Sample records for spectral index measurements

  1. Toward validation of the cepstral spectral index of dysphonia (CSID) as an objective treatment outcomes measure. (United States)

    Peterson, Elizabeth A; Roy, Nelson; Awan, Shaheen N; Merrill, Ray M; Banks, Russell; Tanner, Kristine


    To examine the validity of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) as an objective treatment outcomes measure of dysphonia severity. Pre- and posttreatment samples of sustained vowel and connected speech productions were elicited from 112 patients across six diagnostic categories: unilateral vocal fold paralysis, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, primary muscle tension dysphonia, benign vocal fold lesions, presbylaryngis, and mutational falsetto. Listener ratings of severity in connected speech were compared with a three-factor CSID model consisting of the cepstral peak prominence (CPP), the low-to-high spectral energy ratio, and its standard deviation. Two additional variables, the CPP standard deviation and gender, were included in the five-factor CSID model to estimate severity of vowels. CSID-estimated severity for sustained vowels and connected speech was strongly associated with listener ratings pretreatment, posttreatment, and change observed pre- to posttreatment. Spectrum effects were examined, and severity of dysphonia did not influence the relationship between listener perceived severity and CSID-estimated severity. The results confirm a robust relationship between listener perceived and CSID-derived dysphonia severity estimates in sustained vowels and connected speech across diverse diagnoses and severity levels and support the clinical utility of the CSID as an objective treatment outcomes measure. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mobasheri


    Full Text Available Near-surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous environmental studies. On the other hand, information of distributed soil moisture at large scale with reasonable spatial and temporal resolution is required for improving climatic and hydrologic modeling and prediction. The advent of hyperspectral imagery has allowed examination of continuous spectra not possible with isolated bands in multispectral imagery. In addition to high spectral resolution for individual band analyses, the contiguous narrow bands show characteristics of related absorption features, such as effects of strong absorptions on the band depths of adjacent absorptions. Our objective in this study was to develop a new spectral angle index to estimate soil moisture based on spectral region (350 and 2500 nm. In this paper, using spectral observations made by ASD Spectroradiometer for predicting soil moisture content, two soil indices were also investigated involving the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI, NMDI (Normalized Multi-band Drought Index indices. Correlation and regression analysis showed a high relationship between PDI and the soil moisture percent (R2 = 0.9537 and NMDI (R2 = 0.9335. Furthermore, we also simulated these data according to the spectral range of some sensors such as MODIS, ASTER, ALI and ETM+. Indices relevant these sensors have high correlation with soil moisture data. Finally, we proposed a new angle index which shows significant relationship between new angle index and the soil moisture percentages (R2 = 0.9432.angle index relevant bands 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 MODIS also showing high accuracy in estimation of soil moisture (R2 = 0.719.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Maher, S. F.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, T. M.; Kovacs, A.; Mason, B. S.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.


    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log (ν b [GHz]) = 2.84 ± 0.29 or ν b = 695 +651 -336 GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the ∼16.''7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime.

  4. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman


    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n s > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n s =0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  5. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman


    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  6. Angle-resolved spectral Fabry-Pérot interferometer for single-shot measurement of refractive index dispersion over a broadband spectrum (United States)

    Dong, J. T.; Ji, F.; Xia, H. J.; Liu, Z. J.; Zhang, T. D.; Yang, L.


    An angle-resolved spectral Fabry-Pérot interferometer is reported for fast and accurate measurement of the refractive index dispersion of optical materials with parallel plate shape. The light sheet from the wavelength tunable laser is incident on the parallel plate with converging angles. The transmitted interference light for each angle is dispersed and captured by a 2D sensor, in which the rows and the columns are used to simultaneously record the intensities as a function of wavelength and incident angle, respectively. The interferogram, named angle-resolved spectral intensity distribution, is analyzed by fitting the phase information instead of finding the fringe peak locations that present periodic ambiguity. The refractive index dispersion and the physical thickness can be then retrieved from a single-shot interferogram within 18 s. Experimental results of an optical substrate standard indicate that the accuracy of the refractive index dispersion is less than 2.5  ×  10-5 and the relative uncertainty of the thickness is 6  ×  10-5 mm (3σ) due to the high stability and the single-shot measurement of the proposed system.

  7. Running of the Scalar Spectral Index from Inflationary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D J H; Trodden, M; Chung, Daniel J.H.; Shiu, Gary; Trodden, Mark


    The scalar spectral index n is an important parameter describing the nature of primordial density perturbations. Recent data, including that from the WMAP satellite, shows some evidence that the index runs (changes as a function of the scale k at which it is measured) from n>1 (blue) on long scales to n<1 (red) on short scales. We investigate the extent to which inflationary models can accomodate such significant running of n. We present several methods for constructing large classes of potentials which yield a running spectral index. We show that within the slow-roll approximation, the fact that n-1 changes sign from blue to red forces the slope of the potential to reach a minimum at a similar field location. We also briefly survey the running of the index in a wider class of inflationary models, including a subset of those with non-minimial kinetic terms.

  8. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013). The correlation between Doppler factor and the spectral index can be discussed using a bigger sample. The relativistic beaming effects are also discussed in this proceedings (Li et al. 2014; Wu et al. 2014; Nie et al. 2014). The effective spectral index αOX is anticorre- lated with the viewing angle, and claimed to be ...

  9. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  10. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  11. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  12. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik


    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  13. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, M.; Richter, I.


    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 045603. ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : volume gratings * holography * dispersion * refractive index modulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.741, year: 2016

  14. Relation between Radio Polarization and Spectral Index of Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ties, including rapid variability, high and variability polarization, high luminosity and superluminal motion, etc. Their optical variability timescales can cover a range of hours to years from radio to γ-rays (Fan et al. 2004; Ulrich et al. 1997). When we analyse the different characters of blazars, spectral index (α) is very important.

  15. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Relativistic beaming effect is important for blazars. In a very recent work, γ-ray Doppler factors were calculated for a sample of Fermi blazars (Fan et al. 2013). In this work, we investigated the correlation between the Doppler factor and the effective spectral index, αOX, and found an anticorrelation between them.

  16. Determination of one spectral index at the argonaut reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klawa, R.


    One spectral index at the Argonauta Reactor was determined. The Westcott formalism was employed assuming two components: Maxwellian and 1/E. The values of g(T) and s(T) were obtained from the Westcott definitions by means of the Breit - Wigner formula for the cross section. The r and T were determined for one point at the core of Argonauta Reactor. (author)

  17. Measurement of spectral linewidths of semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Xiaocheng; He Zhengchuan; Tang Sulan


    Based on the van der Pol equation, formulas describing the measurement of spectral linewidths of semiconductor lasers with the delayed self-heterodyne method were deduced and the influence of the spectral parameters on the measurement are given. Experimental results of single frequency semiconductor lasers are reported.

  18. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED ( IR ) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared ( IR ) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L...release; distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Several Infrared ( IR ) imaging systems have been measured

  19. SSBUV middle ultraviolet solar spectral irradiance measurements (United States)

    Cebula, Richard P.; Hilsenrath, Ernest


    The Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument performs multiple solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 200 to 400 nm at 1.1 nm resolution during yearly Space Shuttle flights. Solar spectral irradiance observations from the first three SSBUV Shuttle flights, October 1989, October 1990, and August 1991, are compared with one another and with solar measurements made by the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 instrument. The repeated SSBUV solar spectral observations, which agree to within plus or minus 1-2 percent from 200 to 400 nm, are valuable not only as a means of validating and calibrating the satellite-based solar irradiance measurements, but also as a distinct set of stand-alone solar measurements for monitoring long-term changes in the solar spectral irradiance, which are important for ozone photochemistry.

  20. The Radio Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula (United States)


    provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid...Nebula either, so the spectrum near the edge maintains its power law form at least down to 74 MHz. The uniformity of the spectral index throughout the... Walra -(Oort ven This feature is moving outward,1956 ; Scargle 1969). and in the radio, it seems to have a sharp outward edge (BK92). Since our 327

  1. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall


    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  2. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.


    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  3. Raman spectroscopy and the spectral correlation index for predicting wound healing outcome: towards in vivo application (United States)

    Berger, Adam G.; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.


    Combat wounds are sometimes confounded by healing complications that are not as prevalent in civilian wounds due to their high energy etiology. One complication of wound healing is dehiscence, where a surgically closed wound reopens after closure. This complication can have serious consequences for the patient, but knowledge about the molecular composition of the wound bed beyond what is readily visible may help clinicians mitigate these complications. It is necessary to develop techniques that can be used in vivo to assess and predict wound healing pointof- care so that care-takers can decide the best way to make informed clinical decisions regarding their patient's healing. Raman spectroscopy is a perfect candidate for predicting wound healing due to its ability to provide a detailed molecular fingerprint of the wound bed noninvasively. Here, we study the spectral correlation index, a measure of orthogonality, with ten reference tissue components to stratify wounds based on how they heal. We analyze these indexes over time to show the modulation of these tissue components over the wound healing process. Results show that qualitative observation of the spectra cannot reveal major differences between the dehisced and normal healing wounds, but the spectral correlation index can. Analysis of the spectral correlations across the wound healing process demonstrates the changes throughout the wound healing process, showing that early differences in tissue components may portend wound healing. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy coupled with the spectral correlation index presents as a possible point-of-care tool for enabling discrimination of wounds with impaired healing.

  4. Beyond CCT: The spectral index system as a tool for the objective, quantitative characterization of lamps (United States)

    Galadí-Enríquez, D.


    Correlated color temperature (CCT) is a semi-quantitative system that roughly describes the spectra of lamps. This parameter gives the temperature (measured in kelvins) of the black body that would show the hue more similar to that of the light emitted by the lamp. Modern lamps for indoor and outdoor lighting display many spectral energy distributions, most of them extremely different to those of black bodies, what makes CCT to be far from a perfect descriptor from the physical point of view. The spectral index system presented in this work provides an accurate, objective, quantitative procedure to characterize the spectral properties of lamps, with just a few numbers. The system is an adaptation to lighting technology of the classical procedures of multi-band astronomical photometry with wide and intermediate-band filters. We describe the basic concepts and we apply the system to a representative set of lamps of many kinds. The results lead to interesting, sometimes surprising conclusions. The spectral index system is extremely easy to implement from the spectral data that are routinely measured at laboratories. Thus, including this kind of computations in the standard protocols for the certification of lamps will be really straightforward, and will enrich the technical description of lighting devices.

  5. Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnichenko, V G; Nazaryants, V O; Kryukova, E B; Dianov, E M


    The refractive index of crystalline GaAs is measured by the method of interference refractometry in the wavenumber range from 10 500 to 540 cm -1 (or the wavelength range from 0.9 to 18.6 μm) with a resolution of 0.1 cm -1 . The measurement results are approximated by the generalized Cauchy dispersion formula of the 8th power. Spectral wavelength dependences of the first- and second-order derivatives of the refractive index are calculated, and the zero material dispersion wavelength is found to be λ 0 = 6.61 μm. Using three GaAs plates of different thicknesses we managed to raise the refractive index measurement accuracy up to 4 x 10 -4 or 0.02%, being nearly by an order of magnitude better than the data available.

  6. Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnichenko, V G; Nazaryants, V O; Kryukova, E B; Dianov, E M, E-mail: [Fibre Optics Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation)


    The refractive index of crystalline GaAs is measured by the method of interference refractometry in the wavenumber range from 10 500 to 540 cm{sup -1} (or the wavelength range from 0.9 to 18.6 {mu}m) with a resolution of 0.1 cm{sup -1}. The measurement results are approximated by the generalized Cauchy dispersion formula of the 8th power. Spectral wavelength dependences of the first- and second-order derivatives of the refractive index are calculated, and the zero material dispersion wavelength is found to be {lambda}{sub 0} = 6.61 {mu}m. Using three GaAs plates of different thicknesses we managed to raise the refractive index measurement accuracy up to 4 x 10{sup -4} or 0.02%, being nearly by an order of magnitude better than the data available.

  7. Source spectral index of heavy cosmic ray nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, J.J.; Ferrando, P.; Koch-Miramond, L.; Masse, P.; Soutoul, A.; Webber, W.R.


    From the energy spectra of the heavy nuclei observed by the French-Danish experiment on HEAO-3, we have derived the source spectra of the mostly primary nuclei (C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, Ca and Fe) in the framework of an energy dependent leaky box model (Engelmann et al. 1985). In the present paper we want to derive more accurate spectral indices by using better values of the escape length based on the latest cross section measurements (Webber 1984, Soutoul et al. this conference). Our aim is also to extend the analysis to lower energies down to 0.4 GeV/n (kinetic energy observed near earth), using data obtained by other groups. The only nuclei for which we have a good data base in a broad range of energies are O and Fe, so the present study is restricted to these two elements

  8. 25 years of spectral UV measurements at Sodankylä (United States)

    Lakkala, Kaisa; Heikkilä, Anu; Kärhä, Petri; Ialongo, Iolanda; Karppinen, Tomi; Karhu, Juha Matti; Lindfors, Anders Vilhelm; Meinander, Outi


    At Sodankylä (67°N), spectra of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been measured with a Brewer spectroradiometer since 1990. The time series is one of the longest in the European Arctic region. In this work, the time series 1990-2014 was homogenized, and the data were corrected with respect to known error sources using laboratory characterizations and theoretical approaches. Methods for cosine correction, temperature correction and determination of long-term changes in spectral responsivity were applied. Bad measurements were identified by using various quality assurance tools including comparisons with reconstructed UV dose rates, synchronous broadband UV dose rates, global radiation and clear sky model calculations. We calculated daily maximum UV indices from the spectral time series. The daily maxima reached on average a value of 5 in midsummer, whereas the maximum UV index value of 6 was measured only twice: in 2011 and in 2013. We calculated the relative spectral changes in measured UV irradiances. An anti-correlation with total ozone was found in April and June, but no statistically significant long-term changes were found. The effect of snow, enhancing the measured UVR due to high albedo, was important during late spring. Short-term variations were mostly due to changes in cloudiness, which was the dominant factor during summertime.

  9. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (GDUPS) (2009), Yangcheng Scholar Funded.

  10. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... China (NSFC 11173009, NSFC 11203007), the research fund of Hunan University.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946 (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.


    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  12. A spatially resolved radio spectral index study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 (United States)

    Westcott, Jonathan; Brinks, Elias; Hindson, Luke; Beswick, Robert; Heesen, Volker


    We study the resolved radio continuum spectral energy distribution of the dwarf irregular galaxy, NGC 1569, on a beam-by-beam basis to isolate and study its spatially resolved radio emission characteristics. Utilizing high-quality NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations that densely sample the 1-34 GHz frequency range, we adopt a Bayesian fitting procedure, where we use H α emission that has not been corrected for extinction as a prior, to produce maps of how the separated thermal emission, non-thermal emission, and non-thermal spectral index vary across NGC 1569's main disc. We find a higher thermal fraction at 1 GHz than is found in spiral galaxies (26^{+2}_{-3} {per cent}) and find an average non-thermal spectral index α = -0.53 ± 0.02, suggesting that a young population of cosmic ray electrons is responsible for the observed non-thermal emission. By comparing our recovered map of the thermal radio emission with literature H α maps, we estimate the total reddening along the line of sight to NGC 1569 to be E(B - V) = 0.49 ± 0.05, which is in good agreement with other literature measurements. Spatial variations in the reddening indicate that a significant portion of the total reddening is due to internal extinction within NGC 1569.

  13. Broadband measurements of aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Washenfelder


    Full Text Available Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. We describe a new laboratory instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360–390 and 385–420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD detector. We determined aerosol extinction cross sections and directly observed Mie scattering resonances for aerosols that are purely scattering (polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate, slightly absorbing (Suwannee River fulvic acid, and strongly absorbing (nigrosin dye. We describe an approach for retrieving refractive indices as a function of wavelength from the measured extinction cross sections over the 360–420 nm wavelength region. The retrieved refractive indices for PSL and ammonium sulfate agree within uncertainty with the literature values for this spectral region. The refractive index determined for nigrosin is 1.78 (± 0.03 + 0.19 (± 0.08i at 360 nm and 1.63 (± 0.03 + 0.21 (± 0.05i at 420 nm. The refractive index determined for Suwannee River fulvic acid is 1.71 (± 0.02 + 0.07 (± 0.06i at 360 nm and 1.66 (± 0.02 + 0.06 (± 0.04i at 420 nm. These laboratory results support the potential for a field instrument capable of determining ambient aerosol optical extinction, average aerosol extinction cross section, and complex refractive index as a function of wavelength.

  14. The Complex Refractive Index of Volcanic Ash Aerosol Retrieved From Spectral Mass Extinction (United States)

    Reed, Benjamin E.; Peters, Daniel M.; McPheat, Robert; Grainger, R. G.


    The complex refractive indices of eight volcanic ash samples, chosen to have a representative range of SiO2 contents, were retrieved from simultaneous measurements of their spectral mass extinction coefficient and size distribution. The mass extinction coefficients, at 0.33-19 μm, were measured using two optical systems: a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared and two diffraction grating spectrometers covering visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. The particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter; values for the effective radius of ash particles measured in this study varied from 0.574 to 1.16 μm. Verification retrievals on high-purity silica aerosol demonstrated that the Rayleigh continuous distribution of ellipsoids (CDEs) scattering model significantly outperformed Mie theory in retrieving the complex refractive index, when compared to literature values. Assuming the silica particles provided a good analogue of volcanic ash, the CDE scattering model was applied to retrieve the complex refractive index of the eight ash samples. The Lorentz formulation of the complex refractive index was used within the retrievals as a convenient way to ensure consistency with the Kramers-Kronig relation. The short-wavelength limit of the electric susceptibility was constrained by using independently measured reference values of the complex refractive index of the ash samples at a visible wavelength. The retrieved values of the complex refractive indices of the ash samples showed considerable variation, highlighting the importance of using accurate refractive index data in ash cloud radiative transfer models.

  15. The Spectral Index and Beaming Effect for Radio Sources J. Pan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the spectral index of our previous studies (Fan et al. 2010), namely αt = [R/(1 +. R)]αj + [1/(1 + R)]αunb, here αj, αunb and αt indicate respectively the spectral indexes for the beamed, the unbeamed components, and the total emission. In this paper, we will use a larger sample to revisit this correlation. 2. Data analysis and ...

  16. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt (1− n {sub s} )∼ 0.04. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings α {sub s} = d n {sub s} / dlog k , and β {sub s} = dα {sub s} / dlog k , which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of 10{sup −3} and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for α {sub s} , although not for β {sub s} . Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like or a DESI-like survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by ∼ 20%, and 30%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as the SKA, will add enough information to the S4 measurements to allow a detection of α {sub s} =10{sup −3}, required to probe the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm. We show that only a very-futuristic interferometer targeting the dark ages will be capable of measuring the minimal inflationary prediction for β {sub s} . The results of other probes, such as a stochastic background of gravitational waves observable by LIGO, the Ly-α forest, and spectral distortions, are shown for comparison. Finally, we study the claims that large values of β {sub s} , if extrapolated to the smallest scales, can produce primordial black holes of tens of solar masses, which we show to be easily testable by the S4 CMB experiment.

  17. The Effect of Field Spectral Reflectance Measurement Distance to the Spectral Reflectance of Rhizophora stylosa (United States)

    Kamal, M.; Ningam, M. U. L.; Alqorina, F.


    Mapping mangrove species from remote sensing data through its spectral reflectance pattern collected in the field is challenging. There are high variations in light condition, leaf orientation, canopy structure, background objects and measurement distance when measuring mangrove spectral reflectance in the field. Spectral measurement distance to the object is one of the most important aspects controlling the result of spectral reflectance pattern. This research is aimed to assess the effect of spectral reflectance pattern of Rhizophora stylosa collected at various distances. Specific objectives of this research are to collect samples of mangrove spectral reflectance pattern in the field, to assess the effect of the observation scale to the result of the spectral reflectance pattern, and to characterize the mangrove spectral reflectance pattern resulted from different observation scales. Spectral reflectance data collection in the field was conducted using JAZ EL-350 field spectrometer at 2cm, 50cm, 1m, 2m, and 5m distance and was conducted in Karimunjawa Island, Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. A visual comparison of the spectral reflectance curve was conducted to understand the effect of measurement distance. The results of this study indicate that the difference in the measurement distance of Rhizophora stylosa species was highly influential to the resulting spectral reflectance curve. The spectral reflectance curve recorded at close range to the leaf (i.e. 2 cm) has the lowest curve variation, as well as the furthest distance (i.e. 5 m). This study is a basic study that supports the development of the use of remote sensing imagery for mangrove species mapping.

  18. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail:; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail:; Askins, Steve, E-mail:; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  19. [Vegetation index estimation by chlorophyll content of grassland based on spectral analysis]. (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Chen, Xiu-Wan; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Huai-Yu; Zhu, Han


    Comparing the methods of existing remote sensing research on the estimation of chlorophyll content, the present paper confirms that the vegetation index is one of the most practical and popular research methods. In recent years, the increasingly serious problem of grassland degradation. This paper, firstly, analyzes the measured reflectance spectral curve and its first derivative curve in the grasslands of Songpan, Sichuan and Gongger, Inner Mongolia, conducts correlation analysis between these two spectral curves and chlorophyll content, and finds out the regulation between REP (red edge position) and grassland chlorophyll content, that is, the higher the chlorophyll content is, the higher the REIP (red-edge inflection point) value would be. Then, this paper constructs GCI (grassland chlorophyll index) and selects the most suitable band for retrieval. Finally, this paper calculates the GCI by the use of satellite hyperspectral image, conducts the verification and accuracy analysis of the calculation results compared with chlorophyll content data collected from field of twice experiments. The result shows that for grassland chlorophyll content, GCI has stronger sensitivity than other indices of chlorophyll, and has higher estimation accuracy. GCI is the first proposed to estimate the grassland chlorophyll content, and has wide application potential for the remote sensing retrieval of grassland chlorophyll content. In addition, the grassland chlorophyll content estimation method based on remote sensing retrieval in this paper provides new research ideas for other vegetation biochemical parameters' estimation, vegetation growth status' evaluation and grassland ecological environment change's monitoring.

  20. Determination of the Spectral Index in the Fission Spectrum Energy Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Neutron reaction cross sections play a vital role in tracking the production and destruction of isotopes exposed to neutron fluence. They are central to the process of reconciling the initial and final atom inventories. Measurements of irradiated samples by radiochemical methods in tangent with an algorithm are used to evaluate the fluence a sample is exposed to over the course of the irradiation. This algorithm is the Isotope Production Code (IPC) created and used by the radiochemistry data assessment team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An integral result is calculated by varying the total neutron fluence seen by a sample. A sample, irradiated in a critical assembly, will be exposed to a unique neutron flux defined by the neutron source and distance of the sample from the source. Neutron cross sections utilized are a function of the hardness of the neutron spectrum at the location of irradiation. A spectral index is used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum. Cross sections fit forms applied in IPC are collapsed from a LANL 30-group energy structure. Several decades of research and development have been performed to formalize the current IPC cross section library. Basis of the current fission spectrum neutron reaction cross section library is rooted in critical assembly experiments performed from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s at LANL. The focus of this report is development of the spectral index used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum in the fission spectrum energy regime.

  1. Assessment of Landsat multispectral scanner spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland (United States)

    Musick, H. B.


    Correlations between spectral indices and vegetation parameters in south-central New Mexico were used to determine the utility of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral indices in arid rangeland monitoring. In addition, spectral index change for 1976-1980 was calculated from retrospective MSS data and compared with qualitative ground truth in order to evaluate vegetation change detection by means of spectral indices. Brightness index change consistently differentiated between cover increase and decrease, but index change appears to have been offset from true cover change; this may at least partly be attributed to the failure of the methods used to standardize MSS scenes for differences in sensor response. Green vegetation indices, by contrast to brightness indices, failed to consistently differentiate between cover increase and decrease.

  2. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez


    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  3. Spectral State Evolution of 4U 1820-30: the Stability of the Spectral Index of Comptonization Tail (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev G.; Seifina, Elena; Frontera, Filippo


    We analyze the X-ray spectra and their timing properties of the compact Xray binary 4U 1820-30. We establish spectral transitions in this source seen with BeppoSAX and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). During the RXTE observations (1996 - 2009), the source were approximately approximately 75% of its time in the soft state making the lower banana and upper banana transitions combined with long-term low-high state transitions. We reveal that all of the X-ray spectra of 4U 1820-30 are fit by a composition of a thermal (blackbody) component, a Comptonization component (COMPTB) and a Gaussian-line component. Thus using this spectral analysis we find that the photon power-law index Gamma of the Comptonization component is almost unchangeable (Gamma approximately 2) while the electron temperature kTe changes from 2.9 to 21 keV during these spectral events. We also establish that for these spectral events the normalization of COMPTB component (which is proportional to mass accretion rate ?M) increases by factor 8 when kTe decreases from 21 keV to 2.9 keV. Before this index stability effect was also found analyzing X-ray data for Z-source GX 340+0 and for atolls, 4U 1728-34, GX 3+1. Thus, we can suggest that this spectral stability property is a spectral signature of an accreting neutron star source. On the other hand in a black hole binary G monotonically increases with ?Mand ultimately its value saturates at large ?M.

  4. Refractive index measurement based on confocal method (United States)

    An, Zhe; Xu, XiPing; Yang, JinHua; Qiao, Yang; Liu, Yang


    The development of transparent materials is closed to optoelectronic technology. It plays an increasingly important role in various fields. It is not only widely used in optical lens, optical element, optical fiber grating, optoelectronics, but also widely used in the building material, pharmaceutical industry with vessel, aircraft windshield and daily wear glasses.Regard of solving the problem of refractive index measurement in optical transparent materials. We proposed that using the polychromatic confocal method to measuring the refractive index of transparent materials. In this article, we describes the principle of polychromatic confocal method for measuring the refractive index of glass,and sketched the optical system and its optimization. Then we establish the measurement model of the refractive index, and set up the experimental system. In this way, the refractive index of the glass has been calibrated for refractive index experiment. Due to the error in the experimental process, we manipulated the experiment data to compensate the refractive index measurement formula. The experiment taking the quartz glass for instance. The measurement accuracy of the refractive index of the glass is +/-1.8×10-5. This method is more practical and accurate, especially suitable for non-contact measurement occasions, which environmental requirements is not high. Environmental requirements are not high, the ordinary glass production line up to the ambient temperature can be fully adapted. There is no need for the color of the measured object that you can measure the white and a variety of colored glass.

  5. Spectral resolution measurement technique for Czerny-Turner spectrometers based on spectral interferometry (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Ramiro; Garduño Mejía, Jesús; Rosete Aguilar, Martha; Román Moreno, Carlos J.


    We propose the design of a new technique for measuring the spectral resolution of a Czerny-Turner Spectrometer based on spectral interferometry of ultrashort laser pulses. It is well known that ultrashort pulse measurement like SPIDER and TADPOLE techniques requires a precise and well characterized spectrum, especially in fringe resolution. We developed a new technique, to our knowledge, in which by measuring the nominal fringe spacing of a spectral interferogram one can characterize the spectral resolution in a Czerny-Turner spectrometer using Ryleigh's criteria. This technique was tested in a commercial Czerny-Turner spectrometer. The results demonstrate a consistent spectral resolution between what was reported by the manufacturer. The actual calibration technique was applied in a homemade broadband astigmatism-free Czerny-Turner spectrometer. Theory and experimental results are presented.

  6. Spectral Intensity Variation by the Correlation Function of Refractive Index Fluctuations of the Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Singh


    Full Text Available It is proposed that a macroscopic theory of propagation and scattering of light through random media can be functional for the dye liquid flowing media in the microscopic levels too, with modest approximations. Maxwell’s equation for a random refractive index medium is approximated and solved for the electric field. An analytical expression for the spectral intensity of the field scattered by the refractive index fluctuations inside a medium has been derived which was valid within the first Born approximation. Far field spectral intensity variation of the radiation propagating through the liquid medium is a consequence of variation in correlation function of the refractive index inhomogeneities. The strength of radiation scattered in a particular direction depends on the spatial correlation function of the refractive index fluctuations of the medium. An attempt is made to explain some of the experimentally observed spectral intensity variations, particularly dye emission propagation through liquid flowing medium, in the presence of thermal and flow field.

  7. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe


    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  8. Running of the scalar spectral index in bouncing cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Wilson-Ewing, Edward, E-mail:, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)


    We calculate the running of the scalar index in the ekpyrotic and matter bounce cosmological scenarios, and find that it is typically negative for ekpyrotic models, while it is typically positive for realizations of the matter bounce where multiple fields are present. This can be compared to inflation, where the observationally preferred models typically predict a negative running. The magnitude of the running is expected to be between 10{sup −4} and up to 10{sup −2}, leading in some cases to interesting expectations for near-future observations.

  9. Accurate Measurements of Spectral Reflectance in Picasso's Guernica Painting. (United States)

    de Luna, Javier Muñoz; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vázquez, Daniel; Melgosa, Manuel; Durán, Humberto; García, Jorge; Muro, Carmen


    The use of non-invasive spectral measurements to control the conservation status is a part of the preventive conservation of artworks which nowadays is becoming increasingly interesting. This paper describes how to use a spectral measuring device and an illumination system specifically designed for such a task in a very large dimension artwork painting (7.8 m wide × 3.5 m high). The system, controlled by a Cartesian robot, allows spectral measurements in a spectral range of 400-780 nm. The measured data array has a total of 2201 circular regions with 5.5 mm spot diameter placed on a square grid. Colorimetric calculations performed from these spectral measurements may be used to characterize color shifts related to reflectance changes in specific areas of the paint. A color shifting from the expected gray has been shown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.


    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  11. White light spectral interferometer for measuring dispersion in the visible-near infrared (United States)

    Arosa, Yago; Rodríguez Fernández, Carlos Damian; Algnamat, Bilal S.; López-Lago, Elena; de la Fuente, Raul


    We have designed a spectrally resolved interferometer to measure the refractive index of transparent samples over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1550 nm. The measuring device consists of a Michelson interferometer whose output is analyzed by means of three fiber spectrometers. The first one is a homemade prism spectrometer, which obtains the interferogram produced by the sample over 400 to 1050 nm; the second one is a homemade transmission grating spectrometer thought to measure the interferogram in the near infrared spectral band from 950 to 1550 nm; the last one is a commercial Czerny-Turner spectrometer used to make high precision measurements of the displacement between the Michelson mirrors also using white light interferometry. The whole system is illuminated by a white light source with an emission spectrum similar to black body. We have tested the instrument with solid and liquids samples achieving accuracy to the fourth decimal on the refractive index after fitting it to a Cauchy formula

  12. Test of Multi-spectral Vegetation Index for Floating and Canopy-forming Submerged Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Kirui


    Full Text Available Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR. These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallonoutdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6-0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 – 0.5 m. Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1 can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2 is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m; and (3 the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is

  13. SNR radio spectral index distribution and its correlation with polarization. a case study: the Lupus Loop (United States)

    Borka Jovanović, V.; Jovanović, P.; Borka, D.


    We use radio-continuum all-sky surveys at 1420 and 408 MHz with the aim to investigate properties of the Galactic radio source Lupus Loop. The survey data at 1435 MHz, with the linear polarization of the southern sky, are also used. We calculate properties of this supernova remnant: the brightness temperature, surface brightness and radio spectral index. To determine its borders and to calculate its properties, we use the method we have developed. The non-thermal nature of its radiation is confirmed. The distribution of spectral index over its area is also given. A significant correlation between the radio spectral index distribution and the corresponding polarized intensity distribution inside the loop borders is found, indicating that the polarization maps could provide us information about the distribution of the interstellar medium, and thus could represent one additional way to search for new Galactic loops.

  14. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the pump–probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is ...

  15. Combined temporal and spectral measurement of infrared supercontinuum performed by up-conversion in a non-linear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Johansen, Mikkel

    Up-converting infrared supercontinuum allows a direct measurement of its temporal and spectral properties. The resulting spectrogram reveals that higher order spatial modes play an important role in supercontinuum generation in step index fibres.......Up-converting infrared supercontinuum allows a direct measurement of its temporal and spectral properties. The resulting spectrogram reveals that higher order spatial modes play an important role in supercontinuum generation in step index fibres....

  16. FSD: Frequency Space Differential measurement of CMB spectral distortions (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Silk, Joseph; Wandelt, Benjamin D.


    Although the Cosmic Microwave Background agrees with a perfect blackbody spectrum within the current experimental limits, it is expected to exhibit certain spectral distortions with known spectral properties. We propose a new method, Frequency Space Differential (FSD) to measure the spectral distortions in the CMB spectrum by using the inter-frequency differences of the brightness temperature. The difference between the observed CMB temperature at different frequencies must agree with the frequency derivative of the blackbody spectrum, in the absence of any distortion. However, in the presence of spectral distortions, the measured inter-frequency differences would also exhibit deviations from blackbody which can be modeled for known sources of spectral distortions like y & μ. Our technique uses FSD information for the CMB blackbody, y, μ or any other sources of spectral distortions to model the observed signal. Successful application of this method in future CMB missions can provide an alternative method to extract spectral distortion signals and can potentially make it feasible to measure spectral distortions without an internal blackbody calibrator.

  17. Measurement of chromatic dispersion of microstructured polymer fibers by white-light spectral interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlubina, Petr; Ciprian, Dalibor; Frosz, Michael Henoch


    and the other arm with adjustable path length. We record the spectral interferograms to measure the equalization wavelength as a function of the path length difference, or equivalently the differential group refractive index dispersion over a wide wavelength range. First, we verify the applicability...

  18. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.


    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  19. An integrated approach to fingerprint indexing using spectral clustering based on minutiae points

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngenge, NA


    Full Text Available and Information Conference 2015 July 28-30, 2015 | London, UK An Integrated Approach to Fingerprint Indexing Using Spectral Clustering Based on Minutiae Points 1Ntethelelo A. Mngenge Linda and Mthembu 2Fulufhelo V. Nelwamondo and Cynthia H. Ngejane 1School...

  20. Estimating Leaf Area Index for an arid region using Spectral Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of the important crop parameters that can be used to assess crop conditions or drought severity. Estimating LAI for arid regions presents challenge due to the high spatial variability in precipitation and in crop canopies found in such regions. In this study, spectral reflectance of pearl millet was ...

  1. On the terminology of the spectral vegetation index (NIR – SWIR)/(NIR + SWIR) (United States)

    Ji, Lel; Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer R.


    The spectral vegetation index (ρNIR – ρSWIR)/(ρNIR + ρSWIR), where ρNIR and ρSWIR are the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) reflectances, respectively, has been widely used to indicate vegetation moisture condition. This index has multiple names in the literature, including infrared index (II), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), normalized difference water index (NDWI), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface water index (LSWI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR), etc. After reviewing each term’s definition, associated sensors, and channel specifications, we found that the index consists of three variants, differing only in the SWIR region (1.2–1.3 µm, 1.55–1.75 µm, or 2.05–2.45 µm). Thus, three terms are sufficient to represent these three SWIR variants; other names are redundant and therefore unnecessary. Considering the spectral representativeness, the term’s popularity, and the “rule of priority” in scientific nomenclature, NDWI, NDII, and NBR, each corresponding to the three SWIR regions, are more preferable terms.

  2. What we can learn from the spectral index of the tensor mode (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min; Matsuda, Tomohiro


    If the beginning of inflation is defined at the moment when the vacuum energy of the inflaton starts to dominate, the energy density of the other fields at that moment is (by definition) comparable to the inflaton. Although the fraction will be small at the horizon exit due to the inflationary expansion, they can alter the scale dependence of the spectrum. At the same time, velocity of the inflaton field may not coincide with the slow-roll (attractor) velocity. Those dynamics could be ubiquitous but can easily alter the scale dependence of the spectrum. Since the scale dependence is currently used to constrain or even exclude inflation models, it is very important to measure its shift, which is due to the dynamics that does not appear in the original inflation model. Considering typical examples, we show that the spectral index of the tensor mode is a useful measure of such effect. Precise measurement of the higher runnings of the scalar mode will be helpful in discriminating the source.

  3. Spatio-temporally resolved spectral measurements of laser-produced plasma and semiautomated spectral measurement-control and analysis software (United States)

    Cao, S. Q.; Su, M. G.; Min, Q.; Sun, D. X.; O'Sullivan, G.; Dong, C. Z.


    A spatio-temporally resolved spectral measurement system of highly charged ions from laser-produced plasmas is presented. Corresponding semiautomated computer software for measurement control and spectral analysis has been written to achieve the best synchronicity possible among the instruments. This avoids the tedious comparative processes between experimental and theoretical results. To demonstrate the capabilities of this system, a series of spatio-temporally resolved experiments of laser-produced Al plasmas have been performed and applied to benchmark the software. The system is a useful tool for studying the spectral structures of highly charged ions and for evaluating the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-produced plasmas.

  4. Spectral irradiance measurements using a novel spectroradiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S; Desa, B.A; De; Desai, R.G.P.

    A novel design of a spectroradiometer has been implemented and tested in the sea to measure underwater optical and physical properties. The spectroradiometer has two high resolution diffraction-based spectrographs assembled back to back in a...

  5. Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica


    Wuttke Sigrid; Seckmeyer G; König-Langlo Gert


    Spectral albedo in high resolution, from 290 to 1050 nm, has been measured at Neumayer, Antarctica, (70°39' S, 8°15' W) during the austral summer 2003/2004. At 500 nm, the spectral albedo nearly reaches unity, with slightly lower values below and above 500 nm. Above 600 nm, the spectral albedo decreases to values between 0.45 and 0.75 at 1000 nm. For one cloudless case an albedo up to 1.01 at 500 nm could be determined. This can be explained by the larger directional...

  6. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogut, A.J.


    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, A.J.


    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs

  8. Gender Inequality Index Appropriateness for Measuring Inequality. (United States)

    Amin, Elham; Sabermahani, Asma


    Gender inequality means unequal distribution of wealth, power, and benefits among women and men. The gender inequality index (GII) measures the lost human development in three important dimensions: reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic status. The first purpose of this study was to calculate the index for provinces of Iran, and the second purpose was to survey the appropriateness of that, for comparing different regions, through regression estimations. In this study, GII has been calculated for Iran between the years 2006-2011 and provinces have been ranked based on it. Then, a panel composed of 30 sections was estimated for five years to determine the most important factor affecting level of index. Some changes have been made to analyze values of the index and the ranking of provinces. Based on panel model, share of parliamentary seats was the most effective factor for determination of the index. After applying adjustments, some differences were seen in the ranking of provinces and general level of index. Weighing of dimensions of the index and considering an overall variable, such as life expectancy in the field of health, will give a more accurate comparison of the GII among different regions though concurrent attention to non-discriminatory cultural dimensions of political participation of women; therefore, making more analyses possible for a more correct comparison of the extensive geographical regions, such as countries.

  9. Temporally resolved refractive index structure parameter measurement (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Forsling, Robin


    The refractive index structure parameter is the most common measure of optical turbulence. It is defined as a statistical quantity for the Kolmogorov spectrum energy cascade of turbulent eddies of different sizes. As such it is formally assumed to be constant in time and space. However, the large scale variation with the diurnal cycle, with altitude or with terrain characteristics is well known. The ensemble average in the definition of the refractive index structure parameter is thus assumed to be applied over a restricted region in space and time. The question of how large volume is needed to determine the refractive index structure parameter and on how short temporal scales it can vary has not received significant attention. To study the temporal variation we have used two independent measurement systems to measure the path-averaged refractive index structure parameter over a 171 m path at 1 m above ground with higher than 1 Hz temporal resolution. One measurement system uses the differential angle-of-arrival of an array of LEDs. The other system measures the scintillation of a single path laser beam using a photon counting system, with time correlation of picosecond pulses for simultaneous measurement of signal and background and with temporal autocorrelation-based variance determination to separate turbulence related scintillations from shot noise. The data shows excellent agreement between the two measurement systems on second level temporal variation, giving confidence in that the measured values show true variation of the refractive index structure parameter. Large scale variation of up to two orders of magnitude can be coupled to solar insolation on this partly cloudy day. High frequency variations that are consistent between the systems used show factor two changes at time scales below one second.

  10. Validation of cephalic index measurements in scaphocephaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindert, E.J. van; Siepel, F.J.; Delye, H.H.K.; Ettema, A.M.; Berge, S.J.; Maal, T.J.J.; Borstlap, W.A.


    INTRODUCTION: The cephalic index (CI) of the head can be measured manually using a caliper, the original technique, but it is also possible to determine it using skull X-ray, 2DCT and 3DCT images, 3D photo and with help of plagiocephalometry (PCM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, the manual

  11. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.


    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  12. Rogue wave early warning through spectral measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the spectra of the Peregrine soliton and higher-order rational solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE), which we use as a model of the rogue waves in optics and in the deep ocean. We show that these solutions have specific triangular spectra that are certainly easily measurable in optical systems and which may be amenable to characterisation in ocean environments. As the triangular feature of the solutions appears at an early stage of their evolution, this raises the possibility of early detection and possible localized warning of the appearance of rogue waves. We anticipate that studying the characteristics of 'early warning spectra' of rogue waves may become an important future field of research.

  13. Spectral analysis of systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities in preterm infants: relationship with clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Gregory S H; Lee, Qim Y; Savkin, Andrey V; Tracy, Mark B; Hinder, Murray; Lovell, Nigel H


    Frequency spectrum analysis of circulatory signals has been proposed as a potential method for clinical risk assessment of preterm infants by previous studies. In this study, we examined the relationships between various spectral measures derived from systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities and the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB II). Physiological data collected from 17 early low birth weight infants within 1–3 h after birth were analysed. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were performed on heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measures such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobins (HbO 2 and HHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI). In addition, indices related to cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and cerebral autoregulation were derived from the very low, low- and mid-frequency ranges (VLF, LF and MF). Moderate correlations with CRIB II were identified from mean arterial pressure (MAP) normalized MF power (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), LF MAP–HHb coherence (r = 0.64, P = 0.006), TOI VLF percentage power (r = 0.55, P = 0.023) and LF baroreflex gain (r = −0.61, P = 0.01 after logarithmic transformation), with the latter two parameters also highly correlated with gestational age (r = −0.75, P = 0.0005 and r = 0.70, P = 0.002, respectively). The relationships between CRIB II and various spectral measures of arterial baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation functions have provided further justification for these measures as possible markers of clinical risks and predictors of adverse outcome in preterm infants

  14. Measuring Financial Inclusion: A Multidimensional Index


    Noelia Camara; David Tuesta


    We rely on demand and supply-side information to measure the extent of financial inclusion at country level for eighty-two developed and less-developed countries. We postulate that the degree of financial inclusion is determined by three dimensions: usage, barriers and access to financial inclusion. Weights assigned to the dimensions are determined endogenously by employing a two-stage Principal Component Analysis. Our composite index offers a comprehensive measure of the degree of financial ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Allen, B. T.; Chen, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Atkins, R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Coyne, D. G.; Dorfan, D. E. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Bussons, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonamente, E.; Galbraith-Frew, J. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Christopher, G. E.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dingus, B. L. [Group P-23, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ellsworth, R. W. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); and others


    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV-100 TeV gamma-ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between {approx}1 and {approx}100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton upscattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a TeV steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fitted. The differential photon energy spectrum, including the statistical errors from the fit, obtained using a simple power-law hypothesis for data between 2005 September and 2008 March is (6.5 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}(E/10 TeV){sup -3.1{+-}0.1}(cm{sup 2} s TeV ){sup -1} between {approx}1 TeV and {approx}100 TeV. Allowing for a possible exponential cutoff, the photon energy spectrum is fitted as (2.5{sup +0.7}{sub -0.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}(E/3 TeV){sup -2.5{+-}0.4}exp (- E/32{sup +39}{sub -18} TeV) (cm{sup 2} s TeV){sup -1}. The results are subject to an {approx}30% systematic uncertainty in the overall flux and an {approx}0.1 systematic uncertainty in the power-law indices quoted. Uncertainty in the overall energy scale has been absorbed into these errors. Fixing the spectral index to values that have been measured below 1 TeV by IACT experiments (2.4-2.6), the fit to the Milagro data suggests that Crab exhibits a

  16. Measuring Tax Efficiency: A Tax Optimality Index


    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D


    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality that measures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal tax structure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1] number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configuration is from the optimal one and, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a tax system. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show how the basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivale...

  17. Spectrally controlled interferometry for measurements of flat and spherical optics (United States)

    Salsbury, Chase; Olszak, Artur G.


    Conventional interferometry is widely used to measure spherical and at surfaces with nanometer level precision but is plagued by back reflections. We describe a new method of isolating the measurement surface by controlling spectral properties of the source (Spectrally Controlled Interferometry - SCI). Using spectral modulation of the interferometer's source enables formation of localized fringes where the optical path difference is non-zero. As a consequence it becomes possible to form white-light like fringes in common path interferometers, such as the Fizeau. The proposed setup does not require mechanical phase shifting, resulting in simpler instruments and the ability to upgrade existing interferometers. Furthermore, it allows absolute measurement of distance, including radius of curvature of lenses in a single setup with possibility of improving the throughput and removing some modes of failure.

  18. Weak lensing and CMB: Parameter forecasts including a running spectral index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Hirata, Christopher M.; McDonald, Patrick; Seljak, Uros


    We use statistical inference theory to explore the constraints from future galaxy weak lensing (cosmic shear) surveys combined with the current CMB constraints on cosmological parameters, focusing particularly on the running of the spectral index of the primordial scalar power spectrum, α s . Recent papers have drawn attention to the possibility of measuring α s by combining the CMB with galaxy clustering and/or the Lyman-α forest. Weak lensing combined with the CMB provides an alternative probe of the primordial power spectrum. We run a series of simulations with variable runnings and compare them to semianalytic nonlinear mappings to test their validity for our calculations. We find that a 'reference' cosmic shear survey with f sky =0.01 and 6.6x10 8 galaxies per steradian can reduce the uncertainty on n s and α s by roughly a factor of 2 relative to the CMB alone. We investigate the effect of shear calibration biases on lensing by including the calibration factor as a parameter, and show that for our reference survey, the precision of cosmological parameter determination is only slightly degraded even if the amplitude calibration is uncertain by as much as 5%. We conclude that in the near future weak lensing surveys can supplement the CMB observations to constrain the primordial power spectrum

  19. Automated multifunction apparatus for spectral and polarization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.N.; Kurakov, A.Ya.


    An automated spectral apparatus is described that is based on an SDL-2 spectrometer for spectral and polarization measurements with small specimens (0.15 x 0.15 mm) by the Fourier-coefficient method in the visible and ultraviolet regions over a wide range of temperatures. The absorption, dichroism, birefringence, and polarization orientation of natural waves are determined simultaneously in a single measurement cycle. Polarization-luminescence spectra can also be recorded from one region of the specimen without its adjustment. 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. Covariation of spectral and nonlinear EEG measures with alpha biofeedback.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Elfadil, H.; Klaver, P.; Roschke, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.


    This study investigated how different spectral and nonlinear EEG measures covaried with alpha power during auditory alpha biofeedback training, performed by 13 healthy subjects. We found a significant positive correlation of alpha power with the largest Lyapunov-exponent, pointing to an increased

  1. "Calibration" system for spectral measurements and its experimental results (United States)

    Bruchkouskaya, Sviatlana I.; Katkovsky, Leonid V.; Belyaev, Boris I.; Malyshev, Vladislav B.


    "Calibration" system has been developed at A. N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. It was designed for measuring the characteristics of spectral reflectance of all types of natural surfaces (test sites) in ground conditions or on board of aircraft carriers and has the following components: - Photospectroradiometr (PhSR) of high resolution with a range of 400-900 nm, equipped with a digital time-lapse video system; - Two-channel modular spectroradiometer (TMS) with a range of 400-900 nm, designed for simultaneous measurements of reflected light brightness of the underlying surface and the incident radiation from the upper hemisphere; - Two portable spectroradiometers (PSR-700 and PSR-1300) with a spectral range 800-1500 nm; 1200-2500 nm; - Scanning solar spectropolarimeter (SSP-600) with a range of 350-950 nm for measurements of direct sunlight and scattered by the atmosphere at different angles; "Calibration" system provides spectral resolution of 5.2 nm in a range of 400-900 nm, 10 nm in a range of 800-1500 nm and 15 nm in a range of 1200-2500 nm. Measurements of the optical characteristics of solar radiation (for determining parameters of the atmosphere) and that of underlying surface are synchronous. There is also a set of special nozzles for measurements of spectral brightness coefficients, polarization characteristics and spectral albedo. Spectra and images are geotagged to the navigation data (time, GPS). For the measurements of spectral reflection dependencies within "Monitoring-SG" framework expeditions to the Kuril Islands, Kursk aerospace test site and Kamchatka Peninsula were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The spectra of different underlying surfaces have been obtained: soils, plants and water objects, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These surveys are a valuable material for further researches and selection of test facilities for flight calibration of space imaging systems. Information obtained

  2. Optimal Exploitation of the Sentinel-2 Spectral Capabilities for Crop Leaf Area Index Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido D’Urso


    Full Text Available The continuously increasing demand of accurate quantitative high quality information on land surface properties will be faced by a new generation of environmental Earth observation (EO missions. One current example, associated with a high potential to contribute to those demands, is the multi-spectral ESA Sentinel-2 (S2 system. The present study focuses on the evaluation of spectral information content needed for crop leaf area index (LAI mapping in view of the future sensors. Data from a field campaign were used to determine the optimal spectral sampling from available S2 bands applying inversion of a radiative transfer model (PROSAIL with look-up table (LUT and artificial neural network (ANN approaches. Overall LAI estimation performance of the proposed LUT approach (LUTN50 was comparable in terms of retrieval performances with a tested and approved ANN method. Employing seven- and eight-band combinations, the LUTN50 approach obtained LAI RMSE of 0.53 and normalized LAI RMSE of 0.12, which was comparable to the results of the ANN. However, the LUTN50 method showed a higher robustness and insensitivity to different band settings. Most frequently selected wavebands were located in near infrared and red edge spectral regions. In conclusion, our results emphasize the potential benefits of the Sentinel-2 mission for agricultural applications.

  3. Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wuttke


    Full Text Available Spectral albedo in high resolution, from 290 to 1050 nm, has been measured at Neumayer, Antarctica, (70°39' S, 8°15' W during the austral summer 2003/2004. At 500 nm, the spectral albedo nearly reaches unity, with slightly lower values below and above 500 nm. Above 600 nm, the spectral albedo decreases to values between 0.45 and 0.75 at 1000 nm. For one cloudless case an albedo up to 1.01 at 500 nm could be determined. This can be explained by the larger directional component of the snow reflectivity for direct incidence, combined with a slightly mislevelled sensor and the snow surface not being perfectly horizontal. A possible explanation for an observed decline in albedo is an increase in snow grain size. The theoretically predicted increase in albedo with increasing solar zenith angle (SZA could not be observed. This is explained by the small range of SZA during albedo measurements, combined with the effect of changing snow conditions outweighing the effect of changing SZA. The measured spectral albedo serves as input for radiative transfer models, describing radiation conditions in Antarctica.

  4. Diffraction tomography for plasma refractive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Nazikian, R.; Sharp, L.E.


    Measurement of the properties of probing beams of coherent electromagnetic radiation yields essential information about the line of sight integrated plasma refractive index. Presented is a scalar diffraction treatment of forward angle scattering plasma diagnostics based on the diffraction projection theorem first presented by E. Wolf in 1969. New results are obtained for near field scattering from probing Gaussian beams and it is demonstrated that the effects of diffraction need to be addressed for tomographic inversion of near field scattering and interferometry data. 33 refs., 10 figs

  5. Quantitative Spectral Radiance Measurements in the HYMETS Arc Jet (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Hires, Drew V.; Johansen, Craig T.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.


    Calibrated spectral radiance measurements of gaseous emission spectra have been obtained from the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A fiber-optic coupled spectrometer collected natural luminosity from the flow. Spectral radiance measurements are reported between 340 and 1000 nm. Both Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) samples were placed in the flow. Test gases studied included a mostly-N2 atmosphere (95% nitrogen, 5% argon), a simulated Earth Air atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon). The bulk enthalpy of the flow was varied as was the location of the measurement. For the intermediate flow enthalpy tested (20 MJ/kg), emission from the Mars simulant gas was about 10 times higher than the Air flow and 15 times higher than the mostly-N2 atmosphere. Shock standoff distances were estimated from the spectral radiance measurements. Within-run, run-to-run and day-to-day repeatability of the emission were studied, with significant variations (15-100%) noted.

  6. Neutron spectrum perturbations due to scattering materials and their effect on the average neutron energy, the spectral index, and the hardness parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.L.; Meason, J.L.; Wolf, M.; Harvey, J.T.


    Measurements have been performed on the perturbing effect of a number of scattering materials by the 'free-field' neutron leakage spectrum from a Godiva Type Critical Assembly (White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor). The results of these measurements are interpreted in relation to some of the general parameters characterizing a neutron environment, namely, the average neutron energy >10 KeV, the spectral index and the hardness parameter. Three neutron spectrum measurements have been performed, each under different experimental configurations of scattering materials. Results from these measurements show the following with relation to the spectral index: (1) The neutron environment on the core surface and at 12-inches from the core surface (free-field) yield a spectral index of 6.8, (2) The neutron environment behind a 4.75-inch Plexiglas plate yield 4.6 for the spectral index and (3) The neutron environment behind a 2-inch aluminum plate yield 6.7 for the spectral index. It is concluded that the core surface and the 12-inch from core surface neutron environment are identical with the 'free-field' neutron environment at 20-inches when considering only those neutrons with energy >10 KeV. On the other hand, it appears that the 4.75 inches of Plexiglas severely perturbs the 'free-field' neutron environment, i.e., a much harder neutron spectrum >10 KeV. In the situation where 2-inches of aluminum is used as the perturbing medium, essentially no change in the neutron spectrum >10 KeV is noted

  7. Zakah index: Islamic economics’ welfare measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Adji Kusuma


    Full Text Available Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam. Compared to the other pillars, Zakah intersects with most the human dimensions: spiritual, individual, social, economic, and is quantifiable. Zakah also fulfills all of the aspect of the Maqa>s}id al-Shari>‘ah that preserves public interests (maslahah. This paper argues that the lack of full observance of the objectives of the obligation in performing Zakah, which is intended to increase the welfare/wellbeing of the society, makes Islamic Economics as a discipline completely ineffective and inefficient in performing its essential characteristics in fulfilling the Maqa>s}id al-Shari>‘ah. The expected outcome of this study is Zakah Index that will represents the monitoring of Zakah payment in Islamic or Muslim populated country, hence providing academics, students, society, and policy maker in Islamic or Muslim populated country an alternative measurement of economic progress, instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The method used in the conceptualization of the Index and its derivatives are content analysis and conventional literature. Finally, Zakah Index is intended to be as an Islamic Economics tool to measure not only the welfare/wellbeing of Islamic Society, but also its religious (spiritual. On the last part of the paper, the Zakah Index Model then is applied to the East Java province. Zakah adalah salah satu rukun Islam. Dibandingkan dengan pilar yang lain, zakah bersinggungan dengan hampir seluruh dimensi manusia: spiritual, individual, sosial, ekonomi dan ia dapat diukur. Selain itu, zakah juga memenuhi seluruh aspek Maqa>s}id al-Shari>‘ah yang bertujuan melindungi kepentingan umum (maslahah. Paper ini didasarkan pandangan bahwa minimnya pengawasan kewajiban pembayaran zakah, yang ditujukan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat, menjadikan Ilmu Ekonomi Islam sebagai disiplin tidak efektif dan efisien dalam menjalankan karakteristik utamanya untuk memenuhi tujuan Shariah. Luaran dari

  8. Quality assurance of the Brewer spectral UV measurements in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakkala


    Full Text Available The quality assurance of the two Brewer spectrophotometers of the Finnish Meteorological Institute is discussed in this paper. The complete data processing chain from raw signal to high quality spectra is presented. The quality assurance includes daily maintenance, laboratory characterizations, calculation of long-term spectral responsivity, data processing and quality assessment. The cosine correction of the measurements is based on a new method, and is included in the data processing software. The results showed that the actual cosine correction factor of the two Finnish Brewers can vary between 1.08–1.13 and 1.08–1.12, respectively, depending on the sky radiance distribution and wavelength. The temperature characterization showed a linear temperature dependence between the instruments' internal temperature and the photon counts per cycle, and a temperature correction was used for correcting the measurements. The long-term spectral responsivity was calculated using the time series of several lamps using two slightly different methods. The long-term spectral responsivity was scaled to the irradiance scale of the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT for the whole of the measurement time-periods 1990–2006 and 1995–2006 for Sodankylä and Jokioinen, respectively. Both Brewers have participated in many international spectroradiometer comparisons, and have shown good stability. The differences between the Brewers and the portable reference spectroradiometer QASUME have been within 5% during 2002–2007.

  9. Galactic cosmic ray spectral index: the case of Forbush decreases of March 2012 (United States)

    Livada, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Plainaki, C.


    During the burst of solar activity in March 2012, close to the maximum of solar cycle 24, a number of X-class and M-class flares and halo CMEs with velocity up to 2684 km/s were recorded. During a relatively short period (7-21 March 2012) two Forbush decreases were registered in the ground-level neutron monitor data. In this work, after a short description of the solar and geomagnetic background of these Forbush decreases, we deduce the cosmic ray density and anisotropy variations based on the daily cosmic ray data of the neutron monitor network (; Applying to our data two different coupling functions methods, the spectral index of these Forbush decreases was calculated following the technique of Wawrzynczak and Alania (Adv. Space Res. 45:622-631, 2010). We pointed out that the estimated values of the spectral index γ of these events are almost similar for both cases following the fluctuation of the Forbush decrease. The study and the calculation of the cosmic ray spectrum during such cosmic ray events are very important for Space Weather applications.

  10. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher


    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  11. Plasma absorption evidence via chirped pulse spectral transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia, E-mail: [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR and CNISM UdR Como, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Minardi, Stefano [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Couairon, Arnaud; Jukna, Vytautas [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Selva, Marco; Di Trapani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, University of Insubria and CNISM UdR Como, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy)


    This work aims at highlighting the plasma generation dynamics and absorption when a Bessel beam propagates in glass. We developed a simple diagnostics allowing us to retrieve clear indications of the formation of the plasma in the material, thanks to transmission measurements in the angular and wavelength domains. This technique featured by the use of a single chirped pulse having the role of pump and probe simultaneously leads to results showing the plasma nonlinear absorption effect on the trailing part of the pulse, thanks to the spectral-temporal correspondence in the measured signal, which is also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  12. Calibration of a Species-Specific Spectral Vegetation Index for Leaf Area Index (LAI Monitoring: Example with MODIS Reflectance Time-Series on Eucalyptus Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerric le Maire


    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI is a key characteristic of forest ecosystems. Estimations of LAI from satellite images generally rely on spectral vegetation indices (SVIs or radiative transfer model (RTM inversions. We have developed a new and precise method suitable for practical application, consisting of building a species-specific SVI that is best-suited to both sensor and vegetation characteristics. Such an SVI requires calibration on a large number of representative vegetation conditions. We developed a two-step approach: (1 estimation of LAI on a subset of satellite data through RTM inversion; and (2 the calibration of a vegetation index on these estimated LAI. We applied this methodology to Eucalyptus plantations which have highly variable LAI in time and space. Previous results showed that an RTM inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS near-infrared and red reflectance allowed good retrieval performance (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.41, but was computationally difficult. Here, the RTM results were used to calibrate a dedicated vegetation index (called “EucVI” which gave similar LAI retrieval results but in a simpler way. The R2 of the regression between measured and EucVI-simulated LAI values on a validation dataset was 0.68, and the RMSE was 0.49. The additional use of stand age and day of year in the SVI equation slightly increased the performance of the index (R2 = 0.77 and RMSE = 0.41. This simple index opens the way to an easily applicable retrieval of Eucalyptus LAI from MODIS data, which could be used in an operational way.

  13. Aerosol Classification from High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements (United States)

    Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kahnert, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Berkoff, T.; Seaman, S. T.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Fenn, M. A.; Rogers, R. R.


    The NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, have acquired large datasets of vertically resolved aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization during >30 airborne field missions since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters like lidar ratio and color ratio embed information about intrinsic aerosol properties, and are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into aerosol types. Knowledge of aerosol type is important for assessing aerosol radiative forcing, and can provide useful information for source attribution studies. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead is a mixture, which affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. We show that aerosol intensive parameters measured by lidar can be understood using mixing rules for cases of external mixing. Beyond coarse classification and mixing between classes, variations in the lidar aerosol intensive parameters provide additional insight into aerosol processes and composition. This is illustrated by depolarization measurements at three wavelengths, 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, made by HSRL-2. Particle depolarization ratio is an indicator of non-spherical particles. Three cases each have a significantly different spectral dependence of the depolarization ratio, related to the size of the depolarizing particles. For two dust cases, large non-spherical particles account for the depolarization of the lidar light. The spectral dependence reflects the size distribution of these particles and reveals differences in the transport histories of the two plumes. For a smoke case, the depolarization is inferred to be due to the presence of small coated soot aggregates. Interestingly, the depolarization at 355 nm is similar for this smoke case compared to the dust cases, having potential implications for the upcoming EarthCARE satellite, which will measure particle depolarization ratio only at 355 nm.

  14. Measurement of the Strange Spectral Function in Hadronic $\\tau$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija


    Tau Lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the OPAL detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the tau lepton. The decays tau- -> (Kpi)-nu tau, (Kpipi)-nu tau and (Kpipipi)-nu tau with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions have been studied. The invariant mass distributions of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including eta mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the tau lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B(tau- -> K-pi0nu tau) = (0.471+-0.059stat+-0.023sys)% and B(tau- -> K-pi+pi-nu tau) = (0.415+-0.053stat+-0.040sys)% ha...

  15. New Spectral Index for Detecting Wheat Yellow Rust Using Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imagery. (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Huang, Wenjiang; Cui, Ximin; Shi, Yue; Liu, Linyi


    Yellow rust is one of the most destructive diseases for winter wheat and has led to a significant decrease in winter wheat quality and yield. Identifying and monitoring yellow rust is of great importance for guiding agricultural production over large areas. Compared with traditional crop disease discrimination methods, remote sensing technology has proven to be a useful tool for accomplishing such a task at large scale. This study explores the potential of the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI), a newly launched satellite with refined spatial resolution and three red-edge bands, for discriminating between yellow rust infection severities (i.e., healthy, slight, and severe) in winter wheat. The corresponding simulative multispectral bands for the Sentinel-2 sensor were calculated by the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) function based on the in situ hyperspectral data acquired at the canopy level. Three Sentinel-2 spectral bands, including B4 (Red), B5 (Re1), and B7 (Re3), were found to be sensitive bands using the random forest (RF) method. A new multispectral index, the Red Edge Disease Stress Index (REDSI), which consists of these sensitive bands, was proposed to detect yellow rust infection at different severity levels. The overall identification accuracy for REDSI was 84.1% and the kappa coefficient was 0.76. Moreover, REDSI performed better than other commonly used disease spectral indexes for yellow rust discrimination at the canopy scale. The optimal threshold method was adopted for mapping yellow rust infection at regional scales based on realistic Sentinel-2 multispectral image data to further assess REDSI's ability for yellow rust detection. The overall accuracy was 85.2% and kappa coefficient was 0.67, which was found through validation against a set of field survey data. This study suggests that the Sentinel-2 MSI has the potential for yellow rust discrimination, and the newly proposed REDSI has great robustness and generalized ability

  16. 9C spectral-index distributions and source-count estimates from 15 to 93 GHz - a re-assessment (United States)

    Waldram, E. M.; Bolton, R. C.; Riley, J. M.; Pooley, G. G.


    In an earlier paper (2007), we used follow-up observations of a sample of sources from the 9C survey at 15.2 GHz to derive a set of spectral-index distributions up to a frequency of 90 GHz. These were based on simultaneous measurements made at 15.2 GHz with the Ryle telescope and at 22 and 43 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We used these distributions to make empirical estimates of source counts at 22, 30, 43, 70 and 90 GHz. In a later paper (2013), we took data at 15.7 GHz from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) and data at 93.2 GHz from the Combined Array for Research in Millimetre-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and estimated the source count at 93.2 GHz. In this paper, we re-examine the data used in both papers and now believe that the VLA flux densities we measured at 43 GHz were significantly in error, being on average only about 70 per cent of their correct values. Here, we present strong evidence for this conclusion and discuss the effect on the source-count estimates made in the 2007 paper. The source-count prediction in the 2013 paper is also revised. We make comparisons with spectral-index distributions and source counts from other telescopes, in particular with a recent deep 95 GHz source count measured by the South Pole Telescope. We investigate reasons for the problem of the low VLA 43-GHz values and find a number of possible contributory factors, but none is sufficient on its own to account for such a large deficit.

  17. Measurement of Spectral Functions of Ultracold Atoms in Disordered Potentials (United States)

    Volchkov, Valentin V.; Pasek, Michael; Denechaud, Vincent; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Aspect, Alain; Delande, Dominique; Josse, Vincent


    We report on the measurement of the spectral functions of noninteracting ultracold atoms in a three-dimensional disordered potential resulting from an optical speckle field. Varying the disorder strength by 2 orders of magnitude, we observe the crossover from the "quantum" perturbative regime of low disorder to the "classical" regime at higher disorder strength, and find an excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The method relies on the use of state-dependent disorder and the controlled transfer of atoms to create well-defined energy states. This opens new avenues for experimental investigations of three-dimensional Anderson localization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alumuku


    Full Text Available In 102 conditionally healthy volunteers aged from 19 to 30 years (average age is 19,53 ± 11 years the volatility of heart rate variability (HRV spectral parameters depending on body mass index (BMI were evaluated. According to WHO recommendations on the calculation and interpretation of BMI were such groups of volunteers: underweight, normal body weight, overweight, obesity I degree, obesity II degree, obesity III degree. Among HRV parameters were evaluated total power (TP, ms2, power of very low frequency (VLF, ms2, low frequency (LF, ms2 and high frequency (HF, ms2 domains of HRV spectrum in the 5-minute intervals of ECG in I standard lead. The data were processed by methods of nonparametric statistics. It was established that spectral characteristics of HRV in volunteers with normal BMI have a high TP with harmonious relations between VLF, LF and HF domains; decreased or increased BMI provokes TP reduction by decreasing power of all domains of HRV (VLF, LF, HF with a predominance of VLF proportion and this effect increases with the degree of deviation of the parameter.

  19. Estimates of leaf area index from spectral reflectance of wheat under different cultural practices and solar angle (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Yoshida, M.


    The influence of management practices and solar illumination angle on the leaf area index (LAI) was estimated from measurements of wheat canopy reflectance evaluated by two methods, a regression formula and an indirect technique. The date of planting and the time of irrigation in relation to the stage of plant growth were found to have significant effects on the development of leaves in spring wheat. A reduction in soil moisture adversely affected both the duration and magnitude of the maximum LAI for late planting dates. In general, water stress during vegetative stages resulted in a reduction in maximum LAI, while water stress during the reproductive period shortened the duration of green LAI in spring wheat. Canopy geometry and solar angle also affected the spectral properties of the canopies, and hence the estimated LAI. Increase in solar zenith angles resulted in a general increase in estimated LAI obtained from both methods.

  20. [A novel spectral classifier based on coherence measure]. (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ru; Wu, Fu-chao; Hu, Zhan-yi; Luo, A-li


    Classification and discovery of new types of celestial bodies from voluminous celestial spectra are two important issues in astronomy, and these two issues are treated separately in the literature to our knowledge. In the present paper, a novel coherence measure is introduced which can effectively measure the coherence of a new spectrum of unknown type with the training sampleslocated within its neighbourhood, then a novel classifier is designed based on this coherence measure. The proposed classifier is capable of carrying out spectral classification and knowledge discovery simultaneously. In particular, it can effectively deal with the situation where different types of training spectra exist within the neighbourhood of a new spectrum, and the traditional k-nearest neighbour method usually fails to reach a correct classification. The satisfactory performance for classification and knowledge discovery has been obtained by the proposed novel classifier over active galactic nucleus (AGNs) and active galaxies (AGs) data.

  1. X-ray Spectral Measurements of a Dense Plasma Focus (United States)

    Whitlock, Robert R.; Dozier, Charles M.; Newman, Daniel A.; Petr, Rodney A.; Freshman, Jay; Hoey, David W.; Heaton, John


    Absolute intensities of spectra in a dense-plasma-focus (DPF) source have been recorded and analyzed. This DPF source has been identified as one of the more promising sources for X-ray lithography. The source, developed by Science Research Laboratory, Inc., is currently undergoing testing and further development at BAE Systems, Inc. The DPF operates at 60 Hz and produces an average output pulse of ~5 J of X rays into 4π steradians in a continuous operation mode. In all runs, there was an initial number of pulses, typically between 30 to 40, during which the X-ray output increased and the DPF appeared to be undergoing a conditioning process, and after which a "steady-state" mode was achieved where the average X-ray power was relatively constant. Each spectral run was exposed to ~600 J of output, as measured by the PIN. The X-ray spectral region between 0.8 and 3 keV was recorded on Kodak DEF film in a potassium acid phthalate (KAP) convex curved-crystal spectrograph. The source emits neon line radiation from Ne IX and Ne X ionization stages in the 900 to 1300 eV region, suitable for lithographic exposures of photoresist. Two helium-like neon lines contribute more than 50% of the total energy. From continuum shape, plasma temperatures were found to be approximately 170-200 eV. The absolute, integrated spectral outputs were verified to within 30% by comparison with measurements by a PIN detector and a radiachromic X-ray dosimeter.

  2. Gender differences in autonomic cardiovascular regulation: spectral, hormonal, and hemodynamic indexes (United States)

    Evans, J. M.; Ziegler, M. G.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Ott, J. B.; Kim, C. S.; Leonelli, F. M.; Knapp, C. F.


    The autonomic nervous system drives variability in heart rate, vascular tone, cardiac ejection, and arterial pressure, but gender differences in autonomic regulation of the latter three parameters are not well documented. In addition to mean values, we used spectral analysis to calculate variability in arterial pressure, heart rate (R-R interval, RRI), stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and measured circulating levels of catecholamines and pancreatic polypeptide in two groups of 25 +/- 1.2-yr-old, healthy men and healthy follicular-phase women (40 total subjects, 10 men and 10 women per group). Group 1 subjects were studied supine, before and after beta- and muscarinic autonomic blockades, administered singly and together on separate days of study. Group 2 subjects were studied supine and drug free with the additional measurement of skin perfusion. In the unblocked state, we found that circulating levels of epinephrine and total spectral power of stroke volume, TPR, and skin perfusion ranged from two to six times greater in men than in women. The difference (men > women) in spectral power of TPR was maintained after beta- and muscarinic blockades, suggesting that the greater oscillations of vascular resistance in men may be alpha-adrenergically mediated. Men exhibited muscarinic buffering of mean TPR whereas women exhibited beta-adrenergic buffering of mean TPR as well as TPR and heart rate oscillations. Women had a greater distribution of RRI power in the breathing frequency range and a less negative slope of ln RRI power vs. ln frequency, both indicators that parasympathetic stimuli were the dominant influence on women's heart rate variability. The results of our study suggest a predominance of sympathetic vascular regulation in men compared with a dominant parasympathetic influence on heart rate regulation in women.

  3. In Situ Measurement of the Infrared Spectral Extinction for Various Chemical, Biological, and Background Aerosols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurton, Kristan


    We conducted a series spectral extinction measurements on a variety of aerosolized chemical and biological simulants over the spectral range 3-13 microns using conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR...

  4. Innovative Mobile Smart Photonic Dimensional, Color and Spectral Measurement Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Dietrich; Dittrich, Paul-Gerald; Höfner, Dieter; Kraus, Daniel


    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in dimensional, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology/medicine, farming/environmental protection and security, as well as in education and training: Measurement engineering and quality assurance become mobile, modular and smart. Smartpads, smartphones and smartwatches (smartcomps) in combination with innovative hardware apps (hwapps) and conventional software apps (swapps) are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places towards innovative mobile working places with in-field measurements and point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Furthermore mobile open online courses (MOOCs) are transforming the study habits. Practical examples for the application of innovative photonic micro dimensiometers, colorimeters and spectrometers will be given. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science, engineering, applications, education and training. These innovative working conditions will be fast accepted due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. A highly visible advantage of smartcomps is the huge number of their real distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services, the standardized interfaces like USB and HDMI and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations, obtained with their private smartcomps

  5. Innovative Mobile Smart Photonic Dimensional, Color and Spectral Measurement Engineering (United States)

    Hofmann, Dr Dietrich, Prof; Dittrich (B. Eng. , Paul-Gerald; Höfner (B. Eng. , Dieter; Kraus, Daniel


    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in dimensional, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology/medicine, farming/environmental protection and security, as well as in education and training: Measurement engineering and quality assurance become mobile, modular and smart. Smartpads, smartphones and smartwatches (smartcomps) in combination with innovative hardware apps (hwapps) and conventional software apps (swapps) are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places towards innovative mobile working places with in-field measurements and point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Furthermore mobile open online courses (MOOCs) are transforming the study habits. Practical examples for the application of innovative photonic micro dimensiometers, colorimeters and spectrometers will be given. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science, engineering, applications, education and training. These innovative working conditions will be fast accepted due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. A highly visible advantage of smartcomps is the huge number of their real distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services, the standardized interfaces like USB and HDMI and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations, obtained with their private smartcomps.

  6. Retrieving vertical ozone profiles from measurements of global spectral irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernhard


    Full Text Available A new method is presented to determine vertical ozone profiles from measurements of spectral global (direct Sun plus upper hemisphere irradiance in the ultraviolet. The method is similar to the widely used Umkehr technique, which inverts measurements of zenith sky radiance. The procedure was applied to measurements of a high-resolution spectroradiometer installed near the centre of the Greenland ice sheet. Retrieved profiles were validated with balloon-sonde observations and ozone profiles from the space-borne Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. Depending on altitude, the bias between retrieval results presented in this paper and MLS observations ranges between −5 and +3 %. The magnitude of this bias is comparable, if not smaller, to values reported in the literature for the standard Dobson Umkehr method. Total ozone columns (TOCs calculated from the retrieved profiles agree to within 0.7±2.0 % (±1σ with TOCs measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on board the Aura satellite. The new method is called the Global-Umkehr method.

  7. An examination of variations in the cepstral spectral index of dysphonia across a single breath group in connected speech. (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Awan, Shaheen N


    The purpose of this study was to use spectral and cepstral analyses of speech to investigate whether underlying physiological changes in voice result in changes in acoustic estimates of dysphonia severity in continuous speech contexts within a single breath group. The effect of dysphonia on acoustic estimates of dysphonia severity, frequency, relative intensity, and vocalization time across initial and terminal segments of a single breath group using a common clinical stimulus was investigated. Prospective quasi-experimental controlled design. Digitized recordings of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice sentence "We were away a year ago" were obtained from 20 treatment-seeking dysphonic individuals (females, mean age = 39 years) and 20 normal controls (females, mean age = 39 years). Each recorded sample was separated into the first four syllables ("We were away … ") and second four syllables ("…a year ago.") of the breath group. Cepstral and spectral measures, intensity measures, and temporal analyses were obtained and used in calculations of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID, an acoustic estimate of dysphonia severity), fundamental frequency (F0), vocalization time, and relative vocal intensity (dB SLP). Statistical analyses were applied to calculations of change (delta [Δ]) in these measures from one breath group segment to the next. Results revealed a significant effect of group on measures of CSID and F0, but not relative intensity or vocalization time. Dysphonic speakers exhibited a significant increase in the CSID from the first to second breath group segment and limited variation in F0 compared with controls. These results may support the hypothesis that voice impairment increases in severity toward the termination of a breath group even within a short temporal frame (i.e., 2 seconds or less of connected speech), and that this portion of the breath group may be an important determinant of perceptual impressions. Further

  8. Array-based goniospectroradiometer for measurement of spectral radiant intensity and spectral total flux of light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Michael; Goodman, Teresa


    We present a description of a new goniospectroradiometric measurement system developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The instrument incorporates a modified array spectrometer and a series of rotary stages to allow measurement of the spectral radiant intensity distribution of a variety of different types of light source from 350 to 830 nm. Associated source properties such as chromaticity and correlated color temperature distributions and total spectral flux are then calculated from the radiant intensity data. A preliminary comparison with NPL's integrating sphere-based luminous flux scale shows agreement to within 0.4%, well within the combined measurement uncertainty. Measurements of the luminous intensity and color temperature distributions and the spectral total flux of a tungsten filament flux standard, a white LED cluster and a compact fluorescent source made using the goniospectroradiometer, are also presented

  9. A New Measurement of the Spectral Lag of Gamma-Ray Bursts and its Implications for Spectral Evolution Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lang; Wang, Fu-Ri; Cheng, Ye-Hao; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Bang-Yao; Xi, Bao-Jia; Wang, Xue; Feng, Huan-Xue; Zhang, Meng, E-mail: [Department of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Wu, Xue-Feng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Dong [Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    We carry out a systematical study of the spectral lag properties of 50 single-pulsed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor. By dividing the light curves into multiple consecutive energy channels, we provide a new measurement of the spectral lag that is independent of energy channel selections. We perform a detailed statistical study of our new measurements. We find two similar power-law energy dependencies of both the pulse arrival time and pulse width. Our new results on the power-law indices would favor the relativistic geometric effects for the origin of spectral lag. However, a complete theoretical framework that can fully account for the diverse energy dependencies of both arrival time and pulse width revealed in this work is still lacking. We also study the spectral evolution behaviors of the GRB pulses. We find that a GRB pulse with negligible spectral lag would usually have a shorter pulse duration and would appear to have a “hardness-intensity tracking” behavior, and a GRB pulse with a significant spectral lag would usually have a longer pulse duration and would appear to have a “hard-to-soft” behavior.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Nutaro, T.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Asavapibhop, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Munakata, K., E-mail: [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)


    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007–2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  11. A radio spectral index map and catalogue at 147-1400 MHz covering 80 per cent of the sky (United States)

    de Gasperin, F.; Intema, H. T.; Frail, D. A.


    The radio spectral index is a powerful probe for classifying cosmic radio sources and understanding the origin of the radio emission. Combining data at 147 MHz and 1.4 GHz from the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), we produced a large-area radio spectral index map of ˜80 per cent of the sky (Dec. > - 40 deg), as well as a radio spectral index catalogue containing 1396 515 sources, of which 503 647 are not upper or lower limits. Almost every TGSS source has a detected counterpart, while this is true only for 36 per cent of NVSS sources. We released both the map and the catalogue to the astronomical community. The catalogue is analysed to discover systematic behaviours in the cosmic radio population. We find a differential spectral behaviour between faint and bright sources as well as between compact and extended sources. These trends are explained in terms of radio galaxy evolution. We also confirm earlier reports of an excess of steep-spectrum sources along the galactic plane. This corresponds to 86 compact and steep-spectrum source in excess compared to expectations. The properties of this excess are consistent with normal non-recycled pulsars, which may have been missed by pulsation searches due to larger than average scattering along the line of sight.

  12. Discrete Spectral Local Measurement Method for Testing Solar Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifu Zhao


    Full Text Available In order to compensate for the inconvenience and instability of outdoor photovoltaic concentration test system which are caused by the weather changes, we design an indoor concentration test system with a large caliber and a high parallelism, and then verify its feasibility and scientificity. Furthermore, we propose a new concentration test method: the discrete spectral local measurement method. A two-stage Fresnel concentration system is selected as the test object. The indoor and the outdoor concentration experiments are compared. The results show that the outdoor concentration efficiency of the two-stage Fresnel concentration system is 85.56%, while the indoor is 85.45%. The two experimental results are so close that we can verify the scientificity and feasibility of the indoor concentration test system. The light divergence angle of the indoor concentration test system is 0.267° which also matches with sunlight divergence angle. The indoor concentration test system with large diameter (145 mm, simple structure, and low cost will have broad applications in solar concentration field.

  13. Interferometric measurement of refractive index modification in a single mode microfiber (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Ahsani, Vahid; Jun, Martin B. G.


    Efficient and cost effective measurement of the refractive index profile in an optical fiber is a significant technical job to design and manufacture in-fiber photonic devices and communication systems. For instance, to design fiber gratings, it is required to estimate the refractive index modulation to be inscribed by the fabrication apparatus such as ultraviolet or infrared lasers. Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based quantification of refractive index change written in single mode microfiber by femtosecond laser radiation is presented in this study. The MZI is constructed by splicing a microfiber (core diameter: 3.75 μm, cladding diameter: 40 μm) between standard single mode fibers. To measure the RI inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser, 200 μm length of the core within the MZI was scanned with laser radiation. As the higher index was written within 200 μm length of the core, the transmission spectrum of the interferometer displayed a corresponding red shift. The observed spectral shift was used to calculate the amount of refractive index change inscribed by the femtosecond irradiation. For the MZI length of 3.25 mm, and spectral shift of 0.8 nm, the calculated refractive index was found to be 0.00022. The reported results display excellent agreement between theory and experimental findings. Demonstrated method provides simple yet very effective on-site measurement of index change in optical fibers. Since the MZI can be constructed in diverse fiber types, this technique offers flexibility to quantify index change in various optical fibers.

  14. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.


    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  15. The FIR-Radio Correlation in Rapidly Star-Forming Galaxies: The Spectral Index Problem and Proton Calorimetry (United States)

    Thompson, Todd A.; Lacki, Brian C.

    We review the physics of the FIR-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies, focusing on "electron calorimetry" as an explanation. We emphasize the importance of the "spectral index problem"—that galaxies have flatter GHz synchrotron spectra than predicted in the strong-cooling calorimeter limit. We argue that these shallow spectra require significant bremsstrahlung and/or ionization losses for the primary and secondary CR electron/positron populations. This then implies that CR protons suffer strong pionic losses before escape in dense starburst galaxies ("proton calorimetry"), and that these systems should be gamma-ray bright, forming a FIR-gamma-ray correlation. Implications for the diffuse non-thermal cosmic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds are mentioned. Caveats and uncertainties, as well as other solutions to the "spectral index problem" such as rapid advection of CRs in starburst superwinds, are highlighted.

  16. Spectral measurements of runway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudyakov, Timur


    The generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons is a well known effect related to the plasma disruptions in tokamaks. The runaway electrons can substantially reduce the lifetime of the future tokamak ITER. In this thesis physical properties of runaway electrons and their possible negative effects on ITER have been studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. A new diagnostic, a scanning probe, has been developed to provide direct measurements of the absolute number of runaway electrons coming from the plasma, its energy distribution and the related energy load in the material during low density (runaway) discharges and during disruptions. The basic elements of the probe are YSO crystals which transform the energy of runaway electrons into visible light which is guided via optical fibres to photomultipliers. In order to obtain the energy distribution of runaways, the crystals are covered with layers of stainless steel (or tungsten in two earlier test versions) of different thicknesses. The final probe design has 9 crystals and can temporally and spectrally resolve electrons with energies between 4 MeV and 30 MeV. The probe is tested and absolutely calibrated at the linear electron accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. The runaway transport in the presence of the internal and externally applied magnetic perturbations has been studied. The diffusion coefficient and the value of the magnetic fluctuation for runaways were derived as a function of B t . It was found that an increase of runaway losses from the plasma with the decreasing toroidal magnetic field is accompanied with a growth of the magnetic fluctuation in the plasma. The magnetic shielding picture could be confirmed which predicts that the runaway loss occurs predominantly for low energy runaways (few MeV) and considerably less for the high energy ones. In the case of the externally applied magnetic perturbations by means of the dynamic

  17. Spectral measurements of runway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudyakov, Timur


    The generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons is a well known effect related to the plasma disruptions in tokamaks. The runaway electrons can substantially reduce the lifetime of the future tokamak ITER. In this thesis physical properties of runaway electrons and their possible negative effects on ITER have been studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. A new diagnostic, a scanning probe, has been developed to provide direct measurements of the absolute number of runaway electrons coming from the plasma, its energy distribution and the related energy load in the material during low density (runaway) discharges and during disruptions. The basic elements of the probe are YSO crystals which transform the energy of runaway electrons into visible light which is guided via optical fibres to photomultipliers. In order to obtain the energy distribution of runaways, the crystals are covered with layers of stainless steel (or tungsten in two earlier test versions) of different thicknesses. The final probe design has 9 crystals and can temporally and spectrally resolve electrons with energies between 4 MeV and 30 MeV. The probe is tested and absolutely calibrated at the linear electron accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. The runaway transport in the presence of the internal and externally applied magnetic perturbations has been studied. The diffusion coefficient and the value of the magnetic fluctuation for runaways were derived as a function of B{sub t}. It was found that an increase of runaway losses from the plasma with the decreasing toroidal magnetic field is accompanied with a growth of the magnetic fluctuation in the plasma. The magnetic shielding picture could be confirmed which predicts that the runaway loss occurs predominantly for low energy runaways (few MeV) and considerably less for the high energy ones. In the case of the externally applied magnetic perturbations by means of the dynamic

  18. Transportation Services Index An Economic Index Measuring Output in the For-Hire Transportation Sector. (United States)


    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) is a leader in the collection, analysis, and dissemination of transportation data. The Transportation Services Index (TSI) measures the seasonally adjusted movement of freight traffic and passenger travel...

  19. Measurement of Refractive Index Using a Michelson Interferometer. (United States)

    Fendley, J. J.


    Describes a novel and simple method of measuring the refractive index of transparent plates using a Michelson interferometer. Since it is necessary to use a computer program when determining the refractive index, undergraduates could be given the opportunity of writing their own programs. (Author/JN)

  20. An absolute index (Ab-index to measure a researcher's useful contributions and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Kumar Biswal

    Full Text Available Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author's scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index, has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index, which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute.

  1. Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio based on spectral vegetation indexes in high-latitude Arctic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, A.; Hansen, B.U.


    The vegetation communities in the Arctic environment are very sensitive to even minor climatic variations and therefore the estimation of surface energy fluxes from high-latitude vegetated areas is an important subject to be pursued. This study was carried out in July-August and used micro meteorological data, spectral reflectance signatures, and vegetation biomass to establish the relation between the soil heat flux/net radiation (G / Rn) ratio and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Continuous measurements of soil temperature and soil heat flux were used to calculate the surface ground heat flux by use of conventional methods, and the relation to surface temperature was investigated. Twenty-seven locations were established, and six samples per location, including the measurement of the surface temperature and net radiation to establish the G/Rn ratio and simultaneous spectral reflectance signatures and wet biomass estimates, were registered. To obtain regional reliability, the locations were chosen in order to represent the different Arctic vegetation communities in the study area; ranging from dry tundra vegetation communities (fell fields and dry dwarf scrubs) to moist/wet tundra vegetation communities (snowbeds, grasslands and fens). Spectral vegetation indices, including the simple ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were calculated. A comparison of SVIs to biomass proved that RVI gave the best linear expression, and NDVI the best exponential expression. A comparison of SVIs and the surface energy flux ratio G / Rn proved that NDVI gave the best linear expression. SPOT HRV images from July 1989 and 1992 were used to map NDVI and G / Rn at a regional scale. (author)

  2. Cloud phase identification of Arctic boundary-layer clouds from airborne spectral reflection measurements: test of three approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich


    Full Text Available Arctic boundary-layer clouds were investigated with remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR campaign in March and April 2007. The clouds formed in a cold air outbreak over the open Greenland Sea. Beside the predominant mixed-phase clouds pure liquid water and ice clouds were observed. Utilizing measurements of solar radiation reflected by the clouds three methods to retrieve the thermodynamic phase of the cloud are introduced and compared. Two ice indices IS and IP were obtained by analyzing the spectral pattern of the cloud top reflectance in the near infrared (1500–1800 nm wavelength spectral range which is characterized by ice and water absorption. While IS analyzes the spectral slope of the reflectance in this wavelength range, IS utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA of the spectral reflectance. A third ice index IA is based on the different side scattering of spherical liquid water particles and nonspherical ice crystals which was recorded in simultaneous measurements of spectral cloud albedo and reflectance.

    Radiative transfer simulations show that IS, IP and IA range between 5 to 80, 0 to 8 and 1 to 1.25 respectively with lowest values indicating pure liquid water clouds and highest values pure ice clouds. The spectral slope ice index IS and the PCA ice index IP are found to be strongly sensitive to the effective diameter of the ice crystals present in the cloud. Therefore, the identification of mixed-phase clouds requires a priori knowledge of the ice crystal dimension. The reflectance-albedo ice index IA is mainly dominated by the uppermost cloud layer (τ<1.5. Therefore, typical boundary-layer mixed-phase clouds with a liquid cloud top layer will

  3. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)


    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  4. Spectral measurements of underwater downwelling radiance of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Potes


    Full Text Available The apparatus exploited in this work is composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR that records the spectral downwelling radiance in underwater environment, allowing us to calculate the shortwave attenuation coefficient in water. Results for three inland water bodies are presented under different atmospheric conditions (sun zenith angle and wind speed and water composition (chlorophyll α concentration and turbidity. We show that the spectral downwelling zenith radiance profiles under high sun elevations present a positive slope in the upper layers due to relatively high scattering of direct sunlight compared to attenuation. For deeper layers, attenuation overcomes the scattering of sunlight leading to a constant negative logarithmic slope. For low sun elevations, a negative slope is observed in the entire water column since the scattering of direct sunlight is always lower than attenuation. Whenever a negative logarithmic constant slope is observed, the attenuation coefficient was computed. A relation was observed between attenuation coefficient in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR spectral region and water turbidity, for the three water bodies under study.

  5. The dynamic of poverty measurement indexes, from HDI to MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Nanaj


    Full Text Available This study is focused on the dynamic poverty measurement from Human Development Index (HDI to Multi Dimensional Poverty (MPI, as poverty indicators from Sen to Foster-Alkire indexes. The HDI takes into consideration three dimensions and four indexes, the MPI goes further. The dimensions and indicators exceed the limits of classical measurements of poverty, creates the possibilities of measuring and comparing multidimensional poverty. Multidimensional Poverty Index helps to analyze the spectrum of poverty, understanding of sustainable development emergency, as well as it is a great help for reading poverty phenomenon on a three dimensional aspect and under the sub-meaning of 10 different indicators. MPI calculation off ers further comparative analyses of MPI Albania and Eastern Balkan countries. Comprehensive indexes are generated and applied, but doesn’t mean their conclusions are translated (converted into comprehensive policies as well. The data and the indicators for poverty measurement in Albania are not frequently generated and calculated due to LSMS missing a> er 2012. So there is a big gap in poverty reports. Finally, we argue how the measures chosen to use in poverty measurement of course can lead or mislead towards the process of policy making due to the great practical relevance of measurement methodologies.

  6. Comparison of Two Indexes of Measurement of Xenophobia in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to compare two indexes or measures of xenophobia through a replication study. Both indexes developed by Diez Nicolas and Cea d'Ancona have been applied to a telephone survey questionnaire for residents of Andalusian municipalities having a high density of non-EU foreigners. After a descriptive, correlational and explanatory analysis of the results, the main conclusion suggests that both indices are quite similar, although based on different evaluative, theoretical and methodological principles. Therefore, the selection of either index depends on the parsimony or simplicity principle.

  7. Intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements and provision of alternative radiation scheme for CCMs of middle atmosphere (United States)

    Pagaran, Joseph; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    The Sun's radiative output (total solar irradiance or TSI) determines the thermal structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Its variability is a strong function of wavelength, which drives the photochemistry and general circulation. Contributions to TSI variability from UV wavelengths below 400 nm, i.e. 0.227-day solar rotation or 0.1to be in the 40-60three decades of UV and about a decade of vis-IR observations. Significant progress in UV/vis-IR regions has been achieved with daily monitoring from SCIAMACHY aboard Envisat (ESA) in 2002 and by SIM aboard SORCE (NASA) about a year after. In this contribution, we intercompare SSI measurements from SCIAMACHY and SIM and RGB filters of SPM/VIRGO SoHO: same (a) day and (b) few 27-day time series of spectral measurements in both irradiance and integrated irradiance over selected wavelength intervals. Finally, we show how SSI measurements from GOME, SOLSTICE, in addition to SCIAMACHY and SIM, can be modeled together with solar proxies F10.7 cm, Mg II and sunspot index (PSI) to derive daily SSI variability in the period 1947-2008. The derived variabilities are currently being used as solar input to Bremen's 3D-CTM and are to be recommended as extended alternative to Berlin's FUBRaD radiation scheme. This proxy-based radiation scheme are compared with SATIRE, NRLSSI (or Lean et al.), SUSIM, SSAI (or DeLand et al), and SIP (or Solar2000) models. The use of realistic spectrally resolved solar input to CCMs is to better understand the effects of solar variability on chemistry and temperature in the middle atmosphere over several decades.

  8. Selection/extraction of spectral regions for autofluorescence spectra measured in the oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skurichina, M; Paclik, P; Duin, RPW; de Veld, D; Sterenborg, HJCM; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN; Fred, A; Caelli, T; Duin, RPW; Campilho, A; DeRidder, D


    Recently a number of successful algorithms to select/extract discriminative spectral regions was introduced. These methods may be more beneficial than the standard feature selection/extraction methods for spectral classification. In this paper, on the example of autofluorescence spectra measured in

  9. Spectral evolution of energetic neutral atom emissions at the heliospheric poles as measured by IBEX during its first three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M. I.; Ebert, R. W.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); DeMajistre, R. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Janzen, P.; Reisenfeld, D. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Siewert, M., E-mail: [Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Abteilung f. Astrophysik und Extraterrestrische Forschung, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission continues to measure energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions produced by charge exchange between solar wind (SW) protons and interstellar neutrals at the edge of our heliosphere. Using the first 3 yr of IBEX-Hi ENA measurements (2009-2011), we examined the spectral evolution of ∼0.5-6 keV ENAs at the polar regions (above 60°). We found the following: (1) pixels with a characteristic 'ankle' spectra (lower spectral index at higher energies) increase by ∼5% in 2010 and ∼10% in 2011 compared to 2009. (2) The averaged spectral index in 2011 is smaller than that of 2009. (3) The slope of the ENA spectrum above ∼1.7 keV is more variable than the slope below ∼1.7 keV. The lower spectral index at higher energies of the spectrum does not appear to be caused by an increase of the ENA production at these energies, but rather from a consistent decrease at lower energies. (4) The decrease in polar ENA fluxes does not correlate significantly with the averaged SW dynamic pressure, back-traced in time to 1 AU along the flow streamlines (originating between 10° and 30° for slow SW, and 60° and 80° for fast SW), assuming these are the respective conditions of ENA progenitors back in time. These results provide insights into the complexity of relating the slow and fast SW contributions to polar ENAs and shed light on how the solar output and the resulting change in the global heliospheric structure possibly affect the heliosheath (HS) populations.

  10. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan


    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  11. Potential of optical spectral transmission measurements for joint inflammation measurements in rheumatoid arthritis patients (United States)

    Meier, A. J. Louise; Rensen, Wouter H. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; de Nijs, Ron N. J.


    Frequent monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients enables timely treatment adjustments and improved outcomes. Currently this is not feasible due to a shortage of rheumatologists. An optical spectral transmission device is presented for objective assessment of joint inflammation in RA patients, while improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical workflow. A cross-sectional, nonrandomized observational study was performed with this device. In the study, 77 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 67 patients have been analyzed. Inflammation of these PIP joints was also assessed by a rheumatologist with a score varying from 1 (not inflamed) to 5 (severely inflamed). Out of 77 measurements, 27 were performed in moderate to strongly inflamed PIP joints. Comparison between the clinical assessment and an optical measurement showed a correlation coefficient r=0.63, p<0.001, 95% CI [0.47, 0.75], and a ROC curve (AUC=0.88) that shows a relative good specificity and sensitivity. Optical spectral transmission measurements in a single joint correlate with clinical assessment of joint inflammation, and therefore might be useful in monitoring joint inflammation in RA patients.

  12. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and γ-ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible corre- lation between different broad band spectral indices (αr.o, αr.x, αir.o, αir.x, αo.γ , αx.γ ) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we sug- gested that the seed photons ...

  13. Spectral irradiance measurement and actinic radiometer calibration for UV water disinfection (United States)

    Sperfeld, Peter; Barton, Bettina; Pape, Sven; Towara, Anna-Lena; Eggers, Jutta; Hopfenmüller, Gabriel


    In a joint project, sglux and PTB investigated and developed methods and equipment to measure the spectral and weighted irradiance of high-efficiency UV-C emitters used in water disinfection plants. A calibration facility was set up to calibrate the microbicidal irradiance responsivity of actinic radiometers with respect to the weighted spectral irradiance of specially selected low-pressure mercury and medium-pressure mercury UV lamps. To verify the calibration method and to perform on-site tests, spectral measurements were carried out directly at water disinfection plants in operation. The weighted microbicidal irradiance of the plants was calculated and compared to the measurements of various actinic radiometers.

  14. Remote spectral measurements of the blood volume pulse with applications for imaging photoplethysmography (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; McDuff, Daniel J.


    Imaging photoplethysmography uses camera image sensors to measure variations in light absorption related to the delivery of the blood volume pulse to peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the measured BVP waveform depends on the spectral absorption of various tissue components including melanin, hemoglobin, water, and yellow pigments. Signal quality and artifact rejection can be enhanced by taking into account the spectral properties of the BVP waveform and surrounding tissue. The current literature regarding the spectral relationships of remote PPG is limited. To supplement this fundamental data, we present an analysis of remotely-measured, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to better understand the spectral signature of remotely measured BVP signals. To do so, spectra were measured from the right cheek of 25, stationary participants whose heads were stabilized by a chinrest. A collimating lens was used to collect reflected light from a region of 3 cm in diameter. The spectrometer provided 3 nm resolution measurements from 500-1000 nm. Measurements were acquired at a rate of 50 complete spectra per second for a period of five minutes. Reference physiology, including electrocardiography was simultaneously and synchronously acquired. The spectral data were analyzed to determine the relationship between light wavelength and the resulting remote-BVP signal-to-noise ratio and to identify those bands best suited for pulse rate measurement. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive dataset of remotely-measured spectral iPPG data. In due course, we plan to release this dataset for research purposes.

  15. A combined sustainability index for electricity efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldrath, T.; Ayalon, O.; Shechter, M.


    One of the most substantial tools that serve decision makers in their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions includes energy efficiency measures that in most cases benefit from governmental assistance for achieving electricity consumption reduction goals. This paper examines five energy efficiency measures, defining a combined sustainability index. A multi-criteria analysis of five predefined indices was developed (economic, environmental, technology, social and political), providing a combined index for each measure and a tool for identifying the preferred measure within a specific situation, based on its total sustainability score. In this research, a case study was conducted and the preferred measure was found to be municipal street lighting systems, based on its high political and social scores, and its relatively high installation potential. The second choice would be replacement of chillers in the industrial sector, and the least favorable measure is the replacement of water pumps in the water sector. The methodology described brings into account the technological specifications of the measure implemented, and the specific national conditions under which it is implemented. - Highlights: • A MCDA of five indices was developed to define a combined sustainability index. • Criteria defined were environment, technology, economy, social and political. • Five energy efficiency measures were rated, based on their total sustainability score. • Measures were in five main electricity consumption sectors. • The preferred measure found in the case study was municipal street lighting systems.

  16. Spectral measurements from laser-produced plasma in OMEGA (United States)

    Burkhalter, P. G.; Newman, D. A.; Rosen, D. L.; Hudson, K.; Richardson, M.; Audebert, P.


    Curved- and flat-diffraction crystal spectrographs were developed to collect x-ray spectra from high-atomic-number elements (cadmium-rare earths) in the 5-17-Å region. The plasma source was generated by the 24-beam, frequency-tripled light of the OMEGA laser system. The spectral patterns were identified with the aid of atomic structure calculations and from Moseley plots of isoelectronic sequences. The Ne-like (third-order diffraction) and Na-like ionization stages were observed in the Cd and Sn spectra. The rare-earth spectra were predominantly 3d-4p, 4f transitions over a range of ionization stages involving the M shell. Calibration spectra were obtained with L-series transitions from Fe and Cu targets and K lines from Si plasma excited in the glass supporting stalk.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Asghar


    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate the rate of inflation in Pakistan through stochastic approach to index numbers which provides not only point estimate but also confidence interval for the rate of inflation. There are two types of approaches to index number theory namely: the functional economic approaches and the stochastic approach. The attraction of stochastic approach is that it estimates the rate of inflation in which uncertainty and statistical ideas play a major roll of screening index numbers. We have used extended stochastic approach to index numbers for measuring inflation by allowing for the systematic changes in the relative prices. We use CPI data covering the period July 2001--March 2008 for Pakistan.

  18. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jose C.N. de; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Costa, Cesar A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example. (orig.)

  19. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status (United States)

    Jongschaap, Raymond E. E.; Booij, Remmie


    Chlorophyll contents in vegetation depend on soil nitrogen availability and on crop nitrogen uptake, which are important management factors in arable farming. Crop nitrogen uptake is important, as nitrogen is needed for chlorophyll formation, which is important for photosynthesis, i.e. the conversion of absorbed radiance into plant biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate leaf and canopy nitrogen contents by near and remote sensing observations and to link observations at leaf, plant and canopy level. A theoretical base is presented for scaling-up leaf optical properties to whole plants and crops, by linking different optical recording techniques at leaf, plant and canopy levels through the integration of vertical nitrogen distribution. Field data come from potato experiments in The Netherlands in 1997 and 1998, comprising two potato varieties: Eersteling and Bintje, receiving similar nitrogen treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha -1) in varying application schemes to create differences in canopy nitrogen status during the growing season. Ten standard destructive field samplings were performed to follow leaf area index and crop dry weight evolution. Samples were analysed for inorganic nitrogen and total nitrogen contents. At sampling dates, spectral measurements were taken both at leaf level and at canopy level. At leaf level, an exponential relation between SPAD-502 readings and leaf organic nitrogen contents with a high correlation factor of 0.91 was found. At canopy level, an exponential relation between canopy organic nitrogen contents and red edge position ( λrep, nm) derived from reflectance measurements was found with a good correlation of 0.82. Spectral measurements (SPAD-502) at leaf level of a few square mm were related to canopy reflectance measurements (CropScan™) of approximately 0.44 m 2. Statistical regression techniques were used to optimise theoretical vertical nitrogen profiles that allowed scaling-up leaf chlorophyll measurements

  20. Improved hadronic measurements and spectral sums on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christian


    the order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition is the Polyakov loop. The order parameter for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is given by the chiral condensate, which is related to the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. It has been shown that also the Polyakov loop can be expressed in terms of these eigenvalues, as a spectral sum. In a first step we perform a numerical study of these sums. We find that the ordinary Polyakov loop is governed by the ultraviolet modes of the Dirac operator. Therefore, in a second step we define a new order parameter for confinement, the ''dressed Polyakov loop''. This quantity has two advantages: It can be expressed as a spectral sum which has a better convergence behavior (infrared dominated) and it is closely related to the quark condensate via a Fourier transformation. Also the spectral sums for the dressed Polyakov loop are investigated numerically. (orig.)

  1. Advanced characterisation of aerosol size properties from measurements of spectral optical depth using the GRASP algorithm (United States)

    Torres, Benjamin; Dubovik, Oleg; Fuertes, David; Schuster, Gregory; Cachorro, Victoria Eugenia; Lapyonok, Tatsiana; Goloub, Philippe; Blarel, Luc; Barreto, Africa; Mallet, Marc; Toledano, Carlos; Tanré, Didier


    This study evaluates the potential of using aerosol optical depth (τa) measurements to characterise the microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. With this aim, we used the recently developed GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) code for numerical testing of six different aerosol models with different aerosol loads. The direct numerical simulations (self-consistency tests) indicate that the GRASP-AOD retrieval provides modal aerosol optical depths (fine and coarse) to within 0.01 of the input values. The retrieval of the fine-mode radius, width and volume concentration are stable and precise if the real part of the refractive index is known. The coarse-mode properties are less accurate, but they are significantly improved when additional a priori information is available. The tests with random simulated errors show that the uncertainty in the bimodal log-normal size distribution parameters increases as the aerosol load decreases. Similarly, the reduction in the spectral range diminishes the stability of the retrieved parameters. In addition to these numerical studies, we used optical depth observations at eight AERONET locations to validate our results with the standard AERONET inversion products. We found that bimodal log-normal size distributions serve as useful input assumptions, especially when the measurements have inadequate spectral coverage and/or limited accuracy, such as moon photometry. Comparisons of the mode median radii between GRASP-AOD and AERONET indicate average differences of 0.013 µm for the fine mode and typical values of 0.2-0.3 µm for the coarse mode. The dominant mode (i.e. fine or coarse) indicates a 10 % difference in mode radii between the GRASP-AOD and AERONET inversions, and the average of the difference in volume concentration is around 17 % for both modes. The retrieved values of the fine-mode τa(500) using GRASP-AOD are generally between those values obtained by the standard AERONET

  2. Heat Shield Recession Measurements Using Remote Spectral Sensors, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OKSI proposes a minimally invasive in-flight diagnostic to measure heat shield recession during flight tests. These measurements can be used to validate models and...

  3. The Spectral Index and Beaming Effect for Radio Sources J. Pan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Pan & J. H. Fan. ∗. Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: Abstract. In this paper, we revisited the relationship between the spec- tral index and the core-dominance parameter using a larger sample of blazars. Conclusively, we explain that the ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Philippe; Titarchuk, Lev


    We present herein a theoretical study of correlations between spectral indexes of X-ray emergent spectra and mass accretion rate ( m-dot ) in black hole (BH) sources, which provide a definitive signature for BHs. It has been firmly established, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in numerous BH observations during hard-soft state spectral evolution, that the photon index of X-ray spectra increases when m-dot increases and, moreover, the index saturates at high values of m-dot . In this paper, we present theoretical arguments that the observationally established index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate is a signature of the bulk (converging) flow onto the BH. Also, we demonstrate that the index saturation value depends on the plasma temperature of converging flow. We self-consistently calculate the Compton cloud (CC) plasma temperature as a function of mass accretion rate using the energy balance between energy dissipation and Compton cooling. We explain the observable phenomenon, index- m-dot correlations using a Monte Carlo simulation of radiative processes in the innermost part (CC) of a BH source and we account for the Comptonization processes in the presence of thermal and bulk motions, as basic types of plasma motion. We show that, when m-dot increases, BH sources evolve to high and very soft states (HSS and VSS, respectively), in which the strong blackbody(BB)-like and steep power-law components are formed in the resulting X-ray spectrum. The simultaneous detections of these two components strongly depends on sensitivity of high-energy instruments, given that the relative contribution of the hard power-law tail in the resulting VSS spectrum can be very low, which is why, to date RXTE observations of the VSS X-ray spectrum have been characterized by the presence of the strong BB-like component only. We also predict specific patterns for high-energy e-fold (cutoff) energy (E fold ) evolution with m-dot for thermal and dynamical (bulk

  5. Effect of interfacial refractive index on optical molecular orientation measurements. (United States)

    Ekhoff, Jessica A; Rowlen, Kathy L


    The sensitivity of optical molecular orientation measurements to assumptions regarding thin film refractive index was investigated. Specifically, the influence of the interfacial refractive index on second harmonic generation (SHG) and linear dichroism measurements made in a total internal reflection (TIR) geometry was probed for five distinct molecular systems. The five molecular thin films ranged from weakly adsorbed species in equilibrium with solution to covalently bound molecules. Polarization data from the two techniques were fit using a range of assumed interfacial refractive indices. Surprisingly, a linear relationship between the difference in calculated apparent orientation angle and the difference in solvent-prism refractive index was observed. The trend indicates that for a TIR geometry, the error introduced by the thin film refractive index is negligible when the difference in solvent and prism refractive indices is less than approximately 0.08. However, there are clearly cases, such as a glass/air interface, in which assumptions regarding the thin film refractive index can result in significant error in the extracted orientation angle.

  6. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister


    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  7. Spectral Doppler Waveforms for Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Potential Utility of Point Peak Systolic Velocity and Resistive Index Values. (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Berry, Gerald J; Olcott, Eric W


    Purpose To test the hypothesis that appendiceal spectral Doppler waveforms can distinguish patients with and patients without appendicitis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, Doppler waveforms were obtained from intramural appendiceal arteries identified with color Doppler imaging in 60% (93 of 155) of consecutive patients whose appendices were visualized at graded compression ultrasonography (US) performed for suspected appendicitis (53 male and 40 female; age, 1-56 years; mean, 14.5 years) over the 5-month period from November 2015 through March 2016. Point, non-angle-corrected peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) values were compared between patients with and patients without appendicitis by utilizing histopathologically proven appendicitis and 6-week clinical follow-up as diagnostic reference standards. Data were assessed by using the Student t test, exact binomial distribution, two-sample test of proportions, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Among the 93 patients, 36 (38.7%) had proven appendicitis (mean PSV, 19.7 cm/sec; mean RI, 0.69) and 57 patients (61.2%) did not (mean PSV, 7.1 cm/sec, P appendicitis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.00) for PSV and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95; P = .011) for RI. Chosen discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 94.7% and 96.5% with sensitivity of 88.9% and 63.9% (P = .013) and negative predictive value of 93.1% and 80.9% (P = .045), respectively. Original clinical graded compression US interpretations based on established US findings demonstrated specificity of 96.2% and sensitivity of 100.0%. Considering the subset of 20 patients whose maximum outer diameter measured 6-8 mm, the discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 88.9% each, with sensitivity of 100.0% and 63.6% and negative predictive value of 100

  8. Spectral irradiance measurements and hazard evaluations of sunbeds and sunlamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Elliott, G.


    The proliferation of solaria, coupled with a growing awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has prompted a study on solaria and the UVR sources used in them. The detrimental effects of UV-B radiation have been known for some time but recently there has been increasing concern over the effects of UV-A radiation, which had at first been thought of as relatively harmless. Previous studies of solaria have made radiometric measurements of the UVR lamp outputs, but since the biological effectiveness of UVR is wavelength dependent, particularly in the UV-B region where it varies by several orders of magnitude, there is a need for spectroradiometric measurements. Such measurements have been made at fourteen solaria in the Melbourne metropolitan area. Laboratory measurements have also been made on individual UVR fluorescent lamps and sunlamps. Results have been compared with the requirements of Australian Standard 2635 (1983), 'Installation, maintenance and operation of solaria for cosmetic purposes'

  9. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L


    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  10. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander


    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  11. University building safety index measurement using risk and implementation matrix (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Arumsari, F.; Maryani, A.


    Many high rise building constructed in several universities in Indonesia. The high-rise building management must provide the safety planning and proper safety equipment in each part of the building. Unfortunately, most of the university in Indonesia have not been applying safety policy yet and less awareness on treating safety facilities. Several fire accidents in university showed that some significant risk should be managed by the building management. This research developed a framework for measuring the high rise building safety index in university The framework is not only assessed the risk magnitude but also designed modular building safety checklist for measuring the safety implementation level. The safety checklist has been developed for 8 types of the university rooms, i.e.: office, classroom, 4 type of laboratories, canteen, and library. University building safety index determined using risk-implementation matrix by measuring the risk magnitude and assessing the safety implementation level. Building Safety Index measurement has been applied in 4 high rise buildings in ITS Campus. The building assessment showed that the rectorate building in secure condition and chemical department building in beware condition. While the library and administration center building was in less secure condition.

  12. Relic gravitational waves with a running spectral index and its constraints at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, M. L.; Zhang, Y.


    We study the impact of a running index α t on the spectrum of relic gravitational waves (RGWs) over the whole range of frequency (10 -18 ∼10 10 ) Hz and reveal its implications in RGWs detections and in cosmology. Analytical calculations show that, although the spectrum of RGWs on low frequencies is less affected by α t ≠0, on high frequencies, the spectrum is modified substantially. Investigations are made toward potential detections of the α t -modified RGWs for several kinds of current and planned detectors. The Advanced LIGO will likely be able to detect RGWs with α t ≥0 for inflationary models with the inflation index β=-1.956 and the tensor-scalar ratio r=0.55. The future LISA can detect RGWs for a much broader range of (α t ,β,r), and will have a better chance to break a degeneracy between them. Constraints on α t are estimated from several detections and cosmological observations. Among them, the most stringent one is from the bound of the big bang nucleosynthesis, and requires α t s to be of the same magnitude as α t , if both RGWs and scalar perturbations are generated by the same scalar inflation.

  13. Non-spectral fractal measures with Fourier frames


    Lai, Chun-Kit; Wang, Yang


    We generalize the compatible tower condition given by Strichartz to the almost-Parseval-frame tower and show that non-trivial examples of almost-Parseval-frame tower exist. By doing so, we demonstrate the first singular fractal measure which has only finitely many mutually orthogonal exponentials (and hence it does not admit any exponential orthonormal bases), but it still admits Fourier frames.

  14. Spectral measurements of returned spacecraft surfaces and the implications for space debris material measurements (United States)

    Jorgensen, K.; Culp, R. D.; Clark, R. N.


    Knowledge of the physical properties of orbital debris is necessary for modeling the debris environment. Current methods determine the size and mass of orbital debris based on knowledge or assumption of the material type of the piece. By using spectroscopy, one can determine the material type of the piece by comparing the absorption features of its spectra to that of lab spectra for given materials. The goal of this research is not to improve the models themselves, but to improve the information others use to make the models. In order to determine the effects of the space environment on the reflectance spectra of spacecraft materials, researchers measured materials from returned spacecraft. Measurements of material degradation for returned missions from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are documented herein. When the spectra of returned spacecraft materials were compared with the pre-flight laboratory spectra degradation in the samples were seen mostly in the visible wavelengths, while the samples showed similar features in the near-infrared. Overall, the results displayed less degradation on the spaceflight samples than anticipated. The spectral measurements of returned spacecraft materials lent credence to continuing the study of determining the material type of orbital debris using spectroscopy.

  15. Spectral Cross-Calibration of VIIRS Enhanced Vegetation Index with MODIS: A Case Study Using Year-Long Global Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata


    Full Text Available In this study, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI was spectrally cross-calibrated with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS EVI using a year-long, global VIIRS-MODIS dataset at the climate modeling grid (CMG resolution of 0.05°-by-0.05°. Our cross-calibration approach was to utilize a MODIS-compatible VIIRS EVI equation derived in a previous study [Obata et al., J. Appl. Remote Sens., vol.7, 2013] and optimize the coefficients contained in this EVI equation for global conditions. The calibrated/optimized MODIS-compatible VIIRS EVI was evaluated using another global VIIRS-MODIS CMG dataset of which acquisition dates did not overlap with those used in the calibration. The calibrated VIIRS EVI showed much higher compatibility with the MODIS EVI than the original VIIRS EVI, where the mean error (MODIS minus VIIRS and the root mean square error decreased from −0.021 to −0.003 EVI units and from 0.029 to 0.020 EVI units, respectively. Error reductions on the calibrated VIIRS EVI were observed across nearly all view zenith and relative azimuth angle ranges, EVI dynamic range, and land cover types. The performance of the MODIS-compatible VIIRS EVI calibration appeared limited for high EVI values (i.e., EVI > 0.5 due likely to the maturity of the VIIRS dataset used in calibration/optimization. The cross-calibration methodology introduced in this study is expected to be useful for other spectral indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and two-band EVI.

  16. Direct Measurements of Infrared Normal Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials for High-Temperature Applications (United States)

    Hatzl, S.; Kirschner, M.; Lippig, V.; Sander, T.; Mundt, Ch.; Pfitzner, M.


    A new facility for the measurement of the normal spectral emissivity of solid materials for high-temperature applications in the thermal steady state was developed at the Bundeswehr University of Munich. The measurements are performed under atmospheric conditions. The facility covers the temperature range between and and wavelengths between and . The principle of operation involves the spectral comparison of a test sample with a reference blackbody and the sample surface temperature determination with a numerical spectral ratio calculation. The optical characteristics of the blackbody and the sample surface temperature determination are discussed in detail. Furthermore, measurement results of the quasi-reference material silicon-carbide under steady-state conditions are presented to validate the measurement method.

  17. Spectral reflectance measurement methodologies for TUZ Golu field campaign

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boucher, Y


    Full Text Available are Spectralon or Spectralon-like panels, thus their behavior is close to the behavior of a Lambertian surface. Except for very large solar or viewing angles, it is not mandatory to introduce a BRDF correction for the reflectance factor of the reference... CIMEL 313 field multispectral radiometer: 5 bands in the blue, green, red, near IR (800-900nm) and SWIR (1550-1700), with a 10? field of view. 3. PRESENTATION OF REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGIES The pixel size of most satellite sensors...

  18. Spectral distribution measurements of neutrons in paraffin borax mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, A.M.; Gaber, M.; Abou El-Khier, M.A.


    Neutron fluxes from a compact D-T neutron source has been measured in paraffin-borax mixtures by using activation foil detectors with successive threshold energies. The absorbed doses, backscattering coefficients and build-up factors were determined as well. The contribution of thermal and intermediate neutron dose is much lower, compared to that of fast neutrons. Among the used mediums, paraffin loaded with 4% borax concentration was found to be the best absorbing medium against neutrons at near depths within the blocks, while at a depth around 12 cm the neutron absorption (or scattering) is independent on the type of the used medium. (author)

  19. Measurement of spectral sea ice albedo at Qaanaaq fjord in northwest Greenland (United States)

    Tanikawa, T.


    The spectral albedos of sea ice were measured at Qaanaaq fjord in northwest Greenland. Spectral measurements were conducted for sea ice covered with snow and sea ice without snow where snow was artificially removed around measurement point. Thickness of the sea ice was approximately 1.3 m with 5 cm of snow over the sea ice. The measurements show that the spectral albedos of the sea ice with snow were lower than those of natural pure snow especially in the visible regions though the spectral shapes were similar to each other. This is because the spectral albedos in the visible region have information of not only the snow but also the sea ice under the snow. The spectral albedos of the sea ice without the snow were approximately 0.4 - 0.5 in the visible region, 0.05-0.25 in the near-infrared region and almost constant of approximately 0.05 in the region of 1500 - 2500 nm. In the visible region, it would be due to multiple scattering by an air bubble within the sea ice. In contrast, in the near-infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths, surface reflection at the sea ice surface would be dominant. Since a light absorption by the ice in these regions is relatively strong comparing to the visible region, the light could not be penetrated deeply within the sea ice, resulting that surface reflection based on Fresnel reflection would be dominant. In this presentation we also show the results of comparison between the radiative transfer calculation and spectral measurement data.

  20. Spectral Discrete Probability Density Function of Measured Wind Turbine Noise in the Far Field (United States)

    Ashtiani, Payam; Denison, Adelaide


    Of interest is the spectral character of wind turbine noise at typical residential set-back distances. In this paper, a spectral statistical analysis has been applied to immission measurements conducted at three locations. This method provides discrete probability density functions for the Turbine ONLY component of the measured noise. This analysis is completed for one-third octave sound levels, at integer wind speeds, and is compared to existing metrics for measuring acoustic comfort as well as previous discussions on low-frequency noise sources. PMID:25905097

  1. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco


    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  2. Supergravity modification of D-term hybrid inflation: Solving the cosmic string and spectral index problems via a right-handed sneutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chiamin; McDonald, John


    Supergravity corrections due to the energy density of a right-handed sneutrino can generate a negative mass squared for the inflaton, flattening the inflaton potential and reducing the spectral index and inflaton energy density. For the case of D-term hybrid inflation, we show that the spectral index can be lowered from the conventional value n=0.98 to a value within the range favored by the latest WMAP analysis, n=0.951 -0.019 +0.015 . The modified energy density is consistent with nonobservation of cosmic strings in the CMB if n<0.946. The WMAP lower bound on the spectral index implies that the D-term cosmic string contribution may be very close present CMB limits, contributing at least 5% to the CMB multipoles

  3. The spiritual experience index: A measure of spiritual maturity. (United States)

    Genia, V


    The Spiritual Experience Index was developed to measure spiritual maturity in persons of diverse religious and spiritual beliefs. The scale was constructed from a developmental rather than a multidimensional conceptualization of faith. Initial findings from a religiously heterogeneous college sample indicated good reliability for the SEI and supported its use as a unidimensional measure. Higher scores on the SEI were significantly related to lower dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The SEI was also moderately related to higher religious participation and positively correlated with intrinsicness and quest. However, compared with the intrinsic and quest scales, the SEI emerged as the strongest indicator of adaptive spiritual functioning. Directions for future research are suggested.

  4. Information Retrieval from SAGE II and MFRSR Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Direct beam spectral extinction measurements of solar radiation contain important information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from multiple scattering contributions that otherwise tend to complicate the data analysis and information retrieval. Such direct beam extinction measurements are available from the solar occultation satellite-based measurements made by the Stratospheric and Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) instrument and by ground-based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The SAGE II data provide cross-sectional slices of the atmosphere twice per orbit at seven wavelengths between 385 and 1020 nm with approximately 1 km vertical resolution, while the MFRSR data provide atmospheric column measurements at six wavelengths between 415 and 940 nm but at one minute time intervals. We apply the same retrieval technique of simultaneous least-squares fit to the observed spectral extinctions to retrieve aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance, and ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor amounts from the SAGE II and MFRSR measurements. The retrieval technique utilizes a physical model approach based on laboratory measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide extinction, line-by-line and numerical k-distribution calculations for water vapor absorption, and Mie scattering constraints on aerosol spectral extinction properties. The SAGE II measurements have the advantage of being self-calibrating in that deep space provides an effective zero point for the relative spectral extinctions. The MFRSR measurements require periodic clear-day Langley regression calibration events to maintain accurate knowledge of instrument calibration.

  5. Comparison of measured and satellite-derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients for the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.

    -data-driven and one is semi-analytical are presented. The measurements were carried out in all water types and the mean values of the measured spectral Kd(Lambda) are 0.105, 0.092, 0.077, 0.082, 0.110 and 0.490 m sup(-1) for wavelength Lambda at 412, 443, 490, 510...

  6. Spectral collocation method with a flexible angular discretization scheme for radiative transfer in multi-layer graded index medium (United States)

    Wei, Linyang; Qi, Hong; Sun, Jianping; Ren, Yatao; Ruan, Liming


    The spectral collocation method (SCM) is employed to solve the radiative transfer in multi-layer semitransparent medium with graded index. A new flexible angular discretization scheme is employed to discretize the solid angle domain freely to overcome the limit of the number of discrete radiative direction when adopting traditional SN discrete ordinate scheme. Three radial basis function interpolation approaches, named as multi-quadric (MQ), inverse multi-quadric (IMQ) and inverse quadratic (IQ) interpolation, are employed to couple the radiative intensity at the interface between two adjacent layers and numerical experiments show that MQ interpolation has the highest accuracy and best stability. Variable radiative transfer problems in double-layer semitransparent media with different thermophysical properties are investigated and the influence of these thermophysical properties on the radiative transfer procedure in double-layer semitransparent media is also analyzed. All the simulated results show that the present SCM with the new angular discretization scheme can predict the radiative transfer in multi-layer semitransparent medium with graded index efficiently and accurately.

  7. Observation and Spectral Measurements of the Crab Nebula with Milagro (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Chen, C.; Christopher, G. E.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Falcone, A.; hide


    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between 1 and 100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton up-scattering scattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a Te V steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov


    Full Text Available The past decades the problem of income inequality and welfare segregation has presented itself as one of the biggest faults for modern economic systems. Republic of Macedonia as a country in development is presented with a serious challenge into decreasing the income inequality witch has risen for average 4% annually over the past 15 years, according to the GINI index. The problem of income inequality for Republic of Macedonia starches further as the country presents itself as one the highest ranking of income inequality in comparison the South-East European countries. The impact of different types of taxes on the income inequality in Republic of Macedonia measured through the GINI index, the econometric model of regression and correlation was conducted towards determination the type of tax that has the most impact on the income inequality in Republic of Macedonia for the observational period, the Personal income tax have the utmost impact on the income inequality measured through the GINI index.

  9. Development of a Cone Penetrometer for Measuring Spectral Characteristics of Soils in Situ (United States)

    Lee, Landris T., Jr.; Malone, Philip G.


    A patent was recently granted to the U.S. Army for an adaptation of a soil cone penetrometer that can be used to measure the spectral characteristics (fluorescence or reflectance) of soils adjacent to the penetrometer rod. The system can use a variety of light sources and spectral analytical equipment. A laser induced fluorescence measuring system has proven to be of immediate use in mapping the distribution of oil contaminated soil at waste disposal and oil storage areas. The fiber optic adaptation coupled with a cone penetrometer permits optical characteristics of the in-situ soil to be measured rapidly, safely, and inexpensively. The fiber optic cone penetrometer can be used to gather spectral data to a depth of approximately 25 to 30 m even in dense sands or stiff clays and can investigate 300 m of soil per day. Typical detection limits for oil contamination in sand is on the order of several hundred parts per million.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Nikanenka


    Full Text Available Information about principle of operation of the setup for measurement of the photometric, radiometric, spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation of laser diodes and LEDs in the spectral range from 250 to 900 nm constructed in the B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of NAS of Belarus and the results of its metrological certification are presented. New approaches to measure the averaged value of the luminance and spectral radiance LEDs and laser diodes, the spatial distribution of luminous intensity and power density of laser diodes radiation, the luminous intensity and radiant intensity LEDs and laser diodes. 


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  12. Measuring growth index in a Universe with sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fei Zhang


    Full Text Available Consistency tests for the general relativity (GR can be performed by constraining the growth index γ using the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD in conjunction with other observations. In previous studies, deviations from the GR expected value of γ≈0.55 at the 2–3σ level were found. In this work, we reconsider the measurement of γ in a Universe with sterile neutrinos. We constrain the sterile neutrino cosmological model using the RSD measurements combined with the cosmic microwave background data (Planck temperature data plus WMAP 9-yr polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement, the Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich cluster counts data, and the galaxy shear data. We obtain the constraint result of the growth index, γ=0.584−0.048+0.047, well consistent with the GR expected value (the consistency is at the 0.6σ level. For the parameters of sterile neutrino, we obtain Neff=3.62−0.42+0.26 and mν,sterileeff=0.48−0.14+0.11 eV. We also consider the BICEP2 data and perform an analysis on the model with tensor modes. Similar fit results are obtained, showing that once light sterile neutrino is considered in the Universe, GR will become well consistent with the current observations.

  13. Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto


    , broadleaf forest and prairies show different post-fire behavior in terms of land surface phenology descriptors. In addition to the above analysis, another method is proposed, which derives from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. The (time dependent) spectral index of a burned area over the period of one year was plotted against its counterpart from the control site. Yearly plots (or scattergrams) before and after the fire were obtained. Each plot is a sequence of points on the plane, which are the vertices of a generally self-intersecting polygonal chain. Some geometrical descriptors were obtained from the yearly chains of each fire. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geometrical descriptors was applied to a set of case studies and the obtained results provide a system dynamics interpretation of the natural process.

  14. Spectral and temporal measures in hybrid cochlear implant users: on the mechanism of electroacoustic hearing benefits. (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Worman, Tina D; Rubinstein, Jay T


    Compare auditory performance of Hybrid and standard cochlear implant users with psychoacoustic measures of spectral and temporal sensitivity and correlate with measures of clinical benefit. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic medical center. Hybrid cochlear implant users between 12 and 33 months after implantation. Hybrid recipients had preservation of low-frequency hearing. Administration of psychoacoustic, music perception, and speech reception in noise tests. Performance on spectral-ripple discrimination, temporal modulation detection, Schroeder-phase discrimination, Clinical Assessment of Music Perception, and speech reception in steady-state noise tests. Clinical Assessment of Music Perception pitch performance at 262 Hz was significantly better in Hybrid users compared with standard implant controls. There was a near significant difference on speech reception in steady-state noise. Surprisingly, neither Schroeder-phase discrimination at 2 frequencies nor temporal modulation detection thresholds across a range of frequencies revealed any advantage in Hybrid users. This contrasts with spectral-ripple measures that were significantly better in the Hybrid group. The spectral-ripple advantage was preserved even when using only residual hearing. These preliminary data confirm existing data demonstrating that residual low-frequency acoustic hearing is advantageous for pitch perception. Results also suggest that clinical benefits enjoyed by Hybrid recipients are due to improved spectral discrimination provided by the residual hearing. No evidence indicated that residual hearing provided temporal information beyond that provided by electric stimulation.

  15. Group velocity measurement using spectral interference in near-field scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, John D.; Chaipiboonwong, Tipsuda; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Netti, Caterina; Zoorob, Majd E.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.


    Near-field scanning optical microscopy provides a tool for studying the behavior of optical fields inside waveguides. In this experiment the authors measure directly the variation of group velocity between different modes of a planar slab waveguide as the modes propagate along the guide. The measurement is made using the spectral interference between pulses propagating inside the waveguide with different group velocities, collected using a near-field scanning optical microscope at different points down the guide and spectrally resolved. The results are compared to models of group velocities in simple guides

  16. An experimental applications of impedance measurements by spectral analysis to electrochemistry and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Milocco, R.H.


    An impedance measurement system based on the spectral analysis of excitation and response signals was implemented using a pseudo-random binary sequence in the generation of the electrical perturbation signal. The spectral density functions were estimated through finite Fourier transforms of the original time history records by fast computation of Fourier series. Experimental results obtained using the FFT algorithm in the developed impedance measurement system which covers a wide frequency range, 10 KHz >= f >= 1 mHz, are given both for dummy cells representing conventional electric circuits in electrochemistry and corrosion systems and for the Fe/acidic chloride solution interfaces under different polarization conditions. (C.L.B.) [pt

  17. Utilize the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ion to measure the ion temperature of tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaodong


    Making use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer driven by a piezoelectric crystal and selecting the suitable separation of plates, the ion temperature is defined by measuring the superimposed profile of the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ions in Tokamak. The advantage of this method is to higher spectral resolution and wider spectral range select

  18. Phase sensitive diffraction sensor for high sensitivity refractive index measurement (United States)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Varma, Manoj; Kumar, Sunil


    In this study a diffraction based sensor has been developed for bio molecular sensing applications and performing assays in real time. A diffraction grating fabricated on a glass substrate produced diffraction patterns both in transmission and reflection when illuminated by a laser diode. We used zeroth order I(0,0) as reference and first order I(0,1) as signal channel and conducted ratiometric measurements that reduced noise by more than 50 times. The ratiometric approach resulted in a very simple instrumentation with very high sensitivity. In the past, we have shown refractive index measurements both for bulk and surface adsorption using the diffractive self-referencing approach. In the current work we extend the same concept to higher diffraction orders. We have considered order I(0,1) and I(1,1) and performed ratiometric measurements I(0,1)/I(1,1) to eliminate the common mode fluctuations. Since orders I(0,1) and I(1,1) behaved opposite to each other, the resulting ratio signal amplitude increased more than twice compared to our previous results. As a proof of concept we used different salt concentrations in DI water. Increased signal amplitude and improved fluid injection system resulted in more than 4 times improvement in detection limit, giving limit of detection 1.3×10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) compared to our previous results. The improved refractive index sensitivity will help significantly for high sensitivity label free bio sensing application in a very cost-effective and simple experimental set-up.

  19. Laser pulse transient method for measuring the normal spectral emissivity of samples with arbitrary surface quality (United States)

    Jeromen, A.; Grabec, I.; Govekar, E.


    A laser pulse transient method for measuring normal spectral emissivity is described. In this method, a laser pulse ( λ=1064 nm) irradiates the top surface of a flat specimen. A two-dimensional temperature response of the bottom surface is measured with a calibrated thermographic camera. By solving an axisymmetric boundary value heat conduction problem, the normal spectral emissivity at 1064 nm is determined by using an iterative nonlinear least-squares estimation procedure. The method can be applied to arbitrary sample surface quality. The method is tested on a nickel specimen and used to determine the normal spectral emissivity of AISI 304 stainless steel. The expanded combined uncertainty of the method has been estimated to be 18%.

  20. Pursuing atmospheric water vapor retrieval through NDSA measurements between two LEO satellites: evaluation of estimation errors in spectral sensitivity measurements (United States)

    Facheris, L.; Cuccoli, F.; Argenti, F.


    NDSA (Normalized Differential Spectral Absorption) is a novel differential measurement method to estimate the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along a tropospheric propagation path between two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. A transmitter onboard the first LEO satellite and a receiver onboard the second one are required. The NDSA approach is based on the simultaneous estimate of the total attenuations at two relatively close frequencies in the Ku/K bands and of a "spectral sensitivity parameter" that can be directly converted into IWV. The spectral sensitivity has the potential to emphasize the water vapor contribution, to cancel out all spectrally flat unwanted contributions and to limit the impairments due to tropospheric scintillation. Based on a previous Monte Carlo simulation approach, through which we analyzed the measurement accuracy of the spectral sensitivity parameter at three different and complementary frequencies, in this work we examine such accuracy for a particularly critical atmospheric status as simulated through the pressure, temperature and water vapor profiles measured by a high resolution radiosonde. We confirm the validity of an approximate expression of the accuracy and discuss the problems that may arise when tropospheric water vapor concentration is lower than expected.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Colour and spectral index from the SLUGGS survey (Usher+, 2015) (United States)

    Usher, C.; Forbes, D. A.; Brodie, J. P.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Strader, J.; Conroy, C.; Foster, C.; Pastorello, N.; Pota, V.; Arnold, J. A.


    The SLUGGS survey is an ongoing study of 25 massive, nearby, early-type galaxies and their GC systems using Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy and wide-field imaging from Suprime-Cam (Miyazaki et al. 2002, PASJ, 54, 833) on the Subaru telescope. The spectra were all observed with DEIMOS in multislit mode between 2006 and 2013 with the primary aim of measuring GC radial velocities. Exposure times averaged two hours per slit mask. All observations used a central wavelength of 7800 Å, the 1200 line/mm grating and 1 arcsec slits. This setup yields a resolution of Δλ~1.5 Å and covers the Na I doublet to CaT wavelength region. In roughly half of the slits, Hα is also covered. (3 data files).

  2. Evaluating the Effects of Fire on Semi-Arid Savanna Ecosystem Productivity Using Integrated Spectral and Gas Exchange Measurements (United States)

    Raub, H. D.; Jimenez, J. R.; Gallery, R. E.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Smith, W. K.


    Drylands account for 40% of the land surface and have been identified as increasingly important in driving interannual variability of the land carbon sink. Yet, understanding of dryland seasonal ecosystem productivity dynamics - termed Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) - is limited due to complex interactions between vegetation health, seasonal drought dynamics, a paucity of long-term measurements across these under-studied regions, and unanticipated disturbances from varying fire regimes. For instance, fire disturbance has been found to either greatly reduce post-fire GPP through vegetation mortality or enhance post-fire GPP though increased resource availability (e.g., water, light, nutrients, etc.). Here, we explore post-fire ecosystem recovery by evaluating seasonal GPP dynamics for two Ameriflux eddy covariance flux tower sites within the Santa Rita Experimental Range of southeastern Arizona: 1) the US-SRG savanna site dominated by a mix of grass and woody mesquite vegetation that was burned in May 2017, and 2) the US-SRM savanna site dominated by similar vegetation but unburned for the full measurement record. For each site, we collected leaf-level spectral and gas exchange measurements, as well as leaf-level chemistry and soil chemistry to characterize differences in nutrient availability and microbial activity throughout the 2017 growing season. From spectral data, we derived and evaluated multiple common vegetation metrics, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectivity index (PRI), near-infrared reflectance (NIRv), and MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI). Early results suggest rates of photosynthesis were enhanced at the burned site, with productivity increasing immediately following the onset of monsoonal precipitation; whereas initial photosynthesis at the unburned site remained relatively low following first monsoonal rains. MTCI values for burned vegetation appear to track higher levels of leaf-level nitrogen

  3. Software and modifications for automated microwave spectral measurements on the Hewlett Packard 8460 spectrometer (United States)

    White, W. F.


    A Hewlett-Packard 8460A spectrometer was adapted for automatic spectral searches and measurements under computer control. Software consists of a BASIC language control program and assembly language equipment drivers. Complete software listings are given including cross reference tables. Each equipment driver program is discussed, and wiring diagrams are given for the additions required for computer control.

  4. Artifact Interpretation of Spectral Response Measurements on Two-Terminal Multijunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.


    Multijunction solar cells promise higher power-conversion efficiency than the single-junction. With respect to two-terminal devices, an accurate measurement of the spectral response requires a delicate adjustment of the light- and voltage-biasing; otherwise it can result in artifacts in the data and

  5. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.


    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references

  6. Power spectral density measurements with 252Cf for a light water moderated research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.T.; Mihalczo, J.T.


    A method of determining the reactivity of far subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with 252 Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to evaluate the ability to perform these measurements with moderated reactors which have long prompt neutron lifetimes, measurements were performed with a small plate-type research reactor whose neutron lifetime (57 microseconds) was about a factor of three longer than that of a PWR and approx. 50% longer than that of a boiling water reactor. The results of the first measurements of power spectral densities with 252 Cf for a water moderated reactor are presented

  7. Interpretation of UV radiometric measurements of spectrally non-uniform sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.; Gardner, D.G.


    Narrow bandpass UV radiometers are used in a variety of high-temperature measurement applications. Significant systematic errors, in the form of an apparent wavelength shift in the system response curve, may be introduced when interpreting data obtained from spectrally nonuniform sources. Theoretical calculations, using transmission curves from commercially available narrow bandpass filters, show that the apparent shift in the system spectral response is a function of temperature for a blackbody source. A brief comparison between the theoretical analysis and experimentaal data is presented

  8. Pulse Analysis Spectroradiometer System for Measuring the Spectral Distribution of Flash Solar Simulators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, A. M.; Myers, D. R.


    Flashing artificial light sources are used extensively in photovoltaic module performance testing and plant production lines. There are several means of attempting to measure the spectral distribution of a flash of light; however, many of these approaches generally capture the entire pulse energy. We report here on the design and performance of a system to capture the waveform of flash at individual wavelengths of light. Any period within the flash duration can be selected, over which to integrate the flux intensity at each wavelength. The resulting spectral distribution is compared with the reference spectrum, resulting in a solar simulator classification.

  9. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in ATLAS with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakubek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Prospísil, S.; Suk, M; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.


    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  10. Direct measurement of the spectral transfer function of a laser based anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob; Sjöholm, Mikael


    The effect of a continuous-wave (cw) laser based anemometer's probe volume on the measurement of wind turbulence is studied in this paper. Wind speed time series acquired by both a remote sensing cw laser anemometer, whose line-of-sight was aligned with the wind direction, and by a reference sensor...... (sonic anemometer) located in the same direction, were used. The spectral transfer function, which describes the attenuation of the power spectral density of the wind speed turbulence, was calculated and found to be in good agreement with the theoretical exponential function, which is based...

  11. Measurement and comparison of remotely derived leaf area index predictors (United States)

    Jensen, Ryan Russell

    Environmental change occurs in response to both natural and anthropogenic causes. As the world's human population continues to increase, anthropogenic change will also increase. These changes affect the health and vigor of forests throughout the world, including those in north central Florida. Leaf Area Index (LAI), the amount of leaf area per unit ground area, is an important biophysical variable that is directly related to rates of atmospheric gas exchange, biomass partitioning, and productivity. While global and local models that map biophysical parameters are prevalent in the literature, landscape to regional scale models are less common. Therefore, the ability to map and monitor LAI over landscape to regional scale areas is essential for understanding medium scale biophysical properties and how these properties affect biogeochemical cycling, biomass accumulation, and primary productivity. This study develops and verifies several new models to estimate LAI using in situ field measurements throughout north central Florida, Landsat Thematic Mapper remotely sensed imagery, remotely derived vegetation indices, simple and multiple regression, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). This study concludes that while multiple band regression and regression with individual vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Simple Ratio, and Greenness Vegetation Index) can estimate LAI, the most accurate way to estimate regional scale LAI is to train an ANN using in situ LAI data and remote sensing brightness values measured from six different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The new ANN method of estimating LAI is then applied to two forest ecology studies. The first study analyzes LAI in longleaf pine/turkey oak sandhills as a function of time since last burn. It concludes that in the absence of fire, sandhill LAI increases, and this may be useful for identifying where prescribed burns need to be done. The second study

  12. Performance evaluation of spectral deconvolution analysis tool (SDAT) software used for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.; Biegalski, S.R.; Haas, D.A.


    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. Spectral deconvolution spectroscopy is an analysis method that utilizes the entire signal deposited in a gamma-ray detector rather than the small portion of the signal that is present in one gamma-ray peak. This method shows promise to improve detection limits over classical gamma-ray spectroscopy analytical techniques; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. To address this issue, we performed three tests to compare the detection ability and variance of SDAT results to those of commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) software which utilizes a standard peak search algorithm. (author)

  13. Direct measurement of the spectral transfer function of a laser based anemometer. (United States)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob; Sjöholm, Mikael; Courtney, Michael


    The effect of a continuous-wave (cw) laser based anemometer's probe volume on the measurement of wind turbulence is studied in this paper. Wind speed time series acquired by both a remote sensing cw laser anemometer, whose line-of-sight was aligned with the wind direction, and by a reference sensor (sonic anemometer) located in the same direction, were used. The spectral transfer function, which describes the attenuation of the power spectral density of the wind speed turbulence, was calculated and found to be in good agreement with the theoretical exponential function, which is based on the properties of the probe volume of a focused Gaussian laser beam. Parameters such as fluctuations of the wind direction, as well as the overestimation of the laser Doppler spectrum threshold, were found to affect the calculation of the spectral transfer function by introducing high frequency noise.

  14. Is Barthel index a relevant measure for measuring prevalence of urinary incontinence in stroke patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian


    distinguished between types of UI (38% urge UI, 28% stress UI, and 14% other UI). There were significantly fewer stroke patients who reported UI by the Barthel Index compared to the DAN‐PSS questionnaire in term of urge UI (P stress UI (P PSS......To compare the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) measured by Barthel Index and the Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN‐PSS‐1) questionnaire in stroke patients. A cross‐sectional, hospital based survey was initiated whereby 407 stroke patients, average age 67 (SD 12) years with a mean interval...... of 101 days since onset of last stroke at inclusion. The stroke patients self‐reported the prevalence of UI by Barthel Index and the DAN‐PSS‐1 questionnaire. The prevalence of UI was 10.5% measured by the Barthel Index and 49% by the DAN‐PSS‐1 questionnaire. Furthermore, the DAN‐PSS‐1 questionnaire...

  15. Single shot, double differential spectral measurements of inverse Compton scattering in the nonlinear regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sakai


    Full Text Available Inverse Compton scattering (ICS is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses—picosecond and below—of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by this source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K-edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.

  16. Measurement of multilayer mirror reflectivity and stimulated emission in the XUV spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, C.; Nam, C.H.; Meixler, L.; Milchberg, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Voorhees, D.; Barbee, T.


    We present measurements of multilayer mirror reflectivity and stimulated emission in the XUV spectral region. A molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror with 12% measured reflectivity at 182 A was found to produce a 120% enhancement of the C VI 182 A line (3 → 2 transition) in a strongly recombining plasma. No such enhancement of the CV 186.7 A line was seen, demonstrating amplification of stimulated emission at 182 A

  17. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac


    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  18. Infrared measurements of pristine and disturbed soils 1. Spectral contrast differences between field and laboratory data (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Lucey, P.G.; Horton, K.A.; Winter, E.M.


    Comparison of emissivity spectra (8-13 ??m) of pristine soils in the field with laboratory reflectance spectra of the same soils showed that laboratory spectra tend to have less spectral contrast than field spectra (see following article). We investigated this the phenomenon by measuring emission spectra of both undisturbed (in situ) and disturbed soils (prepared as if for transport to the laboratory). The disturbed soils had much less spectral contrast than the undisturbed soils in the reststrahlen region near 9 ??m. While the increased porosity of a disturbed soil can decrease spectral contrast due to multiple scattering, we hypothesize that the effect is dominantly the result of a difference in grain-size distribution of the optically active layer (i.e., fine particle coatings). This concept was proposed by Salisbury et al. (1994) to explain their observations that soils washed free of small particles adhering the larger grains exhibited greater spectral contrast than unwashed soils. Our laboratory reflectance spectra of wet- and dry-sieved soils returned from field sites also show greater spectral contrast for wet-sieved (washed) soils. We therefore propose that undisturbed soils in the field can be characterized as 'clean' soils (washed free of fine particles at the surface due to rain and wind action) and that disturbed soils represent 'dirty' soils (contaminated with fine particle coatings). The effect of packing soils in the field and laboratory also increases spectral contrast but not to the magnitude of that observed for undisturbed and wet-sieved soils. Since it is a common practice to use laboratory spectra of field samples to interpret spectra obtained remotely, we suggest that the influence of fine particle coatings on disturbed soils, if unrecognized, could influence interpretations of remote sensing data.Comparison of emissivity spectra (8-13 ??m) of pristine soils in the field with laboratory reflectance spectra of the same soils showed that

  19. Towards a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) : Development of an International Index to Measure Road Safety Performance


    Al Haji, Ghazwan


    Aim. This study suggests a set of methodologies to combine different indicators of road safety into a single index. The RSDI is a simple and quick composite index, which may become a significant measurement in comparing, ranking and determining road safety levels in different countries and regions worldwide. Design. One particular concern in designing a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) is to come up with a comprehensive set of exposure and risk indicators which includes as far as possible...

  20. Constructing Indicators for Measuring Provincial Sustainable Development Index in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Van Canh


    Full Text Available Sustainable development is zeitgeist of our age. It is one kind of development that in this trajectory humanity can create a stable and developed socio-economic foundations, conserve environment and therefore able to continue for a long time. Using indicators is one of the best ways to monitor and measure the progress toward sustainable development. In this paper we have proposed the way to create indicators for measuring provincial sustainable development index in Vietnam. We firstly made a framework of elements for economic, social and environmental component and compiled a list of indicators of 20 national and international agencies in the world. We then applied the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related to choose indicators which will be relevant for Vietnam and put them back to the elements. We then have 39 relevant indicators with 12 indicators for economy, 17 indicators for social and 10 indicators for environmental component. Finally, we have established the way to determine the worst and best value for each indicator from available data for countries in the world.

  1. Constructing Indicators for Measuring Provincial Sustainable Development Index in Vietnam (United States)

    Truong, Van Canh; Lisowski, Andrzej


    Sustainable development is zeitgeist of our age. It is one kind of development that in this trajectory humanity can create a stable and developed socio-economic foundations, conserve environment and therefore able to continue for a long time. Using indicators is one of the best ways to monitor and measure the progress toward sustainable development. In this paper we have proposed the way to create indicators for measuring provincial sustainable development index in Vietnam. We firstly made a framework of elements for economic, social and environmental component and compiled a list of indicators of 20 national and international agencies in the world. We then applied the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related) to choose indicators which will be relevant for Vietnam and put them back to the elements. We then have 39 relevant indicators with 12 indicators for economy, 17 indicators for social and 10 indicators for environmental component. Finally, we have established the way to determine the worst and best value for each indicator from available data for countries in the world.

  2. Measurement of the lepton τ spectral functions and applications to quantum chromodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.


    This thesis presents measurements of the τ vector (V) and axial-vector (A) hadronic spectral functions and phenomenological studies in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Using the hypothesis of conserved vector currents (CVC), the dominant two- and four-pion vector spectral functions are compared to the corresponding cross sections from e + e - annihilation. A combined fit of the pion form factor from τ decays and e + e - data is performed using different parametrizations. The mass and the width of the ρ ± (770) and the ρ 0 (770) are separately determined in order to extract possible isospin violating effects. The mass and width differences are measured to be M ρ ± (770) - M ρ 0 (770) =(0.0±1.0) MeV/c 2 and Γ ρ ± (770) - Γ ρ 0 (770) =(0.1 ± 1.9) MeV/c 2 . Several QCD chiral sum rules involving the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions are compared to their measurements. The Borel-transformed Das-Mathur-Okubo sum rule is used to measure the pion polarizability to be α E =(2.68±0.91) x 10 -4 fm 3 . The τ vector and axial-vector hadronic widths and certain spectral moments are exploited to measure α s and non-perturbative contributions at the τ mass scale. The best, and experimentally and theoretically most robust, determination of α s (M τ ) is obtained from the inclusive (V + A) fit that yields α s (M τ )= 0.348±0.017 giving α s (M Z )=0.1211 ± 0.0021 after the evolution to the mass of the Z boson. The approach of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is tested experimentally by means of an evolution of the τ hadronic width to masses smaller that the τ mass. Using the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions allows one to directly measure the dominant non-perturbative OPE dimension to be D=6.9±0.5. The vector spectral functions are used to improve the precision of the experimental determination of the hadronic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a μ =(g - 2)/2 and to the running of the QED

  3. Scintillation index and performance analysis of wireless optical links over non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence based on generalized atmospheric spectral model. (United States)

    Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu


    Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. Remote sensing of potential and actual daily transpiration of plant canopies based on spectral reflectance and infrared thermal measurements: Concept with preliminary test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J.Jr.


    A new concept for estimating potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate of vegetation canopies is presented along with results of an initial test. The method is based on a physical foundation of spectral radiation balance for a vegetation canopy, the key inputs to the model being the remotely sensed spectral reflectance and the surface temperature of the plant canopy. The radiation interception or absorptance is estimated more directly from remotely sensed spectral data than it is from the leaf area index. The potential daily transpiration is defined as a linear function of the absorbed solar radiation, which can be estimated using a linear relationship between the fraction absorptance of solar radiation and the remotely sensed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index for the canopy. The actual daily transpiration rate is estimated by combining this concept with the Jackson-Idso Crop Water Stress Index, which also can be calculated from remotely sensed plant leaf temperatures measured by infrared thermometry. An initial demonstration with data sets from an alfalfa crop and a rangeland suggests that the method may give reasonable estimates of potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate over diverse vegetation area based on simple remote sensing measurements and basic meteorological parameters

  5. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh


    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  6. Uncertainty Propagation of Spectral Matching Ratios Measured Using a Calibrated Spectroradiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pavanello


    Full Text Available The international standard IEC62670-3 (International Electrotechnical Committee “Photovoltaic Concentrators (CPV Performance Testing—Part 3—Performance Measurements and Power Rating” sets the guidelines for power measurements of a CPV device, both in indoor and outdoor conditions. When measuring in outdoor conditions, the acquired data have to be filtered a posteriori, in order to select only those points measured with ambient conditions close to the Concentrator Standard Operating Conditions (CSOC. The most stringent requirement to be met is related to the three Spectral Matching Ratios (SMR, which have all to be within the limit of 1.00 ± 0.03. SMR are usually determined by the ratio of the currents of component cells to monitor the outdoor spectral ratio conditions during the CPV device power measurements. Experience demonstrates that obtaining real world data meeting these strict conditions is very difficult in practice. However, increasing the acceptable range would make the entire filtering process less appropriate from a physical point of view. Given the importance of correctly measuring the SMR, an estimation of their associated measurement uncertainties is needed to allow a proper assessment of the validity of the 3% limit. In this study a Monte Carlo simulation has been used, to allow the estimation of the propagation of uncertainties in expressions having the and integral form. The method consists of applying both random and wavelength correlated errors to the measured spectra and to the measured spectral responses of the three CPV cell junctions, according to the measurement uncertainties of the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI. The experimental data used in this study have been acquired during clear sky conditions in May 2016, at ESTI’s facilities in Ispra, northern Italy (45°49′ N 8°37′ E.

  7. Low energy spectral index and Ep evolution of quasi-thermal photosphere emission of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing


    Recent observations by the Fermi satellite suggest that a photosphere emission component is contributing to the observed spectrum of many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One important question is whether the photosphere component can interpret the typical 'Band' function of GRBs with a typical low energy photon spectral index α ∼ –1. We perform a detailed study of the photosphere emission spectrum by progressively introducing several physical ingredients previously not fully incorporated, including the probability distribution of the location of a dynamically evolving photosphere, superposition of emission from an equal arrival time 'volume' in a continuous wind, the evolution of optical depth of a wind with finite but evolving outer boundary, as well as the effect of different top-hat wind luminosity (L w ) profiles. By assuming a comoving blackbody spectrum emerging from the photosphere, we find that for an outflow with a constant or increasing L w , the low-energy spectrum below the peak energy (E p ), can be modified to F ν ∼ ν 1.5 (α ∼ +0.5). A softer (–1 < α < +0.5) or flat (α = –1) spectrum can be obtained during the L w decreasing phase or high-latitude-emission-dominated phase. We also study the evolution of E p as a function of wind and photosphere luminosity in this photosphere model. An E p – L tracking pattern can be reproduced if a certain positive dependence between the dimensionless entropy η and L w is introduced. However, the hard-to-soft evolution pattern cannot be reproduced unless a contrived condition is invoked. In order to interpret the Band spectrum, a more complicated photosphere model or a different energy dissipation and radiation mechanism is needed.

  8. Spectral optical layer properties of cirrus from collocated airborne measurements and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Finger


    Full Text Available Spectral upward and downward solar irradiances from vertically collocated measurements above and below a cirrus layer are used to derive cirrus optical layer properties such as spectral transmissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity, and cloud top albedo. The radiation measurements are complemented by in situ cirrus crystal size distribution measurements and radiative transfer simulations based on the microphysical data. The close collocation of the radiative and microphysical measurements, above, beneath, and inside the cirrus, is accomplished by using a research aircraft (Learjet 35A in tandem with the towed sensor platform AIRTOSS (AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle. AIRTOSS can be released from and retracted back to the research aircraft by means of a cable up to a distance of 4 km. Data were collected from two field campaigns over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in spring and late summer 2013. One measurement flight over the North Sea proved to be exemplary, and as such the results are used to illustrate the benefits of collocated sampling. The radiative transfer simulations were applied to quantify the impact of cloud particle properties such as crystal shape, effective radius reff, and optical thickness τ on cirrus spectral optical layer properties. Furthermore, the radiative effects of low-level, liquid water (warm clouds as frequently observed beneath the cirrus are evaluated. They may cause changes in the radiative forcing of the cirrus by a factor of 2. When low-level clouds below the cirrus are not taken into account, the radiative cooling effect (caused by reflection of solar radiation due to the cirrus in the solar (shortwave spectral range is significantly overestimated.

  9. Measurement of the spectral functions of vector current hadronic $\\tau$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G


    A measurement of the spectral functions of non-strange tau vector current final states is presented, using 124,358 tau pairs recorded by the ALEPH detector at LEP during the years 1991 to 1994. The spectral functions of the dominant two- and four-pion tau decay channels are compared to published results of e+e- annihilation experiments via isospin rotation. A combined fit of the pion form factor from tau decays and e+e- data is performed using different parametrizations. The mass and the width of the charged and the neutral rho(770) are separately determined in order to extract possible isospin violating effects. The mass and width differences are measured to be M(rho^+/-(770)) - M(rho^0(770)) = (0.0 +/- 1.0) MeV/c^2 and Gamma(rho^+/-(770)) - Gamma(rho^0(770)) = (0.1 +/- 1.9) MeV/c^2.

  10. Estimation of atmospheric columnar organic matter (OM) mass concentration from remote sensing measurements of aerosol spectral refractive indices (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Sun, Yele; Lv, Yang; Xie, Yisong


    Aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality, changing Earth's energy balance and lead to climate change. The components of aerosol are important because of the different spectral characteristics. Based on the low hygroscopic and high scattering properties of organic matter (OM) in fine modal atmospheric aerosols, we develop an inversion algorithm using remote sensing to obtain aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), ammonium nitrate-like (AN), dust-like (DU) components and aerosol water content (AW). In the algorithm, the microphysical characteristics (i.e. volume distribution and complex refractive index) of particulates are preliminarily separated to fine and coarse modes, and then aerosol components are retrieved using bimodal parameters. We execute the algorithm using remote sensing measurements of sun-sky radiometer at AERONET site (Beijing RADI) in a period from October of 2014 to January of 2015. The results show a reasonable distribution of aerosol components and a good fit for spectral feature calculations. The mean OM mass concentration in atmospheric column is account for 14.93% of the total and 56.34% of dry and fine-mode aerosol, being a fairly good correlation (R = 0.56) with the in situ observations near the surface layer.

  11. Identifying Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa Attacked by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae Using Spectral Measurements of the Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Cook


    Full Text Available Balsam woolly adelgid is an invasive pest of firs in the United States. Aerial surveys are conducted for detection of adelgid infestations but other remotely sensed data may also be useful. Our objective was to determine if high spectral resolution, branch-level data can be used to distinguish infested from noninfested trees. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a three-variable model (the red-green index and two narrow-bands (one at 670 nm and the other at 1912 nm that classified infested versus non-infested trees with 94% accuracy compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model. The response of trees in narrow spectral bands was integrated across wavebands to simulate measurements from the multispectral SPOT5-HRVIR sensor. Stepwise discriminant analysis again yielded a three-variable model (simple ratio, the SPOT5-HRVIR band in the SWIR region and NDVI with similar accuracy (93% at discriminating infested from non-infested trees compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model.

  12. Spectral measurements of a 2D cyclotron-resonance maser array with two electron beams (United States)

    Lei, Li; Jerby, Eli


    The cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) array was proposed recently by our group as a compact high-power microwave source operating at low-voltages. In this paper, we present a CRM array experiment with two electron beams, in a 2D array periodic-waveguide. Spectral measurements are displayed for fast- and slow-wave interactions. This two- beam experiment leads to the construction of a multi-beam CRM array at Tel Aviv University.

  13. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, R; Lefevre, T; Gillepsie, WA; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding(EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  14. The direct measurement of spectral momentum densities of silicon with high energy (e,2e) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, C. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Kheifets, A.S. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Sashin, V.A. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail:; Weigold, E. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    Electron momentum spectroscopy is a coincidence technique that measures the spectral momentum density of matter. In this paper we outline the theoretical framework underlying these measurements, give a description of the spectrometer, and show in detail the information this technique can provide for the prototypical material silicon. We present results for single crystals as well as amorphous samples, describe the influence that diffraction and inelastic multiple scattering have on these measurements. The results are compared with full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital (FP-LMTO) calculations (for dispersion), and many-body calculations (for line shapes)

  15. TAKE, development of the refractive index measurement technology for industrial needs; TAKE, taitekerroinmittaustekniikan kehittaeminen teollisuuden tarpeisiin - MPKT 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)


    Refractive index is one of the basic physical phenomena of materials. Traditional refractive index measurement has been widely used e.g. In research, in quality inspection of products and raw materials. It is also used for follow up of the different industrial processes. A measuring and research environment, by which it is possible to determine the complex refractive index of liquid samples, was developed in 1996 at the Measuring Instrument laboratory of the University of Oulu. This equipment, based on the reflectance of light measures both the refractive index and absorption factor of liquids simultaneously. While the commercial refractometers are best suitable for research of clear liquids, by the developed equipment it is possible to investigate by the side of clear fluids also dark strongly light absorbing samples. The measuring wave length can be chosen continuously inside the UV-Visual range. The knowing of the wave-length dependence of the complex refractive index gives additional information on the state of the fluid under inspection. The main objective of the task is to solve measuring problems of biotechnology, food industry and forest industry by a new type of refractometric method. This means the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and absorption, and the utilisation of this knowledge in wide spectral region. A refractometer, based on the technology, suitable for applied research of new measuring targets will be designed and constructed in the research. The above mentioned goals also require the survey of the present situation of the refractometry. This one and a half year project will be started in spring 1998. (orig.)

  16. New experimental device for high-temperature normal spectral emissivity measurements of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnerová, Petra; Martan, Jiří; Kučera, Martin; Honner, Milan; Hameury, Jacques


    A new experimental device for normal spectral emissivity measurements of coatings in the infrared spectral range from 1.38 μm to 26 μm and in the temperature range from 550 K to 1250 K is presented. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is used for the detection of sample and blackbody spectral radiation. Sample heating is achieved by a fiber laser with a scanning head. Surface temperature is measured by two methods. The first method uses an infrared camera and a reference coating with known effective emissivity, the second method is based on the combination of Christiansen wavelength with contact and noncontact surface temperature measurement. Application of the method is shown on the example of a high-temperature high-emissivity coating. Experimental results obtained with this apparatus are compared with the results performed by a direct method of Laboratoire National d’Essais (LNE) in France. The differences in the spectra are analyzed. (paper)

  17. New Solar Soft X-Ray (SXR) Spectral Irradiance Measurements Bridge the SDO and RHESSI Spectral Gap to Study Flare Energetics (United States)

    Woods, T. N.; Jones, A.; Mason, J.; Moore, C.; Eparvier, F.; Caspi, A.; Chamberlin, P.


    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum is rich in many different emission lines that reveal plasma characteristics concerning active region evolution and explosive energy release during coronal eruptions. Solar EUV imagers, such as SDO AIA, provide insight into the location, thermal structure, and dynamics of the coronal eruptions and associated flares. In addition, the solar EUV spectral irradiance from SDO EVE, with its higher spectral resolution, provides more detailed thermal evolution of the eruption and has better characterized some aspects of the eruptions such as relationship of coronal dimming and mass loss and post-eruption coronal loop cooling. Complementary to SDO are hard x-ray (HXR) measurements by RHESSI that have clarified the initiation of energy release from magnetic reconnection in the corona. New solar soft x-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is now bridging this spectral gap between SDO EUV and RHESSI HXR observations. MinXSS-1 was deployed from the ISS in May 2016 for a 1-year mission, and MinXSS-2 is being launched in October 2016 for a 5-year mission. The energy release during solar flares is expected to peak in the SXR and thus the SXR has been monitored with GOES broadband photometers for decades, but there has been very limited SXR spectral measurements. With the new and unique MinXSS measurements of the SXR spectral variability during flares, coupled with solar SXR images from Hinode, EUV data from SDO, and HXR data from RHESSI, the processes for releasing energy during an eruption and affecting post-eruption thermal evolution can be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the new SXR spectral irradiance measurements can help improve the accuracy of broad band SXR measurements by GOES XRS, SDO EVE ESP, and XPS aboard TIMED and SORCE. Such improvements can lead to better understanding the solar impacts in Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere and how they might affect some of our space

  18. Validation of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) as a Screening Tool for Voice Disorders: Development of Clinical Cutoff Scores. (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Roy, Nelson; Zhang, Dong; Cohen, Seth M


    The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate the performance of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID--a multivariate estimate of dysphonia severity) as a potential screening tool for voice disorder identification and (2) identify potential clinical cutoff scores to classify voice-disordered cases versus controls. Subjects were 332 men and women (116 men, 216 women) comprised of subjects who presented to a physician with a voice-related complaint and a group of non-voice-related control subjects. Voice-disordered cases versus controls were initially defined via three reference standards: (1) auditory-perceptual judgment (dysphonia +/-); (2) Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score (VHI +/-); and (3) laryngoscopic description (laryngoscopic +/-). Speech samples were analyzed using the Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice program. Cepstral and spectral measures were combined into a CSID multivariate formula which estimated dysphonia severity for Rainbow Passage samples (i.e., the CSIDR). The ability of the CSIDR to accurately classify cases versus controls in relation to each reference standard was evaluated via a combination of logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The ability of the CSIDR to discriminate between cases and controls was represented by the "area under the ROC curve" (AUC). ROC classification of dysphonia-positive cases versus controls resulted in a strong AUC = 0.85. A CSIDR cutoff of ≈24 achieved the best balance between sensitivity and specificity, whereas a more liberal cutoff score of ≈19 resulted in higher sensitivity while maintaining respectable specificity which may be preferred for screening purposes. Weaker but adequate AUCs = 0.75 and 0.73 were observed for the classification of VHI-positive and laryngoscopic-positive cases versus controls, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that subject age may be a significant covariate in the discrimination of dysphonia-positive and VHI

  19. Ground-based measurements of UV Index (UVI at Helwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Farouk


    Full Text Available On October 2010 UV Index (UVI ground-based measurements were carried out by weather station at solar laboratory in NRIAG. The daily variation has maximum values in spring and summer days, while minimum values in autumn and winter days. The low level of UVI between 2.55 and 2.825 was found in December, January and February. The moderate level of UVI between 3.075 and 5.6 was found in March, October and November. The high level of UVI between 6.7 and 7.65 was found in April, May and September. The very high level of UVI between 8 and 8.6 was found in June, July and August. High level of radiation over 6 months per year including 3 months with a very high level UVI. According to the equation {UVI=a[SZA]b} the UVI increases with decreasing SZA by 82% on a daily scale and 88% on a monthly scale. Helwan exposure to a high level of radiation over 6 months per year including 3 months with a very high level UVI, so it is advisable not to direct exposure to the sun from 11 am to 2:00 pm.

  20. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John


    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  1. Measuring patients’ experiences with palliative care: the CQ-index palliative care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.J.; Francke, A.F.; Deliens, L.


    Aim: The CQ-index (Consumer Quality-index) is a standardized approach for measuring the quality of care from the perspective of care users. A CQ-index always combines 1. questions on actual care experiences and 2. questions on how important certain quality aspects are for respondents. The CQ-index

  2. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.


    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  3. A Fiberoptic Scalar Irradiance Microsensor - Application for Spectral Light Measurements in Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    The manufacturing of a new spherical fibreoptic microsensor is described. The microsensor measures scalar irradiance, i.e. the spherically integrated light at a point in space. The light collector of the probe was a 70-mu-m diffusing sphere cast on the tip of a 125-mu-m wide optical fibre tapered...... in sediments was measured at 100-mu-m spatial resolution. Light was available for photosynthesis near the sediment surface at a higher intensity and a different spectral composition than could be expected from the illumination. By the combination of oxygen microelectrodes and the present fibre...

  4. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger


    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  5. Leaf aging of Amazonian canopy trees as revealed by spectral and physiochemical measurements. (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, Cecilia; Malhi, Yadvinder; Wu, Jin; Asner, Gregory P; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Enquist, Brian J; Cosio Caravasi, Eric G; Doughty, Christopher E; Saleska, Scott R; Martin, Roberta E; Gerard, France F


    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby regulating ecosystem processes and remotely sensed canopy dynamics. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a spectra-based partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1099 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy trees in southern Peru. Results demonstrated monotonic decreases in leaf water (LWC) and phosphorus (P mass ) contents and an increase in leaf mass per unit area (LMA) with age across trees; leaf nitrogen (N mass ) and carbon (C mass ) contents showed monotonic but tree-specific age responses. We observed large age-related variation in leaf spectra across trees. A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R 2  = 0.86; percent root mean square error (%RMSE) = 33) compared with trait-based models using single (R 2  = 0.07-0.73; %RMSE = 7-38) and multiple (R 2  = 0.76; %RMSE = 28) predictors. Spectra- and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. Vegetation indices (VIs) including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and photosynthetic reflectance index (PRI) were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. A large-area, LED-based spectral response measurement system for solar PV device characterization (United States)

    Hamadani, Behrang; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard; Dougherty, Brian


    Accurate and reliable measurement of the spectral responsivity (SR) of a solar cell is an important step in evaluating the electrical performance of competing photovoltaic (PV) technologies. We have investigated ways to measure the spectral responsivity, and hence the external quantum efficiency, of solar cells using measurement techniques that employ light emitting diodes (LEDs). Our setup includes one or more plates of compactly-installed, high-powered LEDs each containing up to 32 different LEDs that span the wavelength range of 375 nm to 1200 nm. Each LED plate is placed at the entrance of a tapered, highly reflective light guide for light mixing and large-area projection. Two unique measurement techniques have been investigated at NIST. The first technique consists of an LED sweep algorithm where a pulsed signal is applied to a given LED and the photogenerated current from the device under test is recorded using a lock-in technique. In the second SR technique, 32 variable-frequency, pulsed signals are applied to all LEDs at the same time, while recording the photogenerated current by a spectrum analyzer in the frequency domain. We will describe the uniqueness and advantages offered by each technique in detail and compare the accuracy of the two methods. A scheme for providing light bias and its impact on the SR measurements will be reported.

  7. Online and official price indexes: Measuring Argentina's inflation


    Cavallo, Alberto F.


    Prices collected from online retailers can be used to construct daily price indexes that complement official statistics. This paper studies their ability to match official inflation estimates in five Latin American countries, with a focus on Argentina, where official statistics have been heavily criticized in recent years. The data were collected between October 2007 and March 2011 from the largest supermarket in each country. In Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela, online price indexes ap...

  8. How to Measure Globalisation? A New Globalisation Index (NGI)


    Vujakovic, Petra


    In this article, a new composite globalisation index will be presented. With its 21 variables, it accounts for the multidimensionality of this phenomenon instead of relying purely on economic indicators. As compared to other existing globalisation indices, three major innovations are introduced in this New Globalisation Index (NGI). Firstly, five variables that have until now not been used in globalisation indices enter the calculations. Secondly, geographical distances between countries are ...

  9. Measurement of renal index on X-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Takashi


    Morphological measurements of the kidney were made using X-CT images. Anteroposterior (AP) width of the kidney as well as the renal sinus on both right and left sides and the transverse width of the first lumbar vertebral body were measured from CT images. Changes according to age in AP width of the kidney and the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body were investigated. As to the ratio of the AP width of the kidney (both right and left) to the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body, and the ratio of the AP width of the kidney to the AP width of the renal sinus, the changes due to aging and the differences between male and female were studied. The average AP width of the right kidney was 47 mm, while that of the left kidney was 49 mm. The left kidney was slightly larger than the right kidney with statistical significance. In subjects up to 19 years of age, both the AP width of the kidney and the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body showed correlation with age, while after the age of 20, there was no age-related correlation. The average ratio of the AP width of the kidney to the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body was 1.13 for the right kidney and 1.19 for the left kidney. The difference between those two items was statistically significant and the changes due to aging were slight. During the age between 4 and 64 years, they were constant and no significant change was noticed. No difference between male and female was found. From the age of 65 years, a decreasing tendency was noticed. The ratios of AP width of the kidney to the AP width of renal sinus for both kidneys in males and females were found to be inversely correlated with age. They were similar to the changes due to aging in renal functions of the cortex system. On CT images, the ratio of AP width could be the index of both the size of the kidney and the thickness of the renal parenchyma respectively. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the spectral distribution of X-ray beams from measurements on the scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casnati, E.; Baraldi, C.


    Most of the phenomena activated by photons with energies below 100 keV show an apparent or real dependence on the quantum energy. Therefore, knowledge of the beam energy characteristics is of primary importance for interpretation of the irradiation results. The greatest difficulty arises from the high flux density of the beams usually employed which does not allow direct measurements of the beam. A method was developed which permits evaluation of the spectral distribution of the X-ray beam from a spectrometric measurement of the radiation scattered by a thin foil of a suitable metal. This makes possible a new and more rational approach to the measurement of X-rays in the energy range where the interaction parameters show a large photon energy dependence. The corrections required by the presence of some collateral effects, among which the most important is the coexistence of the coherent and incoherent scattering, must be evaluated. The knowledge of the spectral distribution is of immediate usefulness for studies of radiation damage in biological and other materials, for the calibration of radiation measuring instruments and for the improvement of the radiological instrumentation response which contributes to reducing the patient's dose. (H.K.)

  11. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Surface-Atmosphere Anisotropy for Several Surfaces and Ecosystem over Southern Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; King, M. D.; Tsay, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Li, J. Y.


    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) was flown aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft and took measurements on 23 flights between August 15 and September 16. On 12 of those flights, BRF measurements were obtained over different natural surfaces and ecosystem in southern Africa. The BRF measurements were done to characterize surface anisotropy in support of SAFARI 2000 science objectives principally to validate products from NASA's EOS satellites, and to parameterize and validate BRF models. In this paper we present results of BRFs taken over two EOS validation sites: Skukuza tower, South Africa (25.0 oS, 31.5 oE) and Mongu tower, Zambia (15.4 oS, 23.3 oE). Additional sites are also considered and include, Maun tower, Botswana (20.0 oS, 23.5 oE), Sowa Pan, Botswana (20.6 oS, 26.2 oE) and Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.0 oS, 16.0 oE). The CAR is capable of measuring scattered light in fourteen spectral bands. The scan mirror, rotating at 100 rpm, directs the light into a Dall-Kirkham telescope where the beam is split into nine paths. Eight light beams pass through beam splitters, dichroics, and lenses to individual detectors (0.34-1.27 μ m), and finally are registered by eight data channels. They are sampled simultaneously and continuously. The ninth beam passes through a spinning filter wheel to an InSb detector cooled by a Stirling cycle cooler. Signals registered by the ninth data channel are selected from among six spectral channels (1.55-2.30 μ m). The filter wheel can either cycle through all six spectral bands at a prescribed interval (usually changing filter every fifth scan line), or lock onto any one of the six spectral bands and sample it continuously. To measure the BRF of the surface-atmosphere system, the University of Washington CV-580 had to bank at a comfortable roll angle of ~20 o and fly in a circle about 3 km in diameter above the surface for roughly two minutes. Replicated observations (multiple circular orbits) were

  12. Contactless Spectral-dependent Charge Carrier Lifetime Measurements in Silicon Photovoltaic Materials (United States)

    Roller, John; Hamadani, Behrang; Dagenais, Mario

    Charge carrier lifetime measurements in bulk or unfinished photovoltaic (PV) materials allow for a more accurate estimate of power conversion efficiency in completed solar cells. In this work, carrier lifetimes in PV-grade silicon wafers are obtained by way of quasi-steady state photoconductance measurements. These measurements use a contactless RF system coupled with varying narrow spectrum input LEDs, ranging in wavelength from 460 nm to 1030 nm. Spectral dependent lifetime measurements allow for determination of bulk and surface properties of the material, including the intrinsic bulk lifetime and the surface recombination velocity. The effective lifetimes are fit to an analytical physics-based model to determine the desired parameters. Passivated and non-passivated samples are both studied and are shown to have good agreement with the theoretical model.

  13. Imaging Grating Spectrometer (I-GRASP) for Solar Soft X-Ray Spectral Measurements in Critically Under-Observed 0.5 - 7 nm Spectral Range (United States)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Thiemann, E.; Mason, J. P.


    We discuss science and technology advantages of the Imaging Grating Spectrometer (I-GRASP) based on a novel transmission diffracting grating (TDG) made possible by technology for fabricating Fresnel zone plates (ZPs) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Older version TDGs with 200 nm period available in the 1990s became a proven technology for providing 21 years of regular measurements of solar EUV irradiance. I-GRASP incorporates an advanced TDG with a grating period of 50 nm providing four times better diffraction dispersion than the 200 nm period gratings used in the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM, the SDO/EVE/ESP flight spectrophotometers, and the EVE/SAM sounding rocket channel. Such new technology for the TDG combined with a back-illuminated 2000 x 1504 CMOS image sensor with 7 micron pixels, will provide spatially-and-spectrally resolved images and spectra from individual Active Regions (ARs) and solar flares with high (0.15 nm) spectral resolution. Such measurements are not available in the spectral band from about 2 to 6 nm from existing or planned spectrographs and will be significantly important to study ARs and solar flare temperatures and dynamics, to improve existing spectral models, e.g. CHIANTI, and to better understand processes in the Earth's atmosphere processes. To test this novel technology, we have proposed to the NASA LCAS program an I-GRASP version for a sounding rocket flight to increase the TDG TRL to a level appropriate for future CubeSat projects.

  14. Measuring Localisation Regionally to Form a Bhutanese Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Olivier


    Full Text Available Localisation may be used as a strategy to remedy the harmful socio-ecological impacts of economic globalisation, and lead to improved sustainability achievements. This article describes the formation of a regional-level localisation index for the 20 districts of Bhutan, demonstrating a way to identify localised places using regionally specific data. Secondary source data were gathered in Bhutan according to localisation expert-identified metrics, which were then weighted, standardised, scored and ranked. This enabled the formation of a Bhutanese regional-level localisation index. The index may assist those seeking regional-level localisation case studies by enabling the identification of localised places in Bhutan. The article also summarises sustainability-planning interviews carried out across Bhutan to determine causal factors relating to localisation scores, in particular focusing on the top localisation-scoring district, Dagana. The interviews revealed that Bhutan is a highly localised country that has long and intentionally planned many aspects of localisation.

  15. Upwelling UV spectral irradiances and surface albedo measurements at Lauder, New Zealand (United States)

    McKenzie, R. L.; Kotkamp, M.; Ireland, W.

    Simultaneous measurements of upwelling and downwelling ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance were used to deduce the wavelength dependence and the solar zenith angle dependence of the albedo of the ground surface (long grass) at Lauder, New Zealand (45.05°S, 169.68°E). In the UVB region the deduced albedos are approximately 1%. At longer wavelengths the albedo increases to approximately 2% at 400 nm, and 4.5% at 450 nm. These albedos are significantly smaller than those generally quoted for the visible region. The deduced albedos tend to increase at larger solar zenith angles, demonstrating that the surface is not strictly Lambertian.

  16. Measurement of grating visibility of a fiber Bragg grating based on bent-spectral analysis. (United States)

    Gunawardena, Dinusha S; Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Ali, Muhammad M; Ahmad, Harith


    In this study, a technique for measuring the grating visibility of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on bent-spectral analysis is proposed. From varying ac and dc coupling coefficients at different bending radii, the grating visibility is estimated with the aid of a simple mathematical model. The investigation begins with the estimation of the grating visibility from the transmission spectra of the FBG during the inscription process. After that, the FBGs are subjected to a bending test with reducing radii, and again the transmission spectra are recorded. It is shown that the estimated grating visibility is in agreement with the result determined from the earlier inscription process.

  17. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Martin, John C.


    An apparatus and method simultaneously measures a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation. A modulatable birefringent optical element is employed to divide a polarized light beam into two components, thereby producing a phase difference in two resulting light beams such that the two beams can be made to interfere with one another when recombined, the interference pattern providing the wavelength information required for the analysis of the incident light. The interferometer thus created performs in a similar manner to a Michelson interferometer, but with no moving parts, and with a resolution dependent on the degree of phase shift introduced by the modulator.

  18. Geometric optimisation of an accurate cosine correcting optic fibre coupler for solar spectral measurement (United States)

    Cahuantzi, Roberto; Buckley, Alastair


    Making accurate and reliable measurements of solar irradiance is important for understanding performance in the photovoltaic energy sector. In this paper, we present design details and performance of a number of fibre optic couplers for use in irradiance measurement systems employing remote light sensors applicable for either spectrally resolved or broadband measurement. The angular and spectral characteristics of different coupler designs are characterised and compared with existing state-of-the-art commercial technology. The new coupler designs are fabricated from polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) rods and operate through forward scattering of incident sunlight on the front surfaces of the structure into an optic fibre located in a cavity to the rear of the structure. The PTFE couplers exhibit up to 4.8% variation in scattered transmission intensity between 425 nm and 700 nm and show minimal specular reflection, making the designs accurate and reliable over the visible region. Through careful geometric optimization near perfect cosine dependence on the angular response of the coupler can be achieved. The PTFE designs represent a significant improvement over the state of the art with less than 0.01% error compared with ideal cosine response for angles of incidence up to 50°.

  19. Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Burton


    Full Text Available The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired extensive datasets of aerosol extinction (532 nm, aerosol optical depth (AOD (532 nm, backscatter (532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm profiles during 18 field missions that have been conducted over North America since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, backscatter color ratio, and spectral depolarization ratio are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on observations of known aerosol types is used to qualitatively classify the extensive set of HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate types. Several examples are presented showing how the aerosol intensive parameters vary with aerosol type and how these aerosols are classified according to this new methodology. The HSRL-based classification reveals vertical variability of aerosol types during the NASA ARCTAS field experiment conducted over Alaska and northwest Canada during 2008. In two examples derived from flights conducted during ARCTAS, the HSRL classification of biomass burning smoke is shown to be consistent with aerosol types derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of particle size and composition. The HSRL retrievals of AOD and inferences of aerosol types are used to apportion AOD to aerosol type; results of this analysis are shown for several experiments.

  20. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica


    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  1. An index formula for measuring development in second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grade 12 compositions were analysed and the statistical procedures used in the analysis (correlation, stepwise regression and discriminant analysis) are described. The proposed index formula is Length x EFT/T. This formula can be used in future to determine developmental progress in second language acquisition, and ...

  2. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.


    The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)

  3. Spectral analysis of atmospheric composition: application to surface ozone model–measurement comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowdalo


    Full Text Available Models of atmospheric composition play an essential role in our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and in providing policy strategies to deal with societally relevant problems such as climate change, air quality, and ecosystem degradation. The fidelity of these models needs to be assessed against observations to ensure that errors in model formulations are found and that model limitations are understood. A range of approaches are necessary for these comparisons. Here, we apply a spectral analysis methodology for this comparison. We use the Lomb–Scargle periodogram, a method similar to a Fourier transform, but better suited to deal with the gapped data sets typical of observational data. We apply this methodology to long-term hourly ozone observations and the equivalent model (GEOS-Chem output. We show that the spectrally transformed observational data show a distinct power spectrum with regimes indicative of meteorological processes (weather, macroweather and specific peaks observed at the daily and annual timescales together with corresponding harmonic peaks at one-half, one-third, etc., of these frequencies. Model output shows corresponding features. A comparison between the amplitude and phase of these peaks introduces a new comparison methodology between model and measurements. We focus on the amplitude and phase of diurnal and seasonal cycles and present observational/model comparisons and discuss model performance. We find large biases notably for the seasonal cycle in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere where the amplitudes are generally overestimated by up to 16 ppbv, and phases are too late on the order of 1–5 months. This spectral methodology can be applied to a range of model–measurement applications and is highly suitable for Multimodel Intercomparison Projects (MIPs.

  4. Measurement of the Microwave Refractive Index of Materials Based on Parallel Plate Waveguides (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Pei, J.; Kan, J. S.; Zhao, Q.


    An electrical field scanning apparatus based on a parallel plate waveguide method is constructed, which collects the amplitude and phase matrices as a function of the relative position. On the basis of such data, a method for calculating the refractive index of the measured wedge samples is proposed in this paper. The measurement and calculation results of different PTFE samples reveal that the refractive index measured by the apparatus is substantially consistent with the refractive index inferred with the permittivity of the sample. The proposed refractive index calculation method proposed in this paper is a competitive method for the characterization of the refractive index of materials with positive refractive index. Since the apparatus and method can be used to measure and calculate arbitrary direction of the microwave propagation, it is believed that both of them can be applied to the negative refractive index materials, such as metamaterials or “left-handed” materials.

  5. X-ray Spectral Measurements of the JMAR High-Power Laser-plasma Source (United States)

    Whitlock, Robert R.; Dozier, Charles M.; Newman, Daniel A.; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Gaeta, Celestino J.; Cassidy, Kelly L.; Powers, Michael F.; Kleindolph, Thomas; Morris, James H.; Forber, Richard A.


    X-ray spectra of Cu plasmas at the focus of a four-beam, solid-state diode-pumped laser have been recorded. This laser-plasma X-ray source is being developed for JMAR's lithography systems aimed at high- performance semiconductor integrated circuits. The unique simultaneous overlay of the four sub-nanosecond laser beams at 300 Hertz produces a bright, point-plasma X-ray source. PIN diode measurements of the X-ray output indicate that the conversion efficiency (ratio of X-ray emission energy into 2π steradians to incident laser energy) was approximately 9 percent with average X-ray power yields of greater than 10 Watts. Spectra were recorded on calibrated Kodak DEF film in a curved-crystal spectrograph. A KAP crystal (2d = 26.6 Angstroms) was used to disperse the 900 eV to 3000 eV spectral energies onto the film. Preliminary examination of the films indicated the existence of Cu and Cu XX ionization states. Additional spectra as a function of laser input power were also recorded to investigate potential changes in X-ray yields. These films are currently being analyzed. The analysis of the spectra provide absolute line and continuum intensities, and total X-ray output in the measured spectral range.

  6. Magnetic field amplitude and pitch angle measurements using Spectral MSE on EAST (United States)

    Liao, Ken; Rowan, William; Fu, Jia; Li, Ying-Ying; Lyu, Bo; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Ralchenko, Yuri


    We have developed the Spectral Motional Stark Effect technique for measuring magnetic field amplitude and pitch angle on EAST. The experiments were conducted using the tangential co-injection heating beam at A port and Beam Emission Spectroscopy array at D port. A spatial calibration of the observation channels was conducted before the campaign. As a first check, the measured magnetic field amplitude was compared to prediction. Since the toroidal field is dominant, we recovered the expected 1/R shape over the spatial range 1.75account the effect of the Lorentz field was used to predict the beam populations. The initial comparison is to an EFIT reconstruction. We are investigating sources of errors using a combination of simulations and calibrations arising from hardware non-idealities and approximations in the analysis. We are also investigating improvements in the EAST spectral MSE diagnostic. Supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award DE-SC0010500, National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2015GB103003 and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11605242).

  7. Cuvette and method for measuring refractive index in a spectrophotometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Embodiments of the present invention include a cuvette (100) for use in determining a refractive index of a sample matter in a spectrophotometer (600), the cuvette comprising a container (102) for holding the sample matter, the container (102) having an entry window (121) that allows input...... or integrally formed in the container and arranged in the radiation path, the photonic crystal having a grating part (111) causing a reflectance spectrum of the photonic crystal to exhibit a resonance. A spectrophotometer is also provided....

  8. Measuring the Multinational Business Value – An indexing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research project aims to present a comparative analysis of countries related to the value of their MNCs in the global arena. The study works in secondary data analysis using as a platform the Forbes Global 2000 list, which is maybe the best source explaining the presence of MNCs by country. This research goes beyond the information provided by the original list, offering an index and information about the number of corporations per country as well as their value (number of corpora-tions per country, their position in the ranking and the weight obtained by each company expressed in numerical value. Also the index obtained has been adjusted to the population of each country to determine which one should be the expected value per country from a more realistic perspective. An analysis of cultural clus-ters and trading zones has been applied as well. Finally, a calculation of the dif-ferent sectors where MNCs operate give the index the possibility to estimate the % of penetration or importance of the services and financial sector in each country and in the world.

  9. Exploiting High Resolution Multi-Seasonal Textural Measures and Spectral Information for Reedbed Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Okiemute Onojeghuo


    Full Text Available Reedbeds across the UK are amongst the most important habitats for rare and endangered birds, wildlife and organisms. However, over the past century, this valued wetland habitat has experienced a drastic reduction in quality and spatial coverage due to pressures from human related activities. To this end, conservation organisations across the UK have been charged with the task of conserving and expanding this threatened habitat. With this backdrop, the study aimed to develop a methodology for accurate reedbed mapping through the combined use of multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information contained in high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery. The key objectives were to determine the most effective single-date (autumn or summer and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery suitable for reedbed mapping over the study area; to evaluate the effectiveness of combining multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information for reedbed mapping using a variety of combinations; and to evaluate the most suitable classification technique for reedbed mapping from three selected classification techniques, namely maximum likelihood classifier, spectral angular mapper and artificial neural network. Using two selected grey-level co-occurrence textural measures (entropy and angular second moment, a series of experiments were conducted using varied combinations of single-date and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery. Overall, the results indicate the multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral bands (eight layers combined with all eight grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measures (entropy and angular second moment computed using windows 3 × 3 and 7 × 7 produced the optimal reedbed (76.5% and overall classification (78.1% accuracies using the maximum likelihood classifier technique. Using the optimal 16 layer multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral and texture combined image dataset, a total reedbed area of 9.8 hectares was successfully mapped over the

  10. Homodyne chiral polarimetry for measuring thermo-optic refractive index variations. (United States)

    Twu, Ruey-Ching; Wang, Jhao-Sheng


    Novel reflection-type homodyne chiral polarimetry is proposed for measuring the refractive index variations of a transparent plate under thermal impact. The experimental results show it is a simple and useful method for providing accurate measurements of refractive index variations. The measurement can reach a resolution of 7×10-5.

  11. Development of the Eating Choices Index (ECI): a four-item index to measure healthiness of diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Richards, M.; Prynne, C.J.; Stephen, AM


    Objective Current indices of diet quality generally include intakes of specific foods or nutrients. We sought to develop an index that discriminates healthy and unhealthy eating choices for use in large surveys as a short questionnaire and as a measure in existing studies with adequate dietary data.

  12. Counter-Propagating Optical Trapping System for Size and Refractive Index Measurement of Microparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Richard A; Shao, Bing; Chachisvilis, Mirianas; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Esener, Sadik C


    .... Different from the current best technique for microparticles refractive index measurement, refractometry, a bulk technique requiring changing the fluid composition of the sample, our optical trap...

  13. Accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance between 4000-10000 cm-1 (United States)

    Elsey, J.; Coleman, M. D.; Gardiner, T.; Shine, K. P.


    The near-infrared solar spectral irradiance (SSI) is an important input into simulations of weather and climate; the distribution of energy throughout this region of the spectrum influences atmospheric heating rates and the global hydrological cycle through absorption and scattering by water vapour. Current measurements by a mixture of ground-based and space-based instruments show differences of around 10% in the 4000-7000 cm-1 region, with no resolution to this controversy in sight. This work presents observations of SSI taken using a ground-based Fourier Transform spectrometer between 4000-10000 cm-1 at a field site in Camborne, UK, with particular focus on a rigorously defined uncertainty budget. While there is good agreement between this work and the commonly-used ATLAS3 spectrum between 7000-10000 cm-1, the SSI is systematically lower by 10% than ATLAS3 between 4000-7000 cm-1, with no overlap within the k = 2 measurement uncertainties.

  14. Neutron activation system for spectral measurements of pulsed ion diode neutron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.; Kruse, L.W.


    A neutron energy spectrometer has been developed to study intense ion beam-target interactions in the harsh radiation environment of a relativistic electron beam source. The main component is a neutron threshold activation system employing two multiplexed high efficiency Ge(Li) detectors, an annihilation gamma coincidence system, and a pneumatic sample transport. Additional constraints on the neutron spectrum are provided by total neutron yield and time-of-flight measurements. A practical lower limit on the total neutron yield into 4π required for a spectral measurement with this system is approx. 10 10 n where the neutron yield is predominantly below 4 MeV and approx. 10 8 n when a significant fraction of the yield is above 4 MeV. Applications of this system to pulsed ion diode neutron production experiments on Hermes II are described

  15. A brute-force spectral approach for wave estimation using measured vessel motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; Brodtkorb, Astrid H.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.


    , and the procedure is simple in its mathematical formulation. The actual formulation is extending another recent work by including vessel advance speed and short-crested seas. Due to its simplicity, the procedure is computationally efficient, providing wave spectrum estimates in the order of a few seconds......The article introduces a spectral procedure for sea state estimation based on measurements of motion responses of a ship in a short-crested seaway. The procedure relies fundamentally on the wave buoy analogy, but the wave spectrum estimate is obtained in a direct - brute-force - approach......, and the estimation procedure will therefore be appealing to applications related to realtime, onboard control and decision support systems for safe and efficient marine operations. The procedure's performance is evaluated by use of numerical simulation of motion measurements, and it is shown that accurate wave...

  16. Aerosol Profile Measurements from the NASA Langley Research Center Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (United States)

    Obland, Michael D.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John W.; Roers, Raymond R.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.


    Since achieving first light in December of 2005, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been involved in seven field campaigns, accumulating over 450 hours of science data across more than 120 flights. Data from the instrument have been used in a variety of studies including validation and comparison with the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite mission, aerosol property retrievals combining passive and active instrument measurements, aerosol type identification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud top and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height determinations. Measurements and lessons learned from the HSRL are leading towards next-generation HSRL instrument designs that will enable even further studies of aerosol intensive and extensive parameters and the effects of aerosols on the climate system. This paper will highlight several of the areas in which the NASA Airborne HSRL is making contributions to climate science.

  17. High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyan; Matsui, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Nubuo


    We develop high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) using an iodine absorption filter and a narrow-band Nd:YAG laser with high-frequency-doubled output and use it for atmospheric measurements at the National Institute for Environmental Studies. The lidar system separates Doppler-broadened molecular scattering and unbroadened aerosol scattering components of the backscattered laser light, consequently providing direct measurements of these two signals. Due to stable and strong absorption at room temperature, iodine absorption filters are easy to use and they enable high rejection against aerosol scattering with a short length. The measurement principle with an error analysis and the system construction of the HSRL are described. Examples of aerosol and cloud observations made by the HSRL are also presented. The experimental results indicate that the HSRL is a powerful tool for quantitatively measuring aerosol and cloud optical properties. The use of a high-output laser gives our system the ability to provide stratospheric observations. We also present the HSRL measurements of the stratospheric temperature and backscatter profiles with better resolutions in both range and time. An example of temperature and backscatter measurements is shown for the altitude range from approximately 10 to approximately 40 km with a vertical resolution of 300 m and an integrated time of approximately 2 h.

  18. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro


    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  19. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachorro, V.E.; Vergaz, R.; Martin, M.J.; Frutos, A.M. de [Grupo de Optica Atmosferica, Univ. de Valladolid (GOA-UVA), Valladolid (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M.; Morena, B. de la [Estacion de Sondeos Atmosfericos ESAT ' ' El Arenosillo' ' , INTA, Huelva (Spain)


    We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company) covering the range from 300-1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cadiz (southwest Spain) of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Aangstroem turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behavior of these estimations in each area of study. (orig.)

  20. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  1. Effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Kuppuswamy Parthasarathy


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects were included from the normative study of foveal morphology carried out at our hospital. Subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and macular scanning using Cirrus high-definition OCT and axial length (AXL measurement. Macular cube 512 × 128 scan protocol was used for scanning the macula. Automated measurements of the fovea namely foveal diameter, foveal slope (lateral measurements and foveal depth (axial measurement were taken. A correction factor for ocular magnification was done using the formula t = p × q × s, where "t0" is the corrected measurement, "p" is the magnification of OCT, "q0" is the ocular magnification, and "s" is the measurement on OCT without correction. The difference between corrected and uncorrected measurements was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: Mean AXL was 22.95 ± 0.78 mm. Refractive error ranged from −3D to +4D. Mean difference between measured and corrected foveal diameter, slope and depth was 166.05 ± 95.37 ΅m (P < 0.001, 0.81° ± 0.53° (P < 0.001 and 0.05 ± 0.49 ΅m (P = 0.178 respectively. AXL lesser than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm showed an increased foveal diameter (r = 0.961, P < 0.001 and a reduced foveal slope (r = −0.863, P < 0.001 than the corrected value. Conclusion: Lateral measurements made on OCT varied with AXL s other than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm. Therefore, to estimate the actual dimensions of a retinal lesion using OCT, especially lateral dimensions, we recommend correction for the ocular magnification factor.

  2. 2D Spatial Frequency Considerations in Comparing 1D Power Spectral Density Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Barber, S.; Church, E.L.; Kaznatcheev, K.; McKinney, W.R.; Yashchuk, V.Y.


    The frequency footprint of ID and 2D profiling instruments needs to be carefully considered in comparing ID surface roughness spectrum measurements made by different instruments. Contributions from orthogonal direction frequency components can not be neglected. The use of optical profiling instruments is ubiquitous in the measurement of the roughness of optical surfaces. Their ease-of-use and non-contact measurement method found widespread use in the optics industry for measuring the quality of delicate optical surfaces. Computerized digital data acquisition with these instruments allowed for quick and easy calculation of surface roughness statistics, such as root-mean-square (RMS) roughness. The computing power of the desktop computer allowed for the rapid conversion of spatial domain data into the frequency domain, enabling the application of sophisticated signal processing techniques to be applied to the analysis of surface roughness, the most powerful of which is the power spectral density (PSP) function. Application of the PSD function to surface statistics introduced the concept of 'bandwidth-limited' roughness, where the value of the RMS roughness depends critically upon the spatial frequency response of the instrument. Different instruments with different spatial frequency response characteristics give different answers when measuring the same surface.

  3. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson


    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  4. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua


    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  5. NASA LaRC airborne high spectral resolution lidar aerosol measurements during MILAGRO: observations and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kleinman


    Full Text Available The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL measures vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization at both 532 nm and 1064 nm. In March of 2006 the HSRL participated in the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO campaign along with several other suites of instruments deployed on both aircraft and ground based platforms. This paper presents high spatial and vertical resolution HSRL measurements of aerosol extinction and optical depth from MILAGRO and comparisons of those measurements with similar measurements from other sensors and model predictions. HSRL measurements coincident with airborne in situ aerosol scattering and absorption measurements from two different instrument suites on the C-130 and G-1 aircraft, airborne aerosol optical depth (AOD and extinction measurements from an airborne tracking sunphotometer on the J-31 aircraft, and AOD from a network of ground based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sun photometers are presented as a validation of the HSRL aerosol extinction and optical depth products. Regarding the extinction validation, we find bias differences between HSRL and these instruments to be less than 3% (0.01 km−1 at 532 nm, the wavelength at which the HSRL technique is employed. The rms differences at 532 nm were less than 50% (0.015 km−1. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive validation of the HSRL measurement of aerosol extinction and optical depth to date. The observed bias differences in ambient aerosol extinction between HSRL and other measurements is within 15–20% at visible wavelengths, found by previous studies to be the differences observed with current state-of-the-art instrumentation (Schmid et al., 2006.

  6. Dopamine sensing and measurement using threshold and spectral measurements in random lasers. (United States)

    Wan Ismail, Wan Zakiah; Liu, Guozhen; Zhang, Kai; Goldys, Ewa M; Dawes, Judith M


    We developed a novel dopamine sensing and measurement technique based on aggregation of gold nanoparticles in random lasers. Dopamine combined with copper ions triggers the aggregation of gold nanoparticles and thus affects the performance of random lasers. Dopamine sensing can be achieved using four parameters which are sensitive to the presence of dopamine, that is emission peak shift, emission linewidth, signal-to-noise ratio (peak emission intensity / noise) and random lasing threshold. The dopamine is most sensitively detected by a change in the emission linewidth with a limit of detection of 1 × 10(-7) M, as well as by an increase in the lasing threshold. The dopamine concentration from 1 × 10(-7) M to 1 × 10(-2) M can be determined by calibrating with the laser threshold.

  7. Measurement and analysis of environmental gamma radiation using the spectral weighting function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Shigeru


    JAERI has developed a dose evaluation method using a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector and a spectral weighting function for low-level gamma rays in the environment. This method has the following advantages : (a) the detection efficiency is high ; (b) information on energy spectra can be used ; (c) the method is easily applied to the estimation of effective dose equivalent ; and (d) small and highly efficient instruments using this method can be produced because of recent development of IC technique. In this paper, the principle of the method, derivation of the weighting function, and the practical application of this method to the environmental measuring instruments are described. Further, the characteristics of dose rates in the urban environments examined with a portable dose rate meter using this method are briefly explained. (author)

  8. Spectral Properties of Coniferous Forests: A Review of In Situ and Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Rautiainen


    Full Text Available Coniferous species are present in almost all major vegetation biomes on Earth, though they are the most abundant in the northern hemisphere, where they form the northern tree and forest lines close to the Arctic Circle. Monitoring coniferous forests with satellite and airborne remote sensing is active, due to the forests’ great ecological and economic importance. We review the current understanding of spectral behavior of different components forming coniferous forests. We look at the spatial, directional, and seasonal variations in needle, shoot, woody element, and understory spectra in coniferous forests, based on measurements. Through selected case studies, we also demonstrate how coniferous canopy spectra vary at different spatial scales, and in different viewing angles and seasons. Finally, we provide a synthesis of gaps in the current knowledge on spectra of elements forming coniferous forests that could also serve as a recommendation for planning scientific efforts in the future.

  9. XA readout chip characteristics and CdZnTe spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, L.M.; Birsa, F.; Odom, J.


    The authors report on the performance of a CdZnTe (CZT) array readout by an XA (X-ray imaging chip produced at the AMS foundry) application specific readout chip (ASIC). The array was designed and fabricated at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as a prototype for the Burst Arc-Second Imaging and Spectroscopy gamma-ray instrument. The XA ASIC was obtained from Integrated Detector and Electronics (IDE), in Norway. Performance characteristics and spectral data for 241 Am are presented both at room temperature and at -20 C. The measured noise (σ) was 2.5 keV at 60 keV at room temperature. This paper represents a progress report on work with the XA ASIC and CZT detectors. Work is continuing and in particular, larger arrays are planned for future NASA missions

  10. Correlation and spectral measurements of fluctuating pressures and velocities in annular turbulent flow. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.J.; Jones, B.G.; Roy, R.P.


    An experimental study of the fluctuating velocity field, the fluctuating static wall pressure and the in-stream fluctuating static pressure in an annular turbulent air flow system with a radius ratio of 4.314 has been conducted. The study included direct measurements of the mean velocity profile, turbulent velocity field; fluctuating static wall pressure and in-stream fluctuating static pressure from which the statistical values of the turbulent intensity levels, power spectral densities of the turbulent quantities, the cross-correlation between the fluctuating static wall pressure and the fluctuating static pressure in the core region of the flow and the cross-correlation between the fluctuating static wall pressure and the fluctuating velocity field in the core region of the flow were obtained.

  11. Validation of a Spectral Method for Quantitative Measurement of Color in Protein Drug Solutions. (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Swartz, Trevor E; Zhang, Jian; Patapoff, Thomas W; Chen, Bartolo; Marhoul, Joseph; Shih, Norman; Kabakoff, Bruce; Rahimi, Kimia


    A quantitative spectral method has been developed to precisely measure the color of protein solutions. In this method, a spectrophotometer is utilized for capturing the visible absorption spectrum of a protein solution, which can then be converted to color values (L*a*b*) that represent human perception of color in a quantitative three-dimensional space. These quantitative values (L*a*b*) allow for calculating the best match of a sample's color to a European Pharmacopoeia reference color solution. In order to qualify this instrument and assay for use in clinical quality control, a technical assessment was conducted to evaluate the assay suitability and precision. Setting acceptance criteria for this study required development and implementation of a unique statistical method for assessing precision in 3-dimensional space. Different instruments, cuvettes, protein solutions, and analysts were compared in this study. The instrument accuracy, repeatability, and assay precision were determined. The instrument and assay are found suitable for use in assessing color of drug substances and drug products and is comparable to the current European Pharmacopoeia visual assessment method. In the biotechnology industry, a visual assessment is the most commonly used method for color characterization, batch release, and stability testing of liquid protein drug solutions. Using this method, an analyst visually determines the color of the sample by choosing the closest match to a standard color series. This visual method can be subjective because it requires an analyst to make a judgment of the best match of color of the sample to the standard color series, and it does not capture data on hue and chroma that would allow for improved product characterization and the ability to detect subtle differences between samples. To overcome these challenges, we developed a quantitative spectral method for color determination that greatly reduces the variability in measuring color and allows

  12. What Should an Index of School Segregation Measure? (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca; Vignoles, Anna


    The article aims to make a methodological contribution to the education segregation literature, providing a critique of previous measures of segregation used in the literature, as well as suggesting an alternative approach to measuring segregation. Specifically, the paper examines Gorard, Fitz and Taylor's finding that social segregation between…

  13. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto


    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  14. Online Dialogue Measurement Index – A Measurement of the Dialogic Orientation of Organizations in the Online Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    is to develop an Online Dialogue Measurement Index to measure online dialogue orientation. Dialogue orientation is the direction that dialogue can take based on organizational aims for promoting dialogue, the setting where dialogue takes place and the underlying conversational processes. The index is based...... on an interdisciplinary conceptualization of dialogue that was developed through a close reading of main studies on dialogue in management, corporate communication, public relations and conversational analysis literatures. The paper presents the index, the results of a pilot test conducted to validate the index scale...

  15. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.


    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  16. Factors affecting the accuracy of a NIR spectral system for measuring milk constituents (United States)

    Wang, LiJie; Guo, Jianying; Xu, KeXin


    In this paper, a NIR Spectral System based on Acoustic Optical Tunable Filter (AOTF) was developed for measuring milk constituents. Factors affecting the repeatability of measuring spectra of the system were analyzed by using the transmitted spectra of Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) sterilized milk. Orthogonal experimental design method was employed to determine the significance level of these factors and the optimal condition for measuring spectra of the system. It is concluded that the crucial factor affecting the spectra repeatability is the ambient temperature. Further temperature testing results show that, when the environmental condition is basically invariant, the temperature of the AOTF crystal is basically constant and the drifting amplitude of wave number is within 0.5cm-1, when the ambient temperature varies, the temperature of AOTF crystal changes correspondingly. The drifting of wave number is about 1cm-1 when the temperature of AOTF crystal changes 1°C. It is found that the wave number drifting increases with decreasing temperature of AOTF crystal. These testing results are of important significance to further improve the measuring accuracy of the system.

  17. Measurement of Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Using Interferometric System (United States)

    Corsetti, James A.; Green, William E.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Schmidt, Greg R.; Moore, Duncan T.


    A system combining an interferometer with an environmental chamber for measuring both coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and temperature-dependent refractive index (dn/dT) simultaneously is presented. The operation and measurement results of this instrument are discussed.

  18. Determination of tropospheric aerosol characteristics by spectral measurements of solar radiation using a compact, stand-alone spectroradiometer. (United States)

    Manago, Naohiro; Kuze, Hiroaki


    We developed a method for characterizing atmospheric properties from ground-based, spectral measurements of direct and scattered solar radiation under clear sky conditions. A compact spectroradiometer is employed for radiation measurement in the wavelength range between 350 and 1050 nm with a resolution of 10 nm. Spectral matching of measured and simulated spectra yields a set of optical parameters that describe optical characteristics of tropospheric aerosols. We utilize the radiative transfer code MODTRAN4 for constructing realistic atmospheric models. Details of the system calibration, analysis procedure, and the results of its performance test are described.

  19. Measurement of the lepton {tau} spectral functions and applications to quantum chromodynamic; Mesure des fonctions spectrales du lepton {tau} et applications a la chromodynamique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, A. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire]|[Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)


    This thesis presents measurements of the {tau} vector (V) and axial-vector (A) hadronic spectral functions and phenomenological studies in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Using the hypothesis of conserved vector currents (CVC), the dominant two- and four-pion vector spectral functions are compared to the corresponding cross sections from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. A combined fit of the pion form factor from {tau} decays and e{sup +}e{sup -} data is performed using different parametrizations. The mass and the width of the {rho}{sup {+-}}(770) and the {rho}{sup 0}(770) are separately determined in order to extract possible isospin violating effects. The mass and width differences are measured to be M{sub {rho}{sup {+-}}{sub (770)} - M{sub {rho}{sup 0}}{sub (770)}=(0.0{+-}1.0) MeV/c{sup 2} and {gamma}{sub {rho}{sup {+-}}{sub (770)} - {gamma}{sub {rho}{sup 0}}{sub (770)}=(0.1 {+-} 1.9) MeV/c{sup 2}. Several QCD chiral sum rules involving the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions are compared to their measurements. The Borel-transformed Das-Mathur-Okubo sum rule is used to measure the pion polarizability to be {alpha}{sub E}=(2.68{+-}0.91) x 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}. The {tau} vector and axial-vector hadronic widths and certain spectral moments are exploited to measure {alpha}{sub s} and non-perturbative contributions at the {tau} mass scale. The best, and experimentally and theoretically most robust, determination of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub {tau}}) is obtained from the inclusive (V + A) fit that yields {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub {tau}})= 0.348{+-}0.017 giving {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1211 {+-} 0.0021 after the evolution to the mass of the Z boson. The approach of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is tested experimentally by means of an evolution of the {tau} hadronic width to masses smaller that the {tau} mass. Using the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions allows one to directly measure the dominant non-perturbative OPE dimension to be D=6

  20. Z factor: a new index for measuring academic research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min


    Full Text Available Abstract With rapid progress in scientific research activities and growing competition for funding resources, it becomes critical to effectively evaluate an individual researcher's annual academic performance, or their cumulative performance within the last 3–5 years. It is particularly important for young independent investigators, and is also useful for funding agencies when determining the productivity and quality of grant awardees. As the funding becomes increasingly limited, having an unbiased method of measuring recent performance of an individual scientist is clearly needed. Here I propose the Z factor, a new and useful way to measure recent academic performance.

  1. Comparisons Between Model Predictions and Spectral Measurements of Charged and Neutral Particles on the Martian Surface (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; hide


    Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012. RAD is a particle detector that measures the energy spectrum of charged particles (10 to approx. 200 MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (approx 8 to 200 MeV). The data obtained on the surface of Mars for 300 sols are compared to the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used. For describing the daily column depth of atmosphere, daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) are implemented into transport calculations. Particle flux at RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere depends on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD "E" dosimetry detector by the rest of the instrument. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and suggest that future radiation environments on Mars can be predicted accurately. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to astronauts for the planning of various mission scenarios

  2. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff


    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  3. Comparison of TOMS retrievals and UVMRP measurements of surface spectral UV radiation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xu


    Full Text Available Surface noontime spectral ultraviolet (UV irradiances during May-September of 2000–2004 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS satellite retrievals are systematically compared with the ground measurements at 27 climatological sites maintained by the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program. The TOMS retrievals are evaluated by two cloud screening methods and local air quality conditions to determine their bias dependencies on spectral bands, cloudiness, aerosol loadings, and air pollution. Under clear-sky conditions, TOMS retrieval biases vary from −3.4% (underestimation to 23.6% (overestimation. Averaged over all sites, the relative mean biases for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm are respectively 15.4, 7.9, 7.6, and 7.0% (overestimation. The bias enhancement for 305 nm by approximately twice that of other bands likely results from absorption by gaseous pollutants (SO2, O3, and aerosols that are not included in the TOMS algorithm. For all bands, strong positive correlations of the TOMS biases are identified with aerosol optical depth, which explains nearly 50% of the variances of TOMS biases. The more restrictive in-situ cloud screening method reduces the biases by 3.4–3.9% averaged over all sites. This suggests that the TOMS biases from the in-situ cloud contamination may account for approximately 25% for 305 nm and 50% for other bands of the total bias. The correlation coefficients between total-sky and clear-sky biases across 27 sites are 0.92, 0.89, 0.83, and 0.78 for 305, 311, 325, and 368 nm, respectively. The results show that the spatial characteristics of the TOMS retrieval biases are systematic, representative of both clear and total-sky conditions.

  4. Symmetry of retinal parameters measured by spectral-domain OCT in normal young adults. (United States)

    Dalgliesh, James D; Tariq, Yasser M; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul


    To determine interocular differences in retinal parameters in a population of young adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. In the Sydney Adolescent Vascular Eye Study, young adults aged 16 to 19 years received a standardized eye examination encompassing retinal photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and best-corrected visual acuity. Interocular differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular parameters together with sex and ethnic variations for these differences were determined. In the 1500 subjects tested, right eyes had thicker average RNFL than left eyes (0.3 μm, P=0.0074). There were no significant interocular differences in central macular or macular cube average thickness. After adjusting for interocular difference in axial length, right eyes had slightly smaller total macular volume than left eyes (-0.0082 mm, P=0.008). The 2.5% to 97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9.3 μm for average RNFL, 8 μm for average macular thickness, and 0.20 mm for total macular volume. In the outer inferior quadrant, there was a greater macular thickness asymmetry in females than males (-0.7 μm, P=0.037). In the inferior RNFL quadrant (-2.6 μm, P=0.0013) and in the outer inferior macular quadrant (1.6 μm, P=0.0018), white individuals had greater symmetry than East Asians. In this study, we report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and macular parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in healthy young adults.

  5. Measurement of refractive index of biaxial potassium titanyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports the measurement of refractive indices and anisotropic absorption coefficients of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal in the form of thin plate using reflection ellipsometry technique. This experiment is designed in the Graduate Optics Laboratory of the Addis Ababa University and He–Ne laser ...

  6. Measurement of refractive index of biaxial potassium titanyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports the measurement of refractive indices and anisotropic ab- sorption coefficients of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal in the form of thin plate using reflection ellipsometry technique. This experiment is designed in the. Graduate Optics Laboratory of the Addis Ababa University and ...

  7. Measuring Access to Public Archives and Developing an Access Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reason for the existence of national archival institutions and, indeed, archives is to preserve and give access to the national cultural heritage. The level of access to archives may be used as a measure to establish how far the archives have been taken to the people. One of the National Archives of Zimbabwe‟s strategic ...

  8. Simulation study of the aerosol information content in OMI spectral reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Veihelmann


    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer and is designed and used primarily to retrieve trace gases like O3 and NO2 from the measured Earth reflectance spectrum in the UV-visible (270–500 nm. However, also aerosols are an important science target of OMI. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectral reflectance measurements in up to 20 wavelength bands. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA is performed to quantify the information content of OMI reflectance measurements on aerosols and to assess the capability of the multi-wavelength algorithm to discern various aerosol types. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for desert dust, biomass burning aerosols, and weakly absorbing anthropogenic aerosol with a variety of aerosol optical thicknesses, aerosol layer altitudes, refractive indices and size distributions. The range of aerosol parameters considered covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. This theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum is accurately known and clouds are absent, OMI reflectance measurements have 2 to 4 degrees of freedom that can be attributed to aerosol parameters. This information content depends on the observation geometry and the surface albedo spectrum. An additional wavelength band is evaluated, that comprises the O2-O2 absorption band at a wavelength of 477 nm. It is found that this wavelength band adds significantly more information than any other individual band.

  9. Correlation of dose rate and spectral measurements in the Inner Van Allen Belt. (United States)

    Thede, A L; Radke, G E


    Dose rate measurements and the charged particle environment of the Inner Van Allen Belt have been correlated using recent data obtained from the radiation research satellite, OV3-4. Six tissue equivalent ionization chambers, constructed of a material which simulates the muscle tissue response to ionizing radiation, measured the dose rate behind various types and thicknesses of material. The specific shields used for several of the chambers were 0.192 g/cm2 aluminum, 0.797 g/cm2 Lucite and 4.485 g/cm2 brass. The proton and electron spectra were determined with an omnidirectional spectrometer using solid state detectors. The spectral measurements discussed here include geomagnetically trapped protons with energies in the range of 15 to 200 MeV. The proton spectra and dose rates are presented as profiles in terms of the McIlwain parameters of L (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 earth radii) and the magnetic field B (0.050 to 0.250 gauss). The excellent agreement between the measured dose rate and the theoretically predicted dose rate based on the measured spectra provides justification for the radiation transport techniques now being employed to predict the doses to be encountered during future manned space missions. It was found, however, that a more adequate description of the proton fluxes for energies greater than 50 MeV will be necessary to predict dose rate accurately behind shields of 2.5 g/cm2 thickness or greater.

  10. How to Distinguish Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray Binaries? Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nickolai


    Recent studies have revealed strong correlations between 1-10 Hz frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several Black Hole (BH) candidate sources when seen in the low/hard state, the steep power-law (soft) state, and in transition between these states. In the soft state these index-QPO frequency correlations show a saturation of the photon index GAMMA approximately equal to 2.7 at high values of the low frequency nu(sub L). This saturation effect was previously identified as a black hole signature. In this paper we argue that this saturation does not occur, at least for one neutron star (NS) source 4U 1728-34, for which the index GAMMA monotonically increases with nu(sub L) to the values of 6 and higher. We base this conclusion on our analysis of approximately 1.5 Msec of RXTE archival data for 4U 1728-34. We reveal the spectral evolution of the Comptonized blackbody spectra when the source transitions from the hard to soft states. The hard state spectrum is a typical thermal Comptonization spectrum of the soft photons which originate in the disk and the NS outer photospheric layers. The hard state photon index is GAMMA approximately 2. The soft state spectrum consists of two blackbody components which are only slightly Comptonized. Thus we can claim (as expected from theory) that in NS sources thermal equilibrium is established for the soft state. To the contrary in BH sources, the equilibrium is never established due to the presence of the BH horizon. The emergent BH spectrum, even in the high/soft state, has a power law component. We also identify the low QPO frequency nu(sub L) as a fundamental frequency of the quasi-spherical component of the transition layer (presumably related to the corona and the NS and disk magnetic closed field lines). The lower frequency nu(sub SL) is identified as the frequency of oscillations of a quasi-cylindrical configuration of the TL (presumably related to the NS and disk magnetic

  11. Estimating Cloud and Aerosol UV Modification Factors Based on Spectral Measurement from the Brewer Spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Seo Park


    Full Text Available Cloud and aerosol modification factors are investigated in the spectral range of ultraviolet (UV to correct for cloud and aerosol extinction effects from clear sky irradiance. The cloud modification factor (CMF and aerosol modification factor (AMF are estimated using radiative transfer model (RTM simulations and ground-based observations in Seoul, Korea. The modification factors show a spectral dependence within the spectral range of 300 to 360 nm, which is the range used to estimate erythemal UV. The CMF and AMF values are estimated with high spectral resolution with considerations of solar zenith angle (SZA, cloud/aerosol amount, and total ozone variation. From the simulation studies, the variation in the CMFs within the spectral range of 300–360 nm is estimated to be 0.031–0.055, which is twice as large as the decrease in CMFs resulting from a SZA increase of 10°. In addition, the CMFs estimated from observational data show significant spectral dependence, varying from 2.5% to 10.0%. Because of the small aerosol optical depth (AOD value, however, the variation in the AMF calculated from simulations is estimated to be between 0.007 and 0.045, indicating lower spectral dependence than the CMF. Furthermore, the spectral difference in the AMF calculated from observational data is insignificant relative to the daily-averaged total ozone error and uncertainties related to the reference irradiance spectrum under aerosol-free conditions.

  12. Instrument for long-path spectral extinction measurements in air: application to sizing of airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Enrico; Trespidi, Franco; Ferri, Fabio


    A novel instrument that is capable of taking spectral extinction measurements over long optical paths (approximately 1-100 m) in the UV, visible, and IR ranges is described. The instrument is fully automated, and the extinction spectrum is acquired in almost real time (approximately 5-10 s) with a resolution of ∼3 nm. Its sensitivity and accuracy were estimated by tests carried out in a clean room that showed that, for optical paths between 50 and 100 m, the extinction coefficient can be detected at levels of ∼10 -5 m -1 . Tests carried out on calibrated latex particles showed that, when it was combined with an appropriate inversion method, the technique could be profitably applied to characterize airborne particulate distributions. By carrying out measurements over optical paths of ∼100 m, the instrument is also capable of detecting extinction coefficients that are due to aerosol concentrations well below the limits imposed by the European Economic Community for atmospheric pollution (150 μg/m3). Scaled over optical paths of ∼10 m, the limit imposed for particle emissions from industrial plants (10 mg/m3) can also be detected sensitively

  13. Composition-independent mean temperature measurements in laminar diffusion flames using spectral lineshape information (United States)

    Zelenak, D.; Narayanaswamy, V.


    Temperature is an important thermochemical property in combusting flows that holds the key to uncovering pollutant formation, flame extinction, and heat release. In a practical combustion environment, the local composition is typically unknown, which hinders the effectiveness of many traditional non-intrusive thermometry techniques. This study aims to offset this limitation by developing a laser-based thermometry technique that does not require prior knowledge of the local composition. Two methods for obtaining temperature are demonstrated in this work, both of which make use of the spectral line broadening of an absorbing species (krypton) seeded into the flow. In the first method, the local Doppler broadening is extracted from an excitation scan to yield the corresponding temperature, while the second method utilizes compositional scaling information of the collisional broadening and collisional shift to determine the temperature. Both methods are demonstrated by measuring the radial temperature profile of a steady laminar CH4/N2 diffusion flame with an air co-flow. The accuracy of the temperature measurements obtained using both methods are evaluated using corresponding temperature profiles determined from computational simulations.

  14. First spectral measurements of a cryogenic high-field short-period undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holy


    Full Text Available Further development of synchrotron light sources and new concepts for free electron lasers require undulators with short periods and high magnetic fields. A promising approach is the cryogenic permanent magnet undulator concept based on an advanced magnet material. This new rare earth alloy (Pr,Nd_{2}Fe_{14}B, shows an increasing remanent field of up to 1.7 T without the limits of spin reorientation transition. This work presents first spectral measurements of a prototype cryogenic permanent magnet undulator, consisting of 20 periods of 9 mm in length, cooled by a closed cycle cryo-cooler to temperatures below 30 K. The K parameter of 0.837 at RT is increased by more than 15% to 0.966, and an increase of the third harmonics photon flux of up to 66% was achieved. A possible degradation of the on-axis field quality due to thermally induced magnetic field errors, deduced from the measured bandwidth of the spectrum, is below the limits of the detector resolution of 2%.

  15. Spectral properties of natural and oil polluted Baltic seawater — results of measurements and modelling (United States)

    Drozdowska, V.; Freda, W.; Baszanowska, E.; Rudź, K.; Darecki, M.; Heldt, J. R.; Toczek, H.


    Seawater in addition to natural components such as living and non-living organic matter contains also components artificially introduced into the marine environment, such as oil substances. These components, present in the surface layer of the sea, can significantly affect radiative transfer processes. Therefore, taking into account these processes in remote sensing measurements can improve assessment of the environment. To improve local seawater optical models, it is necessary to measure the luminescence properties of all components of seawater as well as the water leaving radiance values. Additionally, substances which form the surface microlayer (surfactants — surface active agents) can affect both the dynamic characteristics of the fluxes (in particular the gas exchange and marine aerosol production) as well as inherent optical properties of surface seawater. This paper contains both the results of research focused on introducing of an efficient method for identifying oils by their fluorescence spectra as well as a marine experiment on the identification of luminescent properties of surfactants — sampled in different regions of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the aim of the presented study is to assess the impact of the oil emulsion to spectral water leaving signal. Those results are obtained both from running Monte Carlo radiative transfer code and from approximated formulas.

  16. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens


    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) ( conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  17. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.


    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  18. An occlusal plaque index. Measurements of repeatability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Nourallah, Abduhl W


    To evaluate a new, computerized method of measuring dental plaque on occlusal surfaces which exhibit the highest caries prevalence. In 16 patients (6-9 years of age), plaque on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars was stained (Mira-2-Tone) and photographed with an intra-oral camera. In a conventional picture editing program (PC/Adobe PhotoShop 6.0), the occlusal surface and plaque were measured in pixels and the relative proportion of occlusal plaque was calculated (ANALYSIS 3.0). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were analyzed by re-taking and analyzing four images by two examiners four times via intra- and inter-examiner correlation coefficients and by re-analyzing 10 images. Sensitivity was tested by re-taking and analyzing the images of the same occlusal surfaces in all patients after instructed brushing with an electric toothbrush. Intra- and inter-examiner correlation coefficients for repeatability and reproducibility of the analysis were excellent (ICC> 0.997 and ICC=0.98, resp.; 95% confidence interval: 0.955-0.995). The inter- and intra-examiner coefficients for the whole procedure including the re-taking of images were also high (ICC > 0.90). The method was also highly sensitive, proving a statistically significant plaque reduction after brushing (before: mean 29.2% plaque, after: 14.7% plaque; t-test, P= 0.025).

  19. High spatial and spectral resolution measurements of Jupiter's auroral regions using Gemini-North-TEXES (United States)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Orton, G. S.; Greathouse, T. K.; Lacy, J.; Giles, R.; Fletcher, L. N.; Vogt, M.; Irwin, P. G.


    Jupiter exhibits auroral emission at a multitude of wavelengths. Auroral emission at X-ray, ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths demonstrate the precipitation of ion and electrons in Jupiter's upper atmosphere, at altitudes exceeding 250 km above the 1-bar level. Enhanced mid-infrared emission of CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and further hydrocarbons is also observed coincident with Jupiter's auroral regions. Retrieval analyses of infrared spectra from IRTF-TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility) indicate strong heating at the 1-mbar level and evidence of ion-neutral chemistry, which enriches the abundances of unsaturated hydrocarbons (Sinclair et al., 2017b, doi:10.1002/2017GL073529, Sinclair et al., 2017c (under review)). The extent to which these phenomena in the stratosphere are correlated and coupled physically with the shorter-wavelength auroral emission originating from higher altitudes has been a challenge due to the limited spatial resolution available on the IRTF. Smaller-scale features observed in the near-infrared and ultraviolet emission, such as the main `oval', transient `swirls' and dusk-active regions within the main oval (e.g. Stallard et al., 2014, doi:10.1016/j/Icarus.2015.12.044, Nichols et al., 2017, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073029) are potentially being blurred in the mid-infrared by the diffraction-limited resolution (0.7") of IRTF's 3-metre primary aperture. However, on March 17-19th 2017, we obtained spectral measurements of H2 S(1), CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 emission of Jupiter's high latitudes using TEXES on Gemini-North, which has a 8-metre primary aperture. This rare opportunity combines the superior spectral resolving power of TEXES and the high spatial resolution provided by Gemini-North's 8-metre aperture. We will perform a retrieval analyses to determine the 3D distributions of temperature, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6. The morphology will be compared with near-contemporaneous measurements of H3+ emission from

  20. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang


    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this

  1. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier


    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  2. Measuring patients’ experiences with rheumatic care: the Consumer Quality Index Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidgeest, M.; Sixma, H.; Rademakers, J.


    Rheumatologists and other caregivers can learn from patients' experiences with the quality of care that can be measured with the CQ-index Rheumatoid Arthritis (CQ-index RA) survey. Patients with RA (n = 590) received this survey were they rated their actual experiences and what they find important

  3. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.


    Using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy, we measured the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600 nm, 1.572, 1.552 and 1.541,

  4. Refractive Index of a Transparent Liquid Measured with a Concave Mirror (United States)

    Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.


    Measuring the refractive index "n" of a substance or medium is part of every introductory physics course. Various approaches to determine this index have been developed over the years based on the different ways light reflects and transmits in the medium. In this paper, the authors would like to present a simple geometrical derivation of the…

  5. A teaser made simple: a didactic measurement of the spectral answer of a human-eye-calibrated lux meter (United States)

    Di Capua, R.; Offi, F.; Dell'Omo, M.; Fontana, F.


    A simple didactic experiment has been designed and realized, in order to illustrate to undergraduate students in scientific faculties some basic concepts lying behind the fundamentals of geometrical optics. The spectral response of a human-eye-calibrated lux meter was measured using a very trivial experimental arrangement. The white light of a halogen lamp was decomposed into its spectral components through a diffraction grating, so that collecting the radiation at different dispersion angles allowed one to measure the intensity as a function of wavelength. The experiment can be used to effectively illustrate the concepts of spectral distribution, the radiometry versus photometry conversion and photopic response, and the famous historical experience by Herschel on the ‘temperature of colours’.

  6. A New Way of Measuring Openness: The Open Governance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Laffan


    Full Text Available Open source software is now "business as usual" in the mobile industry. While much attention is given to the importance of open source licenses, we argue in this article that the governance model can be as necessary to a project’s success and that projects vary widely in the governance models – whether open or closed – that they employ. Open source governance models describe the control points that are used to influence open source projects with regard to access to the source code, how the source code is developed, how derivatives are created, and the community structure of the project. Governance determines who has control over the project beyond what is deemed legally necessary via the open source licenses for that project. The purpose of our research is to define and measure the governance of open source projects, in other words, the extent to which decision-making in an open source project is "open" or "closed". We analyzed eight open source projects using 13 specific governance criteria across four areas of governance: access, development, derivatives and community. Our findings suggest that the most open platforms will be most successful in the long term, however we acknowledge exceptions to this rule. We also identify best practices that are common across these open source projects with regard to source code access, development of source code, management of derivatives, and community structure. These best practices increase the likelihood of developer use of and involvement in open source projects.

  7. Combined High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Millimeter Wavelength Radar Measurement of Ice Crystal Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, Edwin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The goal of this research has been to improve measurements of snowfall using a combination of millimeter-wavelength radar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Observations. Snowflakes are large compared to the 532nm HSRL wavelength and small compared to the 3.2 and 8.6 mm wavelength radars used in this study. This places the particles in the optical scattering regime of the HSRL, where extinction cross-section is proportional to the projected area of the particles, and in the Rayleigh regime for the radar, where the backscatter cross-section is proportional to the mass-squared of the particles. Forming a ratio of the radar measured cross-section to the HSRL measured cross section eliminates any dependence on the number of scattering particles, yielding a quantity proportional to the average mass-squared of the snowflakes over the average area of the flakes. Using simultaneous radar measurements of particle fall velocities, which are dependent particle mass and cross-sectional area it is possible to derive the average mass of the snow flakes, and with the radar measured fall velocities compute the snowfall rate. Since this retrieval requires the optical extinction cross-section we began by considering errors this quantity. The HSRL is particularly good at measuring the backscatter cross-section. In previous studies of snowfall in the high Arctic were able to estimate the extinction cross-section directly as a fixed ratio to the backscatter cross-section. Measurements acquired in the STORMVEX experiment in Colorado showed that this approach was not valid in mid-latitude snowfalls and that direct measurement of the extinction cross-section is required. Attempts to measure the extinction directly uncovered shortcomings in thermal regulation and mechanical stability of the newly deployed DOE HSRL systems. These problems were largely mitigated by modifications installed in both of the DOE systems. We also investigated other sources of error in the HSRL direct

  8. Using spectral methods to obtain particle size information from optical data: applications to measurements from CARES 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Atkinson


    Full Text Available Multi-wavelength in situ aerosol extinction, absorption and scattering measurements made at two ground sites during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES are analyzed using a spectral deconvolution method that allows extraction of particle-size-related information, including the fraction of extinction produced by the fine-mode particles and the effective radius of the fine mode. The spectral deconvolution method is typically applied to analysis of remote sensing measurements. Here, its application to in situ measurements allows for comparison with more direct measurement methods and validation of the retrieval approach. Overall, the retrieved fine-mode fraction and effective radius compare well with other in situ measurements, including size distribution measurements and scattering and absorption measurements made separately for PM1 and PM10, although there were some periods during which the different methods yielded different results. One key contributor to differences between the results obtained is the alternative, spectrally based definitions of fine and coarse modes from the optical methods, relative to instruments that use a physically defined cut point. These results indicate that for campaigns where size, composition and multi-wavelength optical property measurements are made, comparison of the results can result in closure or can identify unusual circumstances. The comparison here also demonstrates that in situ multi-wavelength optical property measurements can be used to determine information about particle size distributions in situations where direct size distribution measurements are not available.

  9. Study on a multi-delay spectral interferometry for stellar radial velocity measurement (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Haijiao; Tang, Jin; Ji, Hangxin; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Liang


    High accuracy radial velocity measurement isn't only one of the most important methods for detecting earth-like Exoplanets, but also one of the main developing fields of astronomical observation technologies in future. Externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) generates a kind of particular interference spectrum through combining a fixed-delay interferometer with a medium-resolution spectrograph. It effectively enhances radial velocity measuring accuracy by several times. Another further study on multi-delay interferometry was gradually developed after observation success with only a fixed-delay, and its relative instrumentation makes more impressive performance in near Infrared band. Multi-delay is capable of giving wider coverage from low to high frequency in Fourier field so that gives a higher accuracy in radial velocity measurement. To study on this new technology and verify its feasibility at Guo Shoujing telescope (LAMOST), an experimental instrumentation with single fixed-delay named MESSI has been built and tested at our lab. Another experimental study on multi-delay spectral interferometry given here is being done as well. Basically, this multi-delay experimental system is designed in according to the similar instrument named TEDI at Palomar observatory and the preliminary test result of MESSI. Due to existence of LAMOST spectrograph at lab, a multi-delay interferometer design actually dominates our work. It's generally composed of three parts, respectively science optics, phase-stabilizing optics and delay-calibrating optics. To switch different fixed delays smoothly during observation, the delay-calibrating optics is possibly useful to get high repeatability during switching motion through polychromatic interferometry. Although this metrology is based on white light interferometry in theory, it's different that integrates all of interference signals independently obtained by different monochromatic light in order to avoid dispersion error caused by

  10. Spectral model selection in the electronic measurement of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise thermometry (United States)

    Coakley, Kevin J.; Qu, Jifeng


    In the electronic measurement of the Boltzmann constant based on Johnson noise thermometry, the ratio of the power spectral densities of thermal noise across a resistor at the triple point of water, and pseudo-random noise synthetically generated by a quantum-accurate voltage-noise source is constant to within 1 part in a billion for frequencies up to 1 GHz. Given knowledge of this ratio, and the values of other parameters that are known or measured, one can determine the Boltzmann constant. Due, in part, to mismatch between transmission lines, the experimental ratio spectrum varies with frequency. We model this spectrum as an even polynomial function of frequency where the constant term in the polynomial determines the Boltzmann constant. When determining this constant (offset) from experimental data, the assumed complexity of the ratio spectrum model and the maximum frequency analyzed (fitting bandwidth) dramatically affects results. Here, we select the complexity of the model by cross-validation—a data-driven statistical learning method. For each of many fitting bandwidths, we determine the component of uncertainty of the offset term that accounts for random and systematic effects associated with imperfect knowledge of model complexity. We select the fitting bandwidth that minimizes this uncertainty. In the most recent measurement of the Boltzmann constant, results were determined, in part, by application of an earlier version of the method described here. Here, we extend the earlier analysis by considering a broader range of fitting bandwidths and quantify an additional component of uncertainty that accounts for imperfect performance of our fitting bandwidth selection method. For idealized simulated data with additive noise similar to experimental data, our method correctly selects the true complexity of the ratio spectrum model for all cases considered. A new analysis of data from the recent experiment yields evidence for a temporal trend in the offset

  11. The Comparison between Spectral and Entropic Measures Following Fatigue in Erector Spinae Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian


    Full Text Available Background: Surface electromyography (sEMG of muscles is a non-invasive tool that can be helpful in the assessment of muscle function and some motor control evaluations. A loss of force, known as muscle fatigue is accompanied by changes in muscle electrical activity. One of the most commonly used surface EMG parameters which reflects paraspinal muscle fatigue during different tasks and positions is median frequency. Although it is widely known that the electromyography power spectrum shifts to lower frequencies during fatiguing contraction, an opinion exists that the validity of spectral shifts in assessment of fatigue is questionable. Some researchers have examined whether other quantities derived from sEMG signals are better indicators for muscle fatigue. Following cyclic flexion/extension and consequence fatigue, variation in sEMG signals may be complex for study. The aim of this study was to determine which of the median frequency (MF or entropic (ENTR is more sensitive for measuring muscular fatigue in erector spinae muscles during cyclic flexion/extension. Methods: Surface electromyography of erector spine muscles was recorded in 25 healthy subjects during cyclic dynamic contractions. The experimental session consisted of two parts: measurement of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC, and performing the fatigue test. All subjects performed rhythmic flexion/extension with 50% MVC loading against B-200 Isostation, about 4-6 minutes. The MF and ENTR of the muscle activities were computed to assess muscular fatigue. Results: Paired sample t-tests showed that MF and ENTR changes after fatigue test were significant (P<0.001. Percentage changes of both MF and ENTR were reduced, this reduction for ENTR was more than 40% (P<0.001. Conclusion: It seems that the changes of ENTR in muscle activities have the ability to measure muscular fatigue and is more sensitive in comparison to MF.

  12. The extremity function index (EFI), a disability severity measure for neuromuscular diseases: psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    Bos, Isaäc; Wynia, Klaske; Drost, Gea; Almansa, Josué; Kuks, Jan B M


    To adapt and to combine the self-report Upper Extremity Functional Index and Lower Extremity Function Scale, for the assessment of disability severity in patients with a neuromuscular disease and to examine its psychometric properties in order to make it suitable for indicating disease severity in neuromuscular diseases. A cross-sectional postal survey study was performed among patients diagnosed with a neuromuscular disease. Patients completed both adapted extremity function scales, questionnaires for psychometric evaluation, and disease-specific questions. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and reliability and validity were examined. Response rate was 70% (n = 702). The Extremity Function Index model with a two-factor structure - for upper and lower extremities - showed an acceptable fit. The Extremity Function Index scales showed good internal consistency (alphas: 0.97-0.98). The known-groups validity test confirmed that Extremity Function Index scales discriminate between categories of "Extent of limitations" and "Quality of Life." Convergent and divergent validity tests confirmed that Extremity Function Index scales measure the physical impact of neuromuscular diseases. Relative validity tests showed that the Extremity Function Index scales performed well in discriminating between subgroups of patients with increasing "Extent of limitations" compared to concurrent measurement instruments. The Extremity Function Index proved to be a sound and easy to apply self-report disability severity measurement instrument in neuromuscular diseases. Implications for rehabilitation The Extremity Function Index reflects the functioning of all muscles in the upper and lower extremities involved in activities of daily living. The Extremity Function Index is an easy to administer and patient-friendly disability severity measurement instrument that has the ability to evaluate differences in disability severity between relevant neuromuscular disease subgroups. The

  13. (In,Ga,Al)P-GaP laser diodes grown on high-index GaAs surfaces emitting in the green, yellow and bright red spectral range (United States)

    Ledentsov, N. N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Shernyakov, Yu M.; Kulagina, M. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Gordeev, N. Yu; Maximov, M. V.; Cherkashin, N. A.


    We report on low threshold current density (<400 A cm-2) injection lasing in (Al x Ga1-x )0.5In0.5P-GaAs-based diodes down to the green spectral range (<570 nm). The epitaxial structures are grown on high-index (611)A and (211)A GaAs substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and contain tensile-strained GaP-enriched insertions aimed at reflection of the injected nonequilibrium electrons preventing their escape from the active region. Extended waveguide concept results in a vertical beam divergence with a full width at half maximum of 15° for (611)A substrates. The lasing at the wavelength of 569 nm is realized at 85 K. In an orange-red laser diode structure low threshold current density (190 A cm-2) in the orange spectral range (598 nm) is realized at 85 K. The latter devices demonstrated room temperature lasing at 628 nm at ˜2 kA cm-2 and a total power above 3 W. The red laser diodes grown on (211)A substrates demonstrated a far field characteristic for vertically multimode lasing indicating a lower optical confinement factor for the fundamental mode as compared to the devices grown on (611)A. However, as expected from previous research, the temperature stability of the threshold current and the wavelength stability were significantly higher for (211)A-grown structures.

  14. Using remotely sensed spectral reflectance to indicate leaf photosynthetic efficiency derived from active fluorescence measurements (United States)

    Peng, Yi; Zeng, Aoli; Zhu, Tinge; Fang, Shenghui; Gong, Yan; Tao, Yanqi; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Kan


    Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) is an important signature of photosynthesis to evaluate plant response to the environment. We explored an approach to estimate an important leaf ChlF-derived parameter, the intrinsic efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm), using spectral indices calculated from leaf reflectance measured by a hyperspectral radiometer. It is observed that leaf chlorophyll content closely related to Fv/Fm in nonstressed leaves, thus the indices developed for chlorophyll estimation were successfully used to estimate Fv/Fm. For leaves under short-term stress, Fv/Fm dropped dramatically while leaf chlorophyll content remained almost the same. Compared to leaf chlorophyll content, reflectance was more sensitive to Fv/Fm variations. As Fv/Fm decreased, the slope of reflectance in the spectrum range of 700 to 900 nm obviously increased, and the first derivative reflectance in the red edge and infrared (NIR) regions was highly correlated with Fv/Fm. The indices using longwave red edge and NIR reflectance (NDRE740 and CI740) worked well for Fv/Fm retrieval in both stressed and nonstressed leaves with the coefficients of determination (R2) above 0.72 and normalized root-mean-square errors below 0.16. Note that the relationships NDRE740 and CI740 versus Fv/Fm were significantly different between nonstressed and stressed leaves, which may give a good implication to detect short-term stress occurrence.

  15. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles. (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette


    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors. (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Ro, Yong Man; Park, Hyun Wook


    Human perception becomes difficult in the event of binocular color fusion when the color difference presented for the left and right eyes exceeds a certain threshold value, known as the binocular color fusion limit. This paper discusses the binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors within the color gamut of a conventional LCD 3DTV. We performed experiments to measure the color fusion limit for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. A total of 2480 trials were recorded for a single observer. By analyzing the results, the color fusion limit was quantified by ellipses in the chromaticity diagram. The semi-minor axis of the ellipses ranges from 0.0415 to 0.0923 in terms of the Euclidean distance in the u'v´ chromaticity diagram and the semi-major axis ranges from 0.0640 to 0.1560. These eight ellipses are drawn on the chromaticity diagram. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Metal-organic semiconductor interfacial barrier height determination from internal photoemission signal in spectral response measurements (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar


    Accurate and convenient evaluation methods of the interfacial barrier ϕb for charge carriers in metal semiconductor (MS) junctions are important for designing and building better opto-electronic devices. This becomes more critical for organic semiconductor devices where a plethora of molecules are in use and standardised models applicable to myriads of material combinations for the different devices may have limited applicability. In this paper, internal photoemission (IPE) from spectral response (SR) in the ultra-violet to near infra-red range of different MS junctions of metal-organic semiconductor-metal (MSM) test structures is used to determine more realistic MS ϕb values. The representative organic semiconductor considered is [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and the metals considered are Al and Au. The IPE signals in the SR measurement of the MSM device are identified and separated before it is analysed to estimate ϕb for the MS junction. The analysis of IPE signals under different bias conditions allows the evaluation of ϕb for both the front and back junctions, as well as for symmetric MSM devices.

  18. Arch height index normative values of college-aged women using the arch height index measurement system. (United States)

    Weimar, Wendi H; Shroyer, Justin F


    The arch height index measurement system (AHIMS) device has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the arch height index (AHI) of the feet of individuals; however, normative data for the AHI are lacking for various populations. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to establish population normative AHI values for college-aged females and to compare the observed AHI data across right and left feet. Seventy-nine college-aged females served as study participants, and both feet were measured using the AHIMS in the seated and standing positions. The AHI was calculated as the ratio of the dorsum height of the foot at half the total foot length to the length of the foot from the heel to the base of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the seated position were 0.355 ± 0.031 and 0.369 ± 0.034, respectively. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the standing position were 0.338 ± 0.031 and 0.343 ± 0.033, respectively. There were significant differences observed between the left and right feet for the seated (P feet of the participants sampled. Although normative values were obtained, we caution against using these values to classify foot arch types based solely on a sample of the population studied.

  19. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements for monitoring toluene contamination in clayey soils (United States)

    Ustra, A.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.


    The Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method has previously shown potential for detecting hydrocarbons in the subsurface when clay minerals are present. However, results from recent studies of soils containing hydrocarbon contaminants are inconclusive, and further research is needed. In an effort to better constrain the sensitivity of SIP to toluene contamination in clayey soils, samples consisting of mixtures of quartzitic sand and montmorillonite (5 and 10% by weight) were contaminated with varying amounts of toluene (5, 10 and 20% by weight) and saturated with sodium nitrate solution (0.003 mol/L). The SIP response of the various samples was monitored for a period of about 40 days. An important aspect of this experimental work was to minimize measurement errors related with the experimental set up and uncertainty in the interpretation of effects of hydrocarbon presence that will result from any variations in sample packing. Errors from the experimental setup (electrodes, sample holder and data acquisition device) varied from 0.02 mrad (at 0.01 Hz) to 9 mrad (at 1000 Hz), as determined from calibration measurements on water samples with known electrical properties. Variations associated with the packing effect (based on repeated sample packs) were from 0.1 mrad (at 0.01 Hz) to 11 mrad (at 1000 Hz). The real and imaginary conductivities at specified frequencies and the integral chargeability and time constant (obtained from a Debye decomposition fitting) were correlated to toluene and clay content. Repeated SIP measurements suggest that the toluene contaminated samples may take significant time to come into equilibrium. Low frequency SIP measurements are significantly related to toluene content only during early stages of contamination, when the dependence of SIP on clay concentration is apparently suppressed. At later time, progress towards a steady state SIP response (interpreted to indicate equilibrium surface chemistry) results in loss of a significant

  20. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  1. Spectral and spatial characterization of perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for the distribution of optical wireless communication cells. (United States)

    Hajjar, Hani Al; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C; Vázquez, Carmen; Fracasso, Bruno


    In this paper, the characterization of a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PF-GIPOF) for a high-bitrate indoor optical wireless system is reported. PF-GIPOF is used here to interconnect different optical wireless access points that distribute optical free-space high-bitrate wireless communication cells. The PF-GIPOF channel is first studied in terms of transmission attenuation and frequency response and, in a second step, the spatial power profile distribution at the fiber output is analyzed. Both characterizations are performed under varying restricted mode launch conditions, enabling us to assess the transmission channel performance subject to potential connectorization errors within an environment where the end users may intervene by themselves on the home network infrastructure.

  2. Measurements of gain and index dynamics in quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper


    Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds.......Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds....

  3. Spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures and its application to stationary dilation for Banach space valued processes (United States)

    Miamee, A. G.


    Let B be a Banach space and H and K to Hilbert spaces. The spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures is studied and it is shown that the recent results of Makagon and Salehi (1986) and Rosenberg (1982) on the dilation of L(K,H)-valued measures can be extended to hold for the general Banach space setting of L(B,H)-valued measures. These L(B,H)-valued measures are closely connected to the Banach space valued processes. This connection is recalled and as application of spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures the well known stationary dilation results for scalar valued processes is extended to the case of Banach space valued processes.

  4. Association Mapping of Total Carotenoids in Diverse Soybean Genotypes Based on Leaf Extracts and High-Throughput Canopy Spectral Reflectance Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prabhu Dhanapal

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are organic pigments that are produced predominantly by photosynthetic organisms and provide antioxidant activity to a wide variety of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is highly conserved in plants and occurs mostly in chromoplasts and chloroplasts. Leaf carotenoids play important photoprotective roles and targeted selection for leaf carotenoids may offer avenues to improve abiotic stress tolerance. A collection of 332 soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] genotypes was grown in two years and total leaf carotenoid content was determined using three different methods. The first method was based on extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carotenoid content (eCaro in leaf tissue, whereas the other two methods were derived from high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance measurements using wavelet transformed reflectance spectra (tCaro and a spectral reflectance index (iCaro. An association mapping approach was employed using 31,253 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to identify SNPs associated with total carotenoid content using a mixed linear model based on data from two growing seasons. A total of 28 SNPs showed a significant association with total carotenoid content in at least one of the three approaches. These 28 SNPs likely tagged 14 putative loci for carotenoid content. Six putative loci were identified using eCaro, five loci with tCaro, and nine loci with iCaro. Three of these putative loci were detected by all three carotenoid determination methods. All but four putative loci were located near a known carotenoid-related gene. These results showed that carotenoid markers can be identified in soybean using extract-based as well as by high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance-based approaches, demonstrating the utility of field-based canopy spectral reflectance phenotypes for association mapping.

  5. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  6. Lateral resonant Doppler flow measurement by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Koch, Edmund


    In spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), any transverse motion component of a detected obliquely moving sample results in a nonlinear relationship between the Doppler phase shift and the axial sample velocity restricting phase-resolved Doppler OCT. To circumvent the limitation, we propose the lateral resonant Doppler flow quantification in spectral domain OCT, where the scanner movement velocity is matched to the transverse velocity component of the sample motion.

  7. The Ultimate Pile Bearing Capacity from Conventional and Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Measurements (United States)

    Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Anuar, Shamilah; Rahim, Mustaqqim A.; Mansor, A. Faizal


    A conventional and seismic method for determining the ultimate pile bearing capacity was proposed and compared. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) method is one of the non-destructive seismic techniques that do not require drilling and sampling of soils, was used in the determination of shear wave velocity (Vs) and damping (D) profile of soil. The soil strength was found to be directly proportional to the Vs and its value has been successfully applied to obtain shallow bearing capacity empirically. A method is proposed in this study to determine the pile bearing capacity using Vs and D measurements for the design of pile and also as an alternative method to verify the bearing capacity from the other conventional methods of evaluation. The objectives of this study are to determine Vs and D profile through frequency response data from SASW measurements and to compare pile bearing capacities obtained from the method carried out and conventional methods. All SASW test arrays were conducted near the borehole and location of conventional pile load tests. In obtaining skin and end bearing pile resistance, the Hardin and Drnevich equation has been used with reference strains obtained from the method proposed by Abbiss. Back analysis results of pile bearing capacities from SASW were found to be 18981 kN and 4947 kN compared to 18014 kN and 4633 kN of IPLT with differences of 5% and 6% for Damansara and Kuala Lumpur test sites, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the seismic method proposed in this study has the potential to be used in estimating the pile bearing capacity.

  8. Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steve; Arnold, G. Thomas; Vermote, Eric F.; Schmid, Beat


    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) was flown aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft during the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative 2000 (SAFARI 2000) dry season campaign and obtained measurements of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for a variety of natural surfaces and ecosystems in southern Africa. To measure the BRDF of the surface-atmosphere system, the University of Washington CV-580 banked at a roll angle of ˜20° and flew circles about 3 km in diameter above the surface, taking approximately 2 min. Multiple circular orbits were acquired over selected surfaces so that average BRDFs could be acquired, smoothing out small-scale surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities. In this paper, we present results of BRDFs taken over two Earth Observing System (EOS) validation sites: Skukuza tower, South Africa (25.0°S, 31.5°E) and Mongu tower, Zambia (15.4°S, 23.3°E). Additional sites are discussed and include the Maun tower, Botswana (20.0°S, 23.6°E), Sua Pan, Botswana (20.6°S, 25.9°E), Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.0°S, 16.0°E), and marine stratocumulus clouds off the west coast of Namibia (20.5°S, 13.1°E). Results clearly show anisotropy in reflected solar radiation over the various surfaces types: savanna, salt pans, and cloud. The greatest anisotropy is observed over marine stratus clouds, which exhibit strong forward scattering as well as important water cloud scattering features such as the rainbow and glory. The BRDF over savanna is characterized by a distinct backscattering peak in the principal plane and shows directional and spectral variations. Over the pans, the BRDF is more enhanced in the backscattering plane than forward scattering plane and shows little directional variation.

  9. The measurement of average refractive index with substrate-calibrating by using complex frequency-domain optical coherence tomography method (United States)

    Huang, Hao-chong; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Cai, Wen-yuan; Wang, Yun-xin; Wan, Yu-hong


    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was successfully applied in the microstructure imaging of biological tissue after being proposed firstly in 1991 by the researchers of MIT. As a novel optical imaging technology, it mainly uses interference principles to achieve noninvasive and high resolution visualization of samples. OCT works analogously to an ultrasound scanner, the major difference is that ultrasound pulses are replaced by broadband light. According to whether need for mechanical axial scan in the depth direction, it can be classified into the time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) and frequency-domain OCT (FD-OCT). The FD-OCT system overmatches the TD-OCT in imaging speed because of its depth collection advantage. But in the reconstructive image of FD-OCT detection, the complex-conjugate ambiguity will seriously deteriorate the imaging effect of tomogram. So the technique of removing the complex-conjugate image is employed that is called complex FD-OCT. The complex FD-OCT has widely application in many fields, especially in the refractive index measurement. The refractive index is an important parameter characterizing light propagation in the medium. In the paper, we present a method to measure the average refractive index of the sample with substrate calibration by using complex FD-OCT method, in which we can calculate it without depending on the parameters of system such as spectral width of light source. Due to the measurement of average refractive index relative to the actual thickness and optical length, it is necessary to obtain them of the sample experimentally. The complex FD-OCT method can easily achieved the optical length via measuring the positions of the sample's front and rear surfaces. In the experiment, the coverslip (the borosilicate glass) is chosen as the sample and the calibration substrate. We make use of the substrate to load the sample on it, and then the tomogram of the sample can be achieved by means of OCT's lateral scan in the edge of the sample

  10. Comparison of Reflectance Measurements Acquired with a Contact Probe and an Integration Sphere: Implications for the Spectral Properties of Vegetation at a Leaf Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Potůčková


    Full Text Available Laboratory spectroscopy in visible and infrared regions is an important tool for studies dealing with plant ecophysiology and early recognition of plant stress due to changing environmental conditions. Leaf optical properties are typically acquired with a spectroradiometer coupled with an integration sphere (IS in a laboratory or with a contact probe (CP, which has the advantage of operating flexibility and the provision of repetitive in-situ reflectance measurements. Experiments comparing reflectance spectra measured with different devices and device settings are rarely reported in literature. Thus, in our study we focused on a comparison of spectra collected with two ISs on identical samples ranging from a Spectralon and coloured papers as reference standards to vegetation samples with broadleaved (Nicotiana Rustica L. and coniferous (Picea abies L. Karst. leaf types. First, statistical measures such as mean absolute difference, median of differences, standard deviation and paired-sample t-test were applied in order to evaluate differences between collected reflectance values. The possibility of linear transformation between spectra was also tested. Moreover, correlation between normalised differential indexes (NDI derived for each device and all combinations of wavelengths between 450 nm and 1800 nm were assessed. Finally, relationships between laboratory measured leaf compounds (total chlorophyll, carotenoids and water content, NDI and selected spectral indices often used in remote sensing were studied. The results showed differences between spectra acquired with different devices. While differences were negligible in the case of the Spectralon and they were possible to be modelled with a linear transformation in the case of coloured papers, the spectra collected with the CP and the ISs differed significantly in the case of vegetation samples. Regarding the spectral indices calculated from the reflectance data collected with the three

  11. A test of a climatic index of dune mobility using measurements from the southwestern United States (United States)

    Lancaster, N.; Helm, P.


    The climatic index of dune mobility developed by Lancaster (1988) has been applied to a variety of different environments. The index is, however, untested and unverified. We tested the index by comparison of values of the dune mobility index calculated from climate data with rates of sand transport measured at three stations in Arizona and New Mexico over the period 1985 to 1997. Our results show that changes in measured rates of sand transport closely parallel temporal changes in the dune mobility index. The mobility index is, however, a relatively poor predictor of the magnitude of actual sand transport on a year-to-year basis. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that sand transport rates at these sites are strongly influenced by vegetation cover, the state of which may lag changes in annual precipitation. There is, however, a good relation between the mean annual mobility index and mean annual rates of sand transport. This indicates that the dune mobility index is a valid predictor of the long-term state of the aeolian system and can be used confidently for the purposes for which it was originally intended. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  12. An updated h-index measures both the primary and total scientific output of a researcher. (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Almasan, Alex; Zubarev, Roman; Friedman, Mark; Nicolson, Garth L; Sumazin, Pavel; Leabu, Mircea; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Avram, Dorina; Kunej, Tanja; Calin, George A; Godwin, Andrew K; Adami, Hans-Olov; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G; Richardson, Des R; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Westerblad, Håkan; Keniry, Megan; Grau, Georges E R; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Stan, Radu V; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Takhar, Kasumov; Baron, Beverly W; Galardy, Paul J; Yang, Feng; Data, Dipak; Fadare, Oluwole; Yeo, Kt Jerry; Gabreanu, Georgiana R; Andrei, Stefan; Soare, Georgiana R; Nelson, Mark A; Liehn, Elisa A


    The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.

  13. Measuring Academic Performance for Healthcare Researchers with the H Index: Which Search Tool Should Be Used? (United States)

    Patel, Vanash M.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Almoudaris, Alex; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos


    Objectives To compare H index scores for healthcare researchers returned by Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus databases, and to assess whether a researcher's age, country of institutional affiliation and physician status influences calculations. Subjects and Methods One hundred and ninety-five Nobel laureates in Physiology and Medicine from 1901 to 2009 were considered. Year of first and last publications, total publications and citation counts, and the H index for each laureate were calculated from each database. Cronbach's alpha statistics was used to measure the reliability of H index scores between the databases. Laureate characteristic influence on the H index was analysed using linear regression. Results There was no concordance between the databases when considering the number of publications and citations count per laureate. The H index was the most reliably calculated bibliometric across the three databases (Cronbach's alpha = 0.900). All databases returned significantly higher H index scores for younger laureates (p < 0.0001). Google Scholar and Web of Science returned significantly higher H index for physician laureates (p = 0.025 and p = 0.029, respectively). Country of institutional affiliation did not influence the H index in any database. Conclusion The H index appeared to be the most consistently calculated bibliometric between the databases for Nobel laureates in Physiology and Medicine. Researcher-specific characteristics constituted an important component of objective research assessment. The findings of this study call to question the choice of current and future academic performance databases. PMID:22964880

  14. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, J.A.; Fortes, M.; Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J.


    Highlights: ► Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. ► Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. ► The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. ► Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. ► Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J sc . - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2–4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  15. Refractive index and geometrical thickness measurement of a transparent pellicle in air by Gaussian beam defocusing. (United States)

    Olvera-R, Octavio; Cywiak, Moisés; Cervantes-L, Joel; Morales, Arquímedes


    We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the local geometrical thickness and the refractive index of a transparent pellicle in air by combining the diffractive properties of a Gaussian beam with the analytical equations of the light that propagates through a thin layer. We show that our measurement technique is immune to inherent piston-like vibrations present in the pellicle. As our measurements are based on characterizing properly the Gaussian beam in a plane of detection, a homodyne technique for this purpose is devised and described. The feasibility of our proposal is confirmed by measuring local geometrical thicknesses and the refractive index of a commercially available stretch film.

  16. Equity in water and sanitation: developing an index to measure progressive realization of the human right. (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Baum, Rachel; Bartram, Jamie


    We developed an index to measure progressive realization for the human right to water and sanitation. While in this study we demonstrate its application to the non-discrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the human right. The index was composed of one structural, one process, and two outcome indicators and is bound between -1 and 1, where negative values indicate regression and positive values indicate progressive realization. For individual structural and process indicators, only discrete values such as -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 1 were allowed. For the outcome indicators, any value between -1 and 1 was possible, and a State's progress was evaluated using rates of change. To create an index that would allow for fair comparisons between States and across time, these rates of change were compared to benchmarked rates, which reflect the maximum rates a State can achieve. Using this approach, we calculated the index score for 56 States in 2010 for which adequate data were available and demonstrated that these index scores were not dependent on factors such as achieved level of coverage or gross national income. The proposed index differs from existing measures of inequality as it measures rate of change and not level of achievement, and thus addresses the principle of progressive realization that is fundamental to human rights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokharel A


    Full Text Available Amrit Pokharel,1 Gauri Shankar Shrestha,2 Jyoti Baba Shrestha2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, 2B P Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods: In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results: Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 µm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=-0.243, P=0.055 and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09 did not correlate with age. Conclusion: Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. Keywords: macular thickness, macular volume, optical coherence tomography, Nepal

  18. Psychometric properties of brief indexes designed to measure social-cognitive predictors of smoking initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Envold; Siersma, Volkert; Ross, Lone


    invalidated by negative local dependence. CONCLUSION: Of the five tested indexes, three (social influence-norms, social influence-pressure and attitude) showed acceptable criterion-related construct validity and may be considered unbiased representations of the theory-based factors if statistical analyses......BACKGROUND: Constructing indexes which measure factors that may predict smoking initiation is essential for planning prevention programs. Our aim was to examine the criterion-related construct validity of brief psychological indexes of attitude, social influence and self-efficacy to be used...... of the Rasch model that allows for differential item functioning and positive local dependence. RESULTS: The three indexes social influence-norms, social influence-pressure and attitude showed acceptable deviations from the Rasch model, while the two indexes self-efficacy and social influence-behavior were...

  19. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing (United States)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.


    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  20. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N


    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  1. Different atmospheric parameters influence on spectral UV radiation (measurements and modelling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarova, N.Y. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Meteorological Observatory; Krotkov, N.A. [Maryland Univ., MD (United States). JCESS/Meteorology Dept.; Geogdzhaev, I.V.; Bushnev, S.V.; Kondranin, T.V. [SUMGF/MIPT, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)


    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a vital role in the biophysical processes despite its small portion in the total solar flux. UV radiation is subject to large variations at the Earth surface depending greatly on solar elevation, ozone and cloud amount, aerosols and surface albedo. The analysis of atmospheric parameters influence is based on the spectral archive data of three spectral instruments: NSF spectroradiometer (Barrow network) (NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1991-1992,1992), spectrophotometer (SUVS-M) of Central Aerological Observatory CAO, spectroradiometer of Meteorological Observatory of the Moscow State University (MO MSU) and model simulations based on delta-Eddington approximation

  2. Measuring spectral effects of calcium fertilization in the red spruce foliage (United States)

    Kessler, W. R.; Rock, B. N.; Hallett, R. A.


    Acidic precipitation has altered biogeochemical cycles in the forests of the Northeastern U.S., and has lead to an interest in the decline symptomology of tree species affected as a result of these changes. For instance, in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands, leaching losses of calcium (Ca) may hamper root uptake capacities, wood structural properties, and tolerance of low temperature. The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is currently the site of a long-term Ca investigation, where an entire watershed was fertilized with wollastonite (CaSiO3) at the rate of 0.12 kg ha-1 in 1999. Preliminary data confirm that Ca-treated spruce foliage is higher in total foliar Ca as compared to foliage from trees in a reference watershed. Total foliar Ca concentration, as well as that of a bound Ca-oxalate pool, increase with needle age class. In order to test the utility of hyperspectral instruments for differentiating conifer stands of varying Ca availability, we used a Visible/Infrared Intelligent Spectrometer to measure reflectance spectra of fresh red spruce needles from trees at both Ca-amended and reference sites. Needles from Ca-amended sites were characterized by higher percent reflectance of incident radiation. Differences in spectral indices of needle health were apparent mostly in mixed-needle-year boughs (MNY), as opposed to current-year (CY), or third-year (3Y) needle classes. The Ca-amended spectra of MNY boughs had an average green peak of 7.32 ± 0.29 percent, while reference samples had a green peak of 6.37 ± 0.20 percent. The Red-edge Inflection Point (REIP) of MNY boughs was lower in Ca-amended than in reference treatments, occurring at 725.7 ± 0.7 nm and 727.3 ± 0.6 nm, respectively. The ratio of simulated Landsat band measurements (TM 5/4) of Ca-treated MNY needles was 0.440 ± 0.007, while that of reference was 0.421 ± 0.008.

  3. Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.


    A double‐beam interferometer has been designed for detecting changes of refractive index in transparent liquids associated with the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, due to short electron beam pulses from an accelerator. The response time of the interferometer is less than 0.2 μsec......, and refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3  °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...

  4. A new productivity index to measure economic sustainability of the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Xose A


    This document aims to introduce a total productivity index to measure the economic sustainability of the mining industry. This index will take into account any technical developments, means of use of productive factors (i.e. inefficiencies and scale effects) and the effects on the growth of the geological properties in the resources to be exploited (particularly the effects of resource reduction or reserves depletion). This new index will then be applied to the example of the Spanish mining industry, with some interesting findings regarding the configuration of sustainable mining policies.

  5. Research on alternative measures in the F1000 system with Google Scholar citation index


    Saeideh Ebrahimy; Fatemeh Setareh


    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altmetrics measures of F1000 website and citation Indexes of Google scholar. Applied research and survey methods, citation analysis, and webometrics with descriptive analytical approach are used. The study population comprised 218 biomedical research papers have been indexed in F1000 system in the period 2012-2014. A sample of 100 research articles were purposely selected from F1000 system based on the purpose of the research. V...

  6. Measurement invariance of Personal Well-Being Index (PWI-8) across 26 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Żemojtel-piotrowska, Magdalena; Piotrowski, Jarosław P.; Cieciuch, Jan; Adams, B.G.; Osin, Evgeny N.; Ardi, Rahkman; Bălţătescu, Sergiu; Bhomi, Arbinda Lal; Clinton, Amanda; De Clunie, Gisela T.; Esteves, Carla; Gouveia, Valdiney; Hosseini, Ashraf; Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Khachatryan, Narine; Kamble, Shanmukh Vasant; Kawula, Anna; Liik, Kadi; Letovancova, Eva; Malo Cerrato, Sara; Mora, Carles Alsinet; Nartova-bochaver, Sofya; Nikolic, Marija; Park, Joonha; Paspalanova, Elena; Pék, Győző; Różycka-tran, Joanna; Truong Thi Khanh, Ha; Tsubakita, Takashi; Vauclair, Christin-melanie; Włodarczyk, Anna; Maltby, John


    This report examines the measurement invariance of the Personal Well-being Index with 8 items (PWI-8). University students (N = 5731) from 26 countries completed the measure either through paper and pencil or electronic mode. We examined uni-dimensional structure of PWI and performed a Multi-group

  7. Measuring evolution of a photon in an interferometer with spectrally resolved modes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bula, M.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Javůrek, D.; Lemr, K.; Michálek, Václav; Soubusta, Jan


    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 052106. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Mach-Zehnder interferometer * spectrally resolved modes * photon Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  8. Spectral Measurements of Cyg X-3: A Thermal Source Embedded in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The attempts at unified model fitting to explain the spectral variations in Cyg X-3 suggest equally probable fits with a combination of an absorbed blackbody and a separately absorbed power law with an expo- nential cut-off or a composite of absorbed free-free emission with a power law hard X-ray component ...

  9. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, Johnny P. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brandt, Timothy D. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The recovery of an exoplanet’s atmospheric parameters from its spectrum requires accurate knowledge of the spectral errors and covariances. Unfortunately, the complex image processing used in high-contrast integral-field spectrograph (IFS) observations generally produces spectral covariances that are poorly understood and often ignored. In this work, we show how to measure the spectral errors and covariances and include them self-consistently in parameter retrievals. By combining model exoplanet spectra with a realistic noise model generated from the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) early science data, we show that ignoring spectral covariance in high-contrast IFS data can both bias inferred parameters and lead to unreliable confidence regions on those parameters. This problem is made worse by the common practice of scaling the χ {sup 2} per degree of freedom to unity; the input parameters then fall outside the 95% confidence regions in as many as ∼80% of noise realizations. The biases we observe can approach the typical levels of precision achieved in high-contrast spectroscopy. Accounting for realistic priors in fully Bayesian retrievals can also have a significant impact on the inferred parameters. Plausible priors on effective temperature and surface gravity can vary by an order of magnitude across the confidence regions appropriate for objects with weak age constraints; priors for objects with good age constraints are dominated by modeling uncertainties. Our methods are directly applicable to existing high-contrast IFSs including GPI and SPHERE, as well as upcoming instruments like CHARIS and, ultimately, WFIRST-AFTA.

  11. Measuring the surgical academic output of an institution: the "institutional" H-index. (United States)

    Turaga, Kiran K; Gamblin, T Clark


    The Hirsch index is a novel index that combines the number of publications and citations in measuring the research output of researchers. We hypothesized that the h-index can be used to measure the academic success of an institution in a subject area (surgery) and compared this measure to previously published measures of ranking institutions. We identified the top 10 research medical schools as designated by the United States News and World Report 2010. The h-index for an institution was obtained in 3-year periods for articles published in surgery. Independent rankings from the NIH and other web sites were then used to compare with our newly generated rankings. The median h-index for institutions was 52.5 (46-54) for 2000-2002, 50 (44-52) for 2003-2005, 35.5 (33-40) for 2006-2008, and 15.5 (13-16) for 2009-2011. The percentage of self citations was the highest in publications from Harvard University (22.2%) and the lowest from Columbia University (10%) in the years 2009-11. Our ranking closely mirrored the United States News and World Report, and Harvard Medical School remains the top ranking in the field of surgery, although NIH funding-based ranking may suggest otherwise. The institutional h-index appears to be a viable indicator for the measure of academic success of institutions in a subject area. Despite limitations, it yields objective data regarding the citations and number of articles published by an institution in a subject area and could be used to measure performance. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Planning of continuity of service: The nuisance index, a measurement of the impact of interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naggar, R.


    An improved approach has been developed by Hydro-Quebec to integrate its customers' needs into the planning for service continuity. A nuisance index has been developed to measure the impact of service interruptions and is currently being tested with a pilot project in the Richelieu service area. The analytic framework used differentiates three categories of customers for which a normative cost of interrptions is calculated. The classification of networks according to load density and use characteristics allows the utility to define appropriate service continuity objectives. Service continuity is measured using an indicator which is directly deduced from the cost of interruptions. The index takes into account the circumstances surrounding each interruption and an individual nuisance index is calculated for each customer. Then an average individual nuisance index is computed for customers within each category. Finally, an aggregated nuisance index is calculated for all categories as a whole. The cost of interruptions may then be derived through multiplying the nuisance indexes by the energy consumption of the corresponding set of customers and by a constant. It is possible to check whether a customer is receiving acceptable service continuity. An indicator determines the share of energy consumption for which a tolerance threshold has been exceeded. Once integrated into the planning process, these concepts enable optimal distribution network design and operation. Adjustments of network classes that match both the evolution of customers and load contribute to the permanent improvement of networks and their operation. 4 figs

  13. Evaluation of the methodologies used to generate random pavement profiles based on the power spectral density: An approach based on the International Roughness Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jesús Goenaga


    Full Text Available The pavement roughness is the main variable that produces the vertical excitation in vehicles. Pavement profiles are the main determinant of (i discomfort perception on users and (ii dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface, hence its evaluation constitutes an essential step on a Pavement Management System. The present document evaluates two specific techniques used to simulate pavement profiles; these are the shaping filter and the sinusoidal approach, both based on the Power Spectral Density. Pavement roughness was evaluated using the International Roughness Index (IRI, which represents the most used index to characterize longitudinal road profiles. Appropriate parameters were defined in the simulation process to obtain pavement profiles with specific ranges of IRI values using both simulation techniques. The results suggest that using a sinusoidal approach one can generate random profiles with IRI values that are representative of different road types, therefore, one could generate a profile for a paved or an unpaved road, representing all the proposed categories defined by ISO 8608 standard. On the other hand, to obtain similar results using the shaping filter approximation a modification in the simulation parameters is necessary. The new proposed values allow one to generate pavement profiles with high levels of roughness, covering a wider range of surface types. Finally, the results of the current investigation could be used to further improve our understanding on the effect of pavement roughness on tire pavement interaction. The evaluated methodologies could be used to generate random profiles with specific levels of roughness to assess its effect on dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface and user’s perception of road condition.

  14. Spectral analysis of ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] wave field measurements in the Tara Central Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Horne, S.F.


    A simple spectral analysis technique has been developed to analyse the digital signals from an array of magnetic probes for ICRF field measurements in the Tara Tandem Mirror central cell. The wave dispersion relations of both the applied ICRF and the Alfven Ion Cyclotron Instability have been studied and the waves have been identified as slow in cyclotron waves. The radial profiles of field amplitude and wave vectors were also generated. 9 refs., 10 figs

  15. Improving Our Ability to Assess Land Management and Disturbance by Linking Traditional Ecosystem Measurements with UAV Spectral Analysis (United States)

    Sutter, L., Jr.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Smith, W. K.; Minor, R. L.; Raub, H.; Jimenez, J. R.; Wolsiffer, S. K.; Escobedo, E. B.; Smith, J.


    Drylands are dynamic landscapes of mixed plant functional types that vary in their response to abiotic and biotic drivers of change. Within these regions, woody plant-herbaceous relationships have generally been viewed as negative: woody plants within these ecosystems have been shown to negatively impact herbaceous growth by taking advantage of both deeper stored water and intercepting near surface moisture after precipitation events. There has been a long-invested effort to eliminate woody plants in many areas of the world, and analyzing and assessing land management decisions has historically required high monetary and time inputs. Unfortunately, both management practices and disturbances from fire can leave a very heterogeneous landscape, making assessment of their impacts difficult to assess. This study has attempted to address the effectiveness of two commonly used treatments within woody plant invaded areas, fire and herbicide application, by linking plant physiological measurements with the emerging technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) spectral analysis. Taking advantage of a USDA-ARS sponsored herbicide treatment in 2016 and the accidental Sawmill Fire of 2017, both within the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) of Southern Arizona, USA, we linked spectral data collected via UAV with ground-based photosynthetic measurements. Given the high repeatability, and both spatial and spectral resolution of low-flying UAV measurements, we found that there are a variety of spectral indices that can be derived and accurately linked with traditional ecological measurements. Results and techniques from this study can be immediately applied to land management plans as well as be improved for other ecological parameters, such as those obtained from long-term study sites containing eddy covariance towers.

  16. Development of the Eating Choices Index (ECI): a four-item index to measure healthiness of diet. (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K; Richards, Marcus; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M


    Current indices of diet quality generally include intakes of specific foods or nutrients. We sought to develop an index that discriminates healthy and unhealthy eating choices for use in large surveys as a short questionnaire and as a measure in existing studies with adequate dietary data. The Eating Choices Index (ECI) score included four components: (i) consumption of breakfast, (ii) consumption of two portions of fruit per day, (iii) type of milk consumed and (iv) type of bread consumed, each providing a score from 1 to 5. In analysis of 5 d food records, the ECI score was examined in relation to macronutrients, fibre, vitamin C, Fe, Ca and folate using Pearson correlations. Variation with sex, BMI, socio-economic status, marital status, smoking status and physical activity were also investigated. Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Individuals (n 2256) aged 43 years. The ECI score (mean 12·3 (sd 3·5)) was significantly positively associated with protein, carbohydrate, fibre, vitamin C, Fe, Ca and folate (r = 0·2-0·5; P < 0·001) and significantly negatively associated with fat intake (r = -0·2; P < 0·001); ECI scores were not correlated with total energy intake. Individuals with a lower ECI score were more likely to be men (P < 0·001), overweight or obese (P < 0·001), have lower socio-economic status (P < 0·001), smoke more (P < 0·001) and be less physically active (P < 0·001). ECI scores correlated with nutrient profiles consistent with a healthy diet. It provides a simple method to rank diet healthiness in large observational studies.

  17. A comparison of Dysphonia Severity Index and Acoustic Voice Quality Index measures in differentiating normal and dysphonic voices. (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Latoszek, Ben Barsties V; Ulozaite-Staniene, Nora; Petrauskas, Tadas; Maryn, Youri


    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the feasibility and robustness of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in diagnostic accuracy, differentiating normal and dysphonic voices. A group of 264 subjects with normal voices (n = 105) and with various voice disorders (n = 159) were asked to read aloud a text and to sustain the vowel /a/. Both speech tasks were concatenated, and perceptually rated for dysphonia severity by five voice clinicians. They rated the Grade (G) and the overall dysphonia severity with a visual analog scale (VAS). All concatenated voice samples were acoustically analyzed to receive an AVQI score. For DSI analysis, the required voice parameters were obtained from the sustained phonation of the vowel /a/. The results achieved significant and marked concurrent validity between both auditory-perceptual judgment procedures and both acoustic voice measures. The DSI threshold (i.e., DSI = 3.30) pertaining to G mean obtained reasonable sensitivity of 85.8% and specificity of 83.4%. For VAS mean , the DSI threshold of 3.30 was determined also with reasonable sensitivity of 70.3% and excellent specificity of 93.9%. Also, the AVQI threshold (i.e., AVQI = 3.31) pertaining to G mean demonstrated reasonable sensitivity of 78.1% and excellent specificity of 92.0%. For VAS mean , an AVQI threshold of 3.33 was determined with excellent sensitivity of 97.0% and reasonable specificity of 81.8%. The outcomes of the present study indicate comparable results between DSI and AVQI with a high level of validity to discriminate between normal and dysphonic voices. However, a higher level of accuracy was yielded for AVQI as a correlate of auditory perceptual judgment suggesting a reliable voice screening potential of AVQI.

  18. An Index for Measuring Functional Diversity in Plant Communities Based on Neural Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiqi Song


    Full Text Available Functional diversity in plant communities is a key driver of ecosystem processes. The effective methods for measuring functional diversity are important in ecological studies. A new method based on neural network, self-organizing feature map (SOFM index, was put forward and described. A case application to the study of functional diversity of Phellodendron amurense communities in Xiaolongmen Forest Park of Beijing was carried out in this paper. The results showed that SOFM index was an effective method in the evaluation of functional diversity and its change in plant communities. Significant nonlinear correlations of SOFM index with the common used methods, FAD, MFAD, FDp, FDc, FRic, and FDiv indices, also proved that SOFM index is useful in the studies of functional diversity.

  19. Soil spectral measurements in the field: problems and solutions in light of the GEO-CARDEL project (United States)

    Dor, E. Ben; Granot, Amihai


    The GEO-CRADEL project aims to establish several knowhow for GEO applications. One of them is food security in which soil spectroscopy plays a major role. To that end we had developed a new assembly for measuring surface reflectance in the field. This was done in order to fill the gap between laboratory and field soil spectral measurements. This device, named SoilPRO (SP) can be connected to any field spectrometer fiber's tip and used to measure representative and undisturbed surfaces of different soil types. The SoilPRO's performance was evaluated against laboratory measurements under optimal conditions and demonstrated high performance in the field. As the SP measurement is not dependent on main factors such as the sun's radiation, atmospheric variations, operator stability or measurement geometry, and it does not disturb the surface being measured, its measurement can be used with laboratory soil spectral data (SSL). To that end the SSL that is generated under the GEO-CARDEL project is now can be used for agro- application in the field.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall K. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valencic, Lynne A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corrales, Lia, E-mail: [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-241, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Interstellar extinction includes both absorption and scattering of photons from interstellar gas and dust grains, and it has the effect of altering a source's spectrum and its total observed intensity. However, while multiple absorption models exist, there are no useful scattering models in standard X-ray spectrum fitting tools, such as XSPEC. Nonetheless, X-ray halos, created by scattering from dust grains, are detected around even moderately absorbed sources, and the impact on an observed source spectrum can be significant, if modest, compared to direct absorption. By convolving the scattering cross section with dust models, we have created a spectral model as a function of energy, type of dust, and extraction region that can be used with models of direct absorption. This will ensure that the extinction model is consistent and enable direct connections to be made between a source's X-ray spectral fits and its UV/optical extinction.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.; Allegrini, F.; Fuselier, S. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Zirnstein, E. J. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); McComas, D. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Funsten, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, NM 87545 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N.; Zank, G. P. [The Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Janzen, P.; Reisenfeld, D. B., E-mail: [Physics and Astronomy, University of Montana, Durham, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)


    We investigate the latitude, energy, and temporal variations of the ∼0.5–6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes and spectral indices measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer ( IBEX ) outside of the Ribbon from 2009 to 2013. By combining all-sky maps for years 1–3 and years 4–5, we find that the >1.2 keV globally distributed (GD) ENA fluxes at all latitudes decrease by ∼25% from years 1–3 to years 4–5, but there is no change (<5%) in the corresponding spectral indices. We also show that the latitudinal profile and energy-dependence of the ≥1 keV ENA spectral indices outside the Ribbon exhibit no significant time differences between years 1–3 and 4–5, lending strong support for the notion that the highly organized, persistent energy dependence and latitudinal pattern of the ENA spectral indices during 2009–2014 are determined by that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed in the inner heliosphere during the deep solar minimum conditions of 2006–2010. In contrast, the ∼25% decrease in the >1.2 keV ENA fluxes at all latitudes from years 1–3 to years 4–5 occurs because the magnitude of the driving SW parameters (SW density or dynamic pressure) diminished significantly from 2006 to 2010. Based on the reconstructed latitudinal and temporal profiles of SW parameters from 2011 to 2014, i.e., during the rising phase of solar cycle 24, we suggest that the GD ENA fluxes in years 2014–2017, i.e., in maps 6–9, will either stabilize or increase and the latitudinal pattern and energy dependence of the corresponding spectral indices will be disrupted.

  2. A New ENSO Index Derived from Satellite Measurements of Column Ozone (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Oman, L. D.; Bhartia, P. K.


    Column Ozone measured in tropical latitudes from Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), Earth Probe TOMS, solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV), and Aura ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) are used to derive an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. This index, which covers a time period from 1979 to the present, is defined as the Ozone ENSO Index (OEI) and is the first developed from atmospheric trace gas measurements. The OEI is constructed by first averaging monthly mean column ozone over two broad regions in the western and eastern Pacific and then taking their difference. This differencing yields a self-calibrating ENSO index which is independent of individual instrument calibration offsets and drifts in measurements over the long record. The combined Aura OMI and MLS ozone data confirm that zonal variability in total column ozone in the tropics caused by ENSO events lies almost entirely in the troposphere. As a result, the OEI can be derived directly from total column ozone instead of tropospheric column ozone. For clear-sky ozone measurements a +1K change in Nino 3.4 index corresponds to +2.9 Dobson Unit (DU) change in the OEI, while a +1 hPa change in SOI coincides with a -1.7DU change in the OEI. For ozone measurements under all cloud conditions these numbers are +2.4DU and -1.4 DU, respectively. As an ENSO index based upon ozone, it is potentially useful in evaluating climate models predicting long term changes in ozone and other trace gases.

  3. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.A., E-mail: [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain); Fortes, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Computacion, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J. [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J{sub sc}. - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2-4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  4. Hybrid optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature. (United States)

    Wang, Ruohui; Qiao, Xueguang


    We present a hybrid miniature optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature. The interferometer is fabricated by cascading two short sections of capillary tubes with different inner diameters. One extrinsic interferometer is based on the air gap cavity formed by the capillary tube with large diameter. Another section of capillary tube with small inner diameter performs as an intrinsic interferometer and also provides a channel enabling gas to enter and leave the extrinsic cavity freely. The experiment shows that the different dips or peaks in fringe exhibit different responses to the changes in gas refractive index and temperature. Owing to this feature, simultaneous measurement of the gas refractive index and temperature can be realized.

  5. A Comparison of Kretschmann-Raether Angular Regimes for Measuring Changes in Bulk Refractive Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We compare 2 angular regimes for the measurement of changes in the real refractive index of bulk fluid analytes. The measurements are based on the use of the Kretschmann-Raether configuration to sense a change in reflectivity with index. Specifically, we numerically simulate the relative sensitivities of the total internal reflection (TIR) and surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) regimes. For a fixed-angle apparatus, the method which gives the greatest change in reflectivity varies with metal film thickness. For films thicker than the skin depth, the SPR regime is the most sensitive to index changes. For thinner films, however, the TIR angle is then dominant, with increases in sensitivity on the order of 75% for 10 nm gold or silver media.

  6. Reconstruction of the solar spectral UV irradiance for nowcasting of the middle atmosphere state on the basis of LYRA measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova


    Full Text Available The LYRA instrument onboard ESA PROBA2 satellite will provide 6-hourly solar irradiance at the Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm and the Herzberg continuum (~200–220 nm wavelength range. Because the nowcasting of the neutral and ionic state of the middle atmosphere requires the solar irradiance for the wide spectral range (120–680 nm we have developed the statistical tool for the reconstruction of the full spectrum from the LYRA measurements. The accuracy of the reconstructed irradiance has been evaluated with 1-D transient radiative-convective model with neutral and ion chemistry using the daily solar spectral irradiance measured with SUSIM and SOLSTICE instruments onboard UARS satellite. We compared the results of transient 1-year long model simulations for 2000 driven by the observed and reconstructed solar irradiance and showed that the reconstruction of the full spectrum using linear regression equation based on the solar irradiance in two LYRA channels can be successfully used for nowcasting of the middle atmosphere. We have also identified conditions when the proposed approach does not yield spectral reconstruction with sufficient accuracy.

  7. Spectral characterization of Quillaja saponaria (Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Acuña


    Full Text Available This paper presents a spectral reflectance characterization of the specie Quillaja saponaria (Mol., endemic tree of Chile and valued by society due to its provision of several ecosystem services that gives to society and also for its high concentration of saponins in cortex widely used in the pharmacological industry. For spectral characterization a foliar spectral signatures protocol was designed which included standardized instrumental and environmental parameters. The spectral response of different individuals was measured to evaluate the spectral behaviour and degree of variability within species in the visible and near infrared ranges (VNIR; 400-990 nm with two hyperspectral sensors (ASD HH and camera PDF-65-V10E. The resulting spectral signatures obtained with ASD HH showed a variation less than 5% of reflectance in VNIR and lesser than that in the transition zone from red to near infrared (red-edge; 680-730 nm. Additionally, two distinctive spectral features were detected for the specie, the first is related to a fast increase of reflectance in bands 450-480 nm and the second, to a marked decrease in the 920-970 nm range associated with water absorption features. At branch level, these distinctive features are maintained but with a smaller magnitude of reflectance, which could indicate that they are useful characteristic spectral patterns that can eventually be used for monitoring the physical health state of the specie using remote sensing. On the other hand, we used a PDF-65 camera for study the plant vigour from different health states (healthy, ill, died with spectral vegetation index. The Plant Senescence Reflectance Index detected stress on leaves, and Triangular Vegetation Index allows for a gradually characterization of every state. This work provides the first spectral reference for one of the most important sclerophyll species of Chile.

  8. The Tripod School Climate Index: An Invariant Measure of School Safety and Relationships. (United States)

    Phillips, Sarah Fierberg; Rowley, Jacob F S


    Recently revised standards for social work practice in schools encourage data-informed school climate interventions that implicitly require invariant measures of school climate. Invariant measures have the same meaning, scale, and origin across different groups of respondents. Although noninvariant measures bias statistical analyses and can lead users to erroneous conclusions, most school climate measures have not been tested for invariance. This study examines the invariance of the Tripod School Climate Index. Exploratory, confirmatory, and multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 66,531 students across 222 schools. Results indicate that the index is an excellent fit for the data and invariant by student grade level, demographic background, prior achievement, and dropout risk. Results imply that student responses can be validly aggregated to create school-level scores. The index will not bias studies of school climate interventions or bivariate analyses comparing perceptions of school climate across subgroups of students attending the same school. Given the centrality of school climate interventions to social work practice in schools and the consequences of noninvariance, the development of an index with these properties is an important contribution to the field.

  9. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob


    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  10. Measuring disability in stroke : relationship between the modified Rankin scale and the Barthel index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, M; Luijckx, G-J; Vroomen, P C A J; Stewart, R E; De Keyser, J

    The effectiveness of therapeutic interventions in acute stroke trials is traditionally measured with the modified Rankin scale (mRs) and the Barthel index (BI). The mRs is a global disability scale divided into six steps from total independence to total dependence. The BI assesses ten basal

  11. Relationship between PC index and magnetospheric field-aligned currents measured by Swarm satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troshichev, О.; Sormakov, D.; Behlke, R.


    Abstract The relationship between the magnetospheric field-aligned currents (FAC) monitored by the Swarm satellites and the magnetic activity PC index (which is a proxy of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere) is examined. It is shown that current intensities measured in the R1...

  12. Simultaneous time-resolved measurement of the reaction rates and the refractive index of photopolymerization processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Tomasz M; Beusink, J Bianca; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S


    We explore the use of imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) to simultaneously measure the refractive index and reaction rates of the commercially available Ormocore photosensitive resist during photopolymerization. To this end, we adapted a commercially available iSPR device. We demonstrate good

  13. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.


    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  14. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index in open-aperture Z-scan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present an experimental study on measurement of nonlinear refractive index (n2) of organic liquids when the thermo-optic effects manifest into large nonlinear phase shifts ( φ0) in an open-aperture Z-scan configuration. Although we do not obtain the familiar peak–valley nor- malized transmittance curve as in ...

  15. Measuring Ionospheric Irregularities Globally by the Rate of TEC Index and GNSS Networks (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing


    Outline of presentation: Why do we use the rate of TEC index (ROTI) instead of the standard s4 and sigma-phi indices? What are the differences between S4, sigma-phi and ROTI? Examples of ROTI measurements and Development status and plan.

  16. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index in open-aperture Z-scan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an experimental study on measurement of nonlinear refractive index (2) of organic liquids when the thermo-optic effects manifest into large nonlinear phase shifts (0) in an open-aperture ... School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India ...

  17. Design of a Michelson Interferometer for Quantitative Refraction Index Profile Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, J.L.M.


    This book describes the theoretical design of a three camera Michelson interferometer set-up for quantitative refractive index measuerments. Although a two camera system is easier to align and less expensive, a three camera interferometer is preferred because the expected measuring accuracy is much

  18. Refractive index measurement for planar photonic crystal using a microscopy-spectrometry method (United States)

    Ouyang, Mike X.; Onyiriuka, Emmanuel C.; Kinney, L. D.


    We report a unique technique to measure the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), and thickness of thin films based on either the reflection or transmission spectra. The method combines a spectrometer, an optical microscope and a video camera. It is inexpensive, versatile and fast (Telekom using the electron induced deposition.

  19. Dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral imagery based on spectral analysis of homogeneous segments: distortion measurements and classification scores (United States)

    Alparone, Luciano; Argenti, Fabrizio; Dionisio, Michele; Santurri, Leonardo


    In this work, a new strategy for the analysis of hyperspectral image data is described and assessed. Firstly, the image is segmented into areas based on a spatial homogeneity criterion of pixel spectra. Then, a reduced data set (RDS) is produced by applying the projection pursuit (PP) algorithm to each of the segments in which the original hyperspectral image has been partitioned. Few significant spectral pixels are extracted from each segment. This operation allows the size of the data set to be dramatically reduced; nevertheless, most of the spectral information relative to the whole image is retained by RDS. In fact, RDS constitutes a good approximation of the most representative elements that would be found for the whole image, as the spectral features of RDS are very similar to the features of the original hyperspectral data. Therefore, the elements of a basis, either orthogonal or nonorthogonal, that best represents RDS, are searched for. Algorithms that can be used for this task are principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), PP, or matching pursuit (MP). Once the basis has been calculated from RDS, the whole hyperspectral data set is decomposed on such a basis to yield a sequence of components, or features, whose (statistical) significance decreases with the index. Hence, minor components may be discarded without compromising the results of application tasks. Experiments carried out on AVIRIS data, whose ground truth was available, show that PCA based on RDS, even if suboptimal in the MMSE sense with respect to standard PCA, increases the separability of thematic classes, which is favored when pixel vectors in the transformed domain are homogeneously spread around their class centers.

  20. Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region for measurements of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Flores, J. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Rudich, Y.; Brown, S. S.


    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere, and it strongly affects photochemistry through its photolysis. We describe simultaneous measurements of CH2O and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region. The light source consists of a continuous-wave diode laser focused into a Xenon bulb to produce a plasma that emits high-intensity, broadband light. The plasma discharge is optically filtered and coupled into a 1 m optical cavity. The reflectivity of the cavity mirrors is 0.99930 ± 0.00003 (1- reflectivity = 700 ppm loss) at 338 nm, as determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and zero air. This mirror reflectivity corresponds to an effective path length of 1.43 km within the 1 m cell. We measure the cavity output over the 315-350 nm spectral region using a grating monochromator and charge-coupled device array detector. We use published reference spectra with spectral fitting software to simultaneously retrieve CH2O and NO2 concentrations. Independent measurements of NO2 standard additions by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy agree within 2 % (slope for linear fit = 1.02 ± 0.03 with r2 = 0.998). Standard additions of CH2O measured by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and calculated based on flow dilution are also well correlated, with r2 = 0.9998. During constant mixed additions of NO2 and CH2O, the 30 s measurement precisions (1σ) of the current configuration were 140 and 210 pptv, respectively. The current 1 min detection limit for extinction measurements at 315-350 nm provides sufficient sensitivity for measurement of trace gases in laboratory experiments and ground-based field experiments. Additionally, the instrument provides highly accurate, spectroscopically based trace gas detection that may complement higher precision techniques based on non-absolute detection methods. In addition to

  1. Computerized Assessment of Communication for Cognitive Stimulation for People with Cognitive Decline Using Spectral-Distortion Measures and Phylogenetic Inference (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Truong, Cong-Thang; Okamoto, Kazushi; Futaba, Terufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Masahide; Lampe, Lisa


    Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline. PMID:25803586

  2. Computerized assessment of communication for cognitive stimulation for people with cognitive decline using spectral-distortion measures and phylogenetic inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan D Pham

    Full Text Available Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline.

  3. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.


    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  4. Index of Financial Inclusion – A measure of financial sector inclusiveness


    Mandira Sarma


    The promotion of an inclusive financial system is a policy priority in many countries. While the importance of financial inclusion is widely recognized, the literature lacks a comprehensive measure that can be used to measure the extent of financial inclusion across economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by proposing an index of financial inclusion (IFI). The proposed IFI captures information on various dimensions of financial inclusion in a single number lying between 0 and 1, where...

  5. New Evidence on Measuring Financial Constraints: Moving Beyond the KZ Index


    Charles J. Hadlock; Joshua R. Pierce


    We collect detailed qualitative information from financial filings to categorize financial constraints for a random sample of firms from 1995 to 2004. Using this categorization, we estimate ordered logit models predicting constraints as a function of different quantitative factors. Our findings cast serious doubt on the validity of the KZ index as a measure of financial constraints, while offering mixed evidence on the validity of other common measures of constraints. We find that firm size a...

  6. Evaluation of discrimination measures to characterize spectrally similar leaves of African Savannah trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N


    Full Text Available for characterization of the seven species. The role played by di erent regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS), such as, the visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and the short-wave infrared (SWIR), in the characterization of savannah trees at leaf level... be expressed as follows: (1) Ti = a + bi1 s1 + bi2 s2 + : : : + bin sn; where Ti represents the ith tree species, a is a constant and b1 to bn are model coe cients, while s1 to sn are the bands in the EMS. The statistical signi cance of each spectral band...

  7. Delay discounting and response disinhibition moderate associations between actigraphically measured sleep parameters and body mass index. (United States)

    Chan, Wai Sze


    Previous research suggests that the sleep-obesity association varies significantly across individuals. This study examined the associations between actigraphically measured sleep parameters and body mass index and hypothesized that the associations would be stronger in individuals with greater delay discounting, the devaluation of future rewards and response disinhibition and the difficulty in withholding previously rewarded responses. Seventy-eight college students carried a wrist-worn actigraph and completed diaries reporting bedtime, wake time and covariates including physical activity, alcohol and caffeine consumption, daytime nap duration and perceived stress for 7 days and completed the delay discounting and go/no-go response disinhibition tasks. Their height and weight were measured. Only bedtime variability was significantly associated with body mass index in the main effect model controlling for all covariates (B = 0.03, P = 0.001). Delay discounting moderated associations of bedtime (B = 0.03, P body mass index; these associations were significant only when the delay discounting rate was high. Response disinhibition moderated the association between bedtime variability and body mass index in a similar pattern (B = 0.01, P = 0.004). The findings suggest that, using actigraphy measures of sleep, circadian desynchrony rather than sleep duration is a risk factor for higher body mass index. The findings support the hypothesis that delay discounting and response disinhibition moderate the associations between sleep and body mass index. Delay discounting and response disinhibition might characterize individuals who are vulnerable to the influence of circadian desynchrony on weight. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Leila B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI. Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first derivative of SBP over time, standard deviation (SD of 24-hour SBP; and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP. ABI was measured with a doppler probe. The sample included 425 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12 years, being 69.2% women, 26.1% current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI (≤ 0.90 or ≥ 1.40 was present in 58 patients. The time rate index was 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min in patients with abnormal ABI versus 0.476 ± 0.124 mmHg/min in patients with normal ABI (P = 0.007. In a logistic regression model the time rate index was associated with ABI, regardless of age (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04. In a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, SBP and diabetes, the time rate index was strongly associated with ABI (P Conclusion Time rate index is a sensible method to measure BP variability by ABPM. Its performance for risk stratification of patients with hypertension should be explored in longitudinal studies.

  9. Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line C; Greisen, Gorm


    The use of cerebral tissue oxygenation index (c-TOI) in a clinical setting is limited by doubts concerning the accuracy of the measurements. Since there is no gold standard, validation is difficult. Our modest aim was to quantify the precision of c-TOI doing repeated measurements by reapplying...... variation was 2.9%. The precision of a single measurement of c-TOI was not good. By measuring five times instead of one on each subject, the precision of the mean can be assumed to be comparable to pulse oximetry. This may be too cumbersome for clinical use, but may reduce sample size in research....

  10. Remotely Sensed Density Measurements of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes Using a Spectral Long Wave Infrared Imager (United States)


    ground determined by aircraft measurements Barometric pressure Meteorlogical measurement or packaged LOWTRAN atmospheric model Temperature... Meteorlogical measurement or packaged LOWTRAN atmospheric model Humidity Meteorlogical measurement or packaged LOWTRAN atmospheric model 32 Figure 21

  11. Capillary-scale interferometry at high angles of scattering for refractive index measurements of small volumes (United States)

    Świrniak, Grzegorz


    This paper focuses on the problem of elastic scattering of a collimated beam of light on an unmodified glass capillary to perform a non-destructive small volume refractive index characterization. An interaction between the beam of light and the capillary causes that a series of dark and bright fringes is formed in the far field observed at high angles of scattering. By analyzing the spatial profile of the scattered light, the absolute value of the refractive index of a small volume may be measured unambiguously.

  12. Aerosol spectral absorption in the Mexico City area: results from airborne measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Bergstrom


    Full Text Available This paper presents estimates of the spectral solar absorption due to atmospheric aerosols during the 2006 MILAGRO/INTEX-B (Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment field campaign. The aerosol absorption was derived from measurements of the spectral solar radiation and the spectral aerosol optical depth made on the J31 aircraft flying over the Gulf of Mexico and over Mexico City. We present the spectral single scattering albedo (SSA and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD for two flights over the Gulf of Mexico and three flights over Mexico City for wavelengths from 350 to approximately 1650 nm. The spectral aerosol optical properties of each case are different and illustrate the variability of the aerosol optical properties in the Mexico City area.

    The results can be described in terms of three different wavelength regions: The 350–500 nm region where the aerosol absorption often falls off sharply presumably due to organic carbonaceous particles and windblown dust; the 500–1000 nm region where the decrease with wavelength is slower presumably due to black carbon; and the near infrared spectral region (1000 nm to 1650 nm where it is difficult to obtain reliable results since the aerosol absorption is relatively small and the gas absorption dominates. However, there is an indication of a small and somewhat wavelength independent absorption in the region beyond 1000 nm.

    For one of the flights over the Gulf of Mexico near the coastline it appears that a cloud/fog formation and evaporation led to an increase of absorption possibly due to a water shell remaining on the particles after the cloud/fog had dissipated. For two of the Mexico City cases, the single scattering albedo is roughly constant between 350–500 nm consistent with other Mexico City results. In three of the cases a single absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE fits the aerosol

  13. The COPD Helplessness Index: a new tool to measure factors affecting patient self-management. (United States)

    Omachi, Theodore A; Katz, Patricia P; Yelin, Edward H; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J; Blanc, Paul D; Eisner, Mark D


    Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes.

  14. Enhanced Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (EMBSD): An objective speech quality measure based on audible distortion and cognition model (United States)

    Yang, Wonho

    The Speech Processing Lab at Temple University developed an objective speech quality measure called the Modified Bark Spectral Distortion (MBSD). The MBSD uses auditory perception models derived from psychoacoustic studies. The MBSD measure extends the Bark Spectral Distortion (BSD) method by incorporating noise making threshold to differentiate audible/inaudible distortions. The performance of the MBSD was comparable to that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 for various coding distortions. Based on the experiments with Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) data that contains distortions encountered in real network applications, modifications have been made to the MBSD algorithm. These are: use of the first 15 loudness components, normalization of loudness vectors, deletion of the spreading function in the noise masking threshold calculation, and use of a new cognition model based on postmasking effects. The Enhanced MBSD (EMBSD) shows significant improvement over the MBSD for TDMA data. Also, the performance of the EMBSD is better than that of the ITU-T Recommendation P.861 and Measuring Normalizing Blocks (MNB) measures for TDMA data. The performance of the EMBSD was compared to various other objective speech quality measures with the speech data including a wide range of distortion conditions. The EMBSD showed clear improvement over the MBSD and had the correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the conditions of MNRUs, codecs, tandem cases, bit errors, and frame erasures. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) has been used to evaluate objective speech quality measures. Recognizing the procedural difference between the MOS test and current objective speech quality measures, it is proposed that current objective speech quality measures should be evaluated with Degradation Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient has been the main performance parameter for evaluation of objective speech quality measures. The Standard Error of the Estimates (SEE

  15. Structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of the molten nylon 10/10 traced by time-resolved infrared spectral measurements and synchrotron SAXS/WAXD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Nishiyama, Asami; Tsuji, Sawako; Hashida, Tomoko; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Weiyu, Cao; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki; Ito, Kazuki


    The structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of nylon 10/10 from the melt has been clarified concretely on the basis of the time-resolved infrared spectral measurement as well as the synchrotron wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Immediately after the temperature jump from the melt to the crystallization point, the isolated domains consisting of the hydrogen-bonded random coils were formed in the melt, as revealed by Guinier plot of SAXS data and the infrared spectral data. With the passage of time these domains approached each other with stronger correlation as analyzed by Debye-Bueche equation. These domains transformed finally to the stacked crystalline lamellae, in which the conformationally-regularized methylene segments of the CO sides were connected each other by stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the crystal lattice.

  16. Wavelength selection for portable noninvasive blood component measurement system based on spectral difference coefficient and dynamic spectrum (United States)

    Feng, Ximeng; Li, Gang; Yu, Haixia; Wang, Shaohui; Yi, Xiaoqing; Lin, Ling


    Noninvasive blood component analysis by spectroscopy has been a hotspot in biomedical engineering in recent years. Dynamic spectrum provides an excellent idea for noninvasive blood component measurement, but studies have been limited to the application of broadband light sources and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments. In order to remove redundant information, a more effective wavelength selection method has been presented in this paper. In contrast to many common wavelength selection methods, this method is based on sensing mechanism which has a clear mechanism and can effectively avoid the noise from acquisition system. The spectral difference coefficient was theoretically proved to have a guiding significance for wavelength selection. After theoretical analysis, the multi-band spectral difference coefficient-wavelength selection method combining with the dynamic spectrum was proposed. An experimental analysis based on clinical trial data from 200 volunteers has been conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. The extreme learning machine was used to develop the calibration models between the dynamic spectrum data and hemoglobin concentration. The experiment result shows that the prediction precision of hemoglobin concentration using multi-band spectral difference coefficient-wavelength selection method is higher compared with other methods.

  17. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarannum Mansoori


    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  18. A correlational method to concurrently measure envelope and temporal fine structure weights: effects of age, cochlear pathology, and spectral shaping. (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E


    The speech signal may be divided into spectral frequency-bands, each band containing temporal properties of the envelope and fine structure. This study measured the perceptual weights for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for sentence materials in young normal-hearing listeners, older normal-hearing listeners, aided older hearing-impaired listeners, and spectrally matched young normal-hearing listeners. The availability of each acoustic property was independently varied through noisy signal extraction. Thus, the full speech stimulus was presented with noise used to mask six different auditory channels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener's performance with the signal-to-noise ratio of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrate that temporal fine structure perceptual weights remain stable across the four listener groups. However, a different weighting typography was observed across the listener groups for envelope cues. Results suggest that spectral shaping used to preserve the audibility of the speech stimulus may alter the allocation of perceptual resources. The relative perceptual weighting of envelope cues may also change with age. Concurrent testing of sentences repeated once on a previous day demonstrated that weighting strategies for all listener groups can change, suggesting an initial stabilization period or susceptibility to auditory training.

  19. Three-dimensional display and measurement of cardiac dynamic indexes from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Matsuo, M.; Yamasaki, K.; Banno, T.; Toriwaki, J.; Yokoi, S.; Oshita, H.


    The cardiac dynamic index, to which such variables as cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion contribute, is routinely determined using various modalities such as angiography, radionuclide imaging, US, and x-ray CT. Each of these modalities, however, has some disadvantages in regard to evaluating the cardiac dynamic index. The authors have obtained precise multidirectional projection images of the heart by means of computer graphics and reformatted data of cardiac MR images obtained with cardiac gating. The contiguous coronal MR images of the heart are made at an interimage distance of 5 mm. In each section, five or six cardiac images can be obtained, depending on the systolic or diastolic phase. These images are stored in a computer, and a three-dimensional display of the heart with biocular observation and with multiplex holograms is made possible with computer graphics. Three-dimensional measurement of the cardiac index is now being attempted, including cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro


    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  1. Continuous measurement of leaf area index (LAI) over broadleaf crop fields in northeast China (United States)

    Fang, H.; Ye, Y.; Liu, W.; Wei, S.; Ma, L.


    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the essential climate variables used in many ecological and land surface process models. Global LAI products have been provided routinely by many remote sensing projects. Reliable and consistent LAI estimates are a priority for LAI validation study and the application communities. In situ LAI measurements are a critical component of our ongoing global LAI validation efforts. Automatic methods, e.g., PASTIS-57, and smartphone applications (APPs) have become increasingly available for efficient field LAI measurements. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of automatic and portable smartphone LAI measurements together with traditional indirect optical LAI measurements. A seasonal field campaign was carried out to take continuous LAI measurements over corn, soybean, and sorghum fields in northeast China in 2016. Field LAI measurement was made with the automatic PASTIS-57, two smartphone applications, PocketLAI and LAISmart, and two handheld optical instruments, LAI-2200 and digital hemispherical photography (DHP). The results show that PASTIS-57 provides a convenient and accurate LAI estimation method as compared to LAI-2200 and DHP. LAI estimates from smartphone applications are generally smaller than the LAI-2200 and DHP values. In addition to the LAI measurements, continuous clumping index (CI) measurements were also obtained. The seasonal continuous LAI and CI measurements obtained from this study are valuable for the validation of remote sensing products.

  2. Measuring cervical cancer risk: development and validation of the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index. (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D


    To develop and validate a risky sexual behavior index specific to cervical cancer research. Sexual behavior data on 428 women from the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) study were utilized. A weighting scheme for eight risky sexual behaviors was generated and validated in creating the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index. Cutpoints were then identified to classify women as having a low, medium, or high level of risky sexual behavior. Index scores ranged from 0 to 35, with women considered to have a low level of risky sexual behavior if their score was less than six (31.3% of sample), a medium level if their score was 6–10 (30.6%), or a high level if their score was 11 or greater (38.1%). A strong association was observed between the created categories and having a previous abnormal Pap smear test (p Sexual Behavior Index provides a tool for measuring risky sexual behavior level for cervical cancer research. Future studies are needed to validate this index in varied populations and test its use in the clinical setting.

  3. The role of passive ocean spectral fluorescence measurements in satellite determinations of marine primary production (United States)

    Topliss, B. J.; Platt, Trevor C.

    The detection of spectral fluorescence is a rapidly-growing tool for marine biologists interested in both phytoplankton biomass and species composition. The presence of solar stimulated fluorescence at 685 nm (associated with chlorophyll a) has been detected in data sets collected from areas as diverse as the high Arctic and the Caribbean Sea. Interpretation and modelling of passive fluorescence signals in terms of optical efficiencies is dependent on accurate estimates of specific absorption coefficients. This in turn requires an optical modelling of the associated water mass in a similar manner to that used in interpretation of remote sensing signals (such as from the CZCS - Coastal Zone Colour Scanner, or the planned OCI - Ocean Colour Imager). A potential relationship between passive chlorophyll fluorescence efficiency and photosynthetic efficiency of chlorophyll a is outlined for the field data and the relevance of such a relationship to future remote sensing signals such as from the FLI (Fluorescence Line Imager) is discussed.

  4. Research on alternative measures in the F1000 system with Google Scholar citation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ebrahimy


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altmetrics measures of F1000 website and citation Indexes of Google scholar. Applied research and survey methods, citation analysis, and webometrics with descriptive analytical approach are used. The study population comprised 218 biomedical research papers have been indexed in F1000 system in the period 2012-2014. A sample of 100 research articles were purposely selected from F1000 system based on the purpose of the research. Variables associated with altmetrics measures were extracted from F1000 and variables associated with citation measures were from Google scholar. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS software version 16 using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of this study indicate a significant positive correlation between variables associated with altmetrics and citation measures. They also confirm a strong positive correlation between Altmetrics indicators. However, the measures of the number of the authors and the funding supply of the articles show no significant correlation with altmetrics and citation measures. So an Altmetrics measure presents a new way to measure the impact of writers and publications which is a complementary to traditional assessment indicators. The significant correlation between altmetrics and citation metrics indicate that combination of traditional and altmetrics indicators presents a more complete history of the writer or the article  which provides clear dimensions of scientific assessment of research.

  5. A spectral approach to compute the mean performance measures of the queue with low-order BMAP input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee


    Full Text Available This paper targets engineers and practitioners who want a simple procedure to compute the mean performance measures of the Batch Markovian Arrival process (BMAP/G/1 queueing system when the parameter matrices order is very low. We develop a set of system equations and derive the vector generating function of the queue length. Starting from the generating function, we propose a spectral approach that can be understandable to those who have basic knowledge of M/G/1 queues and eigenvalue algebra.

  6. Spin cutoff parameters for 28Si, 29Si, and 30P: Comparison of measurements with spectral distribution calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.; Poppe, C.H.; Wong, C.; Dalton, B.J.


    Spin cutoff parameters for 28 Si, 29 Si, and 30 P have been deduced from angular distribution measurements for (α,n) reactions on 25 Mg, 26 Mg, and 27 Al. Calculations of the spin cutoff parameter which include the effect of two body interactions are made using the theory of spectral distributions. The results obtained by dividing the space into subspaces and expanding the strength distribution of each in a Gaussian are found to be more reliable than calculating a single Gaussian for the entire space. The comparisons in this study indicate a need for the inclusion of higher moments of the Hamiltonian in the level density expansion

  7. The index of ADOH: concept of measuring oral self-care functioning in the elderly. (United States)

    Bauer, J G


    Measures of ability, or function, are used in the health field to determine the level of performance of a specific task, assess the loss of function, and to measure the return to function as a result of rehabilitation or interventions. While these measures are important to all age groups, it is the elderly and chronically ill who are at most risk for adverse changes in their health and functional status. The Index of the Activities of Daily Oral Hygiene (ADOH) is an instrument to assess and monitor functional dependency in manipulating aids used in oral self-care. It is part of the overall concept of oral self-care which subsumes function, education and training, and compliance in achieving and maintaining oral health. The purpose of the Index of ADOH is two-fold: to assess a subject for the progressive loss of the physical ability to manipulate the aids used in oral self-care, and to measure the return to function in response to care intervention and rehabilitative services. These manipulative tasks are associated with flossing, brushing, topical fluoride application, and the use of oral rinses. Aside from changes in function, the Index of ADOH can be used by health care providers and administrators to project the need for services or support for home care.

  8. A Validation of the Spectral Power Clustering Technique (SPCT by Using a Rogowski Coil in Partial Discharge Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey


    Full Text Available Both in industrial as in controlled environments, such as high-voltage laboratories, pulses from multiple sources, including partial discharges (PD and electrical noise can be superimposed. These circumstances can modify and alter the results of PD measurements and, what is more, they can lead to misinterpretation. The spectral power clustering technique (SPCT allows separating PD sources and electrical noise through the two-dimensional representation (power ratio map or PR map of the relative spectral power in two intervals, high and low frequency, calculated for each pulse captured with broadband sensors. This method allows to clearly distinguishing each of the effects of noise and PD, making it easy discrimination of all sources. In this paper, the separation ability of the SPCT clustering technique when using a Rogowski coil for PD measurements is evaluated. Different parameters were studied in order to establish which of them could help for improving the manual selection of the separation intervals, thus enabling a better separation of clusters. The signal processing can be performed during the measurements or in a further analysis.

  9. High-spectral-resolution lidar with iodine-vapor filters: measurement of atmospheric-state and aerosol profiles. (United States)

    Hair, J W; Caldwell, L M; Krueger, D A; She, C Y


    A high-spectral-resolution lidar can measure vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, the aerosol backscatter ratio, and the aerosol extinction coefficient simultaneously. We describe a system with these characteristics. The transmitter is a narrow-band (FWHM of the order of 74 MHz), injection-seeded, pulsed, double YAG laser at 532 nm. Iodine-vapor filters in the detection system spectrally separate the molecular and aerosol scattering and greatly reduce the latter (-41 dB). Operating at a selected frequency to take advantage of two neighboring lines in vapor filters, one can obtain a sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio equal to 0.42%/K. Using a relatively modest size transmitter and receiver system (laser power times telescope aperture equals 0.19 Wm(2)), our measured temperature profiles (0.5-15 km) over 11 nights are in agreement with balloon soundings to within 2.0 K over an altitude range of 2-5 km. There is good agreement in the lapse rates, tropopause altitudes, and inversions. In principle, to invert the signal requires a known density at one altitude, but in practice it is convenient to also use a known temperature at that altitude. This is a scalable system for high spatial resolution of vertical temperature profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, even in the presence of aerosols.

  10. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions (United States)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.


    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  11. Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured inWagrain, Austria in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Pearson, Andy J; O'Hagan, John B


    Ultraviolet radiation spectral irradiance was measured at different altitudes on horizontal and tilted planes in different azimuth directions on cloudless days in Austria, in March 2010, within the Impact of Climatic and Environmental factors on Personal Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure project...

  12. Retrieval of aerosol mass load (PM10 from MERIS/Envisat top of atmosphere spectral reflectance measurements over Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vountas


    Full Text Available Results of a new methodology for retrievals of surface particulate matter concentration (PM10 from satellite reflectance measurements over Germany are presented in this paper. The retrieval derives effective radii from Ångström-α exponents and benefits from the fitting of a smooth spectral slope from seven MERIS spectrometer channels. Comparisons with ground measurements from the air quality surveillance show standard deviations of 33.9% with −18.9% bias over Hamburg. Over rural sites a standard deviation of 17.9% (bias 12.9% is reached. We discuss critically limitations and potential applications of the retrieval. Additionally, we talk about the aspects at comparing of retrieved particulate matter with ground station measurements.

  13. Online Labour Index: Measuring the Online Gig Economy for Policy and Research


    Kässi, Otto; Lehdonvirta, Vili


    Labour markets are thought to be in the midst of a dramatic transformation, where standard employment is increasingly supplemented or substituted by temporary gig work mediated by online platforms. Yet the scale and scope of these changes is hard to assess, because conventional labour market statistics and economic indicators are ill-suited to measuring online gig work. We present the Online Labour Index (OLI), a new economic indicator that provides the online gig economy equivalent of conven...

  14. Behavioral measures and EEG monitoring using the Brain Symmetry Index during the Wada test in children. (United States)

    Peters, Jurriaan M; Tomas-Fernandez, Meritxell; van Putten, Michel J A M; Loddenkemper, Tobias


    EEG monitoring is used routinely during the Wada test in children. We quantified EEG asymmetry using the Brain Symmetry Index (BSI) to reduce subjectivity of EEG interpretation. Clinical and procedural variables were obtained and EEG data were retrieved from 46 patients with a total of 89 injections. The BSI, the absolute value of the relative difference of the average spectral density of the right and left hemisphere, was calculated over time for all EEGs. Lateralized slowing was correctly identified in all procedures. Asymmetry was minimal at baseline (BSI 0.16) and increased with injection of amobarbital (BSI 0.49). Various patterns of the BSI were seen in distinct clinical and procedural scenarios. In this retrospective analysis, the BSI could not predict an unsuccessful Wada procedure. Our results suggest application of the BSI during the Wada test in children is feasible. Real-time calculation of the BSI during EEG monitoring in the angiography suite is warranted for further validation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seismic loadings and measured parameters combined by power spectral density methods on a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.T.; Harizi, P.D.; Hall, J.R. Jr.


    The qualification of equipment to resist the design seismic loading may require determining what motions will be felt at the points of support for the equipment, and many other calculations of seismic and vibrational effects require that dynamic loadings be established at points other than those at which they have been prescribed or calculated in the course of structural analysis. These calculations have always presented a number of experimental and theoretical difficulties. In particular the engineer needs a procedure for expressing the seismic excitation in a form that is convenient for calculation, a technique for determining the amplification functions for the structures and equipment through which the seismic loadings are transmitted, and a computational implementation that is convenient and efficient. This paper describes the use of previously published algorithms to develop the power spectral density function for a seismic excitation previously described in terms of its response spectrum and to compute the amplification function for a system whose modal shapes, but not its mass distribution, are known. The resulting computer program, which runs on an IBM PC/XT microcomputer, includes graphical screen output that permits the engineer to determine the current state of the calculations and to modify the course of the calculations

  16. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.; Schwartz, R.A.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)


    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission. 39 references

  17. Analysis of global water vapour trends from satellite measurements in the visible spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mieruch


    Full Text Available Global water vapour total column amounts have been retrieved from spectral data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME flying on ERS-2, which was launched in April 1995, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT launched in March 2002. For this purpose the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS approach has been used. The combination of the data from both instruments provides us with a long-term global data set spanning more than 11 years with the potential of extension up to 2020 by GOME-2 data on MetOp.

    Using linear and non-linear methods from time series analysis and standard statistics the trends of H2O columns and their errors have been calculated. In this study, factors affecting the trend such as the length of the time series, the magnitude of the variability of the noise, and the autocorrelation of the noise are investigated. Special emphasis has been placed on the calculation of the statistical significance of the observed trends, which reveal significant local changes from −5% per year to +5% per year. These significant trends are distributed over the whole globe. Increasing trends have been calculated for Greenland, East Europe, Siberia and Oceania, whereas decreasing trends have been observed for the northwest USA, Central America, Amazonia, Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsular.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Rashid


    Full Text Available Stuttering is a motor-speech disorder, having common features with other motor control disorders such as dystonia, Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome. Stuttering results from complex interactions between factors such as motor, language, emotional and genetic. This study used Line Spectral Frequency (LSF for the feature extraction, while using three classifiers for the identification purpose, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN and Radial Basis Function (RBF. The UCLASS (University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech release 1 was used as database in this research. These recordings were from people of ages 12y11m to 19y5m, who were referred to clinics in London for assessment of their stuttering. The performance metrics used for interpreting the results are sensitivity, accuracy, precision and misclassification rate. Only M1 and M2 had below 100% sensitivity for RBF. The sensitivity of M1 was found to be between 40 & 60%, therefore categorized as moderate, while that of M2 falls between 60 & 80%, classed as substantial. Overall, RBF outperforms the two other classifiers, MLP and RNN for all the performance metrics considered.

  19. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and ionization rates in air using a wavefront sensor. (United States)

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Kimmel, Mark; Atherton, Briggs


    A wavefront sensor has been used to measure the Kerr nonlinear focal shift of a high intensity ultrashort pulse beam in a focusing beam geometry while accounting for the effects of plasma-defocusing. It is shown that plasma-defocusing plays a major role in the nonlinear focusing dynamics and that measurements of Kerr nonlinearity and ionization are coupled. Furthermore, this coupled effect leads to a novel way that measures the laser ionization rates in air under atmospheric conditions as well as Kerr nonlinearity. The measured nonlinear index n₂ compares well with values found in the literature and the measured ionization rates could be successfully benchmarked to the model developed by Perelomov, Popov, and Terentev (PPT model) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 1393 (1966)].

  20. Relationship between PC index and magnetospheric field-aligned currents measured by Swarm satellites (United States)

    Troshichev, O.; Sormakov, D.; Behlke, R.


    The relationship between the magnetospheric field-aligned currents (FAC) monitored by the Swarm satellites and the magnetic activity PC index (which is a proxy of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere) is examined. It is shown that current intensities measured in the R1 and R2 FAC layers at the poleward and equtorward boundaries of the auroral oval are well correlated, the R2 currents being evidently secondary in relation to R1 currents and correlation in the dawn and dusk oval sectors being better than in the noon and night sectors. There is evident relationship between the PC index and the intensity of field-aligned currents in the R1 dawn and dusk layers: increase of FAC intensity in the course of substorm development is accompanied by increasing the PC index values. Correlation between PC and FAC intensities in the R2 dawn and dusk layers is also observed, but it is much weaker. No correlation is observed between PC and field-aligned currents in the midnight as well as in the noon sectors ahead of the substorm expansion phase. The results are indicative of the R1 field-aligned currents as a driver of the polar cap magnetic activity (PC index) and currents in the R2 layer.

  1. Measurement of lower canine clinical crown index in male and female for gender identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dewi Handayani


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to acquire the value index of clinical crown lower jaw canine male and female, and to prove whether the index of male's canine is bigger than female's. The samples of the research was the students of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran class of 1998 until 2001 by using proportional random sampling method according to the criteria and also adjust with the numbers of male and female composition in per class. The characteristic of the research was analytical descriptive with survey technique. The result of t test statistic measurement was that index of clinical crown tower jaw canine of mate was 1.50 and female was 1.21, by using reliance 95%. The inference of the research showed that the index of clinical crown lower jaw canine of male was significantly bigger than female's. The result of the research can be used as auxiliary data from the techniques to process gender identification in odontology forensic.

  2. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  3. Application of a newly developed CCD for spectral-width measurements of a 53 eV germanium laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunemi, H. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Nomoto, S. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Hayashida, K. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Miyata, E. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Murakami, H. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Kato, Y. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Yuan, G. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Murai, K. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Kodama, R. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Daido, H. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering)


    We report the application of a soft X-ray CCD for X-ray laser experiments. A newly developed CCD which has a thinned protection layer (SiO[sub 2]) of about 0.2 [mu]m was attached to a grazing incidence spectrometer with a resolving power of 16000 in order to measure high-resolution spectra of a germanium soft X-ray laser. Clear spectra have been recorded with a high sensitivity in the energy range between 51 eV (240 A) and 55 eV (225 A). In addition to the two strong lasing lines at 236 A and 232 A, more than 20 weak spontaneous emission lines have been recorded in this energy range. The spectral width of the 236 A lasing line is approximately 20.5 mA at the full width at half maximum. It is shown that this direct X-ray detection system has a spatial resolution of about 1/10 of the CCD pixel size in this spectral measurement. (orig.)

  4. The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index: an instrument to measure adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lee Linde


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to develop an index based on the Dutch Guidelines for a healthy Diet of 2006 that reflects dietary quality and to apply it to the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS to examine the associations with micronutrient intakes. Methods A total of 749 men and women, aged 19–30 years, contributed two 24-hour recalls and additional questionnaires in the DNFCS of 2003. The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index includes ten components representing the ten Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet. Per component the score ranges between zero and ten, resulting in a total score between zero (no adherence and 100 (complete adherence. Results The mean ± SD of the DHD-index was 60.4 ± 11.5 for women and 57.8 ± 10.8 for men (P for difference = 0.002. Each component score increased across the sex-specific quintiles of the DHD-index. An inverse association was observed between the sex-specific quintiles of the DHD-index and total energy intake. Calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin E intake decreased with increasing DHD-index, an inverse association which disappeared after energy adjustment. Vitamin C showed a positive association across quintiles, also when adjusted for energy. For folate, iron, magnesium, potassium, thiamin, and vitamin B6 a positive association emerged after adjustment for energy. Conclusions The DHD-index is capable of ranking participants according to their adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet by reflecting variation in nine out of ten components that constitute the index when based on two 24-hour recalls. Furthermore, the index showed to be a good measure of nutrient density of diets.

  5. Cortisol in hair, body mass index and stress-related measures. (United States)

    Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens


    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to reflect integrated cortisol secretion over extended periods of time and may provide a sensitive marker for stress-associated endocrine changes. Here, we report data from two independent studies of 155 (study I) and 58 participants (study II) in which HCC associations with different stress-related measures and body mass index (BMI) were investigated. Consistent evidence for positive associations between HCC and BMI was seen across both studies (study I: r=.33, pstress-related measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Measurement with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K. Law


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT and Age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Methods: Patients >60 years of age without glaucoma or record of intraocular pressure >21 mmHg and no systemic or intraocular diseases or treatment or surgical intervention that affected the RNFL underwent OCT measurement of the RNFL. The severity of AMD was staged with the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System. The relationship between RNFL measurements and AMD stages of one eye per patient was analyzed. Results: Eighty-six eyes (46 patients with AMD and no glaucoma or other exclusion criteria received OCT RNFL measurements. Nine eyes (10.5% were excluded because of distorted peripapillary anatomy from exudative AMD (7 eyes or failure of the RNFL segmentation algorithm (2 eyes. Mean age ± S.D. of the 43 patients analyzed was 81.2 ± 7.3 years. The mean stage ± S.D. of AMD of the 77 eyes was 3.77 ± 1.05. Higher stages of AMD were statistically significantly associated with lower average RNFL and inferior sector RNFL (p = 0.049, 0 0015, respectively. The association of inferior sector RNFL and AMD stage remained statistically significant after adjusting for age. Conclusions: Spectral domain OCT is generally useful in measuring the peripapillary RNFL in eyes with different stages of AMD. Higher stage of AMD is associated with thinner peripapillary RNFL, which may masquerade as early glaucomatous damage.

  7. Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. McConnell


    Full Text Available Much uncertainty in the value of the imaginary part of the refractive index of mineral dust contributes to uncertainty in the radiative effect of mineral dust in the atmosphere. A synthesis of optical, chemical and physical in-situ aircraft measurements from the DODO experiments during February and August 2006 are used to calculate the refractive index mineral dust encountered over West Africa. Radiative transfer modeling and measurements of broadband shortwave irradiance at a range of altitudes are used to test and validate these calculations for a specific dust event on 23 August 2006 over Mauritania. Two techniques are used to determine the refractive index: firstly a method combining measurements of scattering, absorption, size distributions and Mie code simulations, and secondly a method using composition measured on filter samples to apportion the content of internally mixed quartz, calcite and iron oxide-clay aggregates, where the iron oxide is represented by either hematite or goethite and clay by either illite or kaolinite. The imaginary part of the refractive index at 550 nm (ni550 is found to range between 0.0001 i to 0.0046 i, and where filter samples are available, agreement between methods is found depending on mineral combination assumed. The refractive indices are also found to agree well with AERONET data where comparisons are possible. ni550 is found to vary with dust source, which is investigated with the NAME model for each case. The relationship between both size distribution and ni550 on the accumulation mode single scattering albedo at 550 nm (ω0550 are examined and size distribution is found to have no correlation to ω0550, while ni550 shows a strong linear relationship with ω0550. Radiative transfer modeling was performed with different

  8. Vegetation species composition and canopy architecture information expressed in leaf water absorption measured in the 1000 nm and 2200 spectral region by an imaging spectrometer (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.


    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring, and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local to regional and even synoptic scales. Classical approaches rely on vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate biophysical parameters such as leaf area index or intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR). Another approach is to apply a variety of classification schemes to map vegetation and thus extrapolate fine-scale information about specific sites to larger areas of similar composition. Imaging spectrometry provides additional information that is not obtainable through broad-band sensors and that may provide improved inputs both to direct biophysical estimates as well as classification schemes. Some of this capability has been demonstrated through improved discrimination of vegetation, estimates of canopy biochemistry, and liquid water estimates from vegetation. We investigate further the potential of leaf water absorption estimated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as a means for discriminating vegetation types and deriving canopy architectural information. We expand our analysis to incorporate liquid water estimates from two spectral regions, the 1000-nm region and the 2200-nm region. The study was conducted in the vicinity of Jasper Ridge, California, which is located on the San Francisco peninsula to the west of the Stanford University campus. AVIRIS data were acquired over Jasper Ridge, CA, on June 2, 1992, at 19:31 UTC. Spectra from three sites in this image were analyzed. These data are from an area of healthy grass, oak woodland, and redwood forest, respectively. For these analyses, the AVIRIS-measured upwelling radiance spectra for the entire Jasper

  9. Evaluating Satellite Retrievals of Smoke Aerosol above Clouds using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements during ORACLES (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Vaughan, M.; Hu, Y.; Fenn, M. A.; Clayton, M.; Scarino, A. J.; Jethva, H. T.; Sayer, A. M.; Meyer, K.; Torres, O.; Josset, D. B.; Redemann, J.


    The NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) provided extensive measurements of smoke above shallow marine clouds while deployed from the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the NASA EV-S Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their Interactions (ORACLES) mission. During the first ORACLES field campaign in September 2016, the ER-2 was deployed from Walvis Bay, Namibia and conducted flights over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. HSRL-2 measured profiles of aerosol backscattering, extinction and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 355 and 532 nm and aerosol backscattering and depolarization at 1064 nm and so provided an excellent characterization of the widespread smoke layers above shallow marine clouds. OMI, MODIS, and CALIOP satellite retrievals of above cloud AOD (ACAOD) are compared to the HSRL-2 measurements. The OMI above-cloud aerosols data product (OMACA) ACAOD product relies on the spectral contrast produced by aerosol absorption in two near-UV measurements (354 and 388 nm) to derive ACAOD. Two MODIS ACAOD products are examined; the first ("multichannel') relies on the spectral contrast in aerosol absorption derived from reflectance measurements at six MODIS channels from the visible to the shortwave infrared (swIR). The second method is an extension of the "Deep Blue" method and differs from the multichannel method in that it does not use swIR channels. The CALIOP V4 operational and "depolarization ratio (DR)" methods of retrieving ACAOD are also examined. The MODIS and OMI ACAOD values were well correlated (r2>0.6) with the HSRL-2 ACAOD values; bias differences were generally less than about 0.1 at 532 nm (10-30%). The CALIOP operational retrievals missed a significant amount of aerosol and so were biased low by 50-75% compared to HSRL-2. In contrast, the CALIOP DR method produced ACAOD values in excellent agreement (bias differences less than 0.03 (5%)) with HSRL-2. Aerosol extinction profiles computed for the smoke layer using

  10. Comparison of index velocity measurements made with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.


    The State of Illinois' annual withdrawal from Lake Michigan is limited by a U.S. Supreme Court decree, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics is convened to review the U.S. Geological Survey's streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee raised a number of questions concerning the flows and streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont and this report provides answers to many of those questions. In addition, it is the purpose of this report to examine the index velocity meters in use at Lemont and determine whether the acoustic velocity meter (AVM), which is now the primary index velocity meter, can be replaced by the horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP), which is currently the backup meter. Application of the AVM and H-ADCP to index velocity measurements in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois, has produced good ratings to date. The site is well suited to index velocity measurements in spite of the large range of velocities and highly unsteady flows at the site. Flow variability arises from a range of sources: operation of the waterway through control structures, lockage-generated disturbances, commercial and recreational traffic, industrial withdrawals and discharges, natural inflows, seiches, and storm events. The influences of these factors on the index velocity measurements at Lemont is examined in detail in this report. Results of detailed data comparisons and flow analyses show that use of bank-mounted instrumentation such as the AVM and H-ADCP appears to be the best option for index velocity measurement in the CSSC near Lemont. Comparison of the rating curves for the AVM and H-ADCP demonstrates

  11. Virtual reality sickness questionnaire (VRSQ): Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun K; Park, Jaehyun; Choi, Yeongcheol; Choe, Mungyeong


    This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design. The existing SSQ was revised to develop a VR sickness questionnaire, which is used as the measurement index in a VR environment. In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of velocity field in pipe with classic twisted tape using matching refractive index technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo


    Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations

  13. Convective blueshifts in the solar atmosphere. I. Absolute measurements with LARS of the spectral lines at 6302 Å (United States)

    Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Schmidt, W.; Stief, F.; Steinmetz, T.; Holzwarth, R.


    Context. The solar convection manifests as granulation and intergranulation at the solar surface. In the photosphere, convective motions induce differential Doppler shifts to spectral lines. The observed convective blueshift varies across the solar disk. Aim. We focus on the impact of solar convection on the atmosphere and aim to resolve its velocity stratification in the photosphere. Methods: We performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the solar spectrum in the 6302 Å range with the Laser Absolute Reference Spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. A laser frequency comb enabled the calibration of the spectra to an absolute wavelength scale with an accuracy of 1 m s-1. We systematically scanned the quiet Sun from the disk center to the limb at ten selected heliocentric positions. The analysis included 99 time sequences of up to 20 min in length. By means of ephemeris and reference corrections, we translated wavelength shifts into absolute line-of-sight velocities. A bisector analysis on the line profiles yielded the shapes and convective shifts of seven photospheric lines. Results: At the disk center, the bisector profiles of the iron lines feature a pronounced C-shape with maximum convective blueshifts of up to -450 m s-1 in the spectral line wings. Toward the solar limb, the bisectors change into a "\\"-shape with a saturation in the line core at a redshift of +100 m s-1. The center-to-limb variation of the line core velocities shows a slight increase in blueshift when departing the disk center for larger heliocentric angles. This increase in blueshift is more pronounced for the magnetically less active meridian than for the equator. Toward the solar limb, the blueshift decreases and can turn into a redshift. In general, weaker lines exhibit stronger blueshifts. Conclusions: Best spectroscopic measurements enabled the accurate determination of absolute convective shifts in the solar photosphere. We convolved the results to lower spectral

  14. Using a Combination of Spectral and Textural Data to Measure Water-Holding Capacity in Fresh Chicken Breast Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Jia


    Full Text Available The aim here was to explore the potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging (400–1000 nm to classify fresh chicken breast fillets into different water-holding capacity (WHC groups. Initially, the extracted spectra and image textural features, as well as the mixed data of the two, were used to develop partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA classification models. Smoothing, a first derivative process, and principle component analysis (PCA were carried out sequentially on the mean spectra of all samples to deal with baseline offsets and identify outlier data. Six samples located outside the confidence ellipses of 95% confidence level in the score plot were defined as outliers. A PLS-DA model based on the outlier-free spectra provided a correct classification rate (CCR value of 78% in the prediction set. Then, seven optimal wavelengths selected using a successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to develop a simplified PLS-DA model that obtained a slightly reduced CCR with a value of 73%. Moreover, the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was implemented on the first principle component image (with 98.13% of variance of the hyperspectral image to extract textural features (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity. The CCR of the model developed using textural variables was less optimistic with a value of 59%. Compared to results of models based on spectral or textural data individually, the performance of the model based on the mixed data of optimal spectral and textural features was the best with an improved CCR of 86%. The results showed that the spectral and textural data of hyperspectral images together can be integrated in order to measure and classify the WHC of fresh chicken breast fillets.

  15. Leaf-area estimates from spectral measurements over various planting dates of wheat (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Asrar, G.; Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.


    Several vegetative indices were analyzed for their sensitivity and stability to green-leaf-area index (LAI) changes over various planting dates and irrigation frequencies of wheat grown at Phoenix, AZ, from 1978 to 1980. Seasonal patterns of greenness showed that values saturated at LAI values above 4.0 did not return to the pre-emergence bare-soil value at senescence, and were not uniquely related to LAI over the various planting dates. Regressions of individual MSS band reflectances against LAI also showed that there was not a unique relation between any of the bands and LAI. However, the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio was stable over all planting dates and could be used successfully over a number of years and locations.

  16. Differences between h-index measures from different bibliographic sources and search engines. (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Aragão, Erika; Sousa, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes de; Santana, Táris Maria; Barata, Rita Barradas


    To analyze the use of the h-index as a measure of the bibliometric impact of Brazilian researchers' scientific publications. The scientific production of Brazilian CNPq 1-A researchers in the areas of public health, immunology and medicine were compared. The mean h-index of the groups of researchers in each area were estimated and nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test and multiple comparisons Behrens-Fisher test were used to compare the differences. The h-index means were higher in the area of Immunology than in Public Health and Medicine when the Web of Science base was used. However, this difference disappears when the comparison is made using Scopus or Google Scholar. The emergence of Google Scholar brings a new level to discussions on the measure of the bibliometric impact of scientific publications. Areas with strong professional components, in which knowledge is produced and must also be published in the native language, vis-a-vis its dissemination to the international community, necessarily have a standard of scientific publications and citations different from areas exclusively or predominantly academic and they are best captured by Google Scholar.

  17. Comparison of methods for estimating Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature index from standard meteorological measurements. (United States)

    Patel, Tejash; Mullen, Stephen P; Santee, William R


    Environmental heat illness and injuries are a serious concern for the Army and Marines. Currently, the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index is used to evaluate heat injury risk. The index is a weighted average of dry-bulb temperature (Tdb), black globe temperature (Tbg), and natural wet-bulb temperature (Tnwb). The WBGT index would be more widely used if it could be determined using standard weather instruments. This study compares models developed by Liljegren at Argonne National Laboratory and by Matthew at the U.S. Army Institute of Environmental Medicine that calculate WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. Both models use air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar radiation (RG) to calculate Tnwb and Tbg. The WBGT and meteorological data used for model validation were collected at Griffin, Georgia and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. Liljegren (YPG: R(2) = 0.709, p < 0.01; Griffin: R(2) = 0.854, p < 0.01) showed closer agreement between calculated and actual WBGT than Matthew (YPG: R(2) = 0.630, p < 0.01; Griffin: R(2) = 0.677, p < 0.01). Compared to actual WBGT heat categorization, the Matthew model tended to underpredict compared to Liljegren's classification. Results indicate Liljegren is an acceptable alternative to direct WBGT measurement, but verification under other environmental conditions is needed. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Body mass index is related to autonomic nervous system activity as measured by heart rate variability. (United States)

    Molfino, A; Fiorentini, A; Tubani, L; Martuscelli, M; Rossi Fanelli, F; Laviano, A


    Autonomic nervous system activity is involved in body weight regulation. We assessed whether the body mass index (BMI) is related to the autonomic nervous system activity as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-five adult normotensive, euglycemic healthy males (M) and females (F) were studied (M/F=13/12). BMI was assessed in each individual. HRV was assessed and the domains of low frequencies (LF, index of the sympathetic modulation) and high frequencies (HF, index of the parasympathetic modulation) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed and are presented as mean+/-s.d. Mean BMI did not correlate with either HF or LF. It inversely related to HF (r=-0.50, P<0.01), whereas its relationship with LF was marginally significant (r=-0.39, P=0.05). The HF in individuals with BMI <20 kg/m(2) was significantly higher from those measured in the remaining subjects (P<0.05). The results support the role of parasympathetic activity in influencing BMI through likely modulation of body weight.

  19. Classification of Astaxanthin Colouration of Salmonid Fish using Spectral Imaging and Tricolour Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    capturing, tricolour CIELAB measurement, and manual SalmoFan inspection. Furthermore it was tested whether the best predictions come from measurements of the steak or the fillet of the fish. Methods used for classication were linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA......), and sparse linear discriminant analysis (SLDA)....

  20. Avoiding spectral leakage in measurements of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte


    The typical measurement of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) relies on the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) to extract amplitude and phase of the response at the 2f1-f2 DPOAE frequency, f1 and f2 being the frequencies of the stimulus. The DFT measures the DPOAE response...

  1. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew


    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  2. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy


    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  3. [Proposal of an index for government measures to deal with domestic violence against children and adolescents]. (United States)

    Deslandes, Suely; Mendes, Corina Helena Figueira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach


    The article discusses the development of the Index for Dealing with Family Violence to assess municipal strategies related to this violation of children's and adolescents' rights. Development of the index involved a preliminary analysis of indicators from previous studies and a technical expert group. Four indicators were selected: the existence of a municipal plan for dealing with violence against children and adolescents; the existence of an inter-sector flow for treating and following up on children and adolescents in situations of family violence; number of guardianship councils in relation to the municipality's population; and the existence of standardized instruments in municipal school, social work, and health systems for reporting situations of violence against children and adolescents. The databank from a previous study was used in an exercise to apply the indicator in four Brazilian state capitals. The indicator can serve as a tool for monitoring and mobilizing efforts to implement measures for dealing with family violence.

  4. Ozone, spectral irradiance and aerosol measurements with the Brewer spectro radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marenco, F.; Di Sarra, A.


    In this technical report a detailed description of the Brewer spectro radiometer, a widespread instrument for ozone and ultraviolet radiation, is given. The methodologies used to measure these quantities and for instrument calibration are described in detail. Finally a new methodology, developed by ENEA to derive the aerosol optical depth from the Brewer routine total ozone measurements, is described. This methodology is based on Langley extrapolation, on the determination of the transmissivity of the Brewer neutral density filters, and on a statistically significant number of half days of measurements obtained in could-free conditions. Results of this method, obtained with the Brewer of the ENEA station for climate observations Roberto Sarao, located in the island of Lampedusa, are reported. These results confirm the validity of the method, thanks to independent measurements taken in 1999 with a Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer. This methodology allows researchers to obtain an aerosol climatology from ozone measurements obtained at several sites world-wide [it

  5. Heterogeneity in pre-monsoon aerosol types over the Arabian Sea deduced from ship-borne measurements of spectral AODs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kaskaoutis


    Full Text Available Ship-borne sunphotometer measurements obtained in the Arabian Sea (AS in the pre-monsoon season (18 April–10 May 2006 during a cruise campaign (ICARB have been used to retrieve the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD; τ and the Ångström wavelength exponent (α. The continents surrounding the AS produce natural and anthropogenic aerosols that have distinctive influences on α and its spectral distribution. The α values were estimated by means of the least-squares method over the spectral bands 340–1020 nm and 340–870 nm. The spectral distribution of AOD in logarithmic co-ordinates could be fit using a 2nd order polynomial with higher accuracy in the wavelength band 340–1020 nm than in the 340–870 nm band. A polynomial fit analytically parameterizes the observed wavelength dependencies of AOD with least errors in spectral variation of α and yields accurate estimates of the coefficients (a1 and a2. The coarse-mode (positive curvature in the lnτλ vs. lnλ aerosols are mainly depicted in the Northern part of the AS closely associated with the nearby arid areas while fine-mode aerosols are mainly observed over the far and coastal AS regions. In the study period the mean AOD at 500 nm is 0.25±0.11 and the α340-1020 is 0.90±0.19. The α340-870 exhibits similar values (0.92±0.18, while significant differences revealed for the constant terms of the polynomial fit (a1 and a2 proportionally to the wavelength band used for their determination. Observed day-to-day variability in the aerosol load and optical properties are direct consequence of the local winds and air-mass trajectories along with the position of the ship.

  6. Non-Newtonian Gravity and New Weak Forces: an Index of Measurements and Theory (United States)

    Fischbach, E.; Gillies, G. T.; Krause, D. E.; Schwan, J. G.; Talmadge, C.


    The precise measurement of weak effects plays a pivotal role in metrology and in the determination of the fundamental constants. Hence, the possibility of new weak forces, and the related question of non-Newtonian behaviour of the gravitational force, have been of special interest to both measurement scientists and those involved in precise tests of physical laws. To date there is no compelling evidence for any deviations from the predictions of Newtonian gravity in the nonrelativistic weak-field regime. A significant literature on this question has developed over the past few years, and a host of experiments and theoretical scenarios have been discussed. Moreover, a very close relationship exists between the experimental methodologies used to determine the absolute value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G, and those employed in searches for new weak forces and for breakdowns in the inverse-square law of gravity. We have therefore prepared a new index of measurements of such effects, using the original bibliographic work of Gillies as a starting point, but also including citations to the appropriate theoretical papers in the field. The focus of the present version of the index is then studies of the "fifth force", measurements of gravitational effects on antimatter, searches for a spin-component in the gravitational force, and related phenomena.

  7. Spectral measurement of atmospheric pressure plasma by means of digital camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Yuanjing; Zhang Guangqiu; Liu Yimin; Zhao Zhifa


    A digital camera measuring system has been used successfully to measure the space fluctuation behaviors of Induced Dielectric Barrier Discharge (IDBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results showed that: (1) The uniformity of electron temperature in space depends on discharge condition and structure of web electrode. For a certain web electrode the higher the discharge voltage is, the more uniform distribution of electron temperature in space will be. For a certain discharge the finer and denser the holes on web electrode are, the more uniform distribution of electron temperature in space will be. (2) Digital camera is an available equipment to measure some behaviors of the plasma working at atmospheric pressure

  8. Measured and numerically partitioned phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients in inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, M.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Zhu, G.; Gong, Z.; Li, Y.M.; Qin, B.


    Total particulate, tripton and phytoplankton absorption coefficients were measured for eutrophic (Lake Taihu), meso-eutrophic (Lake Tianmuhu) and mesotrophic waters (the Three Gorges Reservoir) in China using the quantitative filter technique. Meanwhile, tripton and phytoplankton absorption

  9. Optical measurements with high spectral resolution on HT-6M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Liancheng; Jiang Guangkuan; Lin Xiaodong


    The principle and technique of high-resolution optical measurement on HT-6M tokamak with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer is described. Applications of the techniques on HT-6M tokamak, including measurement of H/H + D ratio for determining the energy absorption mechanism of ICRH, ion temperature from line broadening and recycling of edge plasma, are reported. (6 figs., 1 tab.)

  10. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes. (United States)

    Zafar, Sidra; Siddiqui, Ma Rehman; Shahzad, Rida


    Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT), with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t -tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 μm using SD-OCT (range: 47-470 μm) and 278.5±110.5 μm using SS-OCT (range: 56-502 μm), with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760-0.924) and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654-0.930) for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant ( P =0.132). Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Programa de Ciencia y Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)


    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  12. Spectral structure of pressure measurements made in a combustion duct. [jet engine noise (United States)

    Miles, J. H.; Raftopoulos, D. D.


    A model for acoustic plane wave propagation in a combustion duct through a confined, flowing gas containing soot particles is presented. The model takes into account only heat transfer between the gas and soot particles. As a result, the model depends on only a single parameter which can be written as the ratio of the soot particle thermal relaxation time to the soot particle mass fraction. The model yields expressions for the attenuation and dispersion of the plane wave which depends only on this single parameter. The model was used to calculate pressure spectra in a combustion duct. The results were compared with measured spectra. For particular values of the single free parameter, the calculated spectra resemble the measured spectra. Consequently, the model, to this extent, explains the experimental measurements and provides some insight into the number and type of particles.

  13. Precision of high definition spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for measuring central corneal thickness. (United States)

    Correa-Pérez, María E; López-Miguel, Alberto; Miranda-Anta, Silvia; Iglesias-Cortiñas, Darío; Alió, Jorge L; Maldonado, Miguel J


    This study was intended to assess the reliability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in healthy subjects and its accuracy compared with ultrasonic pachymetry. Seventy-seven consecutive subjects were recruited for evaluating repeatability, and agreement between two examiners. To analyze repeatability, one examiner measured 77 eyes four times in succession. To study agreement between two observers, a second independently trained examiner obtained another CCT measurement. We also measured eyes in a subgroup of 20 patients using standard ultrasonic pachymetry. Within-subject standard deviation (S(w)), coefficient of variation (CV), limits of agreement (LoA), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) data were obtained. For repeatability, the S(w) and precision (1.96 × S(w)) were 4.86 and 9.52 μm, respectively. Intraobserver CV was 0.89% and the ICC was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.99). For agreement between two examiners, the S(w) and precision were 7.58 and 14.85 μm, respectively; the CV was 1.40%. The mean difference between observers was -0.13 μm (95% CI, -1.85 to 1.58; P = 0.87). The width of the LoA was 29.64 μm. Median difference between Cirrus HD-OCT and ultrasound CCT measurements was -4.5 μm (interquartile range, -7.0-0.0; P = 0.04). Cirrus HD-OCT provides repeatable CCT measurements, good agreement between two independently trained examiners, and its systematic bias compared to ultrasonic pachymetry is clinically negligible. Therefore, research laboratories and eye clinics using Cirrus HD-OCT as a diagnostic imaging method, can also benefit from a reliable noncontact pachymeter when counseling patients with glaucoma and those undergoing corneal and refractive surgeries.

  14. The equivalence of two phylogenetic biodiversity measures: the Shapley value and Fair Proportion index. (United States)

    Hartmann, Klaas


    Most biodiversity conservation programs are forced to prioritise species in order to allocate their funding. This paper contains a mathematical proof that provides biological support for one common approach based on phylogenetic indices. Phylogenetic trees describe the evolutionary relationships between a group of taxa. Two indices for computing the distinctiveness of each taxon in a phylogenetic tree are considered here-the Shapley value and the Fair Proportion index. These indices provide a measure of the importance of each taxon for overall biodiversity and have been used to prioritise taxa for conservation. The Shapley value is the biodiversity contribution a taxon is expected to make if all taxa are equally likely to become extinct. This interpretation makes it appealing to use the Shapley value in biodiversity conservation applications. The Fair Proportion index lacks a convenient interpretation, however it is significantly easier to calculate and understand. It has been empirically observed that there is a high correlation between the two indices. This paper shows the mathematical basis for this correlation and proves that as the number of taxa increases, the indices become equivalent. Consequently in biodiversity prioritisation the simpler Fair Proportion index can be used whilst retaining the appealing interpretation of the Shapley value.

  15. Evaluation of Hyperspectral Multi-Band Indices to Estimate Chlorophyll-A Concentration Using Field Spectral Measurements and Satellite Data in Dianshan Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Li


    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration is considered as a key indicator of the eutrophic status of inland water bodies. Various algorithms have been developed for estimating Chl-a in order to improve the accuracy of predictive models. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of hyperspectral multi-band indices to estimate the Chl-a concentration in Dianshan Lake, which is the largest lake in Shanghai, an international metropolis of China. Based on field spectral measurements and in-situ Chl-a concentration collected on 7–8 September 2010, hyperspectral multi-band indices were calibrated to estimate the Chl-a concentration with optimal wavelengths selected by model tuning. A three-band index accounts for 87.36% (R2 = 0.8736 of the Chl-a variation. A four-band index, which adds a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR region, results in a higher R2 (0.8997 by removing the absorption and backscattering effects of suspended solids. To test the applicability of the proposed indices for routinely monitoring of Chl-a in inland lakes, simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data were selected to estimate the Chl-a concentration. The results show that the explanatory powers of these satellite hyperspectral multi-band indices are relatively high with R2 = 0.8559, 0.8945, 0.7969, and 0.8241 for simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data, respectively. All of the results provide strong evidence that hyperspectral multi-band indices are promising and applicable to estimate Chl-a in eutrophic inland lakes.

  16. Intra and interobserver variability of renal allograft ultrasound volume and resistive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, Marcello; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Daniele, Stefania; Raffio, Teresa; Salvatore, Marco; Sabbatini, Massimo; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Ferrara, Liberato Aldo


    Purpose: Aim of the presents study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the Doppler Resistive Index (R.I.) and the Ultrasound renal volume measurement in renal transplants. Materials and methods: Twenty -six consecutive patients (18 men, 8 women) mean age of 42,8±12,4 years (M±SD)(range 22-65 years) were studied twice by each of two trained sonographers using a color Doppler ultrasound scanner. Twelve of them had a normal allograft function (defined as stable serum creatinine levels ≤123,76 μmol/L), whilst the remaining 14 had decreased allograft function (serum creatinine 132.6-265.2 μmol/L). Results were given as mean of 6 measurements performed at upper, middle and lower pole of the kidney. Intra- and interobserver variability was assessed by the repeatability coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV). Results: Regarding Resistive Index measurement, repeatability coefficient was between 0.04 and 0.06 and the coefficient of variation was [it

  17. Electronic refractive index changes and measurement of saturation intensity in Cr3+-doped YAG crystal (United States)

    Kesavulu, C. R.; Moncorgé, R.; Fromager, M.; Ait-Ameur, K.; Catunda, T.


    The electronic refractive index variation is associated with the difference in the polarizabilities (Δαp) of the Cr3+ ion in its ground and excited states. In order to further address the physical origin of Δαp in a Cr3+-doped YAG crystal, time-resolved Z-scan measurements were performed and analyzed at λ = 457 nm by using a chopped Ar+ ion laser. It is found a nonlinear refractive index with the real and imaginary parts n2‧ = 2.2 × 10-8 cm2/W and n2‧‧ = 2.8 × 10-10 cm2/W, respectively. The real part is associated with a polarizability difference Δαp = 2.2 × 10-25 cm3. The imaginary part indicates that excited state absorption (ESA) occurs and that Cr:YAG behaves as a saturable absorber. The transient response of the Z-scan signal decreases with the laser intensity as τ-1 = τo-1(1+I/Is), where τo is the excited state lifetime and Is the saturation intensity. By measuring this transient response at different laser intensities, it was possible to confirm the τo value which can be derived from fluorescence measurements and to determine a Is value of 8.3 kW/cm2.

  18. Estimating preference-based single index measures for dementia using DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy. (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Mulhern, Brendan; Banerjee, Sube; Hout, Ben van; Young, Tracey A; Knapp, Martin; Smith, Sarah C; Lamping, Donna L; Brazier, John E


    Although condition-specific measures are commonly used in dementia, they cannot be used in analyses of cost per quality-adjusted life-year because they do not incorporate preferences. We addressed this gap by estimating two preference-based single index measures: the DEMQOL-U from the self-report DEMQOL (mild-to-moderate dementia severity) and the DEMQOL-Proxy-U from the carer-report DEMQOL-Proxy (all levels of dementia severity). We conducted valuation studies on 593 members of the general population (306 for the DEMQOL-U, 287 for the DEMQOL-Proxy-U) using the time trade-off elicitation technique. We then fitted a range of mean and individual-level multivariate regression models to the valuation data to derive preference weights for each measure. We applied the estimated weights to a large, clinically representative sample. Mean observed time trade-off values ranged from 0.18 to 0.95 for DEMQOL-U and from 0.33 to 0.96 for DEMQOL-Proxy-U. The best performing models for each measure were main effects models estimated using individual-level data. DEMQOL-Proxy-U had inconsistent but insignificant coefficient estimates for one dimension. Models were estimated to remove these inconsistencies. Preference-based single index measures from DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy for use in economic evaluation will enable economic evaluation using quality-adjusted life-years to be undertaken for people across the full range of dementia severity. Future research will examine how the utilities from each measure can be used and combined to populate cost-effectiveness models. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, Corjan; Poortinga, Ate; Roosjen, Peter; Bartholomeus, Harm; Ruessink, Gerben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360


    Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure

  20. Measuring the iron spectral opacity in solar conditions using a double ablation front scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaitis, A. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Talence (France); CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Ducret, J. E. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Talence (France); CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); Turck-Chieze, S [CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); Pennec, M L [CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); CEA/DIF, Arpajon (France); Blancard, C [CEA/DIF, Arpajon (France)


    We propose a new method to achieve hydrodynamic conditions relevant for the investigation of the radiation transport properties of the plasma at the base of the solar convection zone. The method is designed in the framework of opacity measurements with high-power lasers and exploits the temporal and spatial stability of hydrodynamic parameters in counter-propagating Double Ablation Front (DAF) structures.

  1. Measurement of International Roughness Index by Using Z-Axis Accelerometers and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Du


    Full Text Available The International Roughness Index (IRI is a well-recognized standard in the field of pavement management. Many different types of devices can be used to measure the IRI, but these devices are mainly mounted on a full-size automobile and are complicated to operate. In addition, these devices are expensive. The development of methods for IRI measurement is a prerequisite for pavement management systems and other parts of the road management industry. Based on the quarter-car model and the vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, there is a strong correlation between the in-car Z-axis acceleration and the IRI. The variation of speed of the car during the measurement process has a large influence on IRI estimation. A measurement system equipped with Z-axis accelerometers and a GPS device was developed. Using the self-designing measurement system based on the methodology proposed in this study, we performed a small-scale field test. We used a one-wheel linear model and two-wheel model to fit the variation of the Z-axis acceleration. The test results demonstrated that the low-cost measurement system has good accuracy and could enhance the efficiency of IRI measurement.

  2. Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tanré


    Full Text Available Instruments dedicated to aerosol monitoring are recently available and the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances instrument on board the PARASOL (Polarization & Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar mission is one of them. By measuring the spectral, angular and polarization properties of the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, in coordination with the other A-Train instruments, PARASOL provides the aerosol optical depths (AOD as well as several optical and microphysical aerosol properties. The instrument, the inversion schemes and the list of aerosol parameters are described. Examples of retrieved aerosol parameters are provided as well as innovative approaches and further inversion techniques.

  3. Spectral flux of the p-7Li(C Q-M neutron source measured by proton recoil telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov S.P.


    Full Text Available The cyclotron-based fast neutron source at NPI produces mono-energetic neutron fields up to 35 MeV neutron energy using the p + 7Li(carbon backing reactions. To be applied for activation cross-section measurements, not only the intensity of neutron peak, but also the contribution of low-energy continuum in the spectra must be well determined. Simulations of the spectral flux from present source at a position of irradiated samples were performed using CYRIC TOF-data validated in the present work against LA150h by calculations with the transport Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Simulated spectra were tested by absolute measurements using a proton-recoil telescope technique. The recoil-proton spectrometer consisted of a shielded scattering chamber with polyethylene and carbon radiators and the ΔE1-ΔE2-E telescope of silicon-surface detectors located to the neutron beam axis at 45° in the laboratory system. Si-detectors were handled by usual data acquisition system. Dead-time – and pulse-overlap losses of events were determined from the count rate of pulse generator registered during duty cycle of accelerator operation. The proton beam charge and data were taken in the list mode for later replay and analysis. The calculations for 7Li(p,n and 12C(p,n reactions reasonably reproduce CYRIC TOF neutron source spectra. The influence of neutron source set-up (proton beam dimensions, 7Li-foil, carbon stopper, cooling medium, target support/chamber and the geometry-arrangement of irradiated sample on the spectral flux is discussed in details.

  4. LIHE Spectral Dynamics and Jaguar Data Acquisition System Measurement Assurance Results 2014.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covert, Timothy T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Willis, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Radtke, Gregg Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility performs high rigor, high consequence impulse testing for the nuclear weapons (NW) community. To support the facility mission, LIHE's extensive data acquisition system (DAS) is comprised of several discrete components as well as a fully integrated system. Due to the high consequence and high rigor of the testing performed at LIHE, a measurement assurance plan (MAP) was developed in collaboration with NW system customers to meet their data quality needs and to provide assurance of the robustness of the LIHE DAS. While individual components of the DAS have been calibrated by the SNL Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL), the integrated nature of this complex system requires verification of the complete system, from end-to-end. This measurement assurance plan (MAP) report documents the results of verification and validation procedures used to ensure that the data quality meets customer requirements.

  5. Spectral broadening measurement of the lower hybrid waves during long pulse operation in Tore Supra (United States)

    Berger-By, G.; Decampy, J.; Antar, G. Y.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Delpech, L.; Leroux, F.; Tore Supra Team


    On many tokamaks (C-Mod, EAST, FTU, JET, HT-7, TS), a decrease in current drive efficiency of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves is observed in high electron density plasmas. The cause of this behaviour is believed to be: Parametric Instabilities (PI) and Scattering from Density Fluctuations (SDF). For the ITER LH system, our knowledge must be improved to avoid such effects and to maintain the LH current drive efficiency at high density. The ITPA IOS group coordinates this effort [1] and all experimental data are essential to validate the numerical codes in progress. Usually the broadening of the LH wave frequency spectrum is measured by a probe located in the plasma edge. For this study, the frequency spectrum of a reflected power signal from the LH antenna was used. In addition, the spectrum measurements are compared with the density fluctuations observed on RF probes located at the antenna mouth. Several plasma currents (0.6 to 1.4 MA) and densities up to 5.2 × 1019 m-3 have been realised on Tore Supra (TS) long pulses and with high injected RF power, up to 5.4 MW-30s. This allowed using a spectrum analyser to make several measurements during the plasma pulse. The side lobe amplitude, shifted by 20-30MHz with respect to the main peak, grows with increasing density. Furthermore, for an increase of plasma current at the same density, the spectra broaden and become asymmetric. Some parametric dependencies are shown in this paper.

  6. The Effect of Optic Disc Center Displacement on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurement Determined by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Won Shin

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of optic disc center displacement on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurement determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.The optic disc center was manipulated at 1-pixel intervals in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal directions. According to the manipulated optic disc center location, the RNFL thickness data were resampled: (1 at a 3.46-mm diameter circle; and (2 between a 2.5-mm diameter circle and 5.4-mm square. Error was calculated between the original and resampled RNFL measurements. The tolerable error threshold of the optic disc center displacement was determined by considering test-retest variability of SD-OCT. The unreliable zone was defined as an area with 10% or more variability.The maximum tolerable error thresholds of optic disc center displacement on the RNFL thickness map were distributed from 0.042 to 0.09 mm in 8 directions. The threshold shape was vertically elongated. Clinically important unreliable zones were located: (1 at superior and inferior region in the vertical displacement; (2 at inferotemporal region in the horizontal displacement, and (3 at superotemporal or inferotemporal region in the diagonal displacement. The unreliable zone pattern and threshold limit varied according to the direction of optic disc displacement.Optic disc center displacement had a considerable impact on whole RNFL thickness measurements. Understanding the effect of optic disc center displacement could contribute to reliable RNFL measurements.

  7. Determination of femtosecond-laser-induced refractive-index changes in an optical fiber from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul


    A new method for direct writing of localized, circularly symmetric refractive-index changes in optical fibers with a femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The refractive-index changes are characterized using a novel approach employing comparison of numerical simulations to the measured far......-field profiles of unmodified and modified fibers. From the analysis, a negative refractive-index change of −0.015 0.005 within a radius of 0.6 0.1 μm is determined....

  8. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  9. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok


    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  10. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.


    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.

  11. A spectral route to determining chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger


    We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....

  12. The social media index: measuring the impact of emergency medicine and critical care websites. (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M


    The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; pimpact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; pimpact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool.

  13. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) DR1-Spectral Measurements, Derived Quantities, and AGN Demographics (United States)

    Koss, Michael; BASS Team


    We present the first catalog and data release of the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). We analyze optical spectra of the majority of AGN (77%, 641/836) detected based on their 14-195 keV emission in the 70-month Swift BAT all-sky catalog. This includes redshift determination, absorption and emission line measurements, and black hole mass and accretion rate estimates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (74%, 473/641) with 340 measured for the first time. With ~90% of sources at z10^21.9 cm^-2. Seyfert 1.9 show a range of column densities. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN have a larger fraction of dusty host galaxies suggesting these types of AGN are missed in optical surveys. Using the most sensitive [OIII]/Hbeta and [NII]/Halpha emission line diagnostic, about half of the sources are classified as Seyferts, ~15% reside in dusty galaxies that lack an Hbeta detection, but for which the line upper limits imply either a Seyfert or LINER, ~15% are in galaxies with weak or no emission lines despite high quality spectra, and a few percent each are LINERS, composite galaxies, HII regions, or in known beamed AGN.

  14. Spectrally and angularly resolved measurements of three-halves harmonic emission from laser-produced plasmas (United States)

    Kang, N.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Lei, A.; Zhou, S.; Fang, Z.; An, H.; Li, K.; Fan, W.


    Spectra of three-halves harmonic emissions (3{ω }0/2) from laser-produced plasmas were measured at different angles, including both forward and backward sides, from the direction of incident laser beams. The 3{ω }0/2 emitted from carbon-hydrogen (CH) targets was observed to be larger than that from aluminum (Al) targets with the same incident laser intensity, which supports the argument that the two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability could be inhibited by using medium-Z ablator instead of CH ablator in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Besides, the measured 3{ω }0/2-incident intensity curves for both materials suggest relatively lower threshold of TPD than the calculated values. In experiments with thin Al targets, the angular distribution of the blue- and red-shifted peaks of 3{ω }0/2 spectra were obtained, which shows that the most intense blue- and red-shifted peaks may not be produced in paired plasmons, but the spectra produced by their ‘twin’ plasmons were not observed. Because 3{ω }0/2 may have been influenced by other physical processes during their propagation from their birth places to the detectors, the mismatches on emission angle, wavelength shift, and threshold may be qualitatively explained through the assumption that small-scale light filaments widely existed in the corona of laser-produced plasmas.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): AUTOZ spectral redshift measurements, confidence and errors (United States)

    Baldry, I. K.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S. M.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Taylor, E. N.


    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey has obtained spectra of over 230 000 targets using the Anglo-Australian Telescope. To homogenize the redshift measurements and improve the reliability, a fully automatic redshift code was developed (AUTOZ). The measurements were made using a cross-correlation method for both the absorption- and the emission-line spectra. Large deviations in the high-pass-filtered spectra are partially clipped in order to be robust against uncorrected artefacts and to reduce the weight given to single-line matches. A single figure of merit (FOM) was developed that puts all template matches on to a similar confidence scale. The redshift confidence as a function of the FOM was fitted with a tanh function using a maximum likelihood method applied to repeat observations of targets. The method could be adapted to provide robust automatic redshifts for other large galaxy redshift surveys. For the GAMA survey, there was a substantial improvement in the reliability of assigned redshifts and in the lowering of redshift uncertainties with a median velocity uncertainty of 33 km s-1.

  16. Improved estimation of leaf area index and leaf chlorophyll content of a potato crop using multi-angle spectral data - potential of unmanned aerial vehicle imagery (United States)

    Roosjen, Peter P. J.; Brede, Benjamin; Suomalainen, Juha M.; Bartholomeus, Harm M.; Kooistra, Lammert; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.


    In addition to single-angle reflectance data, multi-angular observations can be used as an additional information source for the retrieval of properties of an observed target surface. In this paper, we studied the potential of multi-angular reflectance data for the improvement of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) estimation by numerical inversion of the PROSAIL model. The potential for improvement of LAI and LCC was evaluated for both measured data and simulated data. The measured data was collected on 19 July 2016 by a frame-camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a potato field, where eight experimental plots of 30 × 30 m were designed with different fertilization levels. Dozens of viewing angles, covering the hemisphere up to around 30° from nadir, were obtained by a large forward and sideways overlap of collected images. Simultaneously to the UAV flight, in situ measurements of LAI and LCC were performed. Inversion of the PROSAIL model was done based on nadir data and based on multi-angular data collected by the UAV. Inversion based on the multi-angular data performed slightly better than inversion based on nadir data, indicated by the decrease in RMSE from 0.70 to 0.65 m2/m2 for the estimation of LAI, and from 17.35 to 17.29 μg/cm2 for the estimation of LCC, when nadir data were used and when multi-angular data were used, respectively. In addition to inversions based on measured data, we simulated several datasets at different multi-angular configurations and compared the accuracy of the inversions of these datasets with the inversion based on data simulated at nadir position. In general, the results based on simulated (synthetic) data indicated that when more viewing angles, more well distributed viewing angles, and viewing angles up to larger zenith angles were available for inversion, the most accurate estimations were obtained. Interestingly, when using spectra simulated at multi-angular sampling configurations as

  17. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on radio Xmax measurements of air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corstanje Arthur


    Full Text Available The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When performing radio measurements of air showers, natural variations in n will change the radio lateral intensity distribution, by changing the Cherenkov angle. Using CoREAS simulations, we have evaluated the systematic error on measurements of the shower maximum Xmax due to variations in n. It was found that a 10% increase in refractivity (n – 1 leads to an underestimation of Xmax between 8 and 22 g/cm2 for proton-induced showers at zenith angles from 15 to 45 degrees, respectively.

  18. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio


    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in many engineering problems as well as in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbines by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 min. - Highlights: • Semi-Markov models. • Time series generation of wind speed. • Computation of availability, reliability and maintainability.

  19. PIV Measurement of Pulsatile Flows in 3D Curved Tubes Using Refractive Index Matching Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyeon Ji; Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun


    Three-dimensional models of stenosis blood vessels were prepared using a 3D printer. The models included a straight pipe with axisymmetric stenosis and a pipe that was bent 10° from the center of stenosis. A refractive index matching method was utilized to measure accurate velocity fields inside the 3D tubes. Three different pulsatile flows were generated and controlled by changing the rotational speed frequency of the peristaltic pump. Unsteady velocity fields were measured by a time-resolved particle image velocimetry method. Periodic shedding of vortices occurred and moves depended on the maximum velocity region. The sizes and the positions of the vortices and symmetry are influenced by mean Reynolds number and tube geometry. In the case of the bent pipe, a recirculation zone observed at the post-stenosis could explain the possibility of blood clot formation and blood clot adhesion in view of hemodynamics.

  20. Experimental measurement of effective refractive index difference for few mode polarization maintaining fibers using S2 method (United States)

    Guo, Wenting; Li, Yan; Zeng, Xinglin; Mo, Qi; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhijian; Wu, Jian


    Polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs) can keep linear polarization state against external perturbations by inducing a high effective refractive index difference (Δneff) along one polarization axis. For few mode polarization maintaining fibers (FM-PMFs), Δneff is applicable between both orthogonal linear polarization modes (e.g. LP01x and LP01y) and orthogonal degenerated modes (e.g. LP11a and LP11b), which can enable advanced functionalities in multiple-input multiple- output-free spatial division multiplexing systems and optical fiber sensing systems. Therefore, the measurement of Δneff for polarization modes and degenerated modes is very important for determining the quality of a FM-PMF. However, measurement of the Δneff for FM-PMFs can be complicated due to the requirement for generating and demultiplexing of the higher order modes (HOMs). In this paper, we propose to measure the Δneff of FM-PMFs using Spatially and Spectrally resolved imaging (S2) method for the first time. The presented method is simply by employing a tunable laser and an IR CCD camera, can avoid any mode converter or mode multiplexer/demultiplexer, featuring a rapid testing speed. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out to measure FM-PMFs with a length of 1.1m and 5m. The Δneff between the orthogonal polarization modes (i.e. LP11ax-11ay, LP11bx-11by, LP21ax-21ay, and LP21bx-21by) are characterized as 7.05×10-4, 6.91×10-4, 1.02×10-3 and 1.04×10-3 respectively. The Δneff of the orthogonal degenerated modes (i.e. LP11ax-11bx, LP11ay-11by, LP21ax-21bx and LP21ay-21by) are also characterized to be 1.39×10-4, 1.24×10-4, 5.61×10-5 and 6.53×10-5 respectively.

  1. Measurement properties of the benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index in tadalafil studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Leary Michael P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the measurement properties of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII for use in men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH treated with tadalafil. Methods Data from a dose-titration (Study 1 and a dose-finding placebo-controlled (Study 2 tadalafil studies of men 45 years of age or older with moderate to severe LUTS (N = 281; N = 1053 were included in this post-hoc analysis. Measures included the BII, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, IPSS Quality of Life Index (IPSS-QoL, LUTS Global Assessment Question, uroflowmetry measure peak flow rate (Qmax and postvoid residual volume (PVR. Spearman rank and Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between the BII score and the other measures at each visit. Wilcoxin two-sample tests, t-tests and general linear modeling compared BII scores of subjects with global ratings of improvement versus no improvement, and subjects taking tadalafil versus placebo. Effect size, standardized response mean and Guyatt's responsiveness statistic were calculated for BII and IPSS change scores. Results There were high correlations between BII and IPSS & IPSS-QoL and low correlations between BII and Qmax & PVR at each visit. There were significant differences in BII at the End-of-Study Visit between subjects reporting improvement versus subjects reporting no improvement (Studies 1 and 2, P P = .0045; Study 2, P = .0064. The BII and IPSS were both responsive to change. Conclusions Results show that the BII is reliable, shows responsiveness to change in patients with BPH-LUTS, and demonstrates construct validity.

  2. Measurement properties of the benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index in tadalafil studies. (United States)

    Angalakuditi, Mallik; Seifert, Rita F; Hayes, Risa P; O'Leary, Michael P; Viktrup, Lars


    To assess the measurement properties of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII) for use in men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) treated with tadalafil. Data from a dose-titration (Study 1) and a dose-finding placebo-controlled (Study 2) tadalafil studies of men 45 years of age or older with moderate to severe LUTS (N = 281; N = 1053) were included in this post-hoc analysis. Measures included the BII, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS Quality of Life Index (IPSS-QoL), LUTS Global Assessment Question, uroflowmetry measure peak flow rate (Qmax) and postvoid residual volume (PVR). Spearman rank and Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between the BII score and the other measures at each visit. Wilcoxin two-sample tests, t-tests and general linear modeling compared BII scores of subjects with global ratings of improvement versus no improvement, and subjects taking tadalafil versus placebo. Effect size, standardized response mean and Guyatt's responsiveness statistic were calculated for BII and IPSS change scores. There were high correlations between BII and IPSS & IPSS-QoL and low correlations between BII and Qmax & PVR at each visit. There were significant differences in BII at the End-of-Study Visit between subjects reporting improvement versus subjects reporting no improvement (Studies 1 and 2, P < .0001) and subjects taking tadalafil versus subjects taking placebo (Study 1, P = .0045; Study 2, P = .0064). The BII and IPSS were both responsive to change. Results show that the BII is reliable, shows responsiveness to change in patients with BPH-LUTS, and demonstrates construct validity.

  3. Uncertainties of spectral in situ measurements in wastewater using different calibration approaches. (United States)

    Rieger, L; Langergraber, G; Siegrist, H


    Three calibration methods were applied to UV/VIS spectra recorded in the influent of six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to measure total COD (CODtot), filtered COD (CODfil), nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (NO(x)-N) and total suspended solids (TSS). It could be shown that a calibration of the sensor using data sets from four Swiss WWTPs leads to an improvement of the precision in comparison to the global calibration provided by the manufacturer. A calibration to the specific wastewater matrix always improves the results and gives the highest accuracy. For CODtot a mean coefficient of variation CVx of 12.5% could be reached, whereas for NOx-N only weak results were achieved (average CVx = 36%).

  4. The spectral and chemical measurement of pollutants on snow near South Pole, Antarctica (United States)

    Casey, K. A.; Kaspari, S. D.; Skiles, S. M.; Kreutz, K.; Handley, M. J.


    Remote sensing of light-absorbing particles (LAPs), or dark colored impurities, such as black carbon (BC) and dust on snow, is a key remaining challenge in cryospheric surface characterization and application to snow, ice, and climate models. We present a quantitative data set of in situ snow reflectance, measured and modeled albedo, and BC and trace element concentrations from clean to heavily fossil fuel emission contaminated snow near South Pole, Antarctica. Over 380 snow reflectance spectra (350-2500 nm) and 28 surface snow samples were collected at seven distinct sites in the austral summer season of 2014-2015. Snow samples were analyzed for BC concentration via a single particle soot photometer and for trace element concentration via an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Snow impurity concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 7000 part per billion (ppb) BC, 9.5 to 1200 ppb sulfur, 0.19 to 660 ppb iron, 0.013 to 1.9 ppb chromium, 0.13 to 120 ppb copper, 0.63 to 6.3 ppb zinc, 0.45 to 82 parts per trillion (ppt) arsenic, 0.0028 to 6.1 ppb cadmium, 0.062 to 22 ppb barium, and 0.0044 to 6.2 ppb lead. Broadband visible to shortwave infrared albedo ranged from 0.85 in pristine snow to 0.62 in contaminated snow. LAP radiative forcing, the enhanced surface absorption due to BC and trace elements, spanned from snow to 70 W m-2 for snow with high BC and trace element content. Measured snow reflectance differed from modeled snow albedo due to specific impurity-dependent absorption features, which we recommend be further studied and improved in snow albedo models.

  5. Measurement of position dependence of spectral distribution in primary X-ray beam of CT system using compton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Masao; Maeda, Koji; Maeda, Koji


    Our purpose is to acquire the diagnostic x-ray spectra of the CT system easily under clinical conditions by Compton scatter spectroscopy using a high resolution Schottky CdTe detector recently developed and to estimate the quality and quantity of these spectra compared the relative exposure measured using an ionization chamber with curves measured by the reconstructed spectra. Although the spectral broadening and the fluctuation were slightly shown, the errors of the relative exposure were under 10%. Though the experimental arrangement of this method is so easy and reconstructed algorithm is simple, these results suggested that this method is little influenced by the variation of dose rates or property of the incident x rays. We therefore propose that the Compton scatter spectroscopy with the newly developed Schottky CdTe detector is suitable for measuring the diagnostic x-ray spectra of the CT system under the clinical conditions and useful for quality assurance and quality control of the clinical x-ray CT system. (author)

  6. Application of a diode array spectroradiometer to measuring the spectral scattering properties of cloud types in a laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. D. Smedley


    Full Text Available In the last few years diode array spectroradiometers have become useful complements to traditional scanning instruments when measuring visible and ultraviolet solar radiation incident on the ground. This study describes the application of such an instrument to the problem of measuring the radiation scattered by different cloud-types in a laboratory environment. Details of how the instrument is incorporated into the experimental set-up are given together with the development of the system as a whole. The capability to measure a full spectrum for each scattering angle is an undoubted advantage, although the limited sensitivity impacts on the usefulness for optically thin clouds. Nevertheless example results are presented: (1 scattering phase functions at a range of wavelengths recorded simultaneously for water clouds, showing spectral deviation at the rainbow angle and verification of Mie theory; (2 likewise for mixed phase clouds, with evidence of both halo and rainbow features in a single scattering function; and, (3 detail of the forward scattering region in a glaciated cloud showing a barely perceptible halo feature, with implications for the small-scale structure of the ice crystals produced.

  7. An acoustic thermometer for air refractive index estimation in long distance interferometric measurements (United States)

    Pisani, Marco; Astrua, Milena; Zucco, Massimo


    We present a method to measure the temperature along the path of an optical interferometer based on the propagation of acoustic waves. It exploits the high sensitivity of the speed of sound to air temperature. In particular, it takes advantage of a technique where the generation of acoustic waves is synchronous with the amplitude modulation of a laser source. A photodetector converts the laser light into an electronic signal used as a reference, while the incoming acoustic waves are focused on a microphone and generate the measuring signal. Under this condition, the phase difference between the two signals substantially depends on the temperature of the air volume interposed between the sources and the receivers. A comparison with traditional temperature sensors highlighted the limit of the latter in the case of fast temperature variations and the advantage of a measurement integrated along the optical path instead of a sampling measurement. The capability of the acoustic method to compensate for the interferometric distance measurements due to air temperature variations has been demonstrated to the level of 0.1 °C corresponding to 10‑7 on the refractive index of air. We applied the method indoor for distances up to 27 m, outdoor at 78 m and finally tested the acoustic thermometer over a distance of 182 m.

  8. Effect of WBGT Index Measurement Location on Heat Stress Category Classification. (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Caruso, Elizabeth M; Heavens, Kristen R; Karis, Anthony J; Santee, William R; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre


    The location of the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index measurement may affect heat stress flag category classification. This study aimed to compare WBGT measurements at three locations along the Boston Marathon race course and compare WBGT estimates for meteorological stations and 72-h advanced WBGT forecasts. WBGT was measured hourly from 1000 to 1400 h at approximately 7 km, approximately 18 km, and approximately 30 km on the Boston Marathon race course. Simultaneous WBGT estimates were made for two meteorological stations southeast of the course via a commercial online system, which also provided 72-h advanced forecasts. The measurement difference (mean ± SD) among course locations was 0.2°C ± 1.8°C WBGT (ANOVA, P > 0.05). The difference between course and stations was 1.9°C ± 2.4°C WBGT (t-test, P 3°C WBGT (>0.5 flag category) in 111 of 245 paired comparisons (45%). Higher black globe and lower wet bulb temperatures explained over- and underestimates, respectively. Significant underestimates of WBGT resulted in misclassification of green (labeled white) and black (labeled red) course flag categories (χ2, P meteorological stations; thus, local measurements are preferred. If the relation between station WBGT forecasts and the race sites can be established, the forecast WBGT values could be corrected to give advanced warning of approximate flag conditions. Similar work is proposed for other venues to improve heat stress monitoring.

  9. A novel spectral analysis algorithm to obtain local scalar field statistics from line-of-sight measurements in turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Pankaj S; Agrawal, Ajay K


    Statistical tomography to obtain local field variables from non-intrusive line-of-sight measurements in turbulent flows has been an intriguing subject for some time. In this study, a novel algorithm is presented to obtain statistical information on the local scalar field in axisymmetric turbulent flows. The algorithm uses line-of-sight transverse deflection angle measurements in only one view direction to greatly simplify the optical configuration. The validity of the algorithm is examined using noise-free synthetically generated scalar data that simulate the concentration field of a turbulent helium jet. Results show that the proposed algorithm provides excellent reconstruction of integral length scale and variance of refractive index difference, which can be related to scalar physical properties such as density, temperature and/or species concentrations. Good reconstruction accuracy and the need for a simple optical configuration make the proposed algorithm a promising method to characterize the scalar field in turbulent flows using path-integrated measurements

  10. Dual-energy approach to contrast-enhanced mammography using the balanced filter method: Spectral optimization and preliminary phantom measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masatoshi


    Dual-energy contrast agent-enhanced mammography is a technique of demonstrating breast cancers obscured by a cluttered background resulting from the contrast between soft tissues in the breast. The technique has usually been implemented by exploiting two exposures to different x-ray tube voltages. In this article, another dual-energy approach using the balanced filter method without switching the tube voltages is described. For the spectral optimization of dual-energy mammography using the balanced filters, we applied a theoretical framework reported by Lemacks et al. [Med. Phys. 29, 1739-1751 (2002)] to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an iodinated contrast agent subtraction image. This permits the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage and balanced filter material, and the optimization of the latter's thickness with respect to some critical quantity--in this case, mean glandular dose. For an imaging system with a 0.1 mm thick CsI:Tl scintillator, we predict that the optimal tube voltage would be 45 kVp for a tungsten anode using zirconium, iodine, and neodymium balanced filters. A mean glandular dose of 1.0 mGy is required to obtain an SNR of 5 in order to detect 1.0 mg/cm 2 iodine in the resulting clutter-free image of a 5 cm thick breast composed of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. In addition to spectral optimization, we carried out phantom measurements to demonstrate the present dual-energy approach for obtaining a clutter-free image, which preferentially shows iodine, of a breast phantom comprising three major components - acrylic spheres, olive oil, and an iodinated contrast agent. The detection of iodine details on the cluttered background originating from the contrast between acrylic spheres and olive oil is analogous to the task of distinguishing contrast agents in a mixture of glandular and adipose tissues

  11. Understanding the aerosol information content in multi-spectral reflectance measurements using a synergetic retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martynenko


    Full Text Available An information content analysis for multi-wavelength SYNergetic AErosol Retrieval algorithm SYNAER was performed to quantify the number of independent pieces of information that can be retrieved. In particular, the capability of SYNAER to discern various aerosol types is assessed. This information content depends on the aerosol optical depth, the surface albedo spectrum and the observation geometry. The theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum and its accuracy is known under cloud-free conditions, reflectance measurements used in SYNAER is able to provide for 2–4° of freedom that can be attributed to retrieval parameters: aerosol optical depth, aerosol type and surface albedo.

    The focus of this work is placed on an information content analysis with emphasis to the aerosol type classification. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for 40 predefined aerosol mixtures of different basic components, given by sea salt, mineral dust, biomass burning and diesel aerosols, water soluble and water insoluble aerosols. The range of aerosol parameters considered through the 40 mixtures covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. After the information content analysis performed in Holzer-Popp et al. (2008 there was a necessity to compare derived degrees of freedom with retrieved aerosol optical depth for different aerosol types, which is the main focus of this paper.

    The principle component analysis was used to determine the correspondence between degrees of freedom for signal in the retrieval and derived aerosol types. The main results of the analysis indicate correspondence between the major groups of the aerosol types, which are: water soluble aerosol, soot, mineral dust and sea salt and degrees of freedom in the algorithm and show the ability of the SYNAER to

  12. Measurement of the Spatial Distribution of the Spectral Response Variation in the Field of View of the ASD Spectrometer Input Optics (United States)


    with coating causing interferential effect, the spectral coefficient cannot be dissociated from the observation angles (Ref. 8). Therefore, we have to...attenuated. Unfortunately, our current measurements (for the 8 deg. lens with the scrambler) are not very good. It would probably need to be measured again

  13. Disability measures in stroke: relationship among the Barthel Index, the Functional Independence Measure, and the Modified Rankin Scale. (United States)

    Kwon, Sooyeon; Hartzema, Abraham G; Duncan, Pamela W; Min-Lai, Sue


    Residual disability after stroke presents a major economic and humanistic burden. To quantify disability in patients, activities of daily living (ADL; Barthel Index [BI], and motor component of Functional Independence Measure [M-FIM]) and categorical disability measures (Modified Rankin Scale [MRS]) are used. The purpose of this study is to examine the predicting ability of ADL measures to global disability scale. Kansas City Stroke Study data were used for the present study. Correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis test, and polytomous logistic regression analysis were applied to examine the relationship between the ADL measure and global disability scale. Model fit statistics were examined to verify logistic regression appropriateness. A categorization scheme, which minimized the false-positive response rate, was selected as the optimal categorizing system. The 3 measures were highly correlated. Both BI and M-FIM differentiated disability better in lower than higher disability. In logistic regression, BI differentiated 4 disability levels; M-FIM differentiated 3 levels in MRS. However, on the basis of results of the Kruskal-Wallis and multiple comparison tests, we suspect that M-FIM may have the potential to predict MRS categories better with a different model. The proposed categorization scheme can serve as a translation between measures. However, because of the ceiling effect of BI and M-FIM, the translation could not be completed for all 6 levels of MRS. No apparent variation over time in the categorization scheme was observed. Further research needs to be conducted to develop better prediction models explaining the relationship between M-FIM and MRS.

  14. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory


    Prodinger, B; O'Connor, RJ; Stucki, G; Tennant, A


    Introduction: Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Methods: Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cor...

  15. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent


    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  16. Validation of Leaf Area Index measurements based on the Wireless Sensor Network platform (United States)

    Song, Q.; Li, X.; Liu, Q.


    The leaf area index (LAI) is one of the important parameters for estimating plant canopy function, which has significance for agricultural analysis such as crop yield estimation and disease evaluation. The quick and accurate access to acquire crop LAI is particularly vital. In the study, LAI measurement of corn crops is mainly through three kinds of methods: the leaf length and width method (LAILLW), the instruments indirect measurement method (LAII) and the leaf area index sensor method(LAIS). Among them, LAI value obtained from LAILLW can be regarded as approximate true value. LAI-2200,the current widespread LAI canopy analyzer,is used in LAII. LAIS based on wireless sensor network can realize the automatic acquisition of crop images,simplifying the data collection work,while the other two methods need person to carry out field measurements.Through the comparison of LAIS and other two methods, the validity and reliability of LAIS observation system is verified. It is found that LAI trend changes are similar in three methods, and the rate of change of LAI has an increase with time in the first two months of corn growth when LAIS costs less manpower, energy and time. LAI derived from LAIS is more accurate than LAII in the early growth stage,due to the small blade especially under the strong light. Besides, LAI processed from a false color image with near infrared information is much closer to the true value than true color picture after the corn growth period up to one and half months.

  17. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar S


    Full Text Available Sidra Zafar,1 MA Rehman Siddiqui,2,3 Rida Shahzad1 1Medical College, Aga Khan University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shahzad Eye Hospital, 3South City Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Purpose: Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT, with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Results: Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 µm using SD-OCT (range: 47–470 µm and 278.5±110.5 µm using SS-OCT (range: 56–502 µm, with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760–0.924 and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654–0.930 for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.132. Conclusion: Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: choroidal imaging, diseased, normal, SD-OCT, SS-OCT

  18. Measurement of the infrared optical constants for spectral modeling: n and k values for (NH4)2SO4 via single-angle reflectance and ellipsometric methods (United States)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Myers, Tanya L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tiwald, Thomas E.


    The complex index of refraction, ñ = n + ik, has two components, n(ν) and k(ν), both a function of frequency, ν. The constant n is the real component, and k is the complex component, proportional to the absorption. In combination with other parameters, n and k can be used to model infrared spectra. However, obtaining reliable n/k values for solid materials is often difficult. In the past, the best results for n and k have been obtained from bulk, polished homogeneous materials free of defects; i.e. materials where the Fresnel equations are valid and there is no appreciable light scattering. Since it is often not possible to obtain such pure macroscopic samples, the alternative is to press the powder form of the material into a uniform disk. Recently, we have pressed such pellets from ammonium sulfate powder, and have measured the pellets' n and k values via two independent methods: 1) ellipsometry, which measures the changes in amplitude and phase of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence, and 2) single-angle reflectance using a specular reflectance device within a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. This technique measures the change in amplitude of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength over a wide spectral domain. The optical constants are determined from the single-angle measurements using the Kramers-Kronig relationship, whereas an oscillator model is used to analyze the ellipsometric measurements. The n(ν) and k(ν) values determined by the two methods were compared to previous values determined from single crystal samples from which transmittance and reflectance measurements were made and converted to n(ν) and k(ν) using a simple dispersion model. [Toon et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 81, 5733-5748, (1976)]. Comparison with the literature values shows good agreement, indicating that these are promising techniques to measure the optical constants

  19. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  20. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measured by Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: The Beijing Eye Study. (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Chang X; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B


    The aim of this study was to measure retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) and its associated factors in a population-based setting. The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals. The study participants underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis(®) ; Spectralis OCT)-assisted measurement of the RNFLT. For this study, exclusion criteria were glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation, best-corrected visual acuity of >0.5 logMAR, macular diseases, previous ocular surgery and known neurological diseases. The only inclusion criterion was an age of 50+ years. The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 2548 participants. Mean RNFLT was 102 ± 11 μm. RNFLT was significantly (p optic disc size (p optic disc, larger rim, hyperopic refractive error, larger parapapillary beta zone and thicker subfoveal choroidal thickness. Independent of age and refractive error, the RNFL was thickest temporal inferiorly and thinnest temporally and nasally. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.