up). Comparing participants who met the most dietary guidelines (Q5) with those who met the fewest guidelines (Q1), we observed a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74 to 0.97). Among men there was an interaction by body mass index (P interaction = .03), with a hazard ratio of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.59 to 0.88) comparing Q5 vs Q1 in overweight/obese men (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) but no association among normal weight men. Our findings support the hypothesis that consuming a high-quality diet, as scored by the HEI-2005, may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, G; Kumar, G Anil; Reddy, Vamsi; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Rao, M S Rama; Wankhade, Swapnil B

    2013-12-01

    Malocclusion should be identified at its earliest before it produces any detrimental effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the orthodontic status and treatment need of school children in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, using Dental Aesthetic Index. One thousand children in the age group of 12 - 14 years who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered. The demographic details of the students along with the information on the orthodontic status were collected using a predesigned questionnaire by a single orthodontist. The information on orthodontic status was obtained using Dentofacial Anomalies with the criteria of Dental Aesthetic Index (W H O Oral Health Assessment form 1997). RESULTS were subjected to ANOVA, Tukeys test and chi square test using SPSS, version 16. 86.1% of the subjects had DAI score of less than 25, suggesting 'no treatment'; 10% had DAI score of 26-30, suggesting 'elective treatment'; 3% had DAI score of 31-35, suggesting 'highly desirable treatment'; 0.9% had DAI score of >36, indicating 'mandatory treatment'; Higher prevalence of malocclusion among females than males. It is necessary to identify this abnormality at its earliest before it produces detrimental effects. It is also essential to know the prevalence of malocclusion in any society, as it reveals the true extent of the problem and guides in overcoming it. The general public can, then, be educated on widespread occurrence of malocclusion and its deleterious effects, so that appropriate preventive and corrective measures can be instituted. How to cite this article: Anita G, Kumar GA, Reddy V, Reddy TP, Rao MS, Wankhade SB. Dental Aesthetic Index of school students in Telangana region - An epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):55-60 .

  10. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations.

  11. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  12. Comparison of the accuracy for three dental impression techniques and index: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Barros, Luiz Antonio Borelli; Del'Acqua, Marcelo Antonialli; Castanharo, Sabrina Maria; Mollo, Francisco de Assis

    2013-10-01

    This in vitro study compared the dimensional accuracy of stone index (I) and three impression techniques: tapered impression copings (T), squared impression copings (S) and modified squared impression copings (MS) for implant-supported prostheses. A master cast, with four parallel implant abutment analogs and a passive framework, were fabricated. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material was used for all impressions with two metal stock trays (open and closed tray). Four groups (I, T, S and MS) were tested (n=5). A metallic framework was seated on each of the casts, one abutment screw was tightened, and the gap between the analog of implant and the framework was measured with a stereomicroscope. The groups' measurements (80 gap values) were analyzed using software (LeicaQWin - Leica Imaging Systems Ltd.) that received the images of a video camera coupled to a Leica stereomicroscope at 100× magnification. The results were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis One Way ANOVA on Ranks test followed by Dunn's Method, 0.05. The mean values of abutment/framework interface gaps were: Master Cast=32 μm (SD 2); Group I=45 μm (SD 3); Group T=78 μm (SD 25); Group S=134 μm (SD 30); Group MS=143 μm (SD 27). No significant difference was detected among Index and Master Cast (P=.05). Under the limitations of this study, it could be suggested that a more accurate working cast is possible using tapered impression copings techniques and stone index. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower Bispectral index values in psychiatric patients: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatapura J Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Bispectral index score (BIS is a processed electroencephalographic parameter used to measure level of sedation in anaesthetised patients. In few studies of psychiatric patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, it was observed that the BIS values were lower at baseline. It is not clear from those studies whether the BIS values are really low. Also, it is not clear whether the lower values are related to the primary psychiatric illness or the due to the effect of ECT. Therefore, we studied the BIS values in psychiatric illnesses and compared them with the normal controls. Materials and Methods : BIS index was recorded in 237 patients with various psychiatric illness (Group P and 40 control patients without any psychiatric illness undergoing spinal surgery (Group C. BIS values were recorded in supine position before breakfast and before the morning doses of antipsychotic/benzodiazepine medications. It was recorded during resting state in all the subjects. Results : BIS values were lower in group P compared to control group (a mean of 89.8 ± 7.8 vs 95.7 ± 2.4, P < 0.0001. In the group P, the patients with psychosis and bipolar disorder had significantly lower BIS values than the patients with depression (P = 0.04. Conclusions : BIS values in psychiatric patients are lower than those in the control group. Psychotic and bipolar disorders are associated with significantly lower BIS values than the depression.

  14. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

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    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  15. [Correlation between urinary catecholamines dosage and apnea-hypopnea index in a hypertension population: pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sublet, M; Le Jeune, S; Giroux-Leprieur, B; Agnoletti, D; Dhote, R; Mourad, J J

    2014-06-01

    Sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea in adults are associated with increased sympathetic activity, which induced high blood pressure and could be associated with resistant hypertension. Some studies have demonstrated that high urinary catecholamine levels in obstructive sleep apnea patients may be decreased with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. However, very few studies have demonstrated a correlation between apnea-hypopnea index and urinary catecholamine levels in hypertension patients. In this pilot study, 20 hypertensive patients referred for hypertension work-up including night-time polygraphy and 24h urinary catecholamine dosage were included. Mean age was 51±11 years (30-76), 68% were males. Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea was confirmed in 13 patients at the end of the work-up. Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 14±9 (2-32). The only urinary catecholamine parameter significantly increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was 24h urinary normetanephrine (1931±1285 vs 869±293nmol/24h; Pcatecholamines excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Sohrab, Golbon; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moslehi, Nazanin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-07-01

    Data available on the effect of quality (glycemic index [GI]) and quantity (glycemic load [GL]) of carbohydrates on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary GI, GL, and CVD risk factors among Tehranian adults, the participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This population- based cross-sectional study was conducted on 2457 subjects (46% men and 54% women), aged 19 to 84 years. Dietary GI and GL were measured using a validated 168- item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured. The mean intakes of GI and GL were 68.3 and 244.8, respectively. Rice (26.6%) and bread (19.0%) were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL, respectively. Higher dietary GI and GL were associated with high intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, refined grain, fruits, simple sugar, snack, and desserts. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary variables, a higher dietary GI was positively associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations among obese subjects. Dietary GL was positively associated with fasting and 2-h blood glucose among nonobese subjects, after adjustment for confounders.   Dietary GI and GL were associated with a few CVD risk factors, and body mass index levels may modulate these associations.

  17. [Interest of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index for mortality prediction in hemodialysis patients: preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajedine, Khaled; Fardous, Rida; Al Adib, Mohamad; Colomb, Henry; Maurin, Audrey

    2012-07-01

    Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) is a simple and quantitative method (based on three objective measurements: weight, height, albumin) for screening patients at risk for malnutrition. However no data are available regarding its relation with mortality in Caucasian hemodialysis patients. We tested the predictive value of GNRI on mortality in a hemodialysis population followed up prospectively for 18 months. A total of 46 stable prevalent (mean age: 76 ± 11 years, range: 42-95) hemodialysis patients from one center were included in the study. GNRI with other nutritional parameters were evaluated for all patients. Sixteen patients (35%) died during the 18 months of follow-up. Multiple logistic model showed that GNRI and Charlson co-morbidity score were significant predictors of mortality. Age and gender were not significant. Our preliminary study carried out on a series of prevalent hemodialysis patients suggests that GNRI is predictor of mortality. To recommend the use of this index for the screening of hemodialysis patients with malnutrition at risk of mortality, our results should be confirmed by a large cohort study. Copyright © 2012 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of wet indices using standard precipitation index: A case study of Terengganu states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, M. F.; Rauf, U. F. Abdul; Din, W. R. Wan; Hussin, A. G.

    2017-09-01

    In line with the current climate conditions, the study of prolonged precipitation is imperative as it may predict the flood events in the future. In 2014, Terengganu is amongst the state in Peninsular Malaysia was affected by floods and it experienced three waves of floods during the monsoon seasons. In this research study, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to analyse the monthly precipitation data for two selected rain gauge stations in Terengganu over the period of forty-five years from 1970 to 2014. The objective of this study is to monitor the extreme wet conditions that eventually could cause the occurrence of floods. Comparisons were made using 3-month, 6-month, 24-month and 48-month time scales. SPI time series is calculated from precipitation index data for two rain-gauge stations in Terengganu. The shortest of time scales of SPI indicate the condition of moisture in short and medium terms, which is then used to estimate the seasonal precipitation. The longest time scales reveal patterns of long-term precipitation before the flood events. The result clearly shows that the annual trends of the wet events for longest periods are regularly experienced in wet conditions compare to drought conditions and predicted to have a higher probability of flood disaster. SK Kuala Telemong station has recorded the highest SPI values for the wet event in the entire periods, which the shortest time scales is 3.43 and longest term of time scales closer to three (2.90) in this analysis.

  19. [Analysis of typical mangrove spectral reflectance characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Liu, Qing; Li, De-Yi; Zhao, Dong-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Acquisition of mangrove spectrum properties and detecting the sensitive bands provide technology basis for inverse modeling and estimation by remote sensing for various indexes of mangrove. The typical mangroves of Guangxi Shankou Mangrove Reserve were taken for study objects, the standard spectrum curves of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Savigny, Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia candel, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Spartina anglica and mudflat were gained by denoising analysis of field-measured spectrum curves acquired by ASD FieldSpec 2. Analyzing the spectral characteristics and their differences, the authors found that the spectrum curves for various kinds of mangrove are coincident, the bands that appeared with reflection peaks and reflection valleys are basically identical, the within-class differentiated characteristics are comparatively small, the spectrum characteristics of mangroves are obviously different with Spartina anglica and mudflat. In order to gain the quantitative description for within-class differentiated characteristics of mangrove, space distance method, correlation coefficient method and spectral angle mapping method were used to calculate the within-class differentiated characteristics. The division accuracy of correlation coefficient method is higher than spectral angle mapping method which is higher than space distance method, and the result indicates that the spectrum differences of within-class mangrove and Spartina anglica are relatively small with correlation coefficients more than 0.995, and spectrum curve angle cosine values more than 0.95.

  20. Reliability and reproducibility of spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography images before and after correction for patients with age-related macular degeneration [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/50m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Sadiq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of optical coherence tomography scans obtained using the time domain (TD-OCT StratusTM OCT, and the Spectral Domain (SD-OCT SpectralisTM and CirrusTM OCT devices before and after manual correction in eyes with either Neovascular (NV-AMD or Non-Neovascular (NNV-AMD age-related macular degeneration. Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: Setting: University-based retina practice. Patients: Thirty-six patients (50 eyes with NV-AMD or NNV-AMD. Procedure: OCT scans were taken simultaneously using one TD-OCT and two SD-OCT devices. Main Outcome Measures: Macular thickness measurements were assessed before and after correction of the algorithm by constructing Bland-Altman plots for agreement and calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and coefficients of repeatability (COR to evaluate intraclass repeatability. Results: Spectralis had the highest number of images needing manual correction.  All machines had high ICCs, with Spectralis having the highest.  Also, Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was low agreement between Cirrus™ and Stratus™, Spectralis™ and Stratus™, while there was good agreement between the Cirrus™ and Spectralis™.  The CORs were lowest for SpectralisTM and similar and higher for CirrusTM and StratusTM.  Agreement, CORs, and ICCs generally improved after manual correction, but only minimally.  Conclusion: Agreement is low between devices, except between both SD-OCT machines.  Manual correction tends to improve results.

  1. Revised Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index and associations with obesity and iron deficiency in schoolchildren: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Y; Moschonis, G; Papandreou, C; Politidou, E; Naoumi, A; Peppas, D; Mavrogianni, C; Lionis, C; Chrousos, G P

    2015-02-01

    The Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index (HLD-index), previously developed to assess the degree of adherence to dietary and lifestyle guidelines for primary schoolchildren, was revised according to updated recommendations. Τhe association of the revised HLD-index (R-HLD-index) with obesity and iron deficiency (ID) was also examined. A representative sample of 2660 primary schoolchildren from Greece (9-13 years old) participating in the 'Healthy Growth Study' was examined. Twelve components related to dietary and lifestyle patterns were used to develop the R-HLD-index. Scores from 0 up to 4 were assigned to each one of these components, giving a total score ranging from 0 to 48. The associations between the R-HLD-index, obesity and ID were examined via logistic regression analysis. The total score of the R-HLD-index calculated for each one of the study participants was found to range between 2 and 32 units, with higher scores being indicative of a healthier lifestyle and better diet quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that an increase in the R-HLD-index score by one unit was associated with 6% lower odds for obesity. However, no significant association was observed between the R-HLD-index score and ID. The R-HLD-index may be a useful tool for public health policy makers and healthcare professionals when assessing diet quality and lifestyle patterns of primary schoolchildren. Identification of children with lower scores in the R-HLD-index and its individual components could guide tailored made interventions targeting specific children and behaviors. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Obesity indexes and total mortality among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED study.

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    Miguel A Martínez-González

    Full Text Available Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality.We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI and height with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years and 57% were women (60 to 80 years. All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009.After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 were 1.02 (0.78-1.34, 1.30 (0.97-1.75 and 1.55 (1.06-2.26. When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm, the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs for mortality were 1.18 (0.88-1.59, 1.02 (0.74-1.41 and 1.57 (1.19-2.08. In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial.Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639.

  3. Obesity Indexes and Total Mortality among Elderly Subjects at High Cardiovascular Risk: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial

  4. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  5. Using a Novel Motion Index to Study the Neural Basis of Event Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pollick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the perceived actions of those around us includes an ability to segment this continuous stream of activity into discrete events. We studied naïve observers' abilities to segment a video of an unfamiliar dance style into events using a combination of behavioural, computational vision and brain imaging methods. A 386 s video of a solo Bharatanatyam dancer was used as the basis for the study. A computational analysis provided us with, for every video frame, a Motion Index (MI quantifying the movement of the entire dancer. A behavioural analysis using 30 naïve observers provided us with the time points where observers were most likely to place an event boundary. These behavioural and computational data were used to interpret the brain activity of another 11 participants who viewed the dance video while in an MRI scanner. Results showed that the Motion Index predicted brain activity in a single cluster in the right hemisphere that was located close to the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA. Event boundaries in the video were related to extensive clusters of bilateral activity in the Inferior Occipital Gyrus which extended towards the posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus (pSTS. Event boundaries also activated a region in the right Inferior Frontal Gyrus. These results extend our understanding of how movement kinaesthetics modulate action interpretation.

  6. Body adiposity index and incident hypertension: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Urdiales, D; Artero, E G; Sui, X; España-Romero, V; Lee, DC; Blair, S N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim The body adiposity index (BAI) has been recently proposed as a new method to estimate the percentage of body fat. The association between BAI and hypertension risk has not been investigated yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of BAI to predict hypertension in males and females compared with traditional body adiposity measures. Methods and Results The present follow-up analysis comprised 10 309 individuals (2259 females) free of hypertension from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, who completed a baseline examination during 1988–2003. Body adiposity measures included BAI, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, percentage of body fat and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Incident hypertension was ascertained from responses to mail-back surveys between 1990 and 2004. During an average of 9.1 years of follow-up, 872 subjects (107 females) became hypertensive. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) showed that males in the highest categories of all body adiposity measures showed a higher incident risk of hypertension (HRs ranged from 1.37 to 2.09). Females showed a higher incident risk of hypertension only in the highest categories of BAI, BMI and WHR (HRs ranged from 1.84 to 3.36). Conclusion Our results suggest that in order to predict incident hypertension BAI could be considered as an alternative to traditional body adiposity measures. PMID:24974319

  7. Integrated Risk Index of Chemical Aquatic Pollution (IRICAP): case studies in Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, Francesc; Marquès, Montse; Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Barceló, Damià; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2013-12-15

    The hazard of chemical compounds can be prioritized according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties by using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The objective of the present study was to develop an Integrated Risk Index of Chemical Aquatic Pollution (IRICAP), useful to evaluate the risk associated to the exposure of chemical mixtures contained in river waters. Four Spanish river basins were considered as case-studies: Llobregat, Ebro, Jucar and Guadalquivir. A SOM-based hazard index (HI) was estimated for 205 organic compounds. IRICAP was calculated as the product of the HI by the concentration of each pollutant, and the results of all substances were aggregated. Finally, Pareto distribution was applied to the ranked lists of compounds in each site to prioritize those chemicals with the most significant incidence on the IRICAP. According to the HI outcomes, perfluoroalkyl substances, as well as specific illicit drugs and UV filters, were among the most hazardous compounds. Xylazine was identified as one of the chemicals with the highest contribution to the total IRICAP value in the different river basins, together with other pharmaceutical products such as loratadine and azaperol. These organic compounds should be proposed as target chemicals in the implementation of monitoring programs by regulatory organizations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Syntheses, Magnetic and Spectral Studies on the Coordination Compounds of the Polystyrene-anchored Thiazolidin-4-one

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between polystyrene 3-formylsalicylate and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide in DMF in the presence of ethyl acetate results in the formation of polystyrene N-(2-carbamoylthienyl-3'-carboxy-2'-hydroxybenzylideneimine (I. A benzene suspension of I reacts with mercaptoacetic acid and forms the polystyrene N-(2-carbamoylthienyl-C-(3'-carboxy-2'-hydroxyphenyl thiazolidin-4-one, PSCH2–LH2 (II. A DMF suspension of II reacts with Zn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, Zr(OH2(IV and MoO2(VI ions and forms the corresponding polystyrene-anchored coordination compounds, [PSCH2–LZn(DMF] (III, [PSCH2–LCo(DMF3] (IV, [PSCH2–LHCu(OAc] (V, [PSCH2–LH2Zr(OH2(OAc2] (VI and [PSCH2–LHMoO2(acac] (VII respectively. The polystyrene-anchored coordination compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, spectral (IR, reflectance, ESR studies and magnetic susceptibility measurements. II acts as a neutral tridentate ONS donor ligand in VI, a monobasic bidentate OS donor ligand in VII, a monobasic tridentate ONS donor ligand in V and a dibasic tridentate ONO donor ligand in III and IV. The acetato groups behave as monodentate ligands in V and VI. A square-planar structure for V, a tetrahedral structure for III, an octahedral structure for IV and VII and a pentagonal-bipyramidal structure for VI are suggested.

  9. A comparative study of the spectral, fluorometric properties and photostability of natural curcumin, iron- and boron- complexed curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fatima; Rashid-Doubell, Fiza; Cassidy, Seamas; Henari, Fryad

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin is a yellow phenolic compound with a wide range of reported biological effects. However, two main obstacles hinder the use of curcumin therapeutically, namely its poor bioavailability and photostability. We have synthesized two curcumin complexes, the first a boron curcumin complex (B-Cur2) and the second an iron (Fe-Cur3) complex of curcumin. Both derivatives showed high fluorescence efficiency (quantum yield) and greater photostability in solution. The improved photostability could be attributed to the coordination structures and the removal of β-diketone group from curcumin. The fluorescence and ultra violet/visible absorption spectra of curcumin, B-Cur2 and Fe-Cur3 all have a similar spectral pattern when dissolved in the same organic solvent. However, a shift towards a lower wavelength was observed when moving from polar to non-polar solvents, possibly due to differences in solvent polarity. A plot of Stokes' shift vs the orientation polarity parameter (Δf) or vs the solvent polarity parameter (ET 30) showed an improved correlation between the solvent polarity parameter than with the orientation polarity parameter and indicating that the red shift observed could be due to hydrogen-bonding between the solvent molecules. A similar association was obtained when Stokes' shift was replaced by maximum synchronous fluorescence. Both B-Cur2 and Fe-Cur3 had larger quantum yields than curcumin, suggesting they may be good candidates for medical imaging and in vitro studies.

  10. Angular reflectance of graphene/SiO2/Si in UV spectral range: A study for potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppella, Paola; Gerlin, Francesca; Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina

    2017-05-01

    The optical performances of graphene have been already studied in the visible and infrared spectral regions in terms of protection and antireflection properties. In the ultraviolet range, the reflectance properties have been only partially investigated at the normal incidence configuration. On the other hand, graphene optical response at ultraviolet wavelengths is challenging due to the absorption increase, the Van Hove regions and the excitons effects. Thus, the determination of the optical constants and the prediction of the performances is debated. In this paper, experimental angular reflectance investigations of SiO2/Si specimens with a monolayer graphene deposited on, are reported at different ultraviolet lines against the incidence angle. The reflectance measurements are here discussed in the context of graphene properties and physical effects at the selected lines. Optical elements based on graphene/SiO2/Si are suggested as high quality, potentially time-stable reflective components. One possible application in UV-pump IR-probe arrangements is proposed in the light of the experimental and modeled results.

  11. Spectral analysis of the surface electromyogram as a tool for studying rate modulation: a comparison between theory, simulation, and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weytjens, J L; van Steenberghe, D

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that if the interpulse intervals ( IPIs ) of motor unit action potential trains ( MUAPTs ) are independently and normally distributed, then spectral analysis of the electromyogram could be a useful tool for studying rate modulation by virtue of the presence of a peak in the power spectrum at the average firing frequency of all active motor units. It is shown in this paper that IPIs need not be normally distributed, specifically that the results are very much the same if the IPIs are distributed according to a Gamma probability density function ( PDF ). Simulation of the electromyogram based on this theory proved the applicability of the method. Experimental results obtained for the masseter, biceps brachii and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles, however, were in disagreement with both theory and simulation except for the biceps muscle at force levels up to 20% of the maximal force and for the masseter and FDI muscles in 1 out of 5 subjects. This indicates that the models for MUAPTs hitherto used might not be generally correct. Apart from this discrepancy, our results reveal differences between masseter and FDI muscles on the one hand and the biceps brachii on the other, which indicate that motor unit synchronisation is much more pronounced in the latter muscle.

  12. Abnormal resting state effective connectivity within the default mode network in major depressive disorder: A spectral dynamic causal modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Liu, Wenlei; Wang, Huaning; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Linchuan; Guo, Fan; Cui, Long-Biao; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the neural basis underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. Aberrant activation and functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been consistently found in patients with MDD. It is not known whether effective connectivity within the DMN is altered in MDD. The primary object of this study is to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN during resting state in MDD patients before and after eight weeks of antidepressant treatment. We defined four regions of the DMN (medial frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, left parietal cortex, and right parietal cortex) for each participant using a group independent component analysis. The coupling parameters reflecting the causal interactions among the DMN regions were estimated using spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Twenty-seven MDD patients and 27 healthy controls were included in the statistical analysis. Our results showed declined influences from the left parietal cortex to other DMN regions in the pre-treatment patients as compared with healthy controls. After eight weeks of treatment, the influence from the right parietal cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex significantly decreased. These findings suggest that the reduced excitatory causal influence of the left parietal cortex is the key alteration of the DMN in patients with MDD, and the disrupted causal influences that parietal cortex exerts on the posterior cingulate cortex is responsive to antidepressant treatment.

  13. Synthesis, spectral characterisation, morphology, biological activity and DNA cleavage studies of metal complexes with chromone Schiff base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kavitha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes have been synthesized using 3-((pyridine-2-yliminomethyl-4H-chromen-4-one as a ligand derived from 3-formyl chromone and 2-amino pyridine. All the complexes were characterised by analytical, conductivity, IR, electronic, magnetic, ESR, thermal, powder XRD and SEM studies. The analytical data revealed that the metal to ligand molar ratio is 1:2 in all the complexes. Molar conductivity data indicates that all the complexes are neutral in nature. On the basis of magnetic and electronic spectral data, octahedral geometry is proposed for all the complexes. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes indicates the coordinated and lattice water molecules are present in the complexes. The X-ray diffraction data suggest a triclinic system for all compounds. Different surface morphologies were identified from SEM micrographs. All metal complexes exhibit fluorescence. The antimicrobial and nematicidal activity data show that metal complexes are more potent than the parent ligand. The DNA cleavage activity of the ligand and its metal complexes were observed in the presence of H2O2.

  14. Synthesis and spectral studies on metal complexes of s-triazine based ligand and non linear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakala, R.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    A series of transition metal complexes of type [ML] and [ML2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) have synthesized from 2-phenylamino-4,6-dichloro-s-triazine and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole; their characteristics have been investigated by means of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR and ESR spectra. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complexes we have studied, by using cyclic voltammetry. The ESR spectra of copper(II) complexes are recorded at 300 K and 77 K and their salient features are appropriately reported. Spectral datas, we found, show that the ligand acts as a neutral tridentate, and coordinates through the triazine ring nitrogen and pyrazolyl ring nitrogen atoms to the metal ion. Evident from our findings, the metal(II) complexes of [ML] type exhibit square pyramidal geometry, and that of [ML2]Cl2 exhibit octahedral geometry. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complexes are evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Vibris parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium oxalicum by well-diffusion method. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the ligand and its complexes are determined and compared with urea and KDP.

  15. Study on evaluation of normal range of maximum mouth opening among Indian adults using three finger index: A descriptive study

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    Ravleen Nagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early recognition of decreased or limited mouth opening in many pathological conditions is necessary for prompt diagnosis and to plan the treatment options judiciously. Therefore, it is essential to establish what constitutes normal opening for the population. Aim: This study was designed with an aim to consider the applicability of this method as an index to measure the maximum mouth opening (MMO among different age groups in an Indian population. Materials and Methods: Total 400 healthy participants were studied in the age range of 17 to 60 years and stratified into four groups according to their age ranges. The maximum interincisal distance and width of three fingers (index, middle, and ring fingers at the first distal interphalangeal folds of both right and left hand were measured using Vernier caliper. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21 software package. Results: Results suggested that mean value and range of MMO for males was 51.00 mm (33.0–68.0 mm and for females it was 46.3 mm (39.0–58.0 mm. Mean values of MMO correlated significantly with the width of three fingers of left and right hand as shown by Pearson correlation test. Conclusion: The study suggested that three finger index is a convenient and reliable tool for assessing normal MMO and is a most appropriate method to normal from restricted mouth opening.

  16. Ankle-Brachial Index as a Predictor of Mortality in Hemodialysis: A 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Jair Baptista; Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) has been found to be a strong predictor of mortality in some hemodialysis populations in studies with relatively short periods of follow-up, lower than 2 years. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of abnormal ABI as a risk factor for death among patients on maintenance hemodialysis after a 5-year follow-up. A total of 478 patients on hemodialysis for at least 12 months were included in the study. ABI measurement was performed using a mercury column sphygmomanometer and portable Doppler. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to ABI (low: 1.3) and followed for a 60-month period. The prevalence rates of low, normal and high ABI were 26.8%, 64.6% and 8.6%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was lower in the groups with low ABI (44.1%, Phemodialysis patients.

  17. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

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    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  18. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography in recalls from the Dutch breast cancer screening program : validation of results in a large multireader, multicase study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalji, U C; Houben, I P L; Prevos, R; Gommers, S; van Goethem, M; Vanwetswinkel, S; Pijnappel, R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239429583; Steeman, R; Frotscher, C; Mok, W; Nelemans, P; Smidt, M L; Beets-Tan, R G; Wildberger, J E; Lobbes, M B I

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a promising problem-solving tool in women referred from a breast cancer screening program. We aimed to study the validity of preliminary results of CESM using a larger panel of radiologists with different levels of CESM experience.

  19. Studying the effect of spectral variations intensity of the incident solar radiation on the Si solar cells performance

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    Ahmed Elsayed Ghitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar spectral variation is important in characterization of photovoltaic devices. We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic module. The investigation concentrate on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 1 min intervals on clear sky days. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage have been measured to describe the module electrical performance. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of the module. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effect of the spectral variation on the performance of the photovoltaic module is reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the radiation spectra account for the decreased current collection and hence power of the module.

  20. Development of maintenance composite priority index for buildings in Palestine: A pilot case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Amjad; Awad, Riyad

    2017-11-01

    The current building maintenance practices in Palestine are not based on scientific systematic methods. Most of the municipalities use one criterion to define the maintenance priorities, which is the "worst-first" criterion. Therefore, the current practices in defining buildings maintenance plans are not dealing with the known phases that are generally followed, including those in establishing building inventories, building condition survey, detailed visual inspection, identification of the proper maintenance and rehabilitation measures, and setting priorities. Accordingly, the recent preparation of the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Manual for Palestinian municipalities is an important step to guide them towards preparing and implementing their O&M priority-based plans, considering scare resources. During the course of preparation of the Manual, the proposed procedures were applied at ten pilot municipalities. This study aims to explore the outcome of the implementation of the 2014/2015 O&M buildings maintenance priorities at these municipalities through the development of maintenance composite priority index (PI). The new proposed priority index is a scientific tool that will identify the priority of maintenance buildings through using a systematic procedure instead of first worst one. To achieve this, analyses of the outcome of a questionnaire designed to collect relevant information from these municipalities was conducted. The maintenance priority index for buildings is calculated considering different indicators among them building status (condition), classification and importance of the building, number of beneficiaries (users), safety aspects (severity level in the building), and people complaints. The main component of the PI is the building condition index (BCI) which forms about 40% of the total weight. The physical inspection, which is the main input for calculating the BCI, is conducted on two levels; the primary level, and the secondary level. The

  1. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

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    Takahashi PY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN with documented VaD. Controls were selected by gender and age within 3 years from those who did not have dementia. The exposures included a total index (eleven exposure factors added together, along with indexes for cerebrovascular disease (two exposures, cardiovascular disease (four exposures, vascular disease (three exposures, and lifestyle (two exposures. Analysis used matched conditional univariable logistic regression for each index.Results: A total of 1736 potential subjects were identified, and 205 subjects were diagnosed with VaD. There was a significant association of the total score index with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.74. The cerebrovascular index was also associated with VaD with an odds ratio of 12.18 (95% confidence interval 6.29–23.61. The cardiovascular and vascular indexes were also associated with VaD status. The lifestyle index was not associated with VaD.Conclusion: The cumulative role of multiple vascular risk factors or diseases increased the risk of VaD, as noted by the total vascular index. The lifestyle index did not reveal any significant differences. Further work is required for evaluation of these indexes.Keywords: polyvascular disease, elderly, vascular dementia

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Polar network index for the solar cycle studies (Priyal+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyal, M.; Banerjee, D.; Karak, B. B.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.; Ravindra, B.; Choudhuri, A. R.; Singh, J.

    2017-04-01

    The spatial resolution of the Ca K spectroheliograms taken at Kodaikanal (hereafter KKL) is about 2 arcsec and the exit slit of the spectroheliograph yields a spectral window of 0.5 Å centered at the Ca-K line at 3933.67 Å. Ermoli et al. (2009ApJ...698.1000E) pointed out that the Kodaikanal archive hosts the longest homogeneous record, with fewer variations in spatial resolution. The earlier version of the 8 bit data at Kodaikanal is sufficient to study those plage area with high intensity contrast, but does not provide the required photometric accuracy to properly identify the network structures because of the small intensity contrast of these features. Therefore, we have designed and developed two digitizer units, using a 1 m labsphere with an exit port of 350 mm which provides a stable and uniform source of light with less than 1% variation from the center to the edge of the light source. The CCD camera with 4kx4k format, a pixel size of 15 u square, and a 16 bit read out, operating at temperature of -100°C, was used to digitize the images. The Ca-K network can be clearly seen because of the high spatial resolution of digitization (0.86 arcsec). (4 data files).

  3. Mixed-ligand copper(II) phenolate complexes: Synthesis, spectral characterization, phosphate-hydrolysis, antioxidant, DNA interaction and cytotoxic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumoorthy, Perumal; Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Prabhu, Durai; Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Rahiman, Aziz Kalilur

    2015-01-01

    A series of phenol-based mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)] (1-8), where L1-4 = N1,N2-bis(5-substituted-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,2-ethylene/phenylenediimine and diimine = 2,2‧-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), have been isolated and fully characterized by analytical and spectral techniques. Electronic spectra of complexes suggest Cu(II) cation has a d9 electronic configuration, adopting distorted octahedral geometry with axial elongation, due to Jahn-Teller effect. Electrochemical studies of complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The observed rate constant (k) values for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) are in the range of 0.25-3.82 × 10-2 min-1. The obtained room temperature magnetic moment values (1.79-1.90 BM) lies within the range observed for octahedral copper(II) complexes. Antioxidant studies revealed that these complexes possess considerable radical scavenging potency against DPPH. The binding studies of complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) revealed intercalation with minor-groove binding, and the complex 4 exhibits highest binding activity than the other complexes. The cleavage activity on supercoiled pBR322 DNA revealed the involvement of hydroxyl radical and singlet-oxygen as reactive oxygen species, and complexes encourage binding to minor-groove. Further, the cytotoxicity of complex 4 on human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line implies the cell death through apoptosis.

  4. Thermodynamic Study of the Ion-Pair Complexation Equilibria of Dye and Surfactant by Spectral Titration and Chemometric Analysis

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    Hakimeh Abbasi Awal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant-dye interactions are very important in chemical and dyeing processes. The dyes interact strongly with surfactant and show new spectrophotometric properties, so the UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric method has been used to study this process and extract some thermodynamic parameters. In this work, the association equilibrium between ionic dyes and ionic surfactant were studied by analyzing spectrophotometric data using chemometric methods. Methyl orange and crystal violet were selected as a model of cationic and anionic dyes respectively. Also sodium dodecyl sulphate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were selected as anionic and cationic surfactant, respectively. Hard model methods such as target transform fitting (TTF classical multi-wavelength fitting and soft model method such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR were used to analyze data that were recorded as a function of surfactant concentration in premicellar and postmicellar regions. Hard model methods were used to resolve data using ion-pair model in premicellar region in order to extract the concentration and spectral profiles of individual components and also related thermodynamic parameters. The equilibrium constants and other thermodynamic parameters of interaction of dyes with surfactants were determined by studying the dependence of their absorption spectra on the temperature in the range 293–308 K at concentrations of 5 × 10−6 M and 8 × 10−6 M for dye crystal violet and methyl orange, respectively. In postmicellar region, the MCR-ALS method was applied for resolving data and getting the spectra and concentration profiles in complex mixtures of dyes and surfactants.

  5. Cultural Adaptation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index to a Hindi Speaking Population: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aayush; Sharma, Yugal K; Dash, K; Verma, Sampurna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is known to impair many aspects of the quality of life (QoL) of its patients. Aim: To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) from English into Hindi and to assess its validity and reliability in Hindi speaking patients with acne from India. Methods: Hindi version of CADI, translated and linguistically validated as per published international guidelines, along with a previously translated Hindi version of dermatology life quality index (DLQI) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to acne patients. The internal consistency reliability of the Hindi version of CADI and its concurrent validity were assessed by Cronbach's alpha co-efficient and Spearman's correlation co-efficient respectively. Construct validity was examined by factor analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for Windows. Results: One hundred Hindi speaking patients with various grades of acne participated in the study. Hindi version of CADI showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha co-efficient = 0.722). Mean item-to-total correlation co-efficient ranged from 0.502 to 0.760. Concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a significant correlation with the Hindi DLQI. Factor analysis revealed the presence of two dimensions underlying the factor structure of the scale. Conclusion: Hindi CADI is equivalent to the original English version and constitutes a reliable and valid tool for clinical assessment of the impact of acne on QoL. PMID:26288422

  6. Towards an Urban Resilience Index: A Case Study in 50 Spanish Cities

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    Marta Suárez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and global environmental decline. With accelerated urbanization worldwide, it is essential to put in place new policies to conserve urban ecosystems, species and the services these provide in order to secure more sustainable, resilient and livable cities for the 21st century. In urban planning, the concept of resilience has broadly replaced the word sustainability. In recent years, resilience indicators have been gradually developed, but few address urban resilience from a social-ecological systems perspective. We develop a methodological framework to measure urban resilience, define an urban resilience index and apply it to Spanish province capitals as a case study. Results show that most Spanish province capitals are far from being resilient. We conclude that increased efforts to measure urban resilience should be in place, and we offer the urban resilience index as a theoretical framework for measuring resilience in urban social-ecological systems that can be gradually improved as more data become available.

  7. Cultural Adaptation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index to a Hindi Speaking Population: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aayush; Sharma, Yugal K; Dash, K; Verma, Sampurna

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is known to impair many aspects of the quality of life (QoL) of its patients. To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) from English into Hindi and to assess its validity and reliability in Hindi speaking patients with acne from India. Hindi version of CADI, translated and linguistically validated as per published international guidelines, along with a previously translated Hindi version of dermatology life quality index (DLQI) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to acne patients. The internal consistency reliability of the Hindi version of CADI and its concurrent validity were assessed by Cronbach's alpha co-efficient and Spearman's correlation co-efficient respectively. Construct validity was examined by factor analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for Windows. One hundred Hindi speaking patients with various grades of acne participated in the study. Hindi version of CADI showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha co-efficient = 0.722). Mean item-to-total correlation co-efficient ranged from 0.502 to 0.760. Concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a significant correlation with the Hindi DLQI. Factor analysis revealed the presence of two dimensions underlying the factor structure of the scale. Hindi CADI is equivalent to the original English version and constitutes a reliable and valid tool for clinical assessment of the impact of acne on QoL.

  8. Neighborhood Walkability and Body Mass Index Trajectories: Longitudinal Study of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania A; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Orpana, Heather; Ross, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    To assess the impact of neighborhood walkability on body mass index (BMI) trajectories of urban Canadians. Data are from Canada's National Population Health Survey (n = 2935; biannual assessments 1994-2006). We measured walkability with the Walk Score. We modeled body mass index (BMI, defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters [kg/m(2)]) trajectories as a function of Walk Score and sociodemographic and behavioral covariates with growth curve models and fixed-effects regression models. In men, BMI increased annually by an average of 0.13 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.14) over the 12 years of follow-up. Moving to a high-walkable neighborhood (2 or more Walk Score quartiles higher) decreased BMI trajectories for men by approximately 1 kg/m(2) (95% CI = -1.16, -0.17). Moving to a low-walkable neighborhood increased BMI for men by approximately 0.45 kg/m(2) (95% CI = 0.01, 0.89). There was no detectable influence of neighborhood walkability on body weight for women. Our study of a large sample of urban Canadians followed for 12 years confirms that neighborhood walkability influences BMI trajectories for men, and may be influential in curtailing male age-related weight gain.

  9. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Kitahara, Cari M; Murray, Liam J; Dodd, Kevin W; Black, Amanda; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Cantwell, Marie M

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk has been directly associated with glycemic load. However, few studies have investigated this link, and the etiological role of specific dietary carbohydrate components remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Recruitment took place in 1993-2001. Over a median of 9.0 years of follow-up through 2009, 386 women developed endometrial cancer among 36,115 considered in the analysis. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item diet history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant inverse associations were detected between endometrial cancer risk and total available carbohydrate intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.90), total sugars intake (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96), and glycemic load (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.84) when women in the highest quartile of intake were compared with those in the lowest. These inverse associations were strongest among overweight and obese women. No associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for glycemic index or dietary fiber. Our findings contrast with previous evidence and suggest that high carbohydrate intakes and glycemic loads are protective against endometrial cancer development. Further clarification of these associations is warranted.

  10. Validation of ICMR index for identification of dental fluorosis in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ashima; Verma, Mahesh; Toteja, G S; Gauba, K; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mohanty, Utkal; Kaur, Rupinder

    2016-07-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) formulated a Task Force on dental fluorosis and recommended the subgroup to develop a simplified index for identification and grading of dental fluorosis to be used by the health workers. This study was conducted to pre-test the 'ICMR Index for Dental Fluorosis' in the field to check its reliability and reproducibility. A total of 600 photographs were taken, 150 in each grade of fluorosis by screening 14-17 yr school children from eight schools of Hisar (Haryana) and South west Delhi. Eighty photographs were finalized (20 in each grade) before calibration to be used for training of field workers. Calibration exercise was conducted involving the five member survey team on 100 diagnosed cases of dental fluorosis. The members again screened 74 children with dental fluorosis in the field to categorize in to different grades of fluorosis for assessment of inter-examiner reliability. The ICMR criteria showed more difference in agreement in very mild and mild categories during calibration. The inter-examiner reliability (κ) ranged from 0.59-1. The criteria was further modified and inter- examiner reliability (κ) found to be 0.83-0.98 which was almost perfect agreement. The tool developed by the ICMR to assess dental fluorosis can be used in a field set up by non-dental personnel reliably with high degree of reproducibility.

  11. Inequality in Human Development Index and suicide death in Iran: A National Register–Based Study

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    Yousef Veisani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pay attention to the effects of inequality in health outcomes has steadily risen during recent years. It is necessary step to achieve the goal of health for all (HFA in the coming decades. At the moment, our knowledge about the inequality and suicide is limited. Human Development Index (HDI is summary measures that we can demonstrate current inequalities regarded to health outcomes. We have reanalyzed the national data by Statistical Centre of Iran for HDI and Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization for suicide to explicate of inequality in suicide death in Iran. Our results showed an inverse correlation between HDI and suicide death, so that deaths from suicide was more occurred in provinces with lower HDI. Therefore, results in current study showed a positive inequality in suicide in relation with HDI in Iran. According to this, we suggested that regional studies will be conducted to detect subgroups with a high suicide risk as well as components of HDI that cause inequality.

  12. Multivariate analysis on unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome by EUROCRAN index: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ching Ching; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2016-10-01

    This study is to evaluate the dental arch relationship and palatal morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by using EUROCRAN index, and to assess the factors that affect them using multivariate statistical analysis. A total of one hundred and seven patients from age five to twelve years old with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in the study. These patients have received cheiloplasty and one stage palatoplasty surgery but yet to receive alveolar bone grafting procedure. Five assessors trained in the use of the EUROCRAN index underwent calibration exercise and ranked the dental arch relationships and palatal morphology of the patients' study models. For intra-rater agreement, the examiners scored the models twice, with two weeks interval in between sessions. Variable factors of the patients were collected and they included gender, site, type and, family history of unilateral cleft lip and palate; absence of lateral incisor on cleft side, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty technique used. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Dental arch relationship among unilateral cleft lip and palate in local population had relatively worse scoring than other parts of the world. Crude logistics regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant associations among the various socio-demographic factors, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty techniques used with the dental arch relationship outcome. This study has limitations that might have affected the results, example: having multiple operators performing the surgeries and the inability to access the influence of underlying genetic predisposed cranio-facial variability. These may have substantial influence on the treatment outcome. The factors that can affect unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome is multifactorial in nature and remained controversial in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  13. Synthesis, electronic and ESR spectral studies on copper(II) nitrate complexes with some acylhydrazines and hydrazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod P.

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the preparation of [Cu(bh) 2(H 2O) 2](NO 3) 2], [Cu(ibh) 2(NO 3) 2], [Cu(ibh) 2(H 2O) 2](NO 3) 2 and [Cu(iinh) 2(NO 3) 2] (bh = benzoyl hydrazine (C 6H 5CONHNH 2); ibh = isonicotinoyl hydrazine (NC 5H 4CONHNH 2); ibh = isopropanone benzoyl hydrazone (C 6H 5CONHN=C(CH 3) 2; iinh = isopropanone isonicotinoyl hydrazone (NC 5H 4CONHN=C(CH 3) 2). These copper(II) complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductances, dehydration studies, ESR, IR and electronic spectral studies. The electronic and ESR spectra indicate that each complex exhibits a six-coordinate tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry in the solid state and in DMSO solution. The ESR spectra of most of the complexes are typically isotropic type at room temperature (300 K) in solid state as well as in DMSO solution. However, all the complexes exhibit invariably axial signals at 77 K in DMSO solution. The trend g|| > g⊥ > ge, observed in all the complexes suggests the presence of an unpaired electron in the d-y orbital of the Cu(II). The bh and inh ligands bond to Cu(II) through the >C dbnd O and sbnd NH 2 groups whereas, ibh and iinh bond through >C dbnd O and >C dbnd N sbnd groups. The IR spectra of bh and ibh complexes also show H sbnd O sbnd H stretching and bending modes of coordinated water.

  14. The comparison analysis of land cover change based on vegetation index and multispectral classification (Case study Leihitu Peninsula Ambon City District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Siahaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study utilizes Landsat-7 ETM+ 2001and Landsat TM5 2009 based on Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI and 457 colour composite at the study area located in Leihitu Peninsula, Ambon City District, Ambon Island, Moluccas Province. The classified satellite data under NDVI and 457 colour composite of 2001 and 2009 of 2001 and 2009 were used to determine land cover change that have occurred in the study areas. This study attempts to use a comparative change detection analysis in land cover that has occurred in the study area with NDVI and 457 colour composite over 9 year period (2001 to 2009. The results of the present study disclose that total area increased their land cover were bare land and impermeable surface, herbaceous and shrubs, low density vegetation, and medium density vegetation, while high density vegetation is decreasing in both NDVI and 457 colour composite analysis. Overall accuracy was estimated to be around 94.3 % for NDVI and for 457 Colour composites was 84.7%. The study area has experienced a change in its land cover between 2001 and 2009 in both NDVI and 457 false colour composite analyses. The whole land cover types have experienced increased in both methods, except high density vegetation. The transformations of spectral vegetation (NDVI product more closely with actual land cover compared with 457 colour composite product.

  15. Dairy consumption and body mass index among adults: Mendelian randomization analysis of 184802 individuals from 25 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined. We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic polymorphism located upst...

  16. The reliability of echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion index to identify high-risk patients for multicenter studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Gadsbøll, Niels; Quinones, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) wall motion index (WMI) is a dependable parameter for identifying patients with LV dysfunction to be enrolled in multicenter trials. METHODS: Videotaped echocardiographic examinations from 200 randomly selected patient...

  17. Parenting styles and body mass index: a systematic review of prospective studies among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, R L; Qin, B; Poti, J M

    2017-03-01

    Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995 and 2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes. We identified 11 prospective cohort studies. Among the eight studies that categorized parenting style into distinct groups (i.e. authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful), five provided evidence that authoritative parenting was associated with lower body mass index gains. Among the six highest quality studies, four suggested a protective role of authoritative parenting style against adverse weight-related outcomes. However, only one study controlled for a comprehensive set of confounders, and the small number of studies conducted within certain age groups precluded our ability to ascertain critical periods when parenting style is most strongly related to child weight. The present literature supports the idea that authoritative parenting may be protective against later overweight and obesity, although findings are mixed. More prospective cohort studies of longer durations, with more sophisticated methods that examine age-varying relationships, and that control for a comprehensive set of confounders, are needed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Healthy eating index in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Sadat Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many effort to identify and control the factors involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, there are no available reports indicating the association of healthy eating index (HEI and PCOS. Objective: The present study has been conducted to examine the relationship between HEI and PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the study population comprised 297 women aged 20-40 yr referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital Clinics, Tehran, Iran in two groups: case group (n=99 and control group (n=198. The usual dietary data were collected using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Standard anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference were also taken. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the PCOS and the HEI. Results: The mean age and body mass index of case and control groups were 29±5.5 vs. 29.5±6 yr and 26.6±4.8 vs. 26±4.2 kg/m², respectively (p=0.752, p=0.822. Mean HEI scores for the case and control groups were found to be 61 and 65, respectively. In final model and after adjustment for confounders, the prevalence of PCOS in subjects in the highest tertile HEI score was significantly (50% less than those in the lowest tertile HEI score (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74, p=0.001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that HEI score is inversely associated with the risk of PCOS in adult women

  19. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study: assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Juanola-Falgarona; Núria Ibarrola-Jurado; Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Antoni Rabassa-Soler; Monica Bulló

    2013-01-01

    Background: Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objective: The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. Methods: This study was designed as a 6-months ran...

  20. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide—An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Carslake, David; Lund Nilsen, Tom Ivar; Linthorst, Astrid C. E.; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health. Methods We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index. Results Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27) for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63). Conclusion The present study’s results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index

  1. The natural resources supply indexes study of the pig breeding scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Zhen; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    For the pollution problem of the pig breeding scale, we took three indexes as evaluation criterion, including arable land per capita, the water resource per capita and per capita share of grain. Then SPSS was used to synthesized the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale. The results show that with the fast development of technology and the steadily rising of grain production, the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale are raising constantly.

  2. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  3. [Epidemiological profile of hemoglobinopathies: a cross-sectional and descriptive index case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Fatima; Benkirane, Souad; Kouzih, Jaafar; Woumki, Aziz; Mamad, Hassan; Masrar, Azlarab

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are congenital disorders resultimg from hemoglobin abnormalities. Major forms are often severe, their management is difficult and associated with a great psychosocial impact on patients and their families. They are classified as rare diseases and are still insufficiently known by health professionals. This lack of knowledge is at the origin of diagnostic errors, delay in their management and therefore high morbidity and mortality rate for these patients. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published data on hemoglobinopathies epidemiology: more than 330.000 cases of hemoglobinopathy occur each year (83% of cases of sickle cell anemia, 17 % of cases of thalassemia). Hemoglobin disorders are responsible for approximately 3.4% of deaths among people under the age of 5. At the global level, approximately 7% of pregnant women would be carriers of a form of thalassemia and 1% of couples are at risk. However, they are relatively frequent in some regions of the globe where consanguineous marriages are common. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study based on two surveys, the first in May 2015 and the second in June of the same year. It was performed in the immunization days to deliver pneumococcal vaccine to the index cases and it was aimed to describe the epidemiological features of families at risk of hemoglobinopathies (index case study), whose index cases were treated in the Department of Pediatrics at the Provincial Hospital El Idrisi, Kenitra, Morocco. After having collected the epidemiological data from patients, laboratory tests were performed including: blood count with red blood cells morphological assessment using the MGG assay and automatic numbering of reticulocytes; hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH (8.8) and then at acid pH (5.4) on agarose gel and densitometric integration. 275 patients had laboratory profiles compatible with hemoglobinopathy. The majority of these patients were born to consanguineous

  4. Discriminatory Ability of Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) in Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, N; Khonsari, M R; Rabiee, B; Ajdarkosh, H; Hemasi, G R; Sohrabi, M R; Maadi, M; Zamani, F

    2017-03-01

    Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been suggested as an index of visceral adiposity. This study was conducted to determine the discriminatory ability of VAI in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods and materials We used the data of 5 312 subjects aged 18-74 years of a cohort study conducted among 6 140 individuals aged 10-90 years in Amol, northern Iran. The city population was divided into 16 strata based on gender and age groups in 10-year intervals. The subjects were randomly selected from each stratum. MetS was defined based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) update of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and joint interim statement (JIS) definitions. The discriminatory ability of VAI and other obesity measures were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results While waist circumference (WC) showed the highest discriminatory ability for MetS in IDF definition in men (AUC=0.899 [CI=0.888-0.910]), VAI had the greatest discriminatory ability according to other definitions in men and women. The related AUCs of VAI were 0.866 (95%CI: 0.850-0.881), 0.829 (95%CI: 0.813-0.846), 0.859 (95%CI: 0.844-0.873) and 0.876 (95%CI: 0.863-0.889) based on NCEP/ATPIII, AHA/NHLBI update of ATPIII, IDF and JIS definition in men, and also 0.888 (95%CI: 0.875-0.902), 0.894 (95%CI: 0.881-0.907), 0.883 (95%CI: 0.869-0.897) and 0.879 (95%CI: 0.864-0.894) in women, respectively. Conclusion VAI showed an excellent discriminatory ability in diagnosis of MetS. Considering its relatively simple calculation, this index could be suggested as a reliable tool in medical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Comparative study of cardio-ankle vascular index between Chinese and Japanese healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Shirai, Kohji; Liu, Jinbo; Lu, Na; Wang, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Xie, Jun; Yu, Xiaolan; Fu, Xiaobao; Shi, Hongyan; Li, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. However, there was little research about the CAVI value between different countries. The aim of the present study was to compare CAVI between Chinese and Japanese subjects and to assess related factors. 2519 healthy persons [1245 Chinese (M/F, 524/721) and 1274 Japanese (M/F, 534/740)] from the Department of Physical Examination were enrolled into our study. CAVI was recorded using a VaseraVS-1000 vascular screening system. CAVI was increasing with aging in all subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese compared with Japanese both in male and female. There was difference in lipid metabolism between these two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma creatinine (Cr) were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Chinese persons (β = 0.548, p < 0.001; β = 0.129, p = 0.001; β = 0.105, p = 0.006; and β = 0.100, p = 0.012, respectively), whereas age, SBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Cr, body mass index (BMI), FPG were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Japanese subjects (β = 0.669, p < 0.001; β = 0.198, p < 0.001; β = -0.079, p < 0.001; β = 0.090, p < 0.001; β = -0.124, p < 0.001; β = 0.055, p=0.009; respectively). CAVI was increasing with aging in both Chinese and Japanese subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese than in Japanese subjects. Age, SBP, FPG and creatinine were independently associated with CAVI in both Chinese and Japanese subjects.

  6. Genome-wide association studies and heritability estimates of body mass index related phenotypes in Bangladeshi adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Scannell Bryan

    Full Text Available Many health outcomes are influenced by a person's body mass index, as well as by the trajectory of body mass index through a lifetime. Although previous research has established that body mass index related traits are influenced by genetics, the relationship between these traits and genetics has not been well characterized in people of South Asian ancestry. To begin to characterize this relationship, we analyzed the association between common genetic variation and five phenotypes related to body mass index in a population-based sample of 5,354 Bangladeshi adults. We discovered a significant association between SNV rs347313 (intron of NOS1AP and change in body mass index in women over two years. In a linear mixed-model, the G allele was associated with an increase of 0.25 kg/m2 in body mass index over two years (p-value of 2.3·10-8. We also estimated the heritability of these phenotypes from our genotype data. We found significant estimates of heritability for all of the body mass index-related phenotypes. Our study evaluated the genetic determinants of body mass index related phenotypes for the first time in South Asians. The results suggest that these phenotypes are heritable and some of this heritability is driven by variation that differs from those previously reported. We also provide evidence that the genetic etiology of body mass index related traits may differ by ancestry, sex, and environment, and consequently that these factors should be considered when assessing the genetic determinants of the risk of body mass index-related disease.

  7. Study of an evaluation index system of nursing undergraduate employability developed using the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Rong Ye

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: High positivity representative of the consulted experts enabled the construction of a reliable index system that can be used as a reference for cultivating nursing undergraduate employability.

  8. Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Jiao; Andrew Flood; Amy F. Subar; Albert R. Hollenbeck; Arthur Schatzkin; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon

    2009-01-01

    .... Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents...

  9. Potential Negative Impact of DG on Reliability Index: A Study Based on Time-Domain Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xuanchang

    This thesis presents an original insight of the negative impact of distributed generation on reliability index based on dynamic time-domain modeling. Models for essential power system components, such as protective devices and synchronous generators, were developed and tested. A 4 kV distribution loop which carries relatively high power demand was chosen for the analysis. The characteristic curves of all protective devices were extracted from utility database and applied to the time domain relay model. The performance of each device was investigated in details. The negative effect on reliability is due to the fuse opening caused by the installation of DG at the wrong location and inappropriate relay setup. Over 50% of the possible DG locations can produce an undesirable impact. The study conclusion is that there exists a significant potential for the installation of DG to negatively affect the reliability of power systems.

  10. Epigenome-wide association study of body mass index, and the adverse outcomes of adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Sonja; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Ried, Janina S; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Youwen; Tan, Sili; Fiorito, Giovanni; Franke, Lude; Guarrera, Simonetta; Kasela, Silva; Kriebel, Jennifer; Richmond, Rebecca C; Adamo, Marco; Afzal, Uzma; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Albetti, Benedetta; Ammerpohl, Ole; Apperley, Jane F; Beekman, Marian; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Black, S. Lucas; Blancher, Christine; Bonder, Marc-Jan; Brosch, Mario; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; De Craen, Anton J.M.; de Lusignan, Simon; Dehghan, Abbas; Elkalaawy, Mohamed; Fischer, Krista; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaunt, Tom R; Hampe, Jochen; Hashemi, Majid; Isaacs, Aaron; Jenkinson, Andrew; Jha, Sujeet; Kato, Norihiro; Krogh, Vittorio; Laffan, Michael; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Mok, Zuan Yu; Motta, Valeria; Ng, Hong Kiat; Nikolakopoulou, Zacharoula; Nteliopoulos, Georgios; Panico, Salvatore; Pervjakova, Natalia; Prokisch, Holger; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Rota, Federica; Rozario, Michelle Ann; Sandling, Johanna K; Schafmayer, Clemens; Schramm, Katharina; Siebert, Reiner; Slagboom, P Eline; Soininen, Pasi; Stolk, Lisette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tai, E-Shyong; Tarantini, Letizia; Thorand, Barbara; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Tumino, Rosario; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Duijn, Cornelia; van Meurs, Joyce BJ; Vineis, Paolo; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Wijmenga, Cisca; Yang, Tsun-Po; Yuan, Wei; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Batterham, Rachel L.; Smith, George Davey; Deloukas, Panos; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Milani, Lili; van der Harst, Pim; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Relton, Caroline L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bollati, Valentina; Soong, Richie; Spector, Tim D; Scott, James; McCarthy, Mark I; Elliott, Paul; Bell, Jordana T; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gieger, Christian; Kooner, Jaspal S; Grallert, Harald; Chambers, John C

    2017-01-01

    Summary Overweight and obesity affect ~1.5 billion people worldwide, and are major risk factors for type-2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease and related metabolic and inflammatory disturbances.1,2 Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to its clinical sequelae are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation,3–6 a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype.7 Here we use epigenome-wide association to show that body mass index (BMI, a key measure of adiposity) is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation (187 genetic loci at Padiposity, rather than the cause. We find the methylation loci are enriched for functional genomic features in multiple tissues (Padiposity, and may enable development of new strategies for prediction and prevention of type-2 diabetes and other adverse clinical consequences of obesity. PMID:28002404

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  12. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-15

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as well as other psychiatric disorders. EEGs were collected from six cortical sites and spectral power determined in five frequency bands (delta 1.0-4.0 Hz, theta 4.0-7.5 Hz, alpha 7.5-12.0 Hz, low beta 12.0-20.0 Hz and high beta/gamma 20-50 Hz). The estimated heritability (h(2)) of the EEG phenotypes was calculated using SOLAR, and ranged from 0.16 to 0.67. Stepwise linear regression was used to detect correlations between MJ and ALC dependence and the spectral characteristics of the EEG using a model that took into account: age, gender, Native American Heritage (NAH) and a lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality and/or conduct disorder (ASPD/CD). Increases in spectral power in the delta frequency range, were significantly correlated with gender (pEEG delta and high beta/gamma activity are correlated with MJ dependence and alcohol dependence, respectively, in this community sample of Native Americans. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulatory effects of spectral energy contrasts on lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwina Stein

    Full Text Available We investigated the modulation of lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. In the first experiment, five acoustic masking stimuli (MS, consisting of noise passing through a digital notch filter which was centered at 1 kHz, were presented. The spectral energy contrasts of four MS were modified systematically by either amplifying or attenuating the edge-frequency bands around the notch (EFB by 30 dB. Additionally, the width of EFB amplification/attenuation was varied (3/8 or 7/8 octave on each side of the notch. N1m and auditory steady state responses (ASSR, evoked by a test stimulus with a carrier frequency of 1 kHz, were evaluated. A consistent dependence of N1m responses upon the preceding MS was observed. The minimal N1m source strength was found in the narrowest amplified EFB condition, representing pronounced lateral inhibition of neurons with characteristic frequencies corresponding to the center frequency of the notch (NOTCH CF in secondary auditory cortical areas. We tested in a second experiment whether an even narrower bandwidth of EFB amplification would result in further enhanced lateral inhibition of the NOTCH CF. Here three MS were presented, two of which were modified by amplifying 1/8 or 1/24 octave EFB width around the notch. We found that N1m responses were again significantly smaller in both amplified EFB conditions as compared to the NFN condition. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the energy and width of the EFB around the notch modulate lateral inhibition in human secondary auditory cortical areas. Because it is assumed that chronic tinnitus is caused by a lack of lateral inhibition, these new insights could be used as a tool for further improvement of tinnitus treatments focusing on the lateral inhibition of neurons corresponding to the tinnitus frequency, such as the tailor-made notched music training.

  14. Modulatory effects of spectral energy contrasts on lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Wollbrink, Andreas; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the modulation of lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the first experiment, five acoustic masking stimuli (MS), consisting of noise passing through a digital notch filter which was centered at 1 kHz, were presented. The spectral energy contrasts of four MS were modified systematically by either amplifying or attenuating the edge-frequency bands around the notch (EFB) by 30 dB. Additionally, the width of EFB amplification/attenuation was varied (3/8 or 7/8 octave on each side of the notch). N1m and auditory steady state responses (ASSR), evoked by a test stimulus with a carrier frequency of 1 kHz, were evaluated. A consistent dependence of N1m responses upon the preceding MS was observed. The minimal N1m source strength was found in the narrowest amplified EFB condition, representing pronounced lateral inhibition of neurons with characteristic frequencies corresponding to the center frequency of the notch (NOTCH CF) in secondary auditory cortical areas. We tested in a second experiment whether an even narrower bandwidth of EFB amplification would result in further enhanced lateral inhibition of the NOTCH CF. Here three MS were presented, two of which were modified by amplifying 1/8 or 1/24 octave EFB width around the notch. We found that N1m responses were again significantly smaller in both amplified EFB conditions as compared to the NFN condition. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the energy and width of the EFB around the notch modulate lateral inhibition in human secondary auditory cortical areas. Because it is assumed that chronic tinnitus is caused by a lack of lateral inhibition, these new