WorldWideScience

Sample records for spect imaging probes

  1. Dual tracer imaging of SPECT and PET probes in living mice using a sequential protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sarah E; Diener, Justin M; Sasser, Todd A; Correcher, Carlos; González, Antonio J; Avermaete, Tony Van; Leevy, W Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, multimodal imaging strategies have motivated the fusion of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) scans with an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image to provide anatomical information, as well as a framework with which molecular and functional images may be co-registered. Recently, pre-clinical nuclear imaging technology has evolved to capture multiple SPECT or multiple PET tracers to further enhance the information content gathered within an imaging experiment. However, the use of SPECT and PET probes together, in the same animal, has remained a challenge. Here we describe a straightforward method using an integrated trimodal imaging system and a sequential dosing/acquisition protocol to achieve dual tracer imaging with 99mTc and 18F isotopes, along with anatomical CT, on an individual specimen. Dosing and imaging is completed so that minimal animal manipulations are required, full trimodal fusion is conserved, and tracer crosstalk including down-scatter of the PET tracer in SPECT mode is avoided. This technique will enhance the ability of preclinical researchers to detect multiple disease targets and perform functional, molecular, and anatomical imaging on individual specimens to increase the information content gathered within longitudinal in vivo studies. PMID:23145357

  2. Recent advances in the development of PET/SPECT probes for atherosclerosis imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoich; Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent thrombus formation are the major causes of myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, the detection of vulnerable plaques is important for risk stratification and to provide appropriate treatment. Inflammation imaging using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been most extensively studied for detecting vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. It is of great importance to develop PET/SPECT probes capable of specifically visualizing the biological molecules involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and/or progression. In this article, we review recent advances in the development of PET/SPECT probes for visualizing atherosclerotic plaques and their application to therapy monitoring, mainly focusing on experimental studies.

  3. Pre-clinical Evaluation of a Cyanine-Based SPECT Probe for Multimodal Tumor Necrosis Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammes, Marieke A; Knol-Blankevoort, Vicky T; Cruz, Luis J; Feitsma, Hans R I J; Mezzanotte, Laura; Cordfunke, Robert A; Sinisi, Riccardo; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Maeda, Azusa; DaCosta, Ralph S; Bierau, Katja; Chan, Alan; Kaijzel, Eric L; Snoeks, Thomas J A; van Beek, Ermond R; Löwik, Clemens W G M

    2016-12-01

    Recently we showed that a number of carboxylated near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) cyanine dyes possess strong necrosis avid properties in vitro as well as in different mouse models of spontaneous and therapy-induced tumor necrosis, indicating their potential use for cancer diagnostic- and prognostic purposes. In the previous study, the detection of the cyanines was achieved by whole body optical imaging, a technique that, due to the limited penetration of near-infrared light, is not suitable for investigations deeper than 1 cm within the human body. Therefore, in order to facilitate clinical translation, the purpose of the present study was to generate a necrosis avid cyanine-based NIRF probe that could also be used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). For this, the necrosis avid NIRF cyanine HQ4 was radiolabeled with 111indium, via the chelate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). The necrosis avid properties of the radiotracer [111In]DTPA-HQ4 were examined in vitro and in vivo in different breast tumor models in mice using SPECT and optical imaging. Moreover, biodistribution studies were performed to examine the pharmacokinetics of the probe in vivo. Using optical imaging and radioactivity measurements, in vitro, we showed selective accumulation of [111In]DTPA-HQ4 in dead cells. Using SPECT and in biodistribution studies, the necrosis avidity of the radiotracer was confirmed in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer model of spontaneous tumor necrosis and in a MCF-7 human breast cancer model of chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis. The radiotracer [111In]DTPA-HQ4 possessed strong and selective necrosis avidity in vitro and in various mouse models of tumor necrosis in vivo, indicating its potential to be clinically applied for diagnostic purposes and to monitor anti-cancer treatment efficacy.

  4. SPECT imaging of myocarditis

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    Shulkin, B.L.; Wahl, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    Gallium-67 citrate has been useful in providing scintigraphic evidence for pericarditis and myocarditis. However, the differentiation between pericardial and myocardial localization is difficult with planar images alone. SPECT can be valuable in making these distinctions, and a case of myocarditis is presented in which uptake of Gallium is shown to lie within the heart, correlating with the histologic proof.

  5. Comparison of Intraoperative γ-Probe Imaging and Postoperative SPECT/CT in Detection of Sentinel Nodes Related to the Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Stéphanie C J M; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Kleppe, Marjolein; Pooters, Ivo N A; Van Gorp, Toon; Slangen, Brigitte F M; Brans, Boudewijn

    2017-02-01

    Tracer injection into ovarian ligaments has been shown to detect sentinel nodes (SNs) in patients with ovarian cancer. To determine the possibility that SNs are missed, this feasibility study compared their detection during surgery with their detection on postoperative SPECT/CT. In 8 patients (with either ovarian or endometrial cancer), after a staging lymphadenectomy including resection of SNs related to the ovary, SPECT/CT was performed within 24 h. SPECT/CT identified hotspots in 4 patients at sites where SNs were resected. In 6 patients, additional sites were found, mainly in the pelvic region. Discrepancies between the γ-probe and SPECT/CT may be due to missed SNs during surgery, but with respect to pelvic hotspots, in most cases they are more probably related to remnants of tracer at injection sites. With respect to sites where SNs were resected, remaining hotspots may have been caused by residual lymphatic flow after resection. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Lanthanide-based nanocrystals as dual-modal probes for SPECT and X-ray CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongquan; Sun, Yun; Zhu, Xingjun; Liu, Qian; Cao, Tianye; Peng, Juanjuan; Yang, Yang; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2014-05-01

    Applications of lanthanide-based nanoparticles for bioimaging have attracted increasing attention. Herein, small size PEG-EuOF:(153)Sm nanocrystals (∼5 nm) (PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)bis(carboxymethyl)ether) combined with the radioactive and X-ray absorption properties were synthesized. The distribution of the PEG-EuOF nanocrystals in living animals was studied by ex vivo radioassay, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum (ICP-AES) analysis and in vivo SPECT imaging, which indicated that the small size PEG-EuOF:(153)Sm had long blood retention time (blood half-life (t1/2) reach to 4.65 h) and were eliminated significantly through biliary/gastrointestinal pathway in vivo. Meanwhile, benefiting from the high attenuation ability of Eu, the small size PEG-EuOF was successfully applied for lymph node CT imaging, extending the bio-applications of these small nanocrystals. The results of cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity also showed that the PEG-EuOF nanocrystals have relatively low toxicity, which suggest their safety for in vivo imaging. The studies provide preliminary validation for the use of PEG-EuOF nanocrystals for in vivo bioimaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Receptor binding characterization of the benzodiazepine radioligand sup 125 I-Ro16-0154: Potential probe for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) brain imaging

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    Johnson, E.W.; Woods, S.W.; Zoghbi, S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Innis, R.B. (Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (USA)); McBride, B.J. (Medi-Physics, Inc., Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The binding of an iodinated benzodiazepine (BZ) radioligand has been characterized, particularly in regard to its potential use as a neuroreceptor brain imaging agent with SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). Ro16-0154 is an iodine-containing BZ antagonist and a close analog of Ro15-1788. In tissue homogenates prepared from human and monkey brain, the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled Ro16-0154 was saturable, of high affinity, and had high ratios of specific to non-specific binding. Physiological concentrations of NaCl enhanced specific binding approximately 15% compared to buffer without this salt. Kinetic studies of association and dissociation demonstrated a temperature dependent decrease in affinity with increasing temperature. Drug displacement studies confirmed that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 binds to the central type BZ receptor: binding is virtually identical to that of {sup 3}H-Ro15-1788 except that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 shows an almost 10 fold higher affinity at 37{degree}C. These in vitro results suggest that {sup 123}I-labeled Ro16-0154 shows promise as a selective, high affinity SPECT probe of the brain's BZ receptor.

  8. Biosynthesis of Fluorescent Bi2S3 Nanoparticles and their Application as Dual-Function SPECT-CT Probe for Animal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Imran; Ahmad, Absar; Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Rahaman, Sk Hasanur; Gambhir, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) is an excellent semiconductor and its nanoparticles have numerous significant applications including photovoltaic materials, photodiode arrays, bio-imaging, etc. Nevertheless, these nanoparticles when fabricated by chemical and physical routes tend to easily aggregate in colloidal solutions, are eco-unfriendly, cumbrous and very broad in size distribution. The aim of the present manuscript was to ecologically fabricate water dispersible, safe and stable Bi2S3 nanoparticles such that these may find use in animal imaging, diagnostics, cell labeling and other biomedical applications. Herein, we for the first time have biosynthesized highly fluorescent, natural protein capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles by subjecting the fungus Fusarium oxysporum to bismuth nitrate pentahydrate [Bi(NO3)3.5H2O] alongwith sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) as precursor salts under ambient conditions of temperature, pressure and pH. The nanoparticles were completely characterized using recognized standard techniques. These natural protein capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles are quasi-spherical in shape with an average particle size of 15 nm, maintain long term stability and show semiconductor behavior having blue shift with a band gap of 3.04 eV. Semiconductor nanocrystals are fundamentally much more fluorescent than the toxic fluorescent chemical compounds (fluorophores) which are presently largely employed in imaging, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, etc. Biologically fabricated fluorescent nanoparticles may replace organic fluorophores and aid in rapid development of biomedical nanotechnology. Thus, biodistribution study of the so-formed Bi2S3 nanoparticles in male Sprague Dawley rats was done by radiolabelling with Technitium-99m (Tc-99m) and clearance time from blood was calculated. The nanoparticles were then employed in SPECT-CT probe for animal imaging where these imparted iodine equivalent contrast.

  9. The biological characterization of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI as a SPECT probe for imaging hypoxia in a sarcoma-bearing mouse model

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    Hsia, Chien-Chung [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Huang, Fu-Lei [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Bing Show Chwan Hospital, Taiwan (China); Shen, Lie-Hang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chuan-Lin, E-mail: clchen2@ym.edu.t [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsin-Ell, E-mail: hewang@ym.edu.t [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: Tumor growth beyond the region where vascular oxygen can reach creates a hypoxic domain. In this study, BnAO, a ligand that had been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate for hypoxia imaging, was conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole to give 3,3,10,10-tetramethyl-1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazo-1-y1)-4,9-diazadodecane-2,11- dionedioxime (BnAO-NI) as a potential ligand for hypoxia detection. Pentoxifylline is a peripheral vasodilator and has been used as a radiosensitizer in tumor radiotherapy. {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI/SPECT was applied to noninvasively assess the pharmacological effect of pentoxifylline in reducing tumor hypoxia in vivo. Methods: BnAO-NI was synthesized and formulated with methylene diphosphonate (MDP), stannous chloride and carbonate buffer to afford kits. After mixing with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI injection can be readily prepared. The partition coefficient, radiochemical purity and in vitro stability were determined. Cellular uptake of radiotracers in KHT cells under hypoxia was conducted in a CO{sub 2} incubator at 37 {sup o}C under hypoxia or normoxia. A biodistribution study after intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI in KHT sarcoma-implanted C3H mice was performed. The effect of pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg) on reducing tumor hypoxia was also studied. Results: The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI preparation was greater than 96% and stable at ambient temperature for 24 h (RCP>90%). The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI and {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO in KHT cells under hypoxia were 3.57 and 4.13-fold higher than those under normoxic environment, indicating unambiguous oxygen-dependent uptakes of these two probes. The distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI in KHT sarcoma-bearing mice revealed rapid clearance from the blood circulation. The tumor uptake peaked at 2 h post-injection (0.32{+-}0.05%ID/g) with tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 10.32 and 3.96, respectively. The effect of pentoxifylline on the

  10. Towards authentically labelled bi-modal PET (SPECT)/MR-probes

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    Coenen, Heinrich H; Buchholz, Martin; Spahn, Ingo; Vanasschen, Christian; Ermert, Johannes [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5: Nuclear Chemistry, Research Centre, Jülich (Germany); Neumaier, Bernd [Institute for Radiochemistry and Experimental Molecular Imaging, Medical Clinics, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Application of radiolabelled, existing MRI probes using a suitable reporter group for multimodal PET(SPECT)/MRI imaging is limited due to the required alteration of the molecular structure and thus changing their in vivo properties. Radiolabelling of existing MRI contrast agents with PET(SPECT) isotopes of paramagnetic elements offers a simple way to address this issue. Therefore, new routes to the production of SPECT/PET-radionuclides {sup 147,149}Gd and {sup 52g}Mn were examined which can be applied for n.c.a. labelling of Gd(III) and Mn(II) MRI contrast agents. Additionally, Mn(II)-based complexes stable for in vivo application are to be synthesized.

  11. In vivo SPECT reporter gene imaging of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs were identified several years ago and are key in controlling autoimmune diseases and limiting immune responses to foreign antigens, including alloantigens. In vivo imaging techniques including intravital microscopy as well as whole body imaging using bioluminescence probes have contributed to the understanding of in vivo Treg function, their mechanisms of action and target cells. Imaging of the human sodium/iodide symporter via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT has been used to image various cell types in vivo. It has several advantages over the aforementioned imaging techniques including high sensitivity, it allows non-invasive whole body studies of viable cell migration and localisation of cells over time and lastly it may offer the possibility to be translated to the clinic. This study addresses whether SPECT/CT imaging can be used to visualise the migratory pattern of Tregs in vivo. Treg lines derived from CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ cells were retrovirally transduced with a construct encoding for the human Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and the fluorescent protein mCherry and stimulated with autologous DCs. NIS expressing self-specific Tregs were specifically radiolabelled in vitro with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99mTcO(4(- and exposure of these cells to radioactivity did not affect cell viability, phenotype or function. In addition adoptively transferred Treg-NIS cells were imaged in vivo in C57BL/6 (BL/6 mice by SPECT/CT using (99mTcO(4(-. After 24 hours NIS expressing Tregs were observed in the spleen and their localisation was further confirmed by organ biodistribution studies and flow cytometry analysis. The data presented here suggests that SPECT/CT imaging can be utilised in preclinical imaging studies of adoptively transferred Tregs without affecting Treg function and viability thereby allowing longitudinal studies within disease models.

  12. A quantitative reconstruction software suite for SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, Mauro; Jeraj, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) imaging allows for measurement of activity concentrations of a given radiotracer in vivo. Although SPECT has usually been perceived as non-quantitative by the medical community, the introduction of accurate CT based attenuation correction and scatter correction from hybrid SPECT/CT scanners has enabled SPECT systems to be as quantitative as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems. We implemented a software suite to reconstruct quantitative SPECT images from hybrid or dedicated SPECT systems with a separate CT scanner. Attenuation, scatter and collimator response corrections were included in an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithm. A novel scatter fraction estimation technique was introduced. The SPECT/CT system was calibrated with a cylindrical phantom and quantitative accuracy was assessed with an anthropomorphic phantom and a NEMA/IEC image quality phantom. Accurate activity measurements were achieved at an organ level. This software suite helps increasing quantitative accuracy of SPECT scanners.

  13. Radiolabeled Sugars Used for PET and SPECT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Bergstrom, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are new efforts to develop "sugar" probes for molecular imaging focusing on human clinical studies. Radiolabeled carbohydrates are used as substrate probes for studying specific processes in tissues and organisms. The best application case is 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), which is incorporated by cancer cells. The introduction of ltF-FDG has advanced enormously human Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This review focuses on the importance of 18FFDG and other sugars as imaging probes in PET and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. In conclusion, new radiolabeled molecules that can be used as radiopharmaceuticals also would possibly help in the treatment of cancer cells in human patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ENVISION, developing SPECT imaging for particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. ENVISION aims at developing medical imaging tools to improve the dose delivery to the patient, to ensure a safer and more effective treatment. The animation illustrates the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for monitoring the dose during treatment. Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d

  16. SPECT and PET Imaging of Meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Valotassiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical and grade III (anaplastic meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue.

  17. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

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    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  18. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

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    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  20. Preclinical imaging characteristics and quantification of Platinum-195m SPECT

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    Aalbersberg, E.A.; Wit-van der Veen, B.J. de; Vegt, E.; Vogel, Wouter V. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI-AVL), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zwaagstra, O.; Codee-van der Schilden, K. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    In vivo biodistribution imaging of platinum-based compounds may allow better patient selection for treatment with chemo(radio)therapy. Radiolabeling with Platinum-195m ({sup 195m}Pt) allows SPECT imaging, without altering the chemical structure or biological activity of the compound. We have assessed the feasibility of {sup 195m}Pt SPECT imaging in mice, with the aim to determine the image quality and accuracy of quantification for current preclinical imaging equipment. Enriched (>96%) {sup 194}Pt was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands (NRG). A 0.05 M HCl {sup 195m}Pt-solution with a specific activity of 33 MBq/mg was obtained. Image quality was assessed for the NanoSPECT/CT (Bioscan Inc., Washington DC, USA) and U-SPECT{sup +}/CT (MILabs BV, Utrecht, the Netherlands) scanners. A radioactivity-filled rod phantom (rod diameter 0.85-1.7 mm) filled with 1 MBq {sup 195m}Pt was scanned with different acquisition durations (10-120 min). Four healthy mice were injected intravenously with 3-4 MBq {sup 195m}Pt. Mouse images were acquired with the NanoSPECT for 120 min at 0, 2, 4, or 24 h after injection. Organs were delineated to quantify {sup 195m}Pt concentrations. Immediately after scanning, the mice were sacrificed, and the platinum concentration was determined in organs using a gamma counter and graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) as reference standards. A 30-min acquisition of the phantom provided visually adequate image quality for both scanners. The smallest visible rods were 0.95 mm in diameter on the NanoSPECT and 0.85 mm in diameter on the U-SPECT{sup +}. The image quality in mice was visually adequate. Uptake was seen in the kidneys with excretion to the bladder, and in the liver, blood, and intestine. No uptake was seen in the brain. The Spearman correlation between SPECT and gamma counter was 0.92, between SPECT and GF-AAS it was 0.84, and between GF-AAS and gamma counter it was0.97 (all p < 0

  1. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine); Cohen, D. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Radiology); Konstantini, S. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Meiner, Z. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Neurology)

    1991-06-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.).

  2. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

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    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, John F. Welch Technology Center, Bangalore (India).; Bhalla, R.; Pickett, R.; Luthra, S.K. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, The Grove Centre, Amersham (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [{sup 123}I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also

  3. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  4. 3D quantitative analysis of brain SPECT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncaric, Sven; Ceskovic, Ivan; Petrovic, Ratimir; Loncaric, Srecko

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a computer-based technique for quantitative analysis of 3-D brain images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In particular, the volume and location of ischemic lesion and penumbra is important for early diagnosis and treatment of infracted regions of the brain. SPECT imaging is typically used as diagnostic tool to assess the size and location of the ischemic lesion. The segmentation method presented in this paper utilizes a 3-D deformable model in order to determine size and location of the regions of interest. The evolution of the model is computed using a level-set implementation of the algorithm. In addition to 3-D deformable model the method utilizes edge detection and region growing for realization of a pre-processing. Initial experimental results have shown that the method is useful for SPECT image analysis.

  5. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Endres, Christopher J. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Foss, Catherine A. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Goddard, James S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lee, Seung Joon [JLAB; McKisson, John [JLAB; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland; Stolin, Alexander V. [West Virginia University; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Pomper, Martin G. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a ^99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, ^99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand ^123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of ^123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  6. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Endres, Christopher [Johns Hopkins University; Foss, Catherine [Johns Hopkins University; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins University; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins University; Goddard Jr, James Samuel [ORNL; Lee, Seung Joon [Jefferson Lab; McKisson, John [Jefferson Lab; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, The, Baltimore, MD; Stolin, Alexander [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Jefferson Lab; Pomper, Martin [Johns Hopkins University

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  7. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate-Morales, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, F.; Arévila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-01

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162±37 g and 169±34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  8. (99m)Tc-labelled nanosystem as tumour imaging agent for SPECT and SPECT/CT modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, András; Hajdu, István; Bodnár, Magdolna; Trencsényi, György; Pöstényi, Zita; Haász, Veronika; Jánoki, Gergely; Jánoki, Győző A; Balogh, Lajos; Borbély, János

    2013-06-05

    We report the synthesis, in vitro and in vivo investigation of folate-targeted, biocompatible, biodegradable self-assembled nanoparticles radiolabelled with (99m)Tc, as potential new SPECT or SPECT/CT imaging agent. Nanoparticles with hydrodynamic size in the range of 75-200 nm were prepared by self-assembly of chitosan and folated poly-γ-glutamic acid, and then radiolabelled with (99m)Tc. The nanoparticles target tumour cells overexpressing folate receptors and internalize specifically into them to realize early tumour diagnosis detected by SPECT and SPECT/CT modalities. Rat hepatocellular carcinoma cells were used as model system. Cell specificity and tumour targeting efficacy of these nanosystems were investigated in vitro, and in vivo using SPECT and fusion nanoSPECT/CT imaging. In vitro results showed that the radiolabeled nanosystem was efficiently internalized by tumour cells. Whole-body biodistribution of the new radiolabelled, folate-targeted nanoparticles revealed higher uptake in the tumorous kidney compared to the non-tumorous contralateral side. Uptake by the lungs and thyroids was negligible, which confirmed the stability of the nanoparticles in vivo. In vivo SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging visually reinforced the uptake results and were in accordance with the biodistribution data: the new nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent improve tumour targeting and are able to detect folate-receptor-overexpressing tumours in animal models with enhanced contrast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SPECT Molecular Imaging in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common disorder, and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is clinical and relies on the presence of characteristic motor symptoms. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of PD is still limited. Functional neuroimaging using SPECT technique is helpful in patients with first signs of parkinsonism. The changes detected may reflect the disease process itself and/or compensatory responses to the disease, or they may arise in association with disease- and/or treatment-related complications. This paper addresses the value of SPECT in early differential diagnosis of PD and its potential as a sensitive tool to assess the pathophysiology and progression, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of PD.

  10. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kangwon National University, Samcheok (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ji Yun [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Cheongju National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3{+-}12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  11. The clinical utility of brain SPECT imaging in process addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Willeumier, Kristen; Johnson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Brain SPECT imaging is a nuclear medicine study that uses isotopes bound to neurospecific pharmaceuticals to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and indirectly metabolic activity. With current available technology and knowledge SPECT has the potential to add important clinical information to benefit patient care in many different areas of a substance abuse practice, including in the area of process addictions. This article explores the ways brain SPECT has the potential to be useful to clinicians in helping to understand and direct treatment for complex cases of obesity and sexual addictions. Areas where SPECT can add value include helping clinicians ask betterquestions, helping them in making more complete diagnoses, evaluating underlying brain systems pathology, decreasing stigma and increasing compliance, and visualizing effectiveness via follow-up evaluations. In particular, SPECT can help in identifying and assessing the issue of brain trauma and toxicity in process addictions, which may be significant contributing factors in treatment failure. Three illustrative case histories will be given.

  12. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M; Timmer, Jorik R; Mouden, Mohamed; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L; Ottervanger, Jan Paul

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, pbundle branch block patients have abnormal stress-first SPECT. • Coronary CT excluded obstructive CAD in many LBBB patients with abnormal SPECT. • Stress-first SPECT imaging is not the optimal imaging protocol in LBBB patients. • In LBBB patients imaging with initial coronary CT may be more appropriate.

  13. Novel SPECT Technologies and Approaches in Cardiac Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent novel approaches in myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT have been facilitated by new dedicated high-efficiency hardware with solid-state detectors and optimized collimators. New protocols include very low-dose (1 mSv stress-only, two-position imaging to mitigate attenuation artifacts, and simultaneous dual-isotope imaging. Attenuation correction can be performed by specialized low-dose systems or by previously obtained CT coronary calcium scans. Hybrid protocols using CT angiography have been proposed. Image quality improvements have been demonstrated by novel reconstructions and motion correction. Fast SPECT acquisition facilitates dynamic flow and early function measurements. Image processing algorithms have become automated with virtually unsupervised extraction of quantitative imaging variables. This automation facilitates integration with clinical variables derived by machine learning to predict patient outcome or diagnosis. In this review, we describe new imaging protocols made possible by the new hardware developments. We also discuss several novel software approaches for the quantification and interpretation of myocardial perfusion SPECT scans.

  14. Compact CT/SPECT Small-Animal Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastis, George A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality CT/SPECT imaging system for small-animal imaging applications. The X-ray system comprises a commercially available micro-focus X-ray tube and a CCD-based X-ray camera. X-ray transmission measurements are performed based on cone-beam geometry. Individual projections are acquired by rotating the animal about a vertical axis in front of the CCD detector. A high-resolution CT image is obtained after reconstruction using an ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction algorithm. The SPECT system utilizes a compact semiconductor camera module previously developed in our group. The module is mounted perpendicular to the X-ray tube/CCD combination. It consists of a 64×64 pixellated CdZnTe detector and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator. The field of view is 1 square inch. Planar projections for SPECT reconstruction are obtained by rotating the animal in front of the detector. Gamma-ray and X-ray images are presented of phantoms and mice. Procedures for merging the anatomical and functional images are discussed. PMID:26538684

  15. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Price, Eric W; Phenix, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled substrates, reversible inhibitors, and irreversible inhibitors investigated as PET and SPECT tracers for imaging hydrolytic enzymes. By learning from the most successful examples of tracer development for hydrolytic enzymes, it appears that an early focus on careful enzyme kinetics and cell-based studies are key factors for identifying potentially useful new molecular imaging agents.

  16. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  17. SPECT brain imaging in epilepsy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devous, M D; Thisted, R A; Morgan, G F; Leroy, R F; Rowe, C C

    1998-02-01

    A meta-analysis of SPECT brain imaging in epilepsy was performed to derive the sensitivity and specificity of interictal, postictal or ictal rCBF patterns to identify a seizure focus in medically refractory patients. Papers were obtained by pooling all published articles identified by two independent literature searches: (a) Dialnet (EMBASE) or Radline by CD-ROM and (b) Current Contents searched manually. Literature inclusion criteria were: (a) patients had a localization-related epileptic syndrome; (b) more than six patients were reported; and (c) patients had at least an interictal EEG-documented epileptiform abnormality. Of 46 papers meeting these criteria, 30 contained extractable data. SPECT results were compared to localization by standard diagnostic evaluation and surgical outcome. Meta-analytic sensitivities for SPECT localization in patients with temporal lobe seizures relative to diagnostic evaluation were 0.44 (interictal), 0.75 (postictal) and 0.97 (ictal). Similar results were obtained relative to surgical outcome. False-positive rates were low relative to diagnostic evaluation (7.4% for interictal and 1.5% for postictal studies) and surgical outcome (4.4% for interictal and 0.0% for postictal studies). The results were not dependent on tracer used (or dose), the presence of CT-identified structural abnormalities, blinding of image interpretation or camera quality (although data were more variable with low-resolution cameras). There were insufficient data for conclusions regarding extratemporal-seizure or pediatric epilepsy populations. Insights gained from reviewing this literature yielded recommendations for minimal information that should be provided in future reports. Additional recommendations regarding the nature and focus of future studies also are provided. The most important of these is that institutions using SPECT imaging in epilepsy should perform ictal, preferably, or postictal scanning in combination with interictal scanning.

  18. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M.; Mouden, Mohamed [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Timmer, Jorik R.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, p<0.001). Stress SPECT was more frequently abnormal in patients with LBBB (82 % vs. 46 %, p<0.001). After reviewing stress and rest images, SPECT was normal in 43 % of the patients with LBBB, compared to 77 % of the patients without LBBB (p<0.001). Sixty-four of the 124 patients with LBBB and abnormal stress-rest SPECT underwent CCTA (52 %), which could exclude obstructive CAD in 46 of the patients (72 %). Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT is not the optimal imaging protocol in patients with LBBB, as the majority of these patients have potentially false-positive stress SPECT. First-line testing using CCTA may be more appropriate in low- to intermediate-risk patients with LBBB. (orig.)

  19. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...... for molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm...

  20. Myocardial Perfusion Spect Imaging in Dextrocardia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Özdemir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The myocardial perfusion scintigraphy acquisition and analysis present some technical differences in the rare dextrocardia cases. Here we report a case of a 38 year-old woman with dextrocardia who had been applied myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Presented case showed that the thoracic and abdominal organs had a mirror image with situs inversus totalis type dextrocardia. The incidence of coronary heart disease and life span of people with situs inversus totalis are the same as the normal population. So we may apply myocardial perfusion scintigraphy to this patient group. The current case is presented in order to remind the special applications of myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with dextrocardia.

  1. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  2. CT ventilation functional image-based IMRT treatment plans are comparable to SPECT ventilation functional image-based plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Satoshi; Bal, Matthieu; Kabus, Sven; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Shan, Xin; Loo, Billy W; Keall, Paul J; Yamamoto, Tokihiro

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that CT ventilation functional image-based IMRT plans designed to avoid irradiating highly-functional lung regions are comparable to single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation functional image-based plans. Three IMRT plans were created for eight thoracic cancer patients using: (1) CT ventilation functional images, (2) SPECT ventilation functional images, and (3) anatomic images (no functional images). CT ventilation images were created by deformable image registration of 4D-CT image data sets and quantitative analysis. The resulting plans were analyzed for the relationship between the deviations of CT-functional plan metrics from anatomic plan metrics (ΔCT-anatomic) and those of SPECT-functional plans (ΔSPECT-anatomic), and moreover for agreements of various metrics between the CT-functional and SPECT-functional plans. The relationship between ΔCT-anatomic and ΔSPECT-anatomic was strong (e.g., R=0.94; linear regression slope 0.71). The average differences and 95% limits of agreement between the CT-functional and SPECT-functional plan metrics (except for monitor units) for various structures were mostly less than 1% and 2%, respectively. This study demonstrated a reasonable agreement between the CT ventilation functional image-based IMRT plans and SPECT-functional plans, suggesting the potential for CT ventilation imaging to serve as a surrogate for SPECT ventilation in functional image-guided radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HMPAO-SPECT during epileptic seizures: Early and late images. Fruehe und spaete HMPAO-SPECT waehrend eines epileptischen Anfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbeck, B.; Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Biersack, H.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Reinke, U. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Nervenklinik/Epileptologie); Gratz, K.F. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik)

    1990-11-01

    For presurgical evaluation of epilepsy a 44-year old patient with complex-partial seizures underwent HMPAO-SPECT. The morphology of the seizures, the MRI-scan, psychometry and ictal as well as interictal EEGs showed a left temporal origin of the seizures. Early images were obtained 20 min and late images 24 h following injection. On both scans a marked hyperperfusion was observed in the left temporal area. A crossed cerebellar diaschisis was also seen on both SPECTs. It could be shown that during ictal examinations there is no bloodflow-dependent wash-out from brain tissue. (orig.).

  4. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugaya, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, R.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT ((1R)-2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [{sup 123}I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (author)

  5. Complexity and accuracy of image registration methods in SPECT-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L S; Duzenli, C; Moiseenko, V [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Tang, L; Hamarneh, G [Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, 9400 TASC1, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Gill, B [Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Celler, A; Shcherbinin, S [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 828 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Fua, T F; Thompson, A; Sheehan, F [Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Liu, M [Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 13750 9th Ave, Surrey, BC, V3V 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: lyin@bccancer.bc.ca

    2010-01-07

    The use of functional imaging in radiotherapy treatment (RT) planning requires accurate co-registration of functional imaging scans to CT scans. We evaluated six methods of image registration for use in SPECT-guided radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods varied in complexity from 3D affine transform based on control points to diffeomorphic demons and level set non-rigid registration. Ten lung cancer patients underwent perfusion SPECT-scans prior to their radiotherapy. CT images from a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner were registered to a planning CT, and then the same transformation was applied to the SPECT images. According to registration evaluation measures computed based on the intensity difference between the registered CT images or based on target registration error, non-rigid registrations provided a higher degree of accuracy than rigid methods. However, due to the irregularities in some of the obtained deformation fields, warping the SPECT using these fields may result in unacceptable changes to the SPECT intensity distribution that would preclude use in RT planning. Moreover, the differences between intensity histograms in the original and registered SPECT image sets were the largest for diffeomorphic demons and level set methods. In conclusion, the use of intensity-based validation measures alone is not sufficient for SPECT/CT registration for RTTP. It was also found that the proper evaluation of image registration requires the use of several accuracy metrics.

  6. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T; Soffientini, Alberto; Bengel, Frank M; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo

    2015-11-01

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of PET and SPECT imaging of {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: takahsr@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Sasaki, Masayuki [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Himuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasuo; Komiya, Isao [Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Shingo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Yittrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) is traditionally thought of as a pure beta emitter, and is used in targeted radionuclide therapy, with imaging performed using bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, because {sup 90}Y also emits positrons through internal pair production with a very small branching ratio, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is also available. Because of the insufficient image quality of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT, PET imaging has been suggested as an alternative. In this paper, the authors present the Monte Carlo-based simulation–reconstruction framework for {sup 90}Y to comprehensively analyze the PET and SPECT imaging techniques and to quantitatively consider the disadvantages associated with them. Methods: Our PET and SPECT simulation modules were developed using Monte Carlo simulation of Electrons and Photons (MCEP), developed by Dr. S. Uehara. PET code (MCEP-PET) generates a sinogram, and reconstructs the tomography image using a time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximization (TOF-OSEM) algorithm with attenuation compensation. To evaluate MCEP-PET, simulated results of {sup 18}F PET imaging were compared with the experimental results. The results confirmed that MCEP-PET can simulate the experimental results very well. The SPECT code (MCEP-SPECT) models the collimator and NaI detector system, and generates the projection images and projection data. To save the computational time, the authors adopt the prerecorded {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photon data calculated by MCEP. The projection data are also reconstructed using the OSEM algorithm. The authors simulated PET and SPECT images of a water phantom containing six hot spheres filled with different concentrations of {sup 90}Y without background activity. The amount of activity was 163 MBq, with an acquisition time of 40 min. Results: The simulated {sup 90}Y-PET image accurately simulated the experimental results. PET image is visually

  8. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Wit, Tim C. de [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, F2-238, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Academy of Athens, Center for Experimental Surgery, Clinical and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Ballinger, Jim [Guy' s Hospital - Guy' s and St Thomas' Trust Foundation, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bengel, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Bondt, Pieter De [OLV Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aalst (Belgium); Buechel, Ronny R.; Kaufmann, Philip A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Hindorf, Cecilia [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lindner, Oliver [University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Institute for Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Ljungberg, Michael [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lonsdale, Markus [Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Manrique, Alain [Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Service Commun Investigations chez l' Homme, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Minarik, David [Skaane University Hospital, Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden); Scholte, Arthur J.H.A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Traegaardh, Elin [Skaane University Hospital and Lund University, Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Malmoe (Sweden); Hesse, Birger [University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/ publications/guidelines/2015{sub 0}7{sub E}ANM{sub F}INAL myocardial{sub p}erfusion{sub g}uideline.pdf. (orig.)

  9. 3D SPECT/CT fusion using image data projection of bone SPECT onto 3D volume-rendered CT images: feasibility and clinical impact in the diagnosis of bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Ode, Kenichi; Matsusaka, Yohji; Katagiri, Mari; Iwabuchi, Yu; Itoh, Kazunari; Ichimura, Akira; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    We developed a method of image data projection of bone SPECT into 3D volume-rendered CT images for 3D SPECT/CT fusion. The aims of our study were to evaluate its feasibility and clinical usefulness. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WB) and SPECT/CT scans were performed in 318 cancer patients using a dedicated SPECT/CT systems. Volume data of bone SPECT and CT were fused to obtain 2D SPECT/CT images. To generate our 3D SPECT/CT images, colored voxel data of bone SPECT were projected onto the corresponding location of the volume-rendered CT data after a semi-automatic bone extraction. Then, the resultant 3D images were blended with conventional volume-rendered CT images, allowing to grasp the three-dimensional relationship between bone metabolism and anatomy. WB and SPECT (WB + SPECT), 2D SPECT/CT fusion, and 3D SPECT/CT fusion were evaluated by two independent reviewers in the diagnosis of bone metastasis. The inter-observer variability and diagnostic accuracy in these three image sets were investigated using a four-point diagnostic scale. Increased bone metabolism was found in 744 metastatic sites and 1002 benign changes. On a per-lesion basis, inter-observer agreements in the diagnosis of bone metastasis were 0.72 for WB + SPECT, 0.90 for 2D SPECT/CT, and 0.89 for 3D SPECT/CT. Receiver operating characteristic analyses for the diagnostic accuracy of bone metastasis showed that WB + SPECT, 2D SPECT/CT, and 3D SPECT/CT had an area under the curve of 0.800, 0.983, and 0.983 for reader 1, 0.865, 0.992, and 0.993 for reader 2, respectively (WB + SPECT vs. 2D or 3D SPECT/CT, p images were 241 ± 75, 225 ± 73, and 182 ± 71 s for reader 1 and 207 ± 72, 190 ± 73, and 179 ± 73 s for reader 2, respectively. As a result, it took shorter time to read 3D SPECT/CT images than 2D SPECT/CT (p images (p reading time compared to 2D SPECT/CT fusion.

  10. Feasibility and Initial Performance of Simultaneous SPECT-CT Imaging Using a Commercial Multi-Modality Preclinical Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin R. Osborne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modality imaging provides coregistered PET-CT and SPECT-CT images; however such multi-modality workflows usually consist of sequential scans from the individual imaging components for each modality. This typical workflow may result in long scan times limiting throughput of the imaging system. Conversely, acquiring multi-modality data simultaneously may improve correlation and registration of images, improve temporal alignment of the acquired data, increase imaging throughput, and benefit the scanned subject by minimizing time under anesthetic. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and procedure for modifying a commercially available preclinical SPECT-CT platform to enable simultaneous SPECT-CT acquisition. We also evaluate the performance of simultaneous SPECT-CT tomographic imaging with this modified system. Performance was accessed using a 57Co source and image quality was evaluated with Tc99m phantoms in a series of simultaneous SPECT-CT scans.

  11. SPECT Imaging Agents for Detecting Cerebral β-Amyloid Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of radiotracers for use in vivo to image β-amyloid (Aβ plaques in cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD is an important, active area of research. The presence of Aβ aggregates in the brain is generally accepted as a hallmark of AD. Since the only definitive diagnosis of AD is by postmortem staining of affected brain tissue, the development of techniques which enable one to image Aβ plaques in vivo has been strongly desired. Furthermore, the quantitative evaluation of Aβ plaques in the brain could facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of antiamyloid therapies currently under development. This paper reviews the current situation in the development of agents for SPECT-based imaging of Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's brains.

  12. Pre-evaluation study in SPECT images using a phantom; Avaliacao do pre processamento das projecoes em SPECT com phantom fisico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Marina de Sa; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Div. de Informatica; Abe, Rubens [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Radioisotopos; Moura, Lincoln [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1996-12-31

    An alternative solution for the reconstruction of SPECT images using a Poisson Noise Model is presented. The proposed algorithm was applied on a real phantom and compared to the standard clinical procedures. Results have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of the SPECT images 3 refs.

  13. A New Approach for Scatter Removal and Attenuation Compensation from SPECT/CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Oloomi

    2013-11-01

    In conclusion, by applying the proposed formula we were able to correct attenuation and scatter via MLEM and improve the image quality, which is a necessary step for both qualitative and quantitative SPECT images.

  14. Myocardial Perfusion Spect Imaging in Dextrocardia: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Semra; Gazi, Emine

    2013-01-01

    The myocardial perfusion scintigraphy acquisition and analysis present some technical differences in the rare dextrocardia cases. Here we report a case of a 38 year-old woman with dextrocardia who had been applied myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Presented case showed that the thoracic and abdominal organs had a mirror image with situs inversus totalis type dextrocardia. The incidence of coronary heart disease and life span of people with situs inversus totalis are the same as the normal population. So we may apply myocardial perfusion scintigraphy to this patient group. The current case is presented in order to remind the special applications of myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with dextrocardia. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24003402

  15. Combination of intra-operative freehand SPECT imaging with MR images for guidance and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Philipp; Okur, Asli; Wendler, Thomas; Navab, Nassir; Friebe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays for clinical applications such as sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast or prostate cancer, only pre-operative image data is used for navigation, i.e. CT, SPECT/CT or PET/CT. Freehand SPECT and freehand PET provide intra-operative functional imaging techniques that can be complemented with pre- and intra-operative MR imaging to allow for better planning, navigation and guidance. In this paper we propose a method to enable navigation based on pre- or intra-operatively acquired MR images. A fully MR compatible phantom and a dedicated MR compatible optical tracking target with MR markers is built for this study. PET/MR, SPECT/CT and freehand SPECT scans of the phantom are performed. Registration is done using point based registration of the known marker and target geometries and a ground truth is obtained from a SPECT/CT and an MR image that are directly registered. The RMS errors was 0.31 mm for the ground truth and 3.29 mm when using segmentation of the MR markers and their spatial relationship with the optical tracking spheres of the dedicated target. Thus, the freehand SPECT can be registered easily by this approach without the need of any additional CT scans and therefore without any additional radiation dose for the patient. This enables intra-operative fusion of the pre- or intra-operatively acquired MR data, which could provide valuable additional information for intra-operative applications such as guidance based on accurate anatomy or verifying exact tumor location in combination with detailed morphological patient data.

  16. Autoradiography study and SPECT imaging of reporter gene HSV1-tk expression in heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Xiaoli [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China)], E-mail: LXL730724@hotmail.com; Liu Ying; He Yong; Wu Tao; Zhang Binqing; Gao Zairong; An Rui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China); Zhang Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China)], E-mail: zhyx1229@163.com

    2010-04-15

    . The ARG images in region of interest-derived semi-quantitative study correlated well with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA levels from RT-PCR analysis. The gamma counting and RT-PCR also correlated well with each other in both sets of experiments. Both SPECT planar and tomographic images showed clear uptake of {sup 131}I-FIAU in the anterolateral wall where Ad5-tk was injected. Conclusion: The study confirmed the feasibility of cardiac SPECT reporter gene imaging with HSV1-tk as a reporter gene and {sup 131}I-FIAU as a reporter probe. The optimal Ad5-tk titer for imaging was 1x10{sup 8} pfu and the optimal imaging time was 1-2 days after gene transfer. Thus, the imaging of HSV1-tk transgene expression in the heart is feasible and may be used for the noninvasive SPECT imaging of gene therapy in cardiac diseases.

  17. Filters in 2D and 3D Cardiac SPECT Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiac imaging is a noninvasive, sensitive method providing information on cardiac structure and physiology. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT evaluates myocardial perfusion, viability, and function and is widely used in clinical routine. The quality of the tomographic image is a key for accurate diagnosis. Image filtering, a mathematical processing, compensates for loss of detail in an image while reducing image noise, and it can improve the image resolution and limit the degradation of the image. SPECT images are then reconstructed, either by filter back projection (FBP analytical technique or iteratively, by algebraic methods. The aim of this study is to review filters in cardiac 2D, 3D, and 4D SPECT applications and how these affect the image quality mirroring the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT images. Several filters, including the Hanning, Butterworth, and Parzen filters, were evaluated in combination with the two reconstruction methods as well as with a specified MatLab program. Results showed that for both 3D and 4D cardiac SPECT the Butterworth filter, for different critical frequencies and orders, produced the best results. Between the two reconstruction methods, the iterative one might be more appropriate for cardiac SPECT, since it improves lesion detectability due to the significant improvement of image contrast.

  18. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  19. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  20. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  1. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99mTc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  2. Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruf, J.; Denecke, T.; Stelter, L.; Felix, R.; Amthauer, H. [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Seehofer, D.; Rayes, N. [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie

    2007-07-01

    Aim: In addition to planar parathyroid scintigraphy, SPECT and image fusion with CT/MR improve adenoma detection in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). This study evaluated the use of a hybrid SPECT-CT device concerning image fusion and attenuation correction (AC). Patients, methods: The data of 26 patients with pHPT, preoperatively examined by {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi dual-phase scintigraphy plus SPECT-CT (low-dose CT), was retrospectively evaluated by two observers in a consensus reading. The images of planar scintigraphy, non-attenuation corrected SPECT (SPECT{sub NAC}), attenuation corrected SPECT (SPECT{sub AC}) and SPECT{sub AC}-CT were interpreted and compared to the results of surgery. The effect of AC on focus intensity was semiquantified by determination of the tumor-to-background (TB) ratio for SPECT{sub AC} and SPECT{sub NAC}. Finally, the TB{sub AC}/TB{sub NAC}-ratio was calculated for each focus and correlated to the distance of a focus from the body surface. Results: 20/26 (77%) patients were positive in planar scintigraphy. One focus was detected by SPECT only. AC of SPECT-data increased image contrast but had no impact on the detection rate. Additional SPECT{sub AC}-CT image fusion facilitated the localization of three mediastinal foci. In the semiquantitative analysis an increase in TB after AC was observed, although there was no strong correlation between depth of the focus (16-60 mm) and the TB{sub AC}/TB{sub NAC}-ratio (r = 0.213, p = 0.353). Conclusion: The detection rate of planar scintigraphy is only slightly improved by SPECT imaging. Due to the low spatial resolution of the CT component, the benefit of image fusion is limited to mediastinal foci. However, as TB and image contrast is measurably improved after AC there is a potential to improve the sensitivity of parathyroid SPECT. (orig.)

  3. Use of automated image registration to generate mean brain SPECT image of Alzheimer`s patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, M.B.; Kawashima, Ryuta [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer; Awata, Shuichi [and others

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compute and compare the group mean HMPAO brain SPECT images of patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type (SDAT) and age matched control subjects after transformation of the individual images to a standard size and shape. Ten patients with Alzheimer`s disease (age 71.6{+-}5.0 yr) and ten age matched normal subjects (age 71.0{+-}6.1 yr) participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT and X-ray CT scans were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were normalized to an average activity of 100 counts/pixel. Individual brain images were transformed to a standard size and shape with the help of Automated Image Registration (AIR). Realigned brain SPECT images of both groups were used to generate mean and standard deviation images by arithmetic operations on voxel based numerical values. Mean images of both groups were compared by applying the unpaired t-test on a voxel by voxel basis to generate three dimensional T-maps. X-ray CT images of individual subjects were evaluated by means of a computer program for brain atrophy. A significant decrease in relative radioisotope (RI) uptake was present in the bilateral superior and inferior parietal lobules (p<0.05), bilateral inferior temporal gyri, and the bilateral superior and middle frontal gyri (p<0.001). The mean brain atrophy indices for patients and normal subjects were 0.853{+-}0.042 and 0.933{+-}0.017 respectively, the difference being statistically significant (p<0.001). The use of a brain image standardization procedure increases the accuracy of voxel based group comparisons. Thus, intersubject averaging enhances the capacity for detection of abnormalities in functional brain images by minimizing the influence of individual variation. (author)

  4. Brain PET and technetium-99m-ECD SPECT imaging in Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, K.; Yasuda, S.; Beppu, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Doi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Ogawa, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease were evaluated by brain positron emission tomography (PET) and technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the lesions in both patients, hyperperfusion was detected on cerebral blood flow images obtained by PET, and hyperactivity by standard {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. Dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images demonstrated a plateau of activity in each lesion. These findings suggest that lesions in Lhermitte-Duclos disease have a retention mechanism for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD equivalent to that of normal neural tissue. (orig.)

  5. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  6. Development of new peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands for SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsifis, A.; Fookes, C.; Pham, T.; Holmes, T.; Mattner, F.; Berghoffer, P.; Gregoire, M.C.; Loc' h, C.; Greguric, I. [Radiopharmaceuticas Research Institute, ANSTO, Menai, N.S.W. Sydney (Australia); Thominiaux, C.; Boutin, H.; Chauveau, F.; Gregoire, M.C.; Hantraye, Ph.; Tavitain, B.; Dolle, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Arlicot, N.; Chalon, S.; Guilloteau, D. [Universite Francois Rabelais, Inserm U619, 37 - Tours (France)

    2008-02-15

    This study aims to demonstrate that a number of radiolabelled ({sup 123}I,{sup 11}C, {sup 18}F) imidazo pyridines, imidazo pyridazines and indolglyoxylamides can be developed as potential tracers for SPECT and PET imaging. (N.C.)

  7. U-SPECT-BioFluo : An integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, M.N.; Kreuger, R.; Buckle, T.; Mahn, W.A.; Bunschoten, A.; Josephson, L.; Van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Beekman, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a

  8. SPECT imaging evaluation in movement disorders: far beyond visual assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiavas, Kosmas [General Hospital, Medical Physics Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Molyvda, Elisavet; Psarrakos, Kyriakos [Medical Physics Dept., General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, Ioannis; Karatzas, Nikolaos [Medical Physical Dept., Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsolaki, Magdalini [3. Neurology Clinic, Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with {sup 123}I-FP-CIT is of great value in differentiating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) from those suffering from essential tremor (ET). Moreover, SPECT with {sup 123}I-IBZM can differentiate PD from Parkinson's ''plus'' syndromes. Diagnosis is still mainly based on experienced observers' visual assessment of the resulting images while many quantitative methods have been developed in order to assist diagnosis since the early days of neuroimaging. The aim of this work is to attempt to categorize, briefly present and comment on a number of semi-quantification methods used in nuclear medicine neuroimaging. Various arithmetic indices have been introduced with region of interest (ROI) manual drawing methods giving their place to automated procedures, while advancing computer technology has allowed automated image registration, fusion and segmentation to bring quantification closer to the final diagnosis based on the whole of the patient's examinations results, clinical condition and response to therapy. The search for absolute quantification has passed through neuroreceptor quantification models, which are invasive methods that involve tracer kinetic modelling and arterial blood sampling, a practice that is not commonly used in a clinical environment. On the other hand, semi-quantification methods relying on computers and dedicated software try to elicit numerical information out of SPECT images. The application of semi-quantification methods aims at separating the different patient categories solving the main problem of finding the uptake in the structures of interest. The semi-quantification methods which were studied fall roughly into three categories, which are described as classic methods, advanced automated methods and pixel-based statistical analysis methods. All these methods can be further divided into various subcategories. The plethora of

  9. Imaging the DNA damage response with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, James C.; Koustoulidou, Sofia; Cornelissen, Bart [University of Oxford, CR-UK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    DNA integrity is constantly challenged by endogenous and exogenous factors that can alter the DNA sequence, leading to mutagenesis, aberrant transcriptional activity, and cytotoxicity. Left unrepaired, damaged DNA can ultimately lead to the development of cancer. To overcome this threat, a series of complex mechanisms collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR) are able to detect the various types of DNA damage that can occur and stimulate the appropriate repair process. Each DNA damage repair pathway leads to the recruitment, upregulation, or activation of specific proteins within the nucleus, which, in some cases, can represent attractive targets for molecular imaging. Given the well-established involvement of DDR during tumorigenesis and cancer therapy, the ability to monitor these repair processes non-invasively using nuclear imaging techniques may facilitate the earlier detection of cancer and may also assist in monitoring response to DNA damaging treatment. This review article aims to provide an overview of recent efforts to develop PET and SPECT radiotracers for imaging of DNA damage repair proteins. (orig.)

  10. Impact of SPECT/CT in imaging inflammation and infection; Wertigkeit der SPECT/CT fuer die nuklearmedizinische Entzuendungsdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kuwert, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik

    2011-03-15

    Even today infection remains a significant concern, and the diagnosis and localization of infectious foci is an important health issue. As an established infection-imaging modality, nuclear medicine plays a vital health-care role in the diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of this condition. Several techniques in nuclear medicine significantly aid infection diagnosis, including triple-phase bone scanning, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET and imaging with {sup 111}In-oxine-, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Each radiopharmaceutical has specific advantages and disadvantages that makes it suitable to diagnose different infectious processes (e.g., soft-tissue sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, osteomyelitis, occult fever, fever of unknown origin, and infections commonly found in immuno-compromised patients). However, their clinical applications may be limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and the lack of anatomic landmarks of a highly specific tracer with only scarce background uptake to use as a framework for orientation. Anatomic imaging modalities such as CT provide a high-quality assessment of structural abnormalities related to infection, but these structural abnormalities may be unspecific. Furthermore, to detect infection before anatomical changes are present, functional imaging could have some advantages over anatomical imaging. Scintigraphic studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity to an infectious process. Diagnosis and precise delineation of infection may be challenging in certain clinical scenarios, rendering decisions concerning further patient management difficult. The SPECT/CT-technology combines the acquisition of SPECT and CT data with the same imaging device enabling perfect overlay of anatomical and functional images. SPECT/CT imaging data has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical settings such as indeterminate findings in bone scintigraphy, orthopaedic disorders, endocrine, and neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore

  11. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grova, C [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jannin, P [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Biraben, A [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Buvat, I [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Benali, H [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Bernard, A M [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Scarabin, J M [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gibaud, B [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2003-12-21

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were

  12. Brain SPECT imaging with blood flow markers in epilepsy and balloon occlusion; Hirn-SPECT mit Durchblutungsmarkern in der Epilepsiediagnostik und bei der Ballon-Okklusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1996-02-01

    Brain SPECT imaging is used as a routine technique in presurgical evaluation. In three fields (focus detection, prognosis, stimulation) the value of brain SPECT imaging in cost effective patient management is presented in this paper. Interictal and ictal brain SPECT imaging are used to detect the epileptic focus and are a powerful tool during implantation of subdural or depth electrodes, being able to replace an `invasive` evaluation in some cases. Brain SPECT can be used to estimate the patients` postoperative outcome (memory, seizure frequency). Using activation imaging, the functional activity of brain regions can be estimated prior to resection of larger areas. In balloon occlusion, the blood flow pattern during the occlusion and the risk of ischemia after resection or permanent occlusion of the careotid artery can be estimated by means of brain SPECT. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung hat inzwischen einen festen Platz in der praechirurgischen Epilepsiediagnostik. Anhand von drei Einsatzgebieten innerhalb dieser Thematik (Fokussuche, Prognose, Stimulationsuntersuchung) wird gezeigt, dass die Indikation zur Hirn-SPECT auch unter Kosten-Nutzen-Aspekten gestellt werden kann. Iktale und interiktale Untersuchungen werden im Rahmen der Fokussuche eingesetzt und koennen bei der Implantation von Subdural- oder Tiefen-Elektroden hilfreich sein und in einzelnen Faellen eine invasive Abklaerung ersetzen. Der Hirn-SPECT-Befund kann zur Abschaetzung des postoperativen `outcome` (Gedaechtnis, Anfallsfrequenz) beitragen. Mittels Aktivierungsuntersuchungen kann vor groesseren resektiven Eingriffen die funktionelle Aktivitaet von Hirnarealen beurteilt werden. Bei der Ballon-Okklusion ist es mit Hilfe der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung praeoperativ moeglich, die Durchblutungsverhaeltnisse waehrend der Okklusion und damit das Risiko einer Ischaemie nach Resektion oder permanenter Okklusion zu beurteilen. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of x-ray detectors for dual-modality CT-SPECT animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Iwata, Koji; Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wu, Max C.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2002-11-01

    We are developing a bench-top animal scanner that will acquire both functional SPECT images and anatomical CT images with sub-millimeter spatial resolution for both imaging modalities. This paper presents preliminary results from the evaluation of two x-ray detectors for the CT application, and dual SPECT-CT images using one of these detectors. Two phosphor-CMOS x-ray detectors, one with 48 m pixels and 5 cm x 5 cm area and the other with 50 μm pixels and 12 cm x 12 cm area, were evaluated for linearity and dynamic range. Each detector showed linearity over ~ 3 orders of magnitude, which is sufficient for mouse CT imaging. The smaller detector was mounted to an A-SPECT system, along with a custom 50 W x-ray source with focal spot size of ~ 150 μm. Phantoms and mice were scanned sequentially, SPECT followed by CT, and the resulting reconstructed images fused into a single SPECT-CT image. These preliminary results show that the two detectors evaluated for this application can successfully achieve high contrast CT images of mice and similar sized objects.

  14. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Lee, Jonghwan; Jung, Jae Ho; Moon, Byung Seok; Kim, Soonhag; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-06-30

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin αvβ3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe (123)I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization.

  15. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  16. Real-time respiratory triggered SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging using CZT technology: impact of respiratory phase matching between SPECT and low-dose CT for attenuation correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Olivier F; Fuchs, Tobias A; Possner, Mathias; Vontobel, Jan; Mikulicic, Fran; Stehli, Julia; Liga, Riccardo; Benz, Dominik C; Gräni, Christoph; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Gaemperli, Oliver; Buechel, Ronny R; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the impact of respiratory phase matching between single-photon-emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) and low-dose computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction (AC). Forty patients underwent 1-day 99mTc-tetrofosmin pharmacological stress/rest SPECT-MPI using a cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera. Low-dose CT for AC was performed at deep-inspiration breath-hold. SPECT-MPI was acquired once with free-breathing (FB) and repeated at deep-inspiration breath-hold (BH) to match the respiratory phase of AC. From these acquisitions we reconstructed four data sets: free-breathing SPECT-MPI without AC (non-corrected; FB-NC), breath-hold SPECT-MPI without AC (non-corrected; BH-NC), free-breathing SPECT-MPI with AC (FB-AC), and breath-hold SPECT-MPI with AC (BH-AC), the latter representing respiratory-phase-matched AC SPECT-MPI. We compared semi-quantitative segmental tracer uptake, visual diagnosis, inter-observer agreement, and image quality. Compared with FB-NC, deep-inspiration BH-NC increases inferior and lateral uptake, but decreases septal uptake. Addition of AC to FB increases inferior and septal uptake, but decreases anterolateral uptake. Combining breath-hold MPI with breath-hold CT AC (BH-AC) increases inferior, inferolateral, and septal uptake, but reduces apical uptake, without affecting anterolateral uptake, with significant differences to all other protocols. Frequency of normal scans increases across protocols: 10% with FB-NC, 21% with BH-NC, 38% with FB-AC, and 51% with BH-AC. Image quality and inter-observer agreement were highest for BH-AC among all protocols. Compared with non-corrected breath-hold SPECT-MPI and with free-breathing AC SPECT-MPI, respiratory-phase-matched AC SPECT-MPI significantly affects segmental semi-quantitative uptake, increases the frequency of normal scans, yields the best inter-observer agreement, and significantly improves image quality. These findings suggest a potential role of

  17. Infected cyst localization with gallium SPECT imaging in polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amesur, P.; Castronuovo, J.J.; Chandramouly, B.

    1988-01-01

    This case report describes a 43-year-old woman with polycystic renal disease and cyst infection. Infected cysts of the left kidney were successfully localized with Ga-67 citrate SPECT imaging and CT. Other imaging, including planar gallium imaging, was helpful diagnostically, but could not determine the exact location of infection within the kidney.

  18. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  19. Feasibility of Stereo-Infrared Tracking to Monitor Patient Motion During Cardiac SPECT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Richard D; Pretorius, P Hendrik; Boening, Guido; Bruyant, Philippe P; Feng, Bing; Fulton, Roger R; Gennert, Michael A; Nadella, Suman; King, Michael A

    2004-10-01

    Patient motion during cardiac SPECT imaging can cause diagnostic imaging artifacts. We investigated the feasibility of monitoring patient motion using the Polaris motion-tracking system. This system uses passive infrared reflection from small spheres to provide real-time position data with vendor stated 0.35 mm accuracy and 0.2 mm repeatability. In our configuration, the Polaris system views through the SPECT gantry toward the patient's head. List-mode event data was temporally synchronized with motion-tracking data utilizing a modified LabVIEW virtual instrument that we have employed in previous optical motion-tracking investigations. Calibration of SPECT to Polaris coordinates was achieved by determining the transformation matrix necessary to align the position of four reflecting spheres as seen by Polaris, with the location of Tc-99m activity placed inside the sphere mounts as determined in SPECT reconstructions. We have successfully tracked targets placed on volunteers in simulated imaging positions on the table of our SPECT system. We obtained excellent correlation (R(2) > 0.998) between the change in location of the targets as measured by our SPECT system and the Polaris. We have also obtained excellent agreement between the recordings of the respiratory motion of four targets attached to an elastic band wrapped around the abdomen of volunteers and from a pneumatic bellows. We used the axial motion of point sources as determined by the Polaris to correct the motion in SPECT image acquisitions yielding virtually identical point source FWHM and FWTM values, and profiled maximum heart wall counts of cardiac phantom images, compared to the reconstructions with no motion.

  20. Value of attenuation correction in stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging using CZT-SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, J D; Mouden, M; Ottervanger, J P; van Dalen, J A; Knollema, S; Slump, C H; Jager, P L

    2017-04-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) improves the diagnostic outcome of stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using conventional SPECT. Our aim was to determine the value of AC using a cadmium zinc telluride-based (CZT)-SPECT camera. We retrospectively included 107 consecutive patients who underwent stress-optional rest MPI CZT-SPECT/CT. Next, we created three types of images for each patient; (1) only displaying reconstructed data without the CT-based AC (NC), (2) only displaying AC, and (3) with both NC and AC (NC + AC). Next, two experienced physicians visually interpreted these 321 randomized images as normal, equivocal, or abnormal. Image outcome was compared with all hard events over a mean follow-up time of 47.7 ± 9.8 months. The percentage of images interpreted as normal increased from 45% using the NC images to 72% using AC and to 67% using NC + AC images (P < .001). Hard event hazard ratios for images interpreted as normal were not different between using NC and AC (1.01, P = .99), or NC and NC + AC images (0.97, P = .97). AC lowers the need for additional rest imaging in stress-first MPI using CZT-SPECT, while long-term patient outcome remained identical. Use of AC reduces the need for additional rest imaging, decreasing the mean effective dose by up to 1.2 mSv.

  1. SPECT/CT and a portable gamma-camera for image-guided laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy in testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Oscar R; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Vermeeren, Lenka; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Nieweg, Omgo E; Horenblas, Simon

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of SPECT/CT and real-time intraoperative imaging with a portable γ-camera for laparoscopic sentinel node (SN) localization in stage I testicular cancer. Ten patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer were studied between November 2006 and November 2010. Their mean age was 37 y (range, 25-50 y). The primary tumors were situated on the right side in 5 patients and on the left side in 5. After a funicular block with 2% lidocaine, an average dose of 80 MBq (range, 59-98 MBq) of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid in a volume of 0.2 mL was injected into the testicular parenchyma. Shortly after injection, a 10-min dynamic study was performed, followed by the acquisition of static planar images at 15 min and 2 h. SPECT/CT was performed at 2 h. After image fusion, SNs were visualized, and their exact anatomic location was determined. The SPECT/CT images were displayed in the operation room to guide SN detection using a laparoscopic γ-ray probe and a portable γ-camera. Lymphatic drainage to the retroperitoneum was seen in all patients. SPECT/CT identified interaortocaval or paracaval SNs in the 5 patients with right-sided tumors, one of whom had an additional SN adjacent to the testicular vessels. In all 5 patients with left-sided tumors, paraaortic SNs were visualized; a node along the testicular vessels was visualized in 2 of these 5. Twenty-six SNs were laparoscopically removed (range, 1-4 per patient). An SN contained metastases in 1 case. No recurrences developed in the 9 patients with a tumor-free SN during a median follow-up of 21 mo (range, 2-50 mo). SPECT/CT enables accurate anatomic localization of retroperitoneal SNs in patients with testicular cancer, facilitating their laparoscopic retrieval. Real-time image guidance by a portable γ-camera improves intraoperative SN detection and appears to identify (20%) additional SNs.

  2. Automatic and manual image fusion of 111 In-pentetreotide SPECT and diagnostic CT in neuroendocrine tumor imaging - An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedlund Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NET, the results of examinations, such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT, have conventionally been interpreted separately. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hermes Multimodality™ 5.0 H Image Fusion software-based automatic and manual image fusion of SPECT and CT for the localization of NET lesions. Out of 34 NET patients who were examined by means of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS with 111In- pentetreotide along with SPECT, 22 patients had a CT examination of the abdomen, which was used in the fusion analysis. SPECT and CT data were fused using software with a registration algorithm based on normalized mutual information. The criteria for acceptable fusion were established at a maximum cranial or caudal dislocation of 25 mm between the images and at a reasonable consensus (in order of less than 1 cm between outline of the reference organs. The automatic fusion was acceptable in 13 of the 22 examinations, whereas 9 fusions were not. However all the 22 examinations were acceptable at the manual fusion. The result of automatic fusion was better when the slice thickness of 5 mm was applied at CT examination, when the number of slices was below 100 in CT data and when both examinations included uptakes of pathological lesions. Retrospective manual image fusion of SPECT and CT is a relatively inexpensive but reliable method to be used in NET imaging. Automatic image fusion with specified software of SPECT and CT acts better when the number of CT slices is reduced to the SPECT volume and when corresponding pathological lesions appear at both SPECT and CT examinations.

  3. Myocardial CT perfusion imaging and SPECT for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Richard T; Mehra, Vishal C; Chen, Marcus Y

    2014-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Sixteen centers enrolled 381 patients from November 2009 to July 2011. Patients underwent rest and adenosine stress CT perfusion imaging and rest and either exercise...... or pharmacologic stress SPECT before and within 60 days of coronary angiography. Images from CT perfusion imaging, SPECT, and coronary angiography were interpreted at blinded, independent core laboratories. The primary diagnostic parameter was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az...

  4. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Susu, E-mail: susu.yan@duke.edu; Tough, MengHeng [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Cheng, Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom{sup TM}), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the

  6. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Tough, MengHeng; Cheng, Lin; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-11-01

    To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom(TM)), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the pinhole region-of-interest imaging

  7. Automatic lung segmentation in functional SPECT images using active shape models trained on reference lung shapes from CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Al-Mashat, Mariam; Haris, Kostas; Aletras, Anthony H; Jögi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Maglaveras, Nicolaos; Heiberg, Einar

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system. In the training phase, lung shapes from the 57 anatomical low-dose CT images were used to construct two active shape models (right lung and left lung) which were then used for image segmentation. The algorithm was validated in 20 patients, comparing its results to reference delineation of corresponding CT images, and by comparing automatic segmentation to manual delineations in SPECT images. The Dice coefficient between automatic SPECT delineations and manual SPECT delineations were 0.83 ± 0.04% for the right and 0.82 ± 0.05% for the left lung. There was statistically significant difference between reference volumes from CT and automatic delineations for the right (R = 0.53, p = 0.02) and left lung (R = 0.69, p segmentation on SPECT images are on par with manual segmentation on SPECT images. Relative large volumetric differences between manual delineations of functional SPECT images and anatomical CT images confirms that lung segmentation of functional SPECT images is a challenging task. The current algorithm is a first step towards automatic quantification of wide range of measurements.

  8. Optimization of SPECT-CT Hybrid Imaging Using Iterative Image Reconstruction for Low-Dose CT: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver S Grosser

    Full Text Available Hybrid imaging combines nuclear medicine imaging such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT or positron emission tomography (PET with computed tomography (CT. Through this hybrid design, scanned patients accumulate radiation exposure from both applications. Imaging modalities have been the subject of long-term optimization efforts, focusing on diagnostic applications. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of an iterative CT image reconstruction algorithm (ASIR on the image quality of the low-dose CT images.Examinations were performed with a SPECT-CT scanner with standardized CT and SPECT-phantom geometries and CT protocols with systematically reduced X-ray tube currents. Analyses included image quality with respect to photon flux. Results were compared to the standard FBP reconstructed images. The general impact of the CT-based attenuation maps used during SPECT reconstruction was examined for two SPECT phantoms. Using ASIR for image reconstructions, image noise was reduced compared to FBP reconstructions for the same X-ray tube current. The Hounsfield unit (HU values reconstructed by ASIR were correlated to the FBP HU values(R2 ≥ 0.88 and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR was improved by ASIR. However, for a phantom with increased attenuation, the HU values shifted for low X-ray tube currents I ≤ 60 mA (p ≤ 0.04. In addition, the shift of the HU values was observed within the attenuation corrected SPECT images for very low X-ray tube currents (I ≤ 20 mA, p ≤ 0.001.In general, the decrease in X-ray tube current up to 30 mA in combination with ASIR led to a reduction of CT-related radiation exposure without a significant decrease in image quality.

  9. Optimization of SPECT-CT Hybrid Imaging Using Iterative Image Reconstruction for Low-Dose CT: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Oliver S.; Kupitz, Dennis; Ruf, Juri; Czuczwara, Damian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Furth, Christian; Thormann, Markus; Loewenthal, David; Ricke, Jens; Amthauer, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Background Hybrid imaging combines nuclear medicine imaging such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) with computed tomography (CT). Through this hybrid design, scanned patients accumulate radiation exposure from both applications. Imaging modalities have been the subject of long-term optimization efforts, focusing on diagnostic applications. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of an iterative CT image reconstruction algorithm (ASIR) on the image quality of the low-dose CT images. Methodology/Principal Findings Examinations were performed with a SPECT-CT scanner with standardized CT and SPECT-phantom geometries and CT protocols with systematically reduced X-ray tube currents. Analyses included image quality with respect to photon flux. Results were compared to the standard FBP reconstructed images. The general impact of the CT-based attenuation maps used during SPECT reconstruction was examined for two SPECT phantoms. Using ASIR for image reconstructions, image noise was reduced compared to FBP reconstructions for the same X-ray tube current. The Hounsfield unit (HU) values reconstructed by ASIR were correlated to the FBP HU values(R2 ≥ 0.88) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was improved by ASIR. However, for a phantom with increased attenuation, the HU values shifted for low X-ray tube currents I ≤ 60 mA (p ≤ 0.04). In addition, the shift of the HU values was observed within the attenuation corrected SPECT images for very low X-ray tube currents (I ≤ 20 mA, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion/Significance In general, the decrease in X-ray tube current up to 30 mA in combination with ASIR led to a reduction of CT-related radiation exposure without a significant decrease in image quality. PMID:26390216

  10. Determination of Three-Dimensional Left Ventricle Motion to Analyze Ventricular Dyssyncrony in SPECT Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Aarre, Ann Kirstine Hummelgaard; Clemmesen, Karen-Louise

    2010-01-01

    . Numerical results of regional mean values representing the intensity and direction of movement in radial direction are presented. A difference of one order of magnitude in the intensity of the movement on patients in relation to the normal subjects was observed. Quantitative and qualitative parameters gave......A method to compute three-dimension (3D) left ventricle (LV) motion and its color coded visualization scheme for the qualitative analysis in SPECT images is proposed. It is used to investigate some aspects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). The method was applied to 3D gated-SPECT images...

  11. Impact of 111In-DTPA-octreotide SPECT/CT fusion images in the management of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, P; Rufini, V; Treglia, G; Bruno, I; Perotti, G; Stifano, G; Barbaro, B; Giordano, A

    2008-10-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with [(111)In]-diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid (DTPA)-octreotide is an accurate method for detecting neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) but often does not provide clear anatomical localisation of lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of anatomical-functional image fusion. Fifty-four patients with known or suspected NET were included in the study. Planar and single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was performed using a dual-head gamma camera equipped with an integrated X-ray transmission system, and the images were first interpreted alone by two nuclear medicine physicians and then compared with SPECT/CT fusion images together with a radiologist. The improvement provided by SPECT/CT in the interpretation of SPECT data alone and any modification in patient management were recorded. Fusion images improved SPECT interpretation in 23 cases, providing precise anatomical localisation of increased tracer uptake in 20 cases and disease exclusion in sites of physiological uptake in 5. In 10 patients, SPECT/CT allowed definition of the functional significance of lesions detected by diagnostic CT. SPECT/CT data modified clinical management in 14 cases by changing the diagnostic approach in 8 and the therapeutic modality in 6. Our study demonstrates that image fusion is clearly superior to SPECT alone, allowing precise localisation of lesions and reducing false-positive results.

  12. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  13. Detection of breast cancer microcalcification using 99mTc-MDP SPECT or Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Dayo D.; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barnes, Stephanie; Whisenant, Jennifer; Weis, Jared; Shoukouhi, Sepideh; Virostko, John; Nickels, Michael; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Sanders, Melinda; Abramson, Vandana; Tantawy, Mohammed N.

    2015-01-01

    Background In previous work, we demonstrated the presence of hydroxyapetite (type II microcalcification), HAP, in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We used 18F-NaF to detect these types of cancers in mouse models as the free fluorine, 18F−, binds to HAP similar to bone uptake. In this work, we investigate other bone targeting agents and techniques including 99mTc-MDP SPECT and Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging as alternatives for breast cancer diagnosis via targeting HAP within the tumor microenvironment. Methods Thirteen mice were injected subcutaneously in the right flank with 106 MDA-MB-231 cells. When the tumor size reached ~0.6 cm3, mice (n = 9) were injected with ~37 MBq of 99mTc-MDP intravenously and then imaged one hour later in a NanoSPECT/CT or injected intravenously with 4 nmol/g of Osetosense 750EX and imaged 24 hours later in an FMT (n = 4). The imaging probe concentration in the tumor was compared to that of muscle. Following SPECT imaging, the tumors were harvested, sectioned into 10 µm slices, and underwent autoradiography or von Kossa staining to correlate 99mTc-MDP binding with HAP distribution within the tumor. The SPECT images were normalized to the injected dose and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were drawn around bone, tumor, and muscle to obtain the radiotracer concentration in these regions in units of percent injected dose per unit volume. ROIs were drawn around bone and tumor in the FMT images as no FMT signal was observed in normal muscle. Results Uptake of 99mTc-MDP was observed in the bone and tumor with little or no uptake in the muscle with concentrations of 11.34 ± 1.46 (mean ± SD), 2.22 ± 0.95, and 0.05 ± 0.04 %ID/cc, respectively. Uptake of Osteosense 750EX was also observed in the bone and tumor with concentrations of 0.35 ± 0.07 (mean ± SD) and 0.04 ± 0.01 picomoles, respectively. No FMT signal was observed in the normal muscle. There was no significant difference in the bone-to-tumor ratio between the two

  14. Detection of breast cancer microcalcification using (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT or Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Dayo D; Gore, John C; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Barnes, Stephanie; Whisenant, Jennifer; Weis, Jared; Shoukouhi, Sepideh; Virostko, John; Nickels, Michael; McIntyre, J Oliver; Sanders, Melinda; Abramson, Vandana; Tantawy, Mohammed N

    2015-03-01

    In previous work, we demonstrated the presence of hydroxyapetite (type II microcalcification), HAP, in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We used (18)F-NaF to detect these types of cancers in mouse models as the free fluorine, (18)F(-), binds to HAP similar to bone uptake. In this work, we investigate other bone targeting agents and techniques including (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT and Osteosense 750EX FMT imaging as alternatives for breast cancer diagnosis via targeting HAP within the tumor microenvironment. Thirteen mice were injected subcutaneously in the right flank with 10(6) MDA-MB-231 cells. When the tumor size reached ~0.6 cm(3), mice (n=9) were injected with ~37 MBq of (99m)Tc-MDP intravenously and then imaged one hour later in a NanoSPECT/CT or injected intravenously with 4 nmol/g of Osetosense 750EX and imaged 24 hours later in an FMT (n=4). The imaging probe concentration in the tumor was compared to that of muscle. Following SPECT imaging, the tumors were harvested, sectioned into 10 μm slices, and underwent autoradiography or von Kossa staining to correlate (99m)Tc-MDP binding with HAP distribution within the tumor. The SPECT images were normalized to the injected dose and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were drawn around bone, tumor, and muscle to obtain the radiotracer concentration in these regions in units of percent injected dose per unit volume. ROIs were drawn around bone and tumor in the FMT images as no FMT signal was observed in normal muscle. Uptake of (99m)Tc-MDP was observed in the bone and tumor with little or no uptake in the muscle with concentrations of 11.34±1.46 (mean±SD), 2.22±0.95, and 0.05±0.04%ID/cc, respectively. Uptake of Osteosense 750EX was also observed in the bone and tumor with concentrations of 0.35±0.07 (mean±SD) and 0.04±0.01picomoles, respectively. No FMT signal was observed in the normal muscle. There was no significant difference in the bone-to-tumor ratio between the two modalities (5.1±2.3 for SPECT and 8.8

  15. Comparison of brain perfusion SPECT abnormalities with anatomical imaging in mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries and also in Iran. Anatomical imaging (AI CT and MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of acute traumatic complications however it is not efficient in the diagnosis of disabling injury syndrome. In contrast, brain perfusion SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography can be more useful for evaluation of microvascular structure. This study was designed to compare these two diagnostic methods. Methods: A total of 50 patients who had been suffering from traumatic brain injury for more than 1 year, and were followed as mild traumatic brain injury group according to “the Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the Ameri can Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine” criteria, were examined by brain perfusion SPECT and AI. The common anatomical classification of the lobes of brain was used. Results: The male to female ratio was 3:2. The mean age was 32.32±11.8 years and mean post-traumatic time was 1.48±0.65 years. The most common symptoms were headache (60%, agusia (36% and anosmia (32%. Among 400 examined brain lobes in this study, brain perfusion SPECT revealed remarkable abnormality in 76 lobes (19%, but AI determined abnormalities in 38 lobes (9.5% therefore, SPECT was twice sensitive than AI in mild traumatic brain injury (P<0.001. The correlation between SPECT and AI findings was 84%. SPECT was more sensitive than AI in demonstrating brain abnormalities in frontal lobe it was more obvious in the male group however, there was no significant difference between more and less than 30 years old groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, we recommend using brain perfusion SPECT for all patients with chronic complications of head trauma, particularly those who have signs and symptoms of hypofrontalism, even though with some abnormalities in AI.

  16. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2015-04-13

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  17. AIRS: The Medical Imaging Software for Segmentation and Registration in SPECT/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widita, R.; Kurniadi, R.; Haryanto, F.; Darma, Y.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Zasneda, S. S.

    2010-06-01

    We have been successfully developed a new software, Automated Image Registration and Segmentation (AIRS), to fuse the CT and SPECT images. It is designed to solve different registration and segmentation problems that arises in tomographic data sets. AIRS is addressed to obtain anatomic information to be applied to NanoSpect system which is imaging for nano-tissues or small animals. It will be demonstrated that the information obtained by SPECT/CT is more accurate in evaluating patients/objects than that obtained from either SPECT or CT alone. The registration methods developed here are for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional registration. We used normalized mutual information (NMI) which is amenable for images produced by different modalities and having unclear boundaries between tissues. The segmentation components used in this software is region growing algorithms which have proven to be an effective approach for image segmentation. The implementations of region growing developed here are connected threshold and neighborhood connected. Our method is designed to perform with clinically acceptable speed, using accelerated techniques (multiresolution).

  18. SPECT imaging of pulmonary emboli with radiolabeled thrombus-specific imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy A

    2010-11-01

    The safe and accurate diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains challenging, and many PE-related deaths still occur before the detection of PE. Current techniques detect PE as "negative images," ie, the absence of contrast or downstream perfusion. There would be advantages to obtaining "positive images" of PE, by targeting imaging agents to components that are present primarily on thromboemboli. In addition to providing alternative means of diagnosing acute PE, they would also enable acute PE to be distinguished from other types of pulmonary arterial obstruction, such as unresolved intravascular defects attributable to previous PE. Positive images of PE require imaging agents to bind onto target antigens that are present predominantly on thromboemboli. The "D dimer" regions of polymerized fibrin are present in high concentrations on thromboemboli and are sufficiently accessible to binding. (99m)Tc-lableled anti-D-dimer deimmunized monoclonal antibody Fab' fragments (DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3) bind specifically to thromboemboli, with a thrombus: blood labeling ratio that allows scintigraphic detection. Another thrombus-specific imaging agent is (99m)Tc-labeled apcitide, a synthetic peptide that binds with a high affinity and specificity to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor on the membrane of activated platelets. Both of these agents have enabled the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombi by planar scintigraphy. However, even highly radiolabeled PEs are difficult to distinguish by planar scintigraphy from the large blood pool in the heart and lungs. The spatial and contrast resolution inherent to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning allow the in situ imaging of pulmonary emboli that have been bound by radiolabeled thrombus-specific imaging agents. Preliminary trials in humans with acute PE have shown that the emboli can be detected after intravenous administration of (99m)Tc-lableled anti-D dimer, followed by SPECT scanning. Although

  19. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 102...

  20. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  1. Navigation of a robot-integrated fluorescence laparoscope in preoperative SPECT/CT and intraoperative freehand SPECT imaging data: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterom, Matthias Nathanaël; Engelen, Myrthe Adriana; van den Berg, Nynke Sjoerdtje; KleinJan, Gijs Hendrik; van der Poel, Henk Gerrit; Wendler, Thomas; van de Velde, Cornelis Jan Hadde; Navab, Nassir; van Leeuwen, Fijs Willem Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is becoming an established technique for prostatectomy and is increasingly being explored for other types of cancer. Linking intraoperative imaging techniques, such as fluorescence guidance, with the three-dimensional insights provided by preoperative imaging remains a challenge. Navigation technologies may provide a solution, especially when directly linked to both the robotic setup and the fluorescence laparoscope. We evaluated the feasibility of such a setup. Preoperative single-photon emission computed tomography/X-ray computed tomography (SPECT/CT) or intraoperative freehand SPECT (fhSPECT) scans were used to navigate an optically tracked robot-integrated fluorescence laparoscope via an augmented reality overlay in the laparoscopic video feed. The navigation accuracy was evaluated in soft tissue phantoms, followed by studies in a human-like torso phantom. Navigation accuracies found for SPECT/CT-based navigation were 2.25 mm (coronal) and 2.08 mm (sagittal). For fhSPECT-based navigation, these were 1.92 mm (coronal) and 2.83 mm (sagittal). All errors remained below the surgery procedures.

  2. SPECT imaging of D{sub 2} dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Cynthia [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Q0S.459, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bruin, Kora de; Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beekman, Freek [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Q0S.459, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Technical University Delft, Department R3, Section Radiation, Detection and Matter, Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [{sup 123}I]IBZM has not been used in mice SPECT studies. This study evaluates the use of [{sup 123}I]IBZM for measuring D2R availability in mice. Pharmacokinetics of [{sup 123}I]IBZM in mice were studied with pinhole SPECT imaging after intravenous (i.v.) injection of [{sup 123}I]IBZM (20, 40, and 70 MBq). In addition, the ability to measure the release of endogenous dopamine after amphetamine administration with [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT was investigated. Thirdly, i.v. administration, the standard route of administration, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of [{sup 123}I]IBZM were compared. Specific binding of [{sup 123}I]IBZM within the mouse striatum could be clearly visualized with SPECT. Peak specific striatal binding ratios were reached around 90 min post-injection. After amphetamine administration, the specific binding ratios of [{sup 123}I]IBZM decreased significantly (-27.2%; n=6; p=0.046). Intravenous administration of [{sup 123}I]IBZM led to significantly higher specific binding than i.p. administration of the same dose. However, we found that i.v. administration of a dose of 70 MBq [{sup 123}I]IBZM might result in acute ethanol intoxication because ethanol is used as a preparative aid for the routine production of [{sup 123}I]IBZM. Imaging of D2R availability and endogenous dopamine release in mice is feasible using [{sup 123}I]IBZM single pinhole SPECT. Using commercially produced [{sup 123}I]IBZM, a dose of 40 MBq injected i.v. can be recommended. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis, radiolabeling and baboon SPECT imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]YP256) as a serotonin transporter radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, Frederic; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Amici, Louis; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Kula, Nora; Baldessarini, Ross [Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Mailman Research Center McLean Division of Massachusetts General Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Innis, Robert B.; Staley, Julie K. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: gtamagnan@indd.org

    2008-01-15

    To develop a potential SPECT probe to evaluate the integrity of the serotoninergic system (5-HTT) whose dysfunction is linked to several disease conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo baboon imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl) tropane (YP256, ). The radiolabeling was performed by iododestannylation using sodium [{sup 123}I]iodide and peracetic acid. Although the ligand displayed high selectivity for 5-HTT over dopamine transporter in vitro, SPECT imaging in baboons did not reveal selective 5-HTT accumulation in brain in vivo.

  4. Impact of image processing in the detection of ischaemia using CZT-SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; van Dalen, Jorn A; Slump, Cornelis H; Lots, Dimitri; Timmer, Jorik R; Jager, Pieter L

    2015-01-01

    The new multipinhole cardiac single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors are highly sensitive and produce images of high quality but rely on complex dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of various processing steps on image formation and in the detection of ischaemia in CZT-SPECT/CT both with and without attenuation correction (AC). Data on 20 consecutive patients who underwent a 1-day protocol stress-rest SPECT/CT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin were processed twice by three experienced operators, yielding 120 AC and 120 noncorrected (NC) data sets. Processing steps included selection and determination of myocardial axes, manual SPECT/CT coregistration for AC and myocardial masking. Using the 17-segment cardiac model, differences between stress and rest segmental uptake (%) were calculated for NC and AC image sets. Both interoperator and intraoperator variations were considered significant for the diagnosis of ischaemia when greater than 5%. The mean interoperator variations were 2.4±1.4% (NC) and 3.8±1.9% (AC) (Pprocessed cases, operator variation was larger than 5% and therefore potentially clinically interfering with the diagnosis of ischaemia. Differences between interoperator and intraoperator variations were nonsignificant. Operator variations in the processing of myocardial perfusion image data using CZT-SPECT/CT are significant and may influence the diagnosis of ischaemia, especially when AC is applied. Clearer guidelines for image processing are necessary to improve the reproducibility of the studies and to obtain a more reliable diagnosis of ischaemia.

  5. A restraint-free small animal SPECT imaging system with motion tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenberger, A.G.; Gleason, S.S.; Goddard, J.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Meikle, S.R.; Paulus, M.J.; Pomper, M.; Popov, V.; Smith, M.F.; Welch, B.L.; Wojcik, R.

    2005-06-01

    We report on an approach toward the development of a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to image the biodistribution of radiolabeled tracers such as Tc-99m and I-125 in unrestrained/unanesthetized mice. An infrared (IR)-based position tracking apparatus has been developed and integrated into a SPECT gantry. The tracking system is designed to measure the spatial position of a mouse's head at a rate of 10-15 frames per second with submillimeter accuracy. The high-resolution, gamma imaging detectors are based on pixellated NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator arrays, position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and novel readout circuitry requiring fewer analog-digital converter (ADC) channels while retaining high spatial resolution. Two SPECT gamma camera detector heads based upon position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes have been built and installed onto the gantry. The IR landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system is under development to provide animal position data during a SPECT scan. The animal position and orientation data acquired by the tracking system will be used for motion correction during the tomographic image reconstruction.

  6. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  7. Evaluation of 7 {alpha}-O-IADPN as a new potential SPECT opioid receptor imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.F.; Mao, S.Y. [Fujian Medical College, Fuzhou (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tafani, J.A.M.; Coulais, Y.; Guiraud, R. [Hospital Purpan, Toulouse (France). Service Central de medicine Nucleaire; Zajac, J.M. [LPTF-CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A new iodinated diprenorphine antagonist analogue, [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}.-O-IADPN, [E] - 17-(cyclopropylmethyl) -4,5 (x-epoxy- 18,19-dihydro-3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7 {alpha}-[1-(3-iodoallyl)oxy-1-methylethyl]-6,14-endo-ethenomorphinan for in vivo and in vitro studies as a potential central nervous system (CNS) opioid receptor imaging agent was developed. In vivo biodistribution and metabolism of 7 {alpha}-O-lADPN in rat demonstrated that 0.16% of the iodinated compound was presented in mouse brain with a degradation-resistant at the first 60 min, and that 36% of the total cerebral radioactivity and 63% of its specific binding to opioid receptors were observed 20 min after i.v. injection. The cerebral radioactivity in mouse brain concentrated in the basal ganglion and cortex, and displayed a remarkably high target-to-non-target ratio (cortex/cerebellum = 60 min post-injection). The in vitro binding studies showed that [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}-O-IADPN binds non selectively to multiple opioid receptors {mu} = 8 K) with a very high affinity (Ki = 0.4 + 0.2 nM). Ex vivo autoradiography results in mouse further confirmed the high uptake and retention of this agent in basal ganglion region and cortex. The planar imaging of monkey brains after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}-O-IADPN clearly displayed that multiple opioid receptors can be visualized. With the excellent in vitro affinity and in vivo stability to deiodination and high target-to-nontarget ratio, [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}- O-IADPN appears to be useful as a CNS opioid receptor imaging probe for SPECT in primate and non-primate.

  8. Application of texture analysis to DAT SPECT imaging: Relationship to clinical assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Rahmim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine transporter (DAT SPECT imaging is increasingly utilized for diagnostic purposes in suspected Parkinsonian syndromes. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate whether assessment of texture in DAT SPECT radiotracer uptake enables enhanced correlations with severity of motor and cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD, with the long-term goal of enabling clinical utility of DAT SPECT imaging, beyond standard diagnostic tasks, to tracking of progression in PD. Quantitative analysis in routine DAT SPECT imaging, if performed at all, has been restricted to assessment of mean regional uptake. We applied a framework wherein textural features were extracted from the images. Notably, the framework did not require registration to a common template, and worked in the subject-native space. Image analysis included registration of SPECT images onto corresponding MRI images, automatic region-of-interest (ROI extraction on the MRI images, followed by computation of Haralick texture features. We analyzed 141 subjects from the Parkinson's Progressive Marker Initiative (PPMI database, including 85 PD and 56 healthy controls (HC (baseline scans with accompanying 3 T MRI images. We performed univariate and multivariate regression analyses between the quantitative metrics and different clinical measures, namely (i the UPDRS (part III - motor score, disease duration as measured from (ii time of diagnosis (DD-diag. and (iii time of appearance of symptoms (DD-sympt., as well as (iv the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score. For conventional mean uptake analysis in the putamen, we showed significant correlations with clinical measures only when both HC and PD were included (Pearson correlation r = −0.74, p-value < 0.001. However, this was not significant when applied to PD subjects only (r = −0.19, p-value = 0.084, and no such correlations were observed in the caudate. By contrast, for the PD subjects, significant correlations

  9. Dopamine transporter imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT: potential effects of drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kemp, Paul [Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    [{sup 123}I]N-{omega}-fluoropropyl-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-{l_brace}4-iodophenyl{r_brace}nortropane ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently and routinely used technique to detect or exclude dopaminergic degeneration by imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT) in parkinsonian and demented patients. This technique is also used in scientific studies in humans, as well as in preclinical studies to assess the availability of DAT binding in the striatum. In routine clinical studies, but also in scientific studies, patients are frequently on medication and sometimes even use drugs of abuse. Moreover, in preclinical studies, animals will be anesthetized. Prescribed drugs, drugs of abuse, and anesthetics may influence the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Here, we discuss the basic principle of how drugs and anesthetics might influence the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. We also review drugs which are likely to have a significant influence on the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Additionally, we discuss the evidence as to whether frequently prescribed drugs in parkinsonian and demented patients may have an influence on the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Finally, we discuss our recommendations as to which drugs should be ideally withdrawn before performing a [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scan for routine clinical purposes. The decision to withdraw any medication must always be made by the specialist in charge of the patient's care and taking into account the pros and cons of doing so. (orig.)

  10. Comparative analysis of MR imaging, Ictal SPECT and EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy: a prospective IAEA multi-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaknun, John J. [University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); IAEA, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, Wien (Austria); Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Maes, Alex [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vazquez, Silvia [Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, FLENI, Department of Radiology, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dupont, Patrick [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Dondi, Maurizio [Ospedale Maggiore, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-01-15

    MR imaging, ictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and ictal EEG play important roles in the presurgical localization of epileptic foci. This multi-center study was established to investigate whether the complementary role of perfusion SPECT, MRI and EEG for presurgical localization of temporal lobe epilepsy could be confirmed in a prospective setting involving centers from India, Thailand, Italy and Argentina. We studied 74 patients who underwent interictal and ictal EEG, interictal and ictal SPECT and MRI before surgery of the temporal lobe. In all but three patients, histology was reported. The clinical outcome was assessed using Engel's classification. Sensitivity values of all imaging modalities were calculated, and the add-on value of SPECT was assessed. Outcome (Engel's classification) in 74 patients was class I, 89%; class II, 7%; class III, 3%; and IV, 1%. Regarding the localization of seizure origin, sensitivity was 84% for ictal SPECT, 70% for ictal EEG, 86% for MRI, 55% for interictal SPECT and 40% for interictal EEG. Add-on value of ictal SPECT was shown by its ability to correctly localize 17/22 (77%) of the seizure foci missed by ictal EEG and 8/10 (80%) of the seizure foci not detected by MRI. This prospective multi-center trial, involving centers from different parts of the world, confirms that ictal perfusion SPECT is an effective diagnostic modality for correctly identifying seizure origin in temporal lobe epilepsy, providing complementary information to ictal EEG and MRI. (orig.)

  11. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...... for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists...... to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging....

  12. System calibration and image reconstruction for a new small-animal SPECT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun

    A novel small-animal SPECT imager, FastSPECT II, was recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging. FastSPECT II consists of two rings of eight modular scintillation cameras and list-mode data-acquisition electronics that enable stationary and dynamic imaging studies. The instrument is equipped with exchangeable aperture assemblies and adjustable camera positions for selections of magnifications, pinhole sizes, and fields of view (FOVs). The purpose of SPECT imaging is to recover the radiotracer distribution in the object from the measured image data. Accurate knowledge of the imaging system matrix (referred to as H) is essential for image reconstruction. To assure that all of the system physics is contained in the matrix, experimental calibration methods for the individual cameras and the whole imaging system were developed and carefully performed. The average spatial resolution over the FOV of FastSPECT II in its low-magnification (2.4X) configuration is around 2.4 mm, computed from the Fourier crosstalk matrix. The system sensitivity measured with a 99mTc point source at the center of the FOV is about 267 cps/MBq. The system detectability was evaluated by computing the ideal-observer performance on SKE/BKE (signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly) detection tasks. To reduce the system-calibration time and achieve finer reconstruction grids, two schemes for interpolating H were implemented and compared: these are centroid interpolation with Gaussian fitting and Fourier interpolation. Reconstructed phantom and mouse-cardiac images demonstrated the effectiveness of the H-matrix interpolation. Tomographic reconstruction can be formulated as a linear inverse problem and solved using statistical-estimation techniques. Several iterative reconstruction algorithms were introduced, including maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) and its ordered-subsets (OS) version, and some least-squares (LS) and weighted-least-squares (WLS) algorithms such

  13. Indium-Labeling of siRNA for Small Animal SPECT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; Merkel, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), therapeutic delivery of siRNA has attracted a lot of interest. However, due to the nature and structure of siRNA, a carrier is needed for any mode of systemic treatment. Furthermore, specific imaging techniques are required to trace where the deposition of the siRNA occurs throughout the body after treatment. Tracking in vivo siRNA biodistribution allows understanding and interpreting therapeutics effects and side effects. A great advantage of noninvasive imaging techniques such as SPECT imaging is that several time points can be assessed in the same subject. Thus, the time course of biodistribution or metabolic processes can be followed. Therefore, we have described an approach to modify siRNA with a DTPA (Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid) chelator in order to utilize an indium labeled siRNA for SPECT imaging. Here, we explain the details of the labeling and purification procedures.

  14. SPECT/NIRF Dual Modality Imaging for Detection of Intraperitoneal Colon Tumor with an Avidin/Biotin Pretargeting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chengyan; Yang, Sujuan; Shi, Jiyun; Zhao, Huiyun; Zhong, Lijun; Liu, Zhaofei; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan

    2016-01-06

    We describe herein dual-modality imaging of intraperitoneal colon tumor using an avidin/biotin pretargeting system. A novel dual-modality probe, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-lys(Cy5.5)-PEG4-biotin, was designed, synthesized and characterized. Single-photon emission computed tomography/ computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging were developed using intraperitoneal LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts. Following avidin preinjection for 4 hours, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-lys(Cy5.5)-PEG4-biotin could successfully detect colon tumors of different sizes inside the abdominal region using both modalities, and the imaging results showed no differences. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumors had a very high uptake of the probe (99m)Tc-HYNIC-lys(Cy5.5)-PEG4-biotin (12.74 ± 1.89% ID/g at 2 h p.i.), and the clearance from blood and other normal tissues occured very fast. The low tumor uptake in the non-pretargeted mice (1.63 ± 0.50% ID/g at 2 h p.i.) and tumor cell staining results showed excellent tumor binding specificity of the pretargeting system. The ability of the novel probe to show excellent imaging quality with high tumor-to-background contrast, a high degree of binding specificity with tumors and excellent in vivo biodistribution pharmacokinetics should prove that the avidin/biotin based dual-modality pretargeting probe is a promising imaging tool during the entire period of tumor diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Use of a compact pixellated gamma camera for small animal pinhole SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Takeno, Takeshi; Ohta, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Takuya; Mashino, Hiroyuki; Ota, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Iida, Hidehiro

    2006-07-01

    Pinhole SPECT which permits in vivo high resolution 3D imaging of physiological functions in small animals facilitates objective assessment of pharmaceutical development and regenerative therapy in pre-clinical trials. For handiness and mobility, the miniature size of the SPECT system is useful. We developed a small animal SPECT system based on a compact high-resolution gamma camera fitted to a pinhole collimator and an object-rotating unit. This study was aimed at evaluating the basic performance of the detection system and the feasibility of small animal SPECT imaging. The gamma camera consists of a 22 x 22 pixellated scintillator array of 1.8 mm x 1.8 mm x 5 mm NaI(Tl crystals with 0.2-mm gap between the crystals coupled to a 2" flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu H8500) with 64 channels. The active imaging region of the camera was 43.8 mm x 43.8 mm. Data acquisition is controlled by a personal computer (Microsoft Windows) through the camera controller. Projection data over 360 degrees for SPECT images are obtained by synchronizing with the rotating unit. The knife-edge pinhole collimators made of tungsten are attached on the camera and have 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm apertures. The basic performance of the detection system was evaluated with 99mTc and 201Tl solutions. Energy resolution, system spatial resolution and linearity of count rate were measured. Rat myocardial perfusion SPECT scans were sequentially performed following intravenous injection of 201TlCl. Projection data were reconstructed using a previously validated pinhole 3D-OSEM method. The energy resolution at 140 keV was 14.8% using a point source. The system spatial resolutions were 2.8-mm FWHM and 2.5-mm FWHM for 99mTc and 201Tl line sources, respectively, at 30-mm source distance (magnification factor of 1.3) using a 1.0-mm pinhole. The linearity between the activity and count rate was good up to 10 kcps. In a rat study, the left ventricular walls were clearly visible in all

  16. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  17. Development and evaluation of QSPECT open-source software for the iterative reconstruction of SPECT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudos, George K; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Zotos, Panteleimon; Tsougos, Ioannis; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2010-06-01

    In this study open-source software (QSPECT) suitable for the iterative reconstruction of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data is presented. QSPECT implements maximum likelihood expectation maximization and ordered subsets expectation maximization algorithms in a user-friendly graphical interface. The software functionality is described and validation results are presented. Maximum likelihood expectation maximization and ordered subsets expectation maximization algorithms are implemented in C++. The Qt toolkit, a standard C++ framework for developing high-performance cross-platform applications, has been used for the graphical user interface development. QSPECT is tested using original projection data from two clinical SPECT systems: (i) APEX SPX-6/6HR and (ii) Millennium MG. Phantom experiments were carried out to evaluate the quality of reconstructed images in terms of (i) spatial resolution, (ii) sensitivity to activity variations, and (iii) the presence of scatter media. A cardiac phantom was used to simulate a normal and abnormal scenario. Finally, clinical cardiac SPECT images were reconstructed. In all cases, QSPECT results were compared with the clinical systems reconstruction software that uses the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. The reconstructed images show that QSPECT, when compared with standard clinical reconstruction, provides images with higher contrast, reduced background, and better separation of small sources located in small distances. In addition, reconstruction with QSPECT provides more quantitative images, and reduces the background created by scatter media. Finally, the phantom and clinical cardiac images are reconstructed with similar quality. QSPECT is a freely distributed, open-source standalone application that provides real-time, high-quality SPECT images. The software can be further modified to improve reconstruction algorithms, and include more correction techniques, such as, scatter and attenuation

  18. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: toyamamoto@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian [Department of Digital Imaging, Philips Research Europe, Hamburg (Germany); Mittra, Erik [Departments of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Julian C.; Chung, Melody; Eclov, Neville; To, Jacqueline; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V{sub 4DCT}) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}; % predicted) and FEV{sub 1}/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V{sub 4DCT} was also compared with SPECT ventilation (V{sub SPECT}) to (1) test whether V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V{sub 4DCT} and V{sub SPECT} defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV{sub 1}/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V

  19. Predictive value of dopamine transporter SPECT imaging with [(123)I]PE2I in patients with subtle parkinsonian symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Andersen, Birgitte B; Thomsen, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    To examine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of dopamine transporter SPECT imaging with a highly dopamine transporter selective radioligand. The study included consecutively enrolled, drug-naive patients with an average short history of parkinsonian motor symptoms, referred for diagnostic...

  20. Incremental Value of Diagnostic 131I SPECT/CT Fusion Imaging in the Evaluation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Ka Kit; Zarzhevsky, Natalia; Cahill, John M; Frey, Kirk A; Avram, Anca M

    2008-01-01

    ...., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0028. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental value of 131 I SPECT/CT over traditional planar imaging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma...

  1. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verberne, Hein J; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated ...

  2. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; de Bondt, Pieter; Buechel, Ronny R.; Cuocolo, Alberto; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Kaufmann, Philip A.; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J. H. A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Trägårdh, Elin; de Wit, Tim C.; Hesse, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated

  3. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT : 2015 revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; De Bondt, Pieter; Buechel, Ronny R.; Cuocolo, Alberto; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Kaufmann, Philip A.; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J. H. A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Tragardh, Elin; de Wit, Tim C.; Hesse, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated

  4. Clinical utility and reliability of sup(81m)Kr SPECT images applied to posterior circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Takashi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    The instrument used in this study has a sensitivity of 28,000 counts/mCi/cm/sup 3/ for sup(99m)Tc and a spatial resolution of approximately 20mm full width at a half-maximum. The tomographic images were obtained by the continuous infusion of sup(81m)Kr at the base of the ascending aorta. Material was subsequently studied in 49 cases that met the conditions of: 1) obstructive vertebrobasilar system lesions (8 cases), 2) no ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (10), or 3) ischemic cerebrovascular disorders in anterior circulation (31). The reproducibility, as studied in 20 cases, was satisfactory. 6 cases were compared with a stable Xe CT CBF map that had regional depressions similar to those of the sup(81m)Kr SPECT images. In the 2nd group, 8 of the 10 cases showed a mild laterality on cerebellar perfusion images obtained by SPECT, as did 29 of the 31 in the 3rd group; among them, 2 cases with a recently completed stroke revealed a marked depression in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere to the side of the hemiplegia. Cases of the lst group showed generally depressed perfusion images of the brain stem or cerebellum, and the low-density areas of X-ray CT were comparable to the lower perfusional regions on SPECT. The authors concluded that posterior perfusion images obtained by sup(81m)Kr SPECT were affected by occlusive vertebrobasilar-system lesions as well as by carotid-system lesions and cerebellar functions, and that this method for evaluating hemodynamics will be of much more clinical use in repeated studies to demonstrate the changes in posterior ciculation in course or by some loadings with subclinical characteristics, for this paper includes the first report on cerebellar functional images, though it is restricted by the low-spatial resolution from defining the architecture of the posterior fossa in detail.

  5. Multi-centre evaluation of accuracy and reproducibility of planar and SPECT image quantification. An IAEA phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Brian E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Grosev, Darko [Univ. Hospital Centre Zagreb (Croatia); Buvat, Irene [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Paris (France); and others

    2017-08-01

    Accurate quantitation of activity provides the basis for internal dosimetry of targeted radionuclide therapies. This study investigated quantitative imaging capabilities at sites with a variety of experience and equipment and assessed levels of errors in activity quantitation in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and planar imaging. Participants from 9 countries took part in a comparison in which planar, SPECT and SPECT with X ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging were used to quantify activities of four epoxy-filled cylinders containing {sup 133}Ba, which was chosen as a surrogate for {sup 131}I. The sources, with nominal volumes of 2, 4, 6 and 23 mL, were calibrated for {sup 133}Ba activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, but the activity was initially unknown to the participants. Imaging was performed in a cylindrical phantom filled with water. Two trials were carried out in which the participants first estimated the activities using their local standard protocols, and then repeated the measurements using a standardized acquisition and analysis protocol. Finally, processing of the imaging data from the second trial was repeated by a single centre using a fixed protocol. In the first trial, the activities were underestimated by about 15% with planar imaging. SPECT with Chang's first order attenuation correction (Chang-AC) and SPECT-CT overestimated the activity by about 10%. The second trial showed moderate improvements in accuracy and variability. Planar imaging was subject to methodological errors, e.g., in the use of a transmission scan for attenuation correction. The use of Chang-AC was subject to variability from the definition of phantom contours. The project demonstrated the need for training and standardized protocols to achieve good levels of quantitative accuracy and precision in a multicentre setting. Absolute quantification of simple objects with no background was possible with the strictest protocol to

  6. Assessment of left ventricular performance by ECG-gated SPECT. Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadamura, Eiji; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    In the measurement of a left ventricular volume, MIBI-QGS was compared with MRI. Because it became clear by the experiment using phantom that a volume calculated with QGS was smaller than the actual volume, data of clinical study were corrected. Subjects were 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen patients had anamnesis of myocardial infarct. ECG-gated SPECT was performed one hour after intravenous injection of MIBI (600 MBq) in rest. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated using QGS. Cine-MR image was obtained by using MR system of 1.5 Tesla within 1 week after SPECT. A condition was as follows; segmented k-space gradient echo with view sharing, TR=11 ms, TE=1.4 ms, flip angle 20 degree, field of view 32 cm, matrix 256 x 196, 8 lines per segment. LVEF, ESV and EF were analysed by Bland-Altman method, and the difference between MIBI-gated-SPECT and MRI was no problem. Horizontal dislocation image and vertical major axis dislocation image were provided. Minor axis crossing images of 10-12 slice were also filmed in order to cover all left ventricles. As a result, availability of MIBI-QGS became clear. Some factors which produces the measurement error are examined. (K.H.)

  7. Semi-automatic Epileptic Hot Spot Detection in ECD brain SPECT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Laszlo; Zuhayra, Maaz; Henze, Eberhard

    A method is proposed to process ECD brain SPECT images representing epileptic hot spots inside the brain. For validation 35 ictal —interictal patient image data were processed. The images were registered by a normalized mutual information method, then the separation of the suspicious and normal brain areas were performed by two threshold-based segmentations. Normalization between the images was performed by local normal brain mean values. Based on the validation made by two medical physicians, minimal human intervention in the segmentation parameters was necessary to detect all epileptic spots and minimize the number of false spots inside the brain.

  8. CdZnTe strip detector SPECT imaging with a slit collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gengsheng L; Gagnon, Daniel

    2004-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a CdZnTe rotating and spinning gamma camera attached with a slit collimator. This imaging system acquires convergent planar integrals of a radioactive distribution. Two analytical image reconstruction algorithms are proposed. Preliminary phantom studies show that our small CdZnTe camera with a slit collimator outperforms a larger NaI(Tl) camera with a pinhole collimator in terms of spatial resolution in the reconstructed images. The main application of this system is small animal SPECT imaging.

  9. Determination of Three-Dimensional Left Ventricle Motion to Analyze Ventricular Dyssyncrony in SPECT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to compute three-dimension (3D left ventricle (LV motion and its color coded visualization scheme for the qualitative analysis in SPECT images is proposed. It is used to investigate some aspects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT. The method was applied to 3D gated-SPECT images sets from normal subjects and patients with severe Idiopathic Heart Failure, before and after CRT. Color coded visualization maps representing the LV regional motion showed significant difference between patients and normal subjects. Moreover, they indicated a difference between the two groups. Numerical results of regional mean values representing the intensity and direction of movement in radial direction are presented. A difference of one order of magnitude in the intensity of the movement on patients in relation to the normal subjects was observed. Quantitative and qualitative parameters gave good indications of potential application of the technique to diagnosis and follow up of patients submitted to CRT.

  10. Performance evaluation of a new gamma imager for small animal SPECT applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, Eduardo; Vaquero, Juan José; Villena, José L.; Carlos, Álvaro de; Tapias, Gustavo; Sisniega, Alejandro; Desco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Proceeding of: 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS '07), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, Oct. 27 - Nov. 3, 2007 Abstract–In this work we characterized a recently developed gamma imager for small animal SPECT applications. The Hamamatsu C9177 is a mini-gamma camera that integrates the detector and all the electronics, including the acquisition system, in a compact and portable housing. The detector is based on a high resolution parallel hole collimator, a CsI(NaI) crystal a...

  11. Development of a combined microSPECT/CT system for small animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingshan

    Modern advances in the biomedical sciences have placed increased attention on small animals such as mice and rats as models of human biology and disease in biological research and pharmaceutical development. Their small size and fast breeding rate, their physiologic similarity to human, and, more importantly, the availability of sophisticated genetic manipulations, all have made mice and rats the laboratory mammals of choice in these experimental studies. However, the increased use of small animals in biomedical research also calls for new instruments that can measure the anatomic and metabolic information noninvasively with adequate spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity to facilitate these studies. This dissertation describes the engineering development of a combined single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for small animals imaging. The system aims to obtain both the anatomic and metabolic images with submillimeter spatial resolution in a way that the data can be correlated to provide improved image quality and to offer more complete biological evaluation for biomedical studies involving small animals. The project requires development of complete microSPECT and microCT subsystems. Both subsystems are configured with a shared gantry and animal bed with integrated instrumentation for data acquisition and system control. The microCT employs a microfocus X-ray tube and a CCD-based detector for low noise, high resolution imaging. The microSPECT utilizes three semiconductor detectors coupled with pinhole collimators. A significant contribution of this dissertation project is the development of iterative algorithms with geometrical compensation that allows radionuclide images to be reconstructed at submillimeter spatial resolution, but with significantly higher detection efficiency than conventional methods. Both subsystems are capable of helical scans, offering lengthened field of view and improved

  12. Functional Mechanism of Lung Mosaic CT Attenuation: Assessment with Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Perfusion SPECT-CT Fusion Imaging and Non-Breath-Hold Technegas SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, K.; Yasuhiko, K. (Dept. of Radiology, St. Hill Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Iwanaga, H.; Tokuda, O.; Matsunaga, N. (Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    2009-01-15

    Background: The functional mechanism of lung mosaic computed tomography attenuation (MCA) in pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and obstructive airway disease (OAD) has not yet been fully clarified. Purpose: To clarify the mechanism of MCA in these diseases by assessing the relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at MCA sites with the use of automated deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. Material and Methods: Subjects were 42 PVD patients (31 pulmonary thromboembolism, four primary/two secondary pulmonary hypertension, and five Takayasu arteritis), 12 OAD patients (five acute asthma, four obliterative bronchiolitis, and three bronchiectasis), and 12 normal controls, all of whom had MCA on DIBrH CT. The relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at the lung slices with MCA was assessed using DIBrH perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. The severity of perfusion defects with or without MCA was quantified by regions-of-interest analysis. Results: On DIBrH CT and perfusion SPECT, in contrast to no noticeable CT attenuation abnormality and fairly uniform perfusion in controls, 60 MCA and 274 perfusion defects in PVD patients, and 18 MCA and 61 defects in OAD patients were identified, with a total of 77 ventilation defects on Technegas SPECT in all patients. SPECT-CT correlation showed that, throughout the 78 MCA sites of all patients, lung perfusion was persistently decreased at low CT attenuation and preserved at intervening high CT attenuation, while lung ventilation was poorly correlated with CT attenuation change. The radioactivity ratios of reduced perfusion and the intervening preserved perfusion at the 78 perfusion defects with MCA were significantly lower than those at the remaining 257 defects without MCA (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although further validation is

  13. 99mTc-bicisate (neurolite) SPECT brain imaging and cognitive impairment in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Walovitch, R C; Andersen, A R

    1994-01-01

    A blinded read of images obtained with 99mTc-bicisate and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was conducted to determine if a relationship exists between the severity of abnormalities on SPECT brain images and the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with dementia...... of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and to examine the interreader agreement for visual reading of images in a multicenter SPECT study. Images for a total of 86 subjects were available for the blinded read. The images for 28 subjects were rated as noninterpretable due to technical inadequacies. Images for 58 subjects (45...... severity of abnormality was noted for two of the three readers. A significant correlation (p images as normal...

  14. Evaluation of Timepix3 based CdTe photon counting detector for fully spectroscopic small animal SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanova, E.; Jakubek, J.; Turecek, D.; Sykora, V.; Francova, P.; Kolarova, V.; Sefc, L.

    2018-01-01

    The imaging method of SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is used in nuclear medicine for diagnostics of various diseases or organs malfunctions. The distribution of medically injected, inhaled, or ingested radionuclides (radiotracers) in the patient body is imaged using gamma-ray sensitive camera with suitable imaging collimator. The 3D image is then calculated by combining many images taken from different observation angles. Most of SPECT systems use scintillator based cameras. These cameras do not provide good energy resolution and do not allow efficient suppression of unwanted signals such as those caused by Compton scattering. The main goal of this work is evaluation of Timepix3 detector properties for SPECT method for functional imaging of small animals during preclinical studies. Advantageous Timepix3 properties such as energy and spatial resolution are exploited for significant image quality improvement. Preliminary measurements were performed on specially prepared plastic phantom with cavities filled by radioisotopes and then repeated with in vivo mouse sample.

  15. Radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD)-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shengming; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin, E-mail: zbnuclmd@126.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Nuclear Medicine (China); Hong, Ruoyu [Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science & Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province (China); Chen, Qing; Dong, Jiajia [The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Nuclear Medicine (China); Chen, Yinyiin [The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Radiology (China); Chen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yiwei, E-mail: wuyiwei3988@gmail.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Nuclear Medicine (China)

    2015-01-15

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) modified with a novel cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide were made and radiolabeled as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer. The probe was tested both in vitro and in vivo to determine its receptor targeting efficacy and feasibility for SPECT and MRI. The radiochemical syntheses of {sup 125}I-cRGD-USPIO were accomplished with a radiochemical purity of 96.05 ± 0.33 %. High radiochemical stability was found in fresh human serum and in phosphate-buffered saline. The average hydrodynamic size of {sup 125}I-cRGD-USPIO determined by dynamic light scattering was 51.3 nm. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the radiolabeled nanoparticles to tumor cells. Preliminary biodistribution studies of {sup 125}I-radiolabeled cRGD-USPIO in Bcap37-bearing nude mice showed that it had long circulation half-life, high tumor uptake, and high initial blood retention with moderate liver uptake. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the radiolabeled nanoparticles in mice model were visualized by SPECT and MRI collected at different time points. Our results strongly indicated that the {sup 125}I-cRGD-USPIO could be used as a promising bifunctional radiotracer for early clinical tumor detection with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution by SPECT and MRI.

  16. Prognostic value of normal stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison between conventional and CZT-based SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shu; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mouden, Mohamed; Engbers, Elsemiek [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to have prognostic importance in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The recently introduced ultrafast cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based gamma cameras have been associated with less equivocal findings and more normal interpretations, allowing stress-only imaging to be performed more often. However, it is yet unclear whether normal stress-only CZT SPECT has comparable prognostic value as normally interpreted stress-only conventional SPECT. The study population consisted of 1,650 consecutive patients without known CAD with normal stress-only myocardial perfusion results with either conventional (n = 362) or CZT SPECT (n = 1,288). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization) was compared between the conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT groups. Multivariable analyses using the Cox model were used to adjust for differences in baseline variables. Patients scanned with CZT were less often male (33 vs 39 %), had less often hypercholesterolaemia (41 vs 50 %) and had more often a family history of CAD (57 vs 49 %). At a median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range 28-45 months) MACE occurred in 68 patients. The incidence of MACE was 1.5 %/year in the CZT group, compared to 2.0 %/year in the conventional group (p = 0.08). After multivariate analyses, there was a trend to a lower incidence of MACE in the CZT SPECT group (hazard ratio 0.61, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-1.04, p = 0.07). The prognostic value of normal stress-only CZT SPECT is at least comparable and may be even better than that of normal conventional stress SPECT. (orig.)

  17. Sentinel lymph node mapping using SPECT/CT and gamma probe in endometrial cancer: an analysis of parameters affecting detection rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahbai, Samine; La Fougere, Christian; Dittmann, Helmut [University Hospital Tuebingen, Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Tuebingen (Germany); Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara [University Hospital Tuebingen, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, Annette [University Hospital Tuebingen, Pathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    SPECT/CT after pericervical injection of technetium-99 m-nanocolloid was shown to be suitable for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in endometrial cancer (EC). The aim of this study was to analyze factors affecting successful SLN detection by means of SPECT/CT such as imaging findings, patient characteristics and tumor biology in a large cohort of patients. One hundred and forty-five consecutive patients suffering from EC who received pre-surgical SLN mapping at our institution between 2011 and 2016 were included in this analysis. SPECT/CT data of abdomen and pelvis (mean 4:20 ± 1:20 h p.i.) were acquired after pericervical injection of technetium-99 m-nanocolloid (mean 230 ± 45 MBq) in all patients. Surgical staging was performed on the day after. Acquisition parameters, patient characteristics, SPECT/CT findings as well as histopathological results were collected. A total of 282 SLNs were identified by means of SPECT/CT. Overall, preoperative and intraoperative SLN detection rates were 86%, 76% and 74% respectively. The most important factor associated with failure to detect SLNs was the presence of high bone marrow on SPECT/CT (p = 0.005). Peritoneal/abdominal radioactivity was also associated with missed SLN detection in SPECT/CT (p = 0.02). However, the presence of liver/spleen uptake on its own was not predictive for detection failure. Low numbers of detected SLNs in SPECT/CT were slightly related with older age and lower injected activity. No significant influence was found for the parameters of tumor histology and stage, lymph node involvement and the time gap between injection and imaging. Venous drainage as indicated by bone marrow uptake is the most important factor associated with scintigraphic SLN detection failure. Moreover, high peritoneal and abdominal activity was also associated with detection failure. Thus, meticulous application of the radiotracer is crucial in EC. (orig.)

  18. Evaluating the accuracy of 4D-CT ventilation imaging: First comparison with Technegas SPECT ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Keall, Paul; Barber, Jeff; Bui, Chuong; Kipritidis, John

    2017-08-01

    Computed tomography ventilation imaging (CTVI) is a highly accessible functional lung imaging modality that can unlock the potential for functional avoidance in lung cancer radiation therapy. Previous attempts to validate CTVI against clinical ventilation single-photon emission computed tomography (V-SPECT) have been hindered by radioaerosol clumping artifacts. This work builds on those studies by performing the first comparison of CTVI with 99m Tc-carbon ('Technegas'), a clinical V-SPECT modality featuring smaller radioaerosol particles with less clumping. Eleven lung cancer radiotherapy patients with early stage (T1/T2N0) disease received treatment planning four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans paired with Technegas V/Q-SPECT/CT. For each patient, we applied three different CTVI methods. Two of these used deformable image registration (DIR) to quantify breathing-induced lung density changes (CTVIDIR-HU ), or breathing-induced lung volume changes (CTVIDIR-Jac ) between the 4DCT exhale/inhale phases. A third method calculated the regional product of air-tissue densities (CTVIHU ) and did not involve DIR. Corresponding CTVI and V-SPECT scans were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for functional defect and nondefect regions, as well as the Spearman's correlation r computed over the whole lung. The DIR target registration error (TRE) was quantified using both manual and computer-selected anatomic landmarks. Interestingly, the overall best performing method (CTVIHU ) did not involve DIR. For nondefect regions, the CTVIHU , CTVIDIR-HU , and CTVIDIR-Jac methods achieved mean DSC values of 0.69, 0.68, and 0.54, respectively. For defect regions, the respective DSC values were moderate: 0.39, 0.33, and 0.44. The Spearman r-values were generally weak: 0.26 for CTVIHU , 0.18 for CTVIDIR-HU , and -0.02 for CTVIDIR-Jac . The spatial accuracy of CTVI was not significantly correlated with TRE, however the DIR accuracy itself was poor with TRE > 3.6 mm on average

  19. Comparison of TOF-PET and Bremsstrahlung SPECT Images of Yttrium-90: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihiko; Himuro, Kazuhiko; Baba, Shingo; Yamashita, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2018-01-01

    Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) is a beta particle nuclide used in targeted radionuclide therapy which is available to both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The purpose of this study was to assess the image quality of PET and Bremsstrahlung SPECT by simulating PET and SPECT images of 90 Y using Monte Carlo simulation codes under the same conditions and to compare them. In-house Monte Carlo codes, MCEP-PET and MCEP-SPECT, were employed to simulate images. The phantom was a torso-shaped phantom containing six hot spheres of various sizes. The background concentrations of 90 Y were set to 50, 100, 150, and 200 kBq/mL, and the concentrations of the hot spheres were 10, 20, and 40 times of those of the background concentrations. The acquisition time was set to 30 min, and the simulated sinogram data were reconstructed using the ordered subset expectation maximization method. The contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were employed to evaluate the image qualities. The CRC values of SPECT images were less than 40%, while those of PET images were more than 40% when the hot sphere was larger than 20 mm in diameter. The CNR values of PET images of hot spheres of diameter smaller than 20 mm were larger than those of SPECT images. The CNR values mostly exceeded 4, which is a criterion to evaluate the discernibility of hot areas. In the case of SPECT, hot spheres of diameter smaller than 20 mm were not discernable. On the contrary, the CNR values of PET images decreased to the level of SPECT, in the case of low concentration. In almost all the cases examined in this investigation, the quantitative indexes of TOF-PET 90 Y images were better than those of Bremsstrahlung SPECT images. However, the superiority of PET image became critical in the case of low activity concentrations.

  20. Pattern of brain blood perfusion in tinnitus patients using technetium-99m SPECT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mahmoudian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Tinnitus is associated with an increased activity in central auditory system as demonstrated by neuroimaging studies. Brain perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was done to understand the pattern of brain blood perfusion of tinnitus subjects and find the areas which are mostly abnormal in these patients. Materials and Methods: A number of 122 patients with tinnitus were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. They underwent SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain, and the images were fused to find the regions with abnormal perfusion. Results: SPECT scan results were abnormal in 101 patients (83%. Most patients had bilateral abnormal perfusion (N = 65, 53.3%, and most subjects had abnormality in middle-temporal gyrus (N = 83, 68% and temporoparietal cortex (N = 46, 37.7%. Patients with multifocal involvement had the least mean age than other 2 groups (patients with no abnormality and unifocal abnormality (P value = 0.045. Conclusions: Brain blood perfusion pattern differs in patient with tinnitus than others. These patients have brain perfusion abnormality, mostly in auditory gyrus (middle temporal and associative cortex (temporoparietal cortex. Multifocal abnormalities might be due to more cognitive and emotional brain centers involvement due to tinnitus or more stress and anxiety of tinnitus in the young patients.

  1. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  2. Recent Progress in Fluorescent Imaging Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Yen Leng; Swamy, K. M. K.; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-01-01

    Due to the simplicity and low detection limit, especially the bioimaging ability for cells, fluorescence probes serve as unique detection methods. With the aid of molecular recognition and specific organic reactions, research on fluorescent imaging probes has blossomed during the last decade. Especially, reaction based fluorescent probes have been proven to be highly selective for specific analytes. This review highlights our recent progress on fluorescent imaging probes for biologically important species, such as biothiols, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, metal ions including Zn2+, Hg2+, Cu2+ and Au3+, and anions including cyanide and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). PMID:26402684

  3. First imaging result with an ultrahigh resolution stationary MR compatible SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Shen, Z M; Zhang, J C; Chen, C T; Meng, L J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present the design and preliminary performance of an ultrahigh resolution stationary MR compatible SPECT (MRC-SPECT) system that is developed in our lab. The MRC-SPECT system is based on the second-generation energy-resolved photon-counting (ERPC) CdTe detectors and there are several key features associated with this system. Firstly, up to a total of twenty ERPC detectors will be assembled as a very compact ring, which provides an adequate angular sampling capability and a relatively high detection efficiency. The detectors are supported on a gantry made of high strength polyamide structure constructed using 3-D printing. This compact system can be directly operated inside an MR scanner. The detector module used in this system offers an intrinsic resolution of 350μm and an excellent energy resolution of around 3~4kev. Each ERPC detector module consists of four pixelated CdTe detectors with a total dimension of 4.5cm×2.25cm. Secondly, a die-cast platinum pinhole inserts and cast lead apertures are developed for this stationary SPECT system. Four 300/500μm diameter pinholes are used for each detector and all pinholes are mounted around a casted cylinder lead aperture tube. The inner diameter of the lead aperture tube is 6cm and the lead tube thickness is 16mm. The opposite detectors are placed 15.6cm apart and the magnification factor of this SPECT system is about 1.2. Thirdly, a comprehensive charge collection model inside strong magnetic field has been developed to account for the magnetic field induced distortion in the SPECT image. This model can accurately predict the detector's energy and spatial response to gamma ray incident events and then help to compensate for the event position recording error due to the strong magnetic field. In this development, we have made an effort to minimize the amount of magnetic materials in the system to alleviate potential interference to magnetic field inhomogeneity.

  4. SU-F-J-08: Quantitative SPECT Imaging of Ra-223 in a Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, J; Hobbs, R; Sgouros, G; Frey, E [Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ra-223 therapy of prostate cancer bone metastases is being used to treat patients routinely. However, the absorbed dose distribution at the macroscopic and microscopic scales remains elusive, due to the inability to image the small activities injected. Accurate activity quantification through imaging is essential to calculate the absorbed dose in organs and sub-units in radiopharmaceutical therapy, enabling personalized absorbed dose-based treatment planning methodologies and more effective and optimal treatments. Methods: A 22 cm diameter by 20 cm long cylindrical phantom, containing a 3.52 cm diameter sphere, was used. A total of 2.01 MBq of Ra-223 was placed in the phantom with 177.6 kBq in the sphere. Images were acquired on a dual-head Siemens Symbia T16 gamma camera using three 20% full-width energy windows and centered at 84, 154, and 269 keV (120 projections, 360° rotation, 45 s per view). We have implemented reconstruction of Ra-223 SPECT projections using OS-EM (up to 20 iterations of 10 subsets) with compensation for attenuation using CT-based attenuation maps, collimator-detector response (CDR) (including septal penetration, scatter and Pb x-ray modeling), and scatter in the patient using the effective source scatter estimation (ESSE) method. The CDR functions and scatter kernels required for ESSE were computed using the SIMIND MC simulation code. All Ra-223 photon emissions as well as gamma rays from the daughters Rn-219 and Bi-211 were modeled. Results: The sensitivity of the camera in the three combined windows was 107.3 cps/MBq. The visual quality of the SPECT images was reasonably good and the activity in the sphere was 27% smaller than the true activity. This underestimation is likely due to partial volume effect. Conclusion: Absolute quantitative Ra-223 SPECT imaging is achievable with careful attention to compensate for image degrading factors and system calibration.

  5. Development and validation of a patient-tailored dose regime in myocardial perfusion imaging using czt-spect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Joris David; van Dijk, J.D.; Iskandrian, A.; de Jager, P.L.; Mouden, M.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Boer, J.; Oostdijk, A.H.J.; van Dalen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) traditionally recommend a fixed tracer dose. Yet, clinical practice shows degraded image quality in heavier patients. The aim was to optimize and validate the tracer dose and scan time to obtain a constant image quality less

  6. Advances in CNS Imaging Agents: Focus on PET and SPECT Tracers in Experimental and Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noble; Gean, Emily G; Nandi, Ayon; Frolov, Boris; Zaidi, Eram; Lee, Ho; Brašić, James R; Wong, Dean F

    2015-04-01

    The physiological functioning of the brain is not well-known in current day medicine and the pathologies of many neuropsychiatric disorders are still not yet fully understood. With our aging population and better life expectancies, it has become imperative to find better biomarkers for disease progression as well as receptor target engagements. In the last decade, these major advances in the field of molecular CNS imaging have been made available with tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and neuroreceptor-targeted positron emission tomography (PET). These tools have given researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and clinical physicians a better method of understanding CNS dysfunctions, and the ability to employ improved therapeutic agents. This review is intended to provide an update on brain imaging agents that are currently used in clinical and translational research toward treatment of CNS disorders. The review begins with amyloid and tau imaging, the former of which has at least three [(18)F] agents that have been recently approved and will soon be available for clinical use for specific indications in the USA and elsewhere. Other prevalent PET and SPECT neurotransmitter system agents, including those newly US FDA-approved imaging agents related to the dopaminergic system, are included. A review of both mature and potentially growing PET imaging agents, including those targeting serotonin and opiate receptor systems, is also provided.

  7. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  8. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  9. Automated MicroSPECT/MicroCT Image Analysis of the Mouse Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Hollingsworth, Brynn; Scarberry, Daniel; Shen, Daniel H; Powell, Kimerly; Smart, Sean C; Beech, John; Sheng, Xiaochao; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Menq, Chia-Hsiang; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2017-11-01

    The ability of thyroid follicular cells to take up iodine enables the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) for imaging and targeted killing of RAI-avid thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. To facilitate identifying novel strategies to improve 131 I therapeutic efficacy for patients with RAI refractory disease, it is desired to optimize image acquisition and analysis for preclinical mouse models of thyroid cancer. A customized mouse cradle was designed and used for microSPECT/CT image acquisition at 1 hour (t1) and 24 hours (t24) post injection of 123 I, which mainly reflect RAI influx/efflux equilibrium and RAI retention in the thyroid, respectively. FVB/N mice with normal thyroid glands and TgBRAF V600E mice with thyroid tumors were imaged. In-house CTViewer software was developed to streamline image analysis with new capabilities, along with display of 3D voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity in MATLAB. The customized mouse cradle facilitates consistent tissue configuration among image acquisitions such that rigid body registration can be applied to align serial images of the same mouse via the in-house CTViewer software. CTViewer is designed specifically to streamline SPECT/CT image analysis with functions tailored to quantify thyroid radioiodine uptake. Automatic segmentation of thyroid volumes of interest (VOI) from adjacent salivary glands in t1 images is enabled by superimposing the thyroid VOI from the t24 image onto the corresponding aligned t1 image. The extent of heterogeneity in 123 I accumulation within thyroid VOIs can be visualized by 3D display of voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity. MicroSPECT/CT image acquisition and analysis for thyroidal RAI uptake is greatly improved by the cradle and the CTViewer software, respectively. Furthermore, the approach of superimposing thyroid VOIs from t24 images to select thyroid VOIs on corresponding aligned t1 images can be applied to studies in which the target tissue has differential radiotracer retention

  10. Fasting and nonfasting iodine-123-idophenylpentadecanoic acid myocardial SPECT imaging in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, G V; Iskandrian, A E; Orlandi, C; Ahlberg, A W; Heo, J; Mann, A; White, M P; Gagnon, A; Taillefer, R

    1998-12-01

    Iodine-123-labeled idophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging has been shown to be clinically useful for the identification of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Imaging is usually performed under fasting conditions since nonfasting conditions may affect myocardial uptake of 123I-IPPA. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of dietary condition on 123I-IPPA metabolic imaging. Forty patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent, in randomized order and on separate days, 123I-IPPA SPECT myocardial imaging under fasting and nonfasting conditions. Patients were injected with 123I-IPPA (4-5 mCi) at rest with imaging performed at 4 (initial) and 30 (delay) min. For each image (initial and delay images), 10 segments were analyzed by three experienced observers without knowledge of patient identity or dietary condition using a 5-point grading system (O = no uptake to 4 = normal uptake). A summed global score was obtained for each image by adding the scores for all 10 segments. Image quality was assessed using a 3-point grading system. Visual agreement for normal and abnormal segments between fasting and nonfasting conditions was 82% (kappa = 0.63). There were no significant differences in the summed global scores for both conditions. Image quality was equivalent for both conditions in 65% of cases and superior under the nonfasting condition in 25% of cases. Image quality as well as the presence, location and severity of defects are similar under fasting and nonfasting conditions with 123I-IPPA. Therefore, fasting is not necessary before 123I-IPPA SPECT imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability.

  11. Quantitative cardiac SPECT reconstruction with reduced image degradation due to patient anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Zhao, X.D.; Gregoriou, G.K.; Lalush, D.S.; Frey, E.C.; Johnston, R.E.; McCartney, W.H. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Patient anatomy has complicated effects on cardiac SPECT images. The authors investigated reconstruction methods which substantially reduced these effects for improved image quality. A 3D mathematical cardiac-torso (MCAT) phantom which models the anatomical structures in the thorax region were used in the study. The phantom was modified to simulate variations in patient anatomy including regions of natural thinning along the myocardium, body size, diaphragmatic shape, gender, and size and shape of breasts for female patients. Distributions of attenuation coefficients and Tl-201 uptake in different organs in a normal patient were also simulated. Emission projection data were generated from the phantoms including effects of attenuation and detector response. The authors have observed the attenuation-induced artifacts caused by patient anatomy in the conventional FBP reconstructed images. Accurate attenuation compensation using iterative reconstruction algorithms and attenuation maps substantially reduced the image artifacts and improved quantitative accuracy. They conclude that reconstruction methods which accurately compensate for non-uniform attenuation can substantially reduce image degradation caused by variations in patient anatomy in cardiac SPECT.

  12. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn, E-mail: gwells@ottawaheart.ca [Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada); Wei, Lihui [Nordion, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario K2K 1X8 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of dynamic SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: Dynamic SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision.

  13. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P., E-mail: kelly.cosgrove@yale.ed [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Plisson, Christophe [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes (<10%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  14. Design and development of a high resolution animal SPECT scanner dedicated for rat and mouse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajedi, Salar; Zeraatkar, Navid [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moji, Vahideh; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parto Negar Persia Co, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, Saeed [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabi, Hossein [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Teymoorian, Behnoosh [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parto Negar Persia Co, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafarian, Pardis [Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center, NRITLD, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); PET/CT and Cyclotron Center, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmim, Arman [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Reza Ay, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadreza_ay@sina.tums.ac.ir [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-21

    A dedicated small-animal SPECT system, HiReSPECT, was designed and developed to provide a high resolution molecular imaging modality in response to growing research demands. HiReSPECT is a dual-head system mounted on a rotating gantry. The detection system is based on pixelated CsI(Na) scintillator crystals coupled to two Hamamatsu H8500 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes in each head. Also, a high resolution parallel-hole collimator is applied to every head. The dimensions of each head are 50 mm×100 mm, enabling sufficient transaxial and axial fields-of-view (TFOV and AFOV), respectively, for coverage of the entire mouse in single-bed position imaging. However, a 50 mm TFOV is not sufficient for transaxial coverage of rats. To address this, each head can be rotated by 90 degrees in order to align the larger dimension of the heads with the short body axis, allowing tomographic data acquisition for rats. An innovative non-linear recursive filter was used for signal processing/detection. Resolution recovery was also embedded in the modified Maximum-Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction code to compensate for Collimator-Detector Response (CDR). Moreover, an innovative interpolation algorithm was developed to speed up the reconstruction code. The planar spatial resolution at the head surface and the image spatial resolutions were 1.7 mm and 1.2–1.6 mm, respectively. The measurements followed by post-processing showed that the observed count rate at 20% count loss is about 42 kcps. The system sensitivity at the collimator surface for heads 1 and 2 were 1.32 cps/µCi and 1.25 cps/µCi, respectively. The corresponding values were 1.18 cps/µCi and 1.02 cps/µCi at 8 cm distance from the collimator surfaces. In addition, whole-body scans of mice demonstrated appropriate imaging capability of the HiReSPECT.

  15. Evaluation of {sup 111}In labeled antibodies for SPECT imaging of mesothelin expressing tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misri, Ripen; Saatchi, Katayoun [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ng, Sylvia S.W. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Advanced Therapeutics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver BC V5Z 1G1 (Canada); Kumar, Ujendra [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Haefeli, Urs O., E-mail: uhafeli@interchange.ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: Mesothelin is expressed in many cancers, especially in mesothelioma and lung, pancreatic and ovarian cancers. In the present study, we evaluate {sup 111}In labeled antimesothelin antibodies as an imaging bioprobe for the SPECT imaging of mesothelin-expressing tumors. Methods: We radiolabeled the antimesothelin antibodies mAbMB and mAbK1 with {sup 111}In using the p-SCN-bn-DTPA chelator. The immunoreactivity, affinity (K{sub d}) and internalization properties of the resulting two {sup 111}In labeled antibodies were evaluated in vitro using mesothelin-expressing A431K5 cells. The biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging studies with {sup 111}In labeled antibodies were performed in mice bearing both mesothelin positive (A431K5) and mesothelin negative (A431) tumors. Results: In vitro studies demonstrated that {sup 111}In-mAbMB bound with a higher affinity (K{sub d}=3.6{+-}1.7 nM) to the mesothelin-expressing A431K5 cells than did the {sup 111}In-mAbK1 (K{sub d}=29.3{+-}2.3 nM). {sup 111}In-mAbMB was also internalized at a greater rate and extent into the A431K5 cells than was the {sup 111}In-mAbK1. Biodistribution studies showed that {sup 111}In-mAbMB was preferentially localized in A431K5 tumors when compared to A431 tumors. At the low dose, the peak A431K5 tumor uptake of 9.65{+-}2.65% ID/g (injected dose per gram) occurred at 48 h, while at high dose tumor uptake peaked with 14.29{+-}6.18% ID/g at 72 h. Non-specific localization of {sup 111}In-mAbMB was mainly observed in spleen.{sup 111}In-mAbK1 also showed superior localization in A431K5 tumors than in A431 tumors, but the peak uptake was only 3.04{+-}0.68% ID/g at 24 h. MicroSPECT/CT studies confirmed better visualization of A431K5 tumors with {sup 111}In-mAbMB, than with {sup 111}In-mAbK1. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of mesothelin expressing tumors was demonstrated successfully. Our findings indicate that the antimesothelin antibody mAbMB has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic agent

  16. Radionuclide 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 (131I). The generated multifunctional 131I-G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to 131I labeling, the G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive 131I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and

  17. Nanoparticles for SPECT and PET imaging: towards personalized medicine and theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Ross, Tobias L

    2017-08-29

    PET and SPECT imaging methods can be of excellent assistance for the development of new nanoparticle drug delivery systems, and at the same time, these investigations also offer the opportunity to produce exceptional new diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, as well. With a multifunctional, nano-scaled drug delivery system, the diagnostic (imaging) methods and the therapy (delivering drugs or beta-emitter radionuclides) can be carried out using the same biological and pharmacological mechanisms. By combining therapy and diagnostics in one method or in one specifically targeted nanoparticle system, we can product theranostic pharmaceuticals, and its applications are important elements of personalized medicine. This review takes a short historical look back to the radiocolloids, the great ancestors of (radiolabeled) nanoparticles and then describes the general features of current types of PET and SPECT imaging associated nanoparticle-based products and key radiolabeling methods; entering into details of potential prospective challenges related to radiotheranostic approaches and imaging guided therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Synthesis and investigation of a radioiodinated F3 peptide analog as a SPECT tumor imaging radioligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Mahaveer S; Ranga, Rajesh; Luker, Gary D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D; Van Dort, Marcian E

    2011-01-01

    A radioiodinated derivative of the tumor-homing F3 peptide, (N-(2-{3-[(125)I]Iodobenzoyl}aminoethyl)maleimide-F3Cys peptide, [(125)I]IBMF3 was developed for investigation as a SPECT tumor imaging radioligand. For this purpose, we custom synthesized a modified F3 peptide analog (F3Cys) incorporating a C-terminal cysteine residue for site-specific attachment of a radioiodinated maleimide conjugating group. Initial proof-of-concept Fluorescence studies conducted with AlexaFluor 532 C(5) maleimide-labeled F3Cys showed distinct membrane and nuclear localization of F3Cys in MDA-MB-435 cells. Additionally, F3Cys conjugated with NIR fluorochrome AlexaFluor 647 C(2) maleimide demonstrated high tumor specific uptake in melanoma cancer MDA-MB-435 and lung cancer A549 xenografts in nude mice whereas a similarly labeled control peptide did not show any tumor uptake. These results were also confirmed by ex vivo tissue analysis. No-carrier-added [(125)I]IBMF3 was synthesized by a radioiododestannylation approach in 73% overall radiochemical yield. In vitro cell uptake studies conducted with [(125)I]IBMF3 displayed a 5-fold increase in its cell uptake at 4 h when compared to controls. SPECT imaging studies with [(125)I]IBMF3 in tumor bearing nude mice showed clear visualization of MDA-MB-435 xenografts on systemic administration. These studies demonstrate a potential utility of F3 peptide-based radioligands for tumor imaging with PET or SPECT techniques.

  19. A SPECT Scanner for Rodent Imaging Based on Small-Area Gamma Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Eduardo; Villena, José L.; Tapias, Gustavo; Martinez, Naira P.; Soto-Montenegro, Maria L.; Abella, Mónica; Sisniega, Alejandro; Pino, Francisco; Ros, Domènec; Pavia, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Vaquero, Juan J.

    2010-10-01

    We developed a cost-effective SPECT scanner prototype (rSPECT) for in vivo imaging of rodents based on small-area gamma cameras. Each detector consists of a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT) coupled to a 30 x 30 Nal(Tl) scintillator array and electronics attached to the PS-PMT sockets for adapting the detector signals to an in-house developed data acquisition system. The detector components are enclosed in a lead-shielded case with a receptacle to insert the collimators. System performance was assessed using 99mTc for a high-resolution parallel-hole collimator, and for a 0.75-mm pinhole collimator with a 60° aperture angle and a 42-mm collimator length. The energy resolution is about 10.7% of the photopeak energy. The overall system sensitivity is about 3 cps/μCi/detector and planar spatial resolution ranges from 2.4 mm at 1 cm source-to-collimator distance to 4.1 mm at 4.5 cm with parallel-hole collimators. With pinhole collimators planar spatial resolution ranges from 1.2 mm at 1 cm source-to-collimator distance to 2.4 mm at 4.5 cm; sensitivity at these distances ranges from 2.8 to 0.5 cps/μCi/detector. Tomographic hot-rod phantom images are presented together with images of bone, myocardium and brain of living rodents to demonstrate the feasibility of preclinical small-animal studies with the rSPECT.

  20. Minimizing patient-specific tracer dose in myocardial perfusion imaging using CZT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Joris D; Jager, Pieter L; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Slump, Cornelis H; de Boer, Jaep; Oostdijk, Adrianus H J; van Dalen, Jorn A

    2015-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT is widely adopted in clinical practice but is associated with a relatively high radiation dose. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum product of tracer dose and scan time that will maintain diagnostic value for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) SPECT MPI. Twenty-four patients underwent clinically indicated stress MPI using CZT SPECT and a body weight-dependent (3 MBq/kg) (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin tracer dose. Data were acquired for 8 min in list mode. Next, images were reconstructed using 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-min time frames. Differences between the 8-min reference scan and the shorter scans were determined in segmental uptake values (using the 17-segment cardiac model), ejection fraction, and end-diastolic volume. A 5% difference in segmental uptake was considered to significantly influence the diagnostic value. Next, the quality of the 4-, 6-, and 8-min scans was scored on a 4-point scale by consensus by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The physicians did not know the scan time or patient information. Differences in segmental uptake values, ejection fraction, and end-diastolic volume were greater for shorter scans than for the 8-min reference scan. On average, the diagnostic value was influenced in 7.7 segments per patient using the 2-min scans, in comparison to 2.0 and 0.8 segments per patient using the 4- and 6-min scans, respectively. In addition, the 4-min scans led to a significantly reduced image quality compared with the 8-min scans (P < 0.05). This was not the case for the 6-min scan. Six minutes was the shortest acquisition time in stress MPI using CZT SPECT that did not affect the diagnostic value for a tracer dose of 3 MBq/kg. Hence, the patient-specific product of tracer dose and scan time can be reduced to a minimum of 18 MBq·min/kg, which may lower the effective radiation dose for patients to values below 1 mSv. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Pseudodefects in SPET myocardium imaging after placement of a defibrillator patch electrode; Pseudodefekte bei der Myokard-SPECT durch implantierte Defibrillator-Patches: Phantommessungen mit SPECT und PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Klinik; Rickers, C. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Kardiologie der Klinik fuer Innere Medizin; Fuchs, C. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Klinik; Nienaber, C.A. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Kardiologie der Klinik fuer Innere Medizin; Luebeck, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Klinik

    1996-12-01

    Aim and Methods: In order to estimate the effect of an epicardial or subcutan defibrillator patch electrode on the imaging of myocardium with SPET and PET we performed measurements with a body phantom and two different patch electrodes. Results: We found that in {sup 201}Tl-SPET with epicardial placing one electrode causes significant pseudodefects, which might lead to the impression of an infarction (`pseudoinfarction`), particularly in the case of reduced myocardial wall thickness. Measurements with {sup 99m}Tc show the same pseudodefects. In case of subcutaneous placing the electrodes are much less likely to cause relevant absorption effects. With PET even epicardially placed both patch electrodes do not produce pseudodefects. Therefore the risk of false-positive findings is very small with PET. Conclusion: In order to avoid false positive findings in cardiovascular nuclear medicine caused by defibrillator patch electrodes, patients with patch electrodes should be referred to PET, if available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel und Methoden: Um den Effekt eines epikardial oder subkutan implantierten Defibrillator-Patches bei der nuklearmedizinischen Herzdiagnostik mittels SPECT und PET abzuschaetzen, wurden Messungen an einem Koerperphantom mit zwei verschiedenen Patchelektroden durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Es zeigte sich, dass bei der {sup 201}Tl-SPECT bei epikardialer Plazierung eine der beiden Elektroden Pseudodefekte verursacht, die insbesondere im Falle duennwandiger Herzen die Beurteilung erschweren oder sogar zu falsch-positiven Befunden (`Pseudoinfarkte`) fuehren koennen. Bei Messungen mit {sup 99m}Tc findet man dieselben Pseudodefekte in nahezu gleicher Auspraegung. Im Falle subkutaner Plazierung sind beide Elektroden sowohl bei der {sup 201}Tl-SPECT als auch bei der {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT unkritisch. Bei der PET stellen die untersuchten Patchelektroden selbst bei epikardialer Plazierung keine erkennbare Stoerung dar, so dass hier die Gefahr eines falsch

  2. Imaging dynamics of organs and drugs at sub-half-MM and sub-minite resolution using focusing pinhole spect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Van der Have, F.; Vastenhouw, B.; Branderhorst, W.J.; Van der Linden, A.; Smidt, M.P.

    We demonstrate new technologies for SPECT imaging with unsurpassed resolution in mice and rats. Results of the imaging of living animals will be shown. In addition development of detectors for next generation systems with an even higher resolution will be shown.

  3. Sequential dual-isotope SPECT imaging with thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J; Wolmer, I; Kegel, J; Iskandrian, A S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined the results of sequential SPECT dual-isotope imaging with 201Tl and 99mTc-sestamibi in 148 patients, 114 of whom also had coronary angiography and 34 had exercise testing or adenosine infusion at a rate of 140 micrograms/kg/min for 6 min. The study was completed within 2 hr. The stress and rest images were normal in 11 of 17 patients (65%) with no CAD by angiography and in 33 of 34 patients with a low pretest probability of CAD (normalcy rate = 97%). The images were abnormal in 75 patients with CAD (77%). The perfusion pattern was compared to wall motion in 485 segments (97 patients) assessed by contrast ventriculography. There were no or reversible perfusion defects in 357 of 386 segments (92%) with no wall motion abnormality. Sequential dual-isotope imaging is feasible and can be completed in a short period of time and may therefore enhance laboratory throughput and patient convenience.

  4. Benzodiazepine receptor imaging with iomazenil SPECT in aphasic patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Ohyama, Masashi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between prognosis of aphasia and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the distribution of central-type benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding in post-stroke aphasics with [{sup 123}I]iomazenil and SPECT. We performed iomazenil SPECT in six aphasic patients (aged from 45 to 75 years; all right-handed) with unilateral left cerebral infarction. Three patients showed signs of Broca's aphasia and the other three Wernicke's aphasia. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging was performed with [{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The regions of interest (ROIs) on both images were set in the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and language relevant area in both hemispheres. Three patients were classified in the mild prognosis group and the other three in the moderate prognosis group. The left language-relevant area was more closely concerned with the difference in aphasic symptoms than the right one in both BZR and CBF distribution, but the ipsilateral to the contralateral ratio (I/C ratio) in the language-relevant areas in the BZR distribution was significantly lower in the moderate prognosis group than in the mild prognosis group, although no difference was seen for these values between the two groups in the CBF distribution. These results suggest that BZR imaging, which makes possible an increase in neuronal cell viability in the cerebral cortex, is useful not only for clarifying the aphasic symptoms but also for evaluating the prognosis of aphasia in patients with cerebral infarction. (author)

  5. Optimizing Image Quantification for Lu-177 SPECT/CT Based on a 3D Printed 2-Compartment Kidney Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-11-02

    The aim of this work was to find an optimal setup for activity determination of Lu-177-based single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) / computed tomography (CT) imaging reconstructed with two commercially available reconstructions (xSPECT Quant and Flash3D, Siemens Healthcare). For this purpose, 3D printed phantoms of different geometries were manufactured, different partial volume correction (PVC) methods were applied, and the accuracy of the activity determination was evaluated. METHODS: A 2-compartment kidney phantom (70% cortical and 30% medullary compartment), a sphere, and an ellipsoid of equal volumes were 3D printed, filled with Lu-177, and scanned with a SPECT/CT system. Reconstructions were performed with xSPECT and Flash3D. Different PVC methods were applied to find an optimal quantification setup: 1) Geometry-specific recovery coefficient based on the 3D printing model. 2) Geometry-specific recovery coefficient based on the low-dose CT. 3) Enlarged volume-of-interest (VOI) including spilled-out counts. 4) Activity concentration in the peak milliliter applied to the entire CT-based volume. 5) Fixed threshold of 42% of the maximum in a large volume containing the object-of-interest. Additionally, the influence of post-reconstruction Gaussian filtering was investigated. RESULTS: While the recovery coefficients of sphere and ellipsoid only differed by 0.7%, a difference of 31.7% was observed between the sphere and renal cortex phantoms . Without post-filtering, the model-based recovery coefficients (methods 1 and 2) resulted in the best accuracies (xSPECT: 1.5%, Flash3D: 10.3%), followed by the enlarged volume (xSPECT: 8.5%, Flash3D: 13.0%). The peak-milliliter method showed large errors only for sphere and ellipsoid (xSPECT: 23.4%, Flash3D: 21.6%). Applying a 42%-threshold led to the largest quantification errors (xSPECT: 32.3%, Flash3D: 46.7%). After post-filtering, a general increase of the errors was observed. CONCLUSION: In this work, 3D

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of ethyleneoxylated and allyloxylated chalcone derivatives for imaging of amyloid β plaques by SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yuki; Haratake, Mamoru; Ono, Masahiro; Yoshida, Sakura; Nakayama, Morio

    2014-05-01

    We report radioiodinated chalcone derivatives as new SPECT imaging probes for amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. The monoethyleneoxy derivative 2 and allyloxy derivative 8 showed a high affinity for Aβ(1-42) aggregates with Ki values of 24 and 4.5 nM, respectively. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated that 2 and 8 clearly stained thioflavin-S positive Aβ plaques in the brain sections of Tg2576 transgenic mice. In vitro autoradiography revealed that [(125)I]2 displayed no clear accumulation toward Aβ plaques in the brain sections of Tg2576 mice, whereas the accumulation pattern of [(125)I]8 matched with the presence of Aβ plaques both in the brain sections of Tg2576 mice and an AD patient. In biodistribution studies using normal mice, [(125)I]2 showed preferable in vivo pharmacokinetics (4.82%ID/g at 2 min and 0.45%ID/g at 60 min), while [(125)I]8 showed only a modest brain uptake (1.62%ID/g at 2 min) with slow clearance (0.56%ID/g at 60 min). [(125)I]8 showed prospective binding properties for Aβ plaques, although further structural modifications are needed to improve the blood brain barrier permeability and washout from brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TU-A-12A-02: Novel Lung Ventilation Imaging with Single Energy CT After Single Inhalation of Xenon: Comparison with SPECT Ventilation Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negahdar, M [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Shultz, D; Gable, L; Shan, X; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Diehn, M [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a novel lung functional imaging method to determine the spatial distribution of xenon (Xe) gas in a single inhalation as a measure of regional ventilation. We compare Xe-CT ventilation to single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation, which is the current clinical reference. Regional lung ventilation information may be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of pulmonary diseases such as COPD, radiotherapy planning, and assessing the progression of toxicity after radiation therapy. Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, Xe-CT and SPECT ventilation scans were acquired for three patients including one patient with severe emphysema and two lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. For Xe- CT, we acquired two breath-hold single energy CT images of the entire lung with inspiration of 100% O2 and a mixture of 70% Xe and 30% O2, respectively. A video biofeedback system was used to achieve reproducible breath-holds. We used deformable image registration to align the breathhold images with each other to accurately subtract them, producing a map of the distribution of Xe as a surrogate of lung ventilation. We divided each lung into twelve parts and correlated the Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement at each part with the SPECT ventilation count of the corresponding part of the lung. Results: The mean of the Pearson linear correlation coefficient values between the Xe-CT and ventilation SPECT count for all three patients were 0.62 (p<0.01). The Xe-CT image had a higher resolution than SPECT, and did not show central airway deposition artifacts that were present in the SPECT image. Conclusion: We developed a rapid, safe, clinically practical, and potentially widely accessible method for regional lung functional imaging. We demonstrated strong correlations between the Xe-CT ventilation image and SPECT ventilation image as the clinical reference. This ongoing study will investigate more patients to confirm this finding.

  8. FlipADAM: a potential new SPECT imaging agent for the serotonin transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Julie L.; Deutsch, Eric C. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain is a useful tool for examining normal physiological functions and disease states involving the serotonergic system. The goal of this study was to develop an improved SPECT radiotracer with faster kinetics than the current leading SPECT tracer, [{sup 123}I]ADAM, for selective SERT imaging. Methods: The in vitro binding affinities of (2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine) (FlipADAM) (1c), were determined using Hampshire pig kidney cells stably overexpressing the serotonin, norepinephrine (NET) or dopamine transporter (DAT). Localization of [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) was evaluated through biodistribution and autoradiography in male Sprague Dawley rats, and the specificity of binding was assessed by injecting selective SERT or NET inhibitors prior to [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c). Results: FlipADAM (1c) displayed a high binding affinity for SERT (K{sub i}=1.0 nM) and good selectivity over NET and DAT binding (43-fold and 257-fold, respectively). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) successfully penetrated the blood brain barrier, as evidenced by the brain uptake at 2 min (1.75% dose/g). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM(1c) also had a good target to non-target (hypothalamus/cerebellum) ratio of 3.35 at 60 min post-injection. In autoradiography studies, [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) showed selective localization in SERT-rich brain regions such as the thalamic nuclei, amygdala, dorsal raphe nuclei and other areas. Conclusion: [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) exhibited faster clearance from the brain and time to binding equilibrium when compared to [{sup 125}I]2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)-5-iodophenylamine [{sup 125}I]ADAM (1b) and a higher target to non-target ratio when compared to [{sup 125}I]5-iodo-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)benzyl alcohol [{sup 125}I]IDAM (1a). Therefore, [{sup 123}I]FlipADAM (1c) may be an improved

  9. Physical phantom evaluation of EM-IntraSPECT (EMIS) algorithm for nonuniform attenuation correction in cardiac imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Bowsher, James E.; Feiglin, David H.; Gagne, George M.; Hellwig, Bradford J.; Tornai, Martin P.; Thomas, Frank D.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the EM-IntraSPECT (EMIS) algorithm for non-uniform attenuation correction in the chest. EMIS is a maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm for simultaneously estimating SPECT emission and attenuation parameters from emission data alone. EMIS uses the activity within the patient as transmission tomography sources, with which attenuation coefficients can be estimated. A thorax phantom with a normal heart was used. The activity images reconstructed by EMIS were compared to images reconstructed using a conventional MLEM with a fixed uniform attenuation map. Uniformity of normal heart was improved with EMIS as compared to a conventional MLEM.

  10. Computer-assisted detection of epileptiform focuses on SPECT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Dawid; Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2010-09-01

    Epilepsy is a common nervous system disease often related to consciousness disturbances and muscular spasm which affects about 1% of the human population. Despite major technological advances done in medicine in the last years there was no sufficient progress towards overcoming it. Application of advanced statistical methods and computer image analysis offers the hope for accurate detection and later removal of an epileptiform focuses which are the cause of some types of epilepsy. The aim of this work was to create a computer system that would help to find and diagnose disorders of blood circulation in the brain This may be helpful for the diagnosis of the epileptic seizures onset in the brain.

  11. Feasibility of a streamlined imaging protocol in technetium-99m-Tektrotyd somatostatin receptor SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chalabi, H; Cook, A; Ellis, C; Patel, C N; Scarsbrook, A F

    2018-02-01

    To assess the feasibility and efficacy of a streamlined single time-point 99m Tc-HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (Tektrotyd) somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) protocol to differentiate pathological uptake by neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from physiological activity. Tektrotyd imaging in 50 consecutive patients with NETs was reviewed retrospectively. Imaging was independently assessed by two experienced reporters with dual-certification in radiology and nuclear medicine and agreed in consensus. The presence of physiological bowel activity and/or further sites of equivocal uptake on 4-hour planar imaging and whether combined single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) assessment allowed accurate diagnosis was tabulated. A judgement was also made in each case on whether 2-hour planar imaging was necessary for accurate diagnostic interpretation. Thirty-six patients (72%) had positive findings on Tektrotyd SPECT/CT. Eight patients (16%) had bowel activity on 4-hour planar imaging, which could be considered to have hampered interpretation without access to SPECT/CT. Eleven studies in 10 patients (20%) demonstrated areas of indeterminate uptake on planar imaging; five in the uncinate process of the pancreas, three in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, one in the adrenal glands, one in a focus of inflammation on the posterior abdominal wall, and one at the tip of a central venous line. In all cases, accurate interpretation of findings was possible with SPECT/CT, without the 2-hour planar image. Two-hour planar imaging could be safely omitted from Tektrotyd SRS incorporating SPECT/CT imaging without reducing the accuracy of diagnostic interpretation. Streamlined imaging has the potential to reduce patient inconvenience and improve scanner and staff efficiency. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined SPECT and Multidetector CT for Prostate Cancer Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Carlson, David; Nguyen, Nhan; Hawkins, Randall A; Seo, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    (111)In-capromab pendetide is an imaging probe for noninvasive detection of prostate cancer dissemination, and can be difficult to interpret because of low photon statistics resulting in noisy images with limited anatomical precision. We examined if a 16-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could increase the impact on the clinical management and improve confidence in SPECT image interpretations in comparison to a relatively low-mA (limited resolution) CT. 17 scans were reviewed from a SPECT combined with low-mA CT scanner; 21 scans were reviewed from a SPECT combined with 16-slice MDCT scanner. Reports of the clinical interpretations from the imaging studies, additional examinations performed by referring physicians as a follow-up to the imaging results, and long-term clinical and laboratory follow-ups were used to define confidence of the SPECT/CT readings and impact of the readings on the patient management. The impact was defined as: the occurrence of the (111)In-capromab pendetide interpretation resulted in additional imaging studies or biopsies. MDCT improved the quality and confidence in the characterization of small lymph nodes with or without uptake of (111)In-capromab pendetide. The increased confidence with MDCT in SPECT/CT readings was evident in all cases reviewed in this study, and the impact on the clinical management was higher (8 out of 21) using SPECT/MDCT than the impact using SPECT combined with low-mA CT (2 out of 17). The dual-modality SPECT/CT provides a quantifiable benefit when MDCT is used instead of low-mA CT, particularly for prostate cancer evaluations using (111)In-capromab pendetide.

  13. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  14. Reconstruction of 4-D dynamic SPECT images from inconsistent projections using a Spline initialized FADS algorithm (SIFADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalah, Mahmoud; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Mitra, Debasis; Gullberg, Grant T

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and validate an algorithm of extracting voxel-by-voxel time activity curves directly from inconsistent projections applied in dynamic cardiac SPECT. The algorithm was derived based on factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) approach and imposes prior information by applying several regularization functions with adaptively changing relative weighting. The anatomical information of the imaged subject was used to apply the proposed regularization functions adaptively in the spatial domain. The algorithm performance is validated by reconstructing dynamic datasets simulated using the NCAT phantom with a range of different input tissue time-activity curves. The results are compared to the spline-based and FADS methods. The validated algorithm is then applied to reconstruct pre-clinical cardiac SPECT data from canine and murine subjects. Images, generated from both simulated and experimentally acquired data confirm the ability of the new algorithm to solve the inverse problem of dynamic SPECT with slow gantry rotation.

  15. A new automated method for analysis of gated-SPECT images based on a three-dimensional heart shaped model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomsky, Milan; Richter, Jens; Johansson, Lena

    2005-01-01

    A new automated method for quantification of left ventricular function from gated-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images has been developed. The method for quantification of cardiac function (CAFU) is based on a heart shaped model and the active shape algorithm. The model...... contains statistical information of the variability of left ventricular shape. CAFU was adjusted based on the results from the analysis of five simulated gated-SPECT studies with well defined volumes of the left ventricle. The digital phantom NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) and the Monte-Carlo method...... agreement between QGS and CAFU. The findings of this study indicate that our new automated method for quantification of gated-SPECT images can accurately measure left ventricular volumes and EF....

  16. Dual-Energy SPECT and the Development of Peptide p5+14 for Imaging Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Wall PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is associated with a number of rare diseases and is characterized by the deposition, in abdominothoracic organs and peripheral nerves, of extracellular protein fibrils, which leads to dysfunction and severe morbidity. Effective clinical evaluation and management of patients with systemic amyloidosis are hampered by the lack of a noninvasive, quantitative method for detecting whole-body amyloid load. We have used a battery of assays including dual-energy SPECT imaging and comparative effectiveness studies in support of translation of a synthetic polybasic peptide, p5+14, as a novel radiotracer for visualization of amyloidosis by molecular imaging. These data provide support for a phase 1 positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging trial of this reagent, labeled with iodine-124, in patients with all forms of systemic amyloidosis.

  17. Metastases seen on SPECT imaging despite a normal planar bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, J; van den Weyngaert, D; Krug, B; Brans, B; Scalliet, P; Vandevivere, J

    1995-12-01

    Although bone scintigraphy is an extremely sensitive method for the detection of focal bone disease, small lesions below the resolution of planar imaging may be missed. This is a report of a patient with carcinoma of the breast who showed tumor progression 1 year after initial treatment. Complete evaluation was performed in order to detect the origin of increased level of a tumor marker. Although planar bone scintigraphy could not demonstrate any lesion in the spine, multiple metastases were detected in the lumbar and the thoracic spines on SPECT imaging. Only some of these lesions were seen with MRI. Repeat planar bone imaging 6 weeks later showed multiple bone lesions in the lumbar and thoracic areas.

  18. Dual-Energy SPECT and the Development of Peptide p5+14 for Imaging Amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Stephen J.; Martin, Emily B.

    2017-01-01

    Amyloidosis is associated with a number of rare diseases and is characterized by the deposition, in abdominothoracic organs and peripheral nerves, of extracellular protein fibrils, which leads to dysfunction and severe morbidity. Effective clinical evaluation and management of patients with systemic amyloidosis are hampered by the lack of a noninvasive, quantitative method for detecting whole-body amyloid load. We have used a battery of assays including dual-energy SPECT imaging and comparative effectiveness studies in support of translation of a synthetic polybasic peptide, p5+14, as a novel radiotracer for visualization of amyloidosis by molecular imaging. These data provide support for a phase 1 positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging trial of this reagent, labeled with iodine-124, in patients with all forms of systemic amyloidosis. PMID:28654386

  19. Parametric mapping of cerebral blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT study using HMPAO and image standardization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M B; Kawashima, R; Awata, S; Sato, K; Kinomura, S; Ono, S; Yoshioka, S; Sato, M; Fukuda, H

    1999-02-01

    This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of Automated Image Registration (AIR) for standardization of brain SPECT images of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Standardized cerebral blood flow (CBF) images of patients with AD and control subjects were then used for group comparison and covariance analyses. Thirteen patients with AD at an early stage (age 69.8+/-7.1 y, Clinical Dementia Rating Score 0.5-1.0, Mini-Mental State Examination score 19-23) and 20 age-matched normal subjects (age 69.5+/-8.3 y) participated in this study. 99mTc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT and CT scans were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape with the help of AIR. Accuracy of AIR for spatial normalization was evaluated by an index calculated on SPECT images. Anatomical variability of standardized target images was evaluated by measurements on corresponding CT scans, spatially normalized using transformations established by the SPECT images. Realigned brain SPECT images of patients and controls were used for group comparison with the help of statistical parameter mapping. Significant differences were displayed on the respective voxel to generate three-dimensional Z maps. CT scans of individual subjects were evaluated by a computer program for brain atrophy. Voxel-based covariance analysis was performed on standardized images with ages and atrophy indices as independent variables. Inaccuracy assessed by functional data was 2.3%. The maximum anatomical variability was 4.9 mm after standardization. Z maps showed significantly decreased regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal and temporal regions in the patient group (P < 0.001). Covariance analysis revealed that the effects of aging on rCBF were more pronounced compared with atrophy, especially in intact cortical areas at an early stage of AD. Decrease in rCBF was partly due to senility and atrophy, however these two factors cannot explain all the deficits

  20. Neuropharmacological imaging in epilepsy with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, T.R.; Pennell, P.B. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GE (United States). Emory Epilepsy Center. Dept. of Neurology

    1998-09-01

    Functional neuroimaging with positron and single photon emitter-labeling has added considerably to the understanding of epileptic seizure activity and of the postictal and interictal cerebral dysfunctions that accompany many epilepsies. Some of these functional alterations cannot be studied in humans by any other technique, and in other instances the information is complementary to that provided by other techniques, some of which are invasive or even require tissue destruction. Available radiotracer imaging techniques have yet to be fully applied to several important epileptic syndromes (including the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and other secondary generalized epilepsies), to physiological aspects of the natural history of temporal lobe epilepsy or any other commonly occurring epilepsy, and to the assessment of mechanism of action and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and other epilepsy therapies. New radiotracers should be developed to permit study of specific excitatory amino acid receptors and other receptor sites that are known to be relevant to the development of epilepsy, to the onset of individual seizures, and to interical dysfunctions.

  1. [Elaboration of the SPM template for the standardization of SPECT images with 123I-Ioflupane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, F J; García-Solís, D; Luis-Simón, F J; Marín-Oyaga, V A; Carrillo, F; Mir, P; Vázquez-Albertino, R J

    2013-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a widely used produced for normalization of functional images. This study has aimed to develop a normalization template of (123)I-Ioflupane SPECT-imaging DaTSCAN(®), GE Healthcare), not available in SPM5, and to validate it compared to other quantification methods. In order to write the template we retrospectively selected 26 subjects who had no evidence of nigrostriatal degeneration and whose age distribution was similar to that of the patients in the usual practice of our Department: 2 subjects (7.6%) were 65 years (57.7%). All the studies were normalized with the T1-template available in SPM5 and an average image of the value was obtained for each voxel. For validation we analyzed 60 patients: 30 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with right involvement (66.83±12.20 years) and 30 with essential tremor patients (ET) (67.27±8.33 years). Specific uptake rates (SUR) of different striatal regions were compared after image normalization with our template and the application of a semiautomated VOIs-map created with Analyze v9.0 ((©)BIR, Mayo Clinic), against two quantification methods: a) manual adjustment of a ROIs-map drawn in Analyze, and b) semi-automated method (HERMES-BRASS) with normalization and implementation of VOIs-map. No statistically significant differences in the iPD/ET discriminatory capacity between the three methods analyzed were observed (p0,871, p<0,001). This difference was greater in patients with PD. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of our SPM «template» for (123)I-Ioflupane SPECT-imaging, obtained from normalization with «T1-template». Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Software-based hybrid perfusion SPECT/CT provides diagnostic accuracy when other pulmonary embolism imaging is indeterminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nishant; Xie, Karen; Mar, Winnie; Anderson, Thomas M.; Carney, Benjamin; Mehta, Nikhil; Machado, Roberto; Blend, Michael J.; Lu, Yang [University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (Q-SPECT/CT) in patients suspected to have pulmonary embolism (PE) but with indeterminate computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) or planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans. This retrospective study included two groups of patients. Group I consisted of 49 patients with nondiagnostic CTPA. These 49 patients underwent subsequent V/Q scans. Further Q-SPECTs were obtained in patients with indeterminate planar images and fused with existing CTPA. Group II consisted of 182 non-CTPA patients with indeterminate V/Q scans. These 182 patients underwent further Q-SPECT and separate noncontrast low-dose CT chest. Fusion Q-SPECT/CT scans were obtained through FDA-approved software and interpreted according to published criteria as positive, negative, or indeterminate for PE. Upon retrospective analyses, the final diagnosis was made using composite reference standards including all available clinical and imaging information for at least 6-month follow-up. In group I patients, 1 was positive, 24 were negative, and another 24 (49 %, 24/49) were indeterminate. In the subsequent 24 Q-SPECT/CTPAs, 4 were positive, 19 were negative, and 1 was indeterminate (4.2 %, 1/24). In group II patients, 9 (4.9 %, 9/182) were indeterminate, 33 were positive, and 140 were negative. The combined nondiagnostic rate for Q-SPECT/CT was only 4.9 % (10/206). There was six false-negative and one false-positive Q-SPECT/CT examinations. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of Q-SPECT/CT were 85.7 % (36/42), 99.4 % (153/154), 97.3 % (36/37) and 96.2 % (153/159), respectively. Q-SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic rate with promising accuracy in diagnosing PE that yields a satisfactory clinical verdict, especially when the CTPA and planar V/Q scan are indeterminate.

  3. In vivo quantification of {sup 177}Lu with planar whole-body and SPECT/CT gamma camera imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Dale L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Cumberland, NSW (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); NETwork, Sydney Vital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hennessy, Thomas M.; Willowson, Kathy P.; Henry, E. Courtney [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Chan, David L.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); NETwork, Sydney Vital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Aslani, Alireza [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Roach, Paul J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    2015-09-17

    Advances in gamma camera technology and the emergence of a number of new theranostic radiopharmaceutical pairings have re-awakened interest in in vivo quantification with single-photon-emitting radionuclides. We have implemented and validated methodology to provide quantitative imaging of {sup 177}Lu for 2D whole-body planar studies and for 3D tomographic imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. Whole-body planar scans were performed on subjects to whom a known amount of [{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-octreotate had been administered for therapy. The total radioactivity estimated from the images was compared with the known amount of the radionuclide therapy administered. In separate studies, venous blood samples were withdrawn from subjects after administration of [{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-octreotate while a SPECT acquisition was in progress and the concentration of the radionuclide in the venous blood sample compared with that estimated from large blood pool structures in the SPECT reconstruction. The total radioactivity contained within an internal SPECT calibration standard was also assessed. In the whole-body planar scans (n = 28), the estimated total body radioactivity was accurate to within +4.6 ± 5.9 % (range −17.1 to +11.2 %) of the correct value. In the SPECT reconstructions (n = 12), the radioactivity concentration in the cardiac blood pool was accurate to within −4.0 ± 7.8 % (range −16.1 to +7.5 %) of the true value and the internal standard measurements (n = 89) were within 2.0 ± 8.5 % (range −16.3 to +24.2 %) of the known amount of radioactivity contained. In our hands, state-of-the-art hybrid SPECT/CT gamma cameras were able to provide accurate estimates of in vivo radioactivity to better than, on average, ±10 % for use in biodistribution and radionuclide dosimetry calculations.

  4. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  5. Design and synthesis of tumor-targeting theranostic drug conjugates for SPECT and PET imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Vineberg, Jacob G; Honda, Tadashi; Ojima, Iwao

    2017-12-11

    Theranostics will play a significant role in the next-generation chemotherapy. Two novel tumor-targeting theranostic drug conjugates, bearing imaging arms, were designed and synthesized. These theranostic conjugates consist of biotin as the tumor-targeting moiety, a second generation taxoid, SB-T-1214, as a potent anticancer drug, and two different imaging arms for capturing 99mTc for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and 64Cu for PET (positron emission tomography). To explore the best reaction conditions for capturing radionuclides and work out the chemistry directly applicable to "hot" nuclides, cold chemistry was investigated to capture 185Re(I) and 63Cu(II) species as surrogates for 99mTc and 64Cu, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating the role of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yu; Shi, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Yun; Xu, Ling-xun; Hu, Xing-Yue; Shao, Yu-quan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT in diagnosis and assessing severity of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: Thirty-eight patients with primary, tentative diagnosis of PD and eighteen age-matched normal controls were studied with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging. The regions of interests (ROIs) were drawn manually on cerebellum (CB), occipital cortex (OC) and three transverse plane slice-views of striatums, the semiquantitative BG (background)/[(OC+CB)/2] were t...

  7. Design and analysis of physical phantom experiments for serial SPECT brain tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nicholas; O'Tuama, L. A.; Treves, S. T.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify several important issues in the statistical analysis of serial images of active brain tumors and to offer some approaches and methods to help resolve them. Current serial brain tumor imaging is very strong on data acquisition and display yet appears weak on data analysis and inference. To help bridge the gap between certain theoretical mathematical methods for medical imaging developed over the past several decades and actual clinical practice, we describe a new physical phantom that we have designed and built for our research. We also offer some extensions of several relevant tools and principles from statistical science to the analysis of our serial medical images. Among the tools we discuss are the physical phantom itself, a simple experimental design, methods that help to separate image registration and object deformation effects, and some simple paired t-test ideas for comparison of differences in spatial point processes generated from pixelwise events in serial images. We identify several sources of extraneous variation between paired images and propose a few simple methods to control or eliminate them. Replicated experiments with our physical phantom can be used to study the properties of these methods under controlled and known conditions. Several actual patient and simulated serial SPECT images help to motivate and illustrate our techniques.

  8. Cerebrovascular disease in newborn infants: report of three cases with clinical follow-up and brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L. de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Vale-Cavalcanti, Mariza; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    1999-07-01

    The clinical and neurological findings of three neonates with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease are reported. The neuropsychological evaluation disclosed impairment of fine motor function, coordination, language, perception and behavioral disturbances. Brain SPECT imaging revealed perfusional deficits in the three cases. (author)

  9. Patient satisfaction with coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, myocardial perfusion MRI, SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and conventional coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, S.; Rief, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Richter, F.; Roehle, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Schoenenberger, E. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate patient acceptance of noninvasive imaging tests for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), including single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI), stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coronary CT angiography (CTA) in combination with CT myocardial stress perfusion (CTP), and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Intraindividual comparison of perception of 48 patients from the CORE320 multicentre multinational study who underwent rest and stress SPECT-MPI with a technetium-based tracer, combined CTA and CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine), MRI, and CCA. The analysis was performed by using a validated questionnaire. Patients had significantly more concern prior to CCA than before CTA/CTP (p < 0.001). CTA/CTP was also rated as more comfortable than SPECT-MPI (p = 0.001). Overall satisfaction with CT was superior to that of MRI (p = 0.007). More patients preferred CT (46 %; p < 0.001) as a future diagnostic test. Regarding combined CTA/CTP, CTP was characterised by higher pain levels and an increased frequency of angina pectoris during the examination (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher degree of pain during SPECT-MPI with adenosine stress compared to physical exercise (p = 0.016). All noninvasive cardiac imaging tests are well accepted by patients, with CT being the preferred examination. (orig.)

  10. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H. [and others

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  11. Alzheimer disease: Quantitative analysis of I-123-iodoamphetamine SPECT brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, R.S.; Tikofsky, R.S.; Collier, B.D.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Palmer, D.W.; Glatt, S.L.; Antuono, P.G.; Isitman, A.T.; Papke, R.A.

    1989-07-01

    To enable a more quantitative diagnosis of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), the authors developed and tested a semiautomated method to define regions of interest (ROIs) to be used in quantitating results from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow performed with N-isopropyl iodine-123-iodoamphetamine. SPECT/IMP imaging was performed in ten patients with probable SDAT and seven healthy subjects. Multiple ROIs were manually and semiautomatically generated, and uptake was quantitated for each ROI. Mean cortical activity was estimated as the average of the mean activity in 24 semiautomatically generated ROIs; mean cerebellar activity was determined from the mean activity in separate ROIs. A ratio of parietal to cerebellar activity less than 0.60 and a ratio of parietal to mean cortical activity less than 0.90 allowed correct categorization of nine of ten and eight of ten patients, respectively, with SDAT and all control subjects. The degree of diminished mental status observed in patients with SDAT correlated with both global and regional changes in IMP uptake.

  12. Fusion imaging using a hybrid SPECT-CT camera improves port perfusion scintigraphy for control of hepatic arterial infusion of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Timm; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Peters, Nils; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens; Felix, Roland; Amthauer, Holger [Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin - Klinik fur Strahlenheilkunde und PET-Zentrum Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, Bert; Nicolaou, Annett; Riess, Hanno [Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin - Medizinische Klinik m.S. Haematologie Onkologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Exclusive and homogeneous perfusion of the liver is considered essential for the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion of chemotherapy (HAI). The aim of this study was to evaluate port perfusion scintigraphy in colorectal cancer patients using a hybrid SPECT-CT system for control of minimally invasive intra-arterial port systems within the scope of a phase II trial. In 24 consecutive patients, the perfusion territories of intra-arterial hepatic port systems were assessed by port scintigraphy with{sup 99m}Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin employing planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT-CT (acquired with a hybrid SPECT-CT camera). The results of blinded reading of the scintigraphic modalities concerning the intra- and extrahepatic perfusion pattern were compared with combined image analysis (angiography and contrast-enhanced dedicated CT) and patient history for validation. Extrahepatic perfusion was correctly seen in three patients, while suspected extrahepatic perfusion could be excluded in one. In 46 liver lobes, perfusion patterns were correctly visualised by SPECT-CT in 100% of cases (planar, 67%; SPECT, 86%). Assessing the perfusion pattern inside the liver on a segmental basis (segments, n=138), SPECT-CT revealed correct segmental assignment of tracer distribution in 100% and was significantly superior to SPECT alone (accuracy, 84%; p<0.001). The scintigraphic findings resulted in changes in therapeutic management in 8/24 patients (33%); in two of these the relevant findings were visualised only by SPECT-CT. In patients receiving HAI, port perfusion scintigraphy by fusion imaging with a hybrid SPECT-CT system provides important information for therapy optimisation and appears to be superior to SPECT alone. (orig.)

  13. Use of quantitative SPECT/CT reconstruction in99mTc-sestamibi imaging of patients with renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krystyna M; Solnes, Lilja B; Rowe, Steven P; Gorin, Michael A; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Fung, George; Frey, Eric C; Allaf, Mohamad E; Du, Yong; Javadi, Mehrbod S

    2018-02-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has previously been shown to allow for the accurate differentiation of benign renal oncocytomas and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCTs) apart from other malignant renal tumor histologies, with oncocytomas/HOCTs showing high uptake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) showing low uptake based on uptake ratios from non-quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstructions. However, in this study, several tumors fell close to the uptake ratio cutoff, likely due to limitations in conventional SPECT/CT reconstruction methods. We hypothesized that application of quantitative SPECT/CT (QSPECT) reconstruction methods developed by our group would provide more robust separation of hot and cold lesions, serving as an imaging framework on which quantitative biomarkers can be validated for evaluation of renal masses with 99m Tc-sestamibi. Single-photon emission computed tomography data were reconstructed using the clinical Flash 3D reconstruction and QSPECT methods. Two blinded readers then characterized each tumor as hot or cold. Semi-quantitative uptake ratios were calculated by dividing lesion activity by background renal activity for both Flash 3D and QSPECT reconstructions. The difference between median (mean) hot and cold tumor uptake ratios measured 0.655 (0.73) with the QSPECT method and 0.624 (0.67) with the conventional method, resulting in increased separation between hot and cold tumors. Sub-analysis of 7 lesions near the separation point showed a higher absolute difference (0.16) between QPSECT and Flash 3D mean uptake ratios compared to the remaining lesions. Our finding of improved separation between uptake ratios of hot and cold lesions using QSPECT reconstruction lays the foundation for additional quantitative SPECT techniques such as SPECT-UV in the setting of renal 99m Tc-sestamibi and other SPECT/CT exams. With robust

  14. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  15. A comparison of high dose Ga-67 SPECT and FDG PET imaging in malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliff, V.; Hicks, R.J.; Binns, D.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Ainslie, J.; Jenner, D.A. [Peter McCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Ga-67 imaging for tumour localisation lost favour in the 1970`s. With improvement in technology and use of higher doses, it has now found an important role in lymphoma. A similar phenomenon may be possible in the staging of melanoma. This study therefore compares high dose (370 MBq) Ga-67 imaging using a day 5 and 7 whole-body and comprehensive SPECT protocol, with (100 MBq) F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET): a technique recently shown to be highly accurate in this condition. 85 patients; 46 males, mean age 52+17 yrs: range 22-83 yrs, underwent both studies within 9{+-}16 days (max-91 days). Scans were judged as positive (+ve), negative (-ve) or equivocal (EQ) for local, regional and distant disease. Clinical follow-up resolved discordant scan findings. PET and Ga-67 results were concordant in 61 (70%) patients (19 with +ve, 37 -ve and 5 EQ scans). None of the 9 ps with one EQ and one eye scan had disease on follow-up. Follow-up was available in 4/5 patients with discordantly +ve (3 patients) or more extensive Ga-67 abnormality: 3 patients had disease confirmed, 1 patient false +ve (asymmetric lung hilum). Follow-up was available in 9/10 patients with discordantly +ve (3 patients) or more extensive PET abnormality: 4 patients had confirmed disease, l pt false +ve (bladder diverticulum). A further 4 patients had second primaries (2 rectal carcinomas, 1 plasmacytoma, 1 basal cell carcinoma). High dose Ga-67 scanning incorporating SPECT appears to be a reasonable alternative to FDG PET for screening patients with melanoma. In this series PET`s main advantages were in the detection of other occult tumours, greater patient convenience and lower radiation dosimetry.

  16. Imaging lung function in mice using SPECT/CT and per-voxel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Jobse

    Full Text Available Chronic lung disease is a major worldwide health concern but better tools are required to understand the underlying pathologies. Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with per-voxel analysis allows for non-invasive measurement of regional lung function. A clinically adapted V/Q methodology was used in healthy mice to investigate V/Q relationships. Twelve week-old mice were imaged to describe normal lung function while 36 week-old mice were imaged to determine how age affects V/Q. Mice were ventilated with Technegas™ and injected with (99mTc-macroaggregated albumin to trace ventilation and perfusion, respectively. For both processes, SPECT and CT images were acquired, co-registered, and quantitatively analyzed. On a per-voxel basis, ventilation and perfusion were moderately correlated (R = 0.58±0.03 in 12 week old animals and a mean log(V/Q ratio of -0.07±0.01 and standard deviation of 0.36±0.02 were found, defining the extent of V/Q matching. In contrast, 36 week old animals had significantly increased levels of V/Q mismatching throughout the periphery of the lung. Measures of V/Q were consistent across healthy animals and differences were observed with age demonstrating the capability of this technique in quantifying lung function. Per-voxel analysis and the ability to non-invasively assess lung function will aid in the investigation of chronic lung disease models and drug efficacy studies.

  17. Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical imaging (OI techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging have been widely used to track diseases in a non-invasive manner within living subjects. These techniques generally require bioluminescent and fluorescent probes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using radioactive probes for in vivo molecular OI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By taking the advantages of low energy window of light (1.2-3.1 eV, 400-1000 nm resulting from radiation, radionuclides that emit charged particles such as beta(+ and beta(- can be successfully imaged with an OI instrument. In vivo optical images can be obtained for several radioactive probes including 2-deoxy-2-[(18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18F]FDG, Na(18F, Na(131I, (90YCl(3 and a (90Y labeled peptide that specifically target tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate generalizability of radioactive OI technique. It provides a new molecular imaging strategy and will likely have significant impact on both small animal and clinical imaging.

  18. Parametric Cerebrovascular Reserve Images Using Acetazolamide (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT: A Feasibility Study of Quantitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Yoo, Min Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-09-01

    Basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used for evaluation of hemodynamics; however, qualitative and subjective visual assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) has been performed in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to generate parametric CVR images and evaluate its feasibility of quantification. Basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT data from 17 patients who underwent bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were used. Spatial normalization was performed and parametric CVR images were generated using relative CVR (rCVR) of each voxel proportional to CVR of the whole brain. Binary parametric maps to show area of relatively reduced CVR were generated also using threshold of rCVR parametric CVR images and probabilistic maps for ICA territory. Pre- and postprocedural parametric CVR images were obtained and quantitative rCVRs were compared. The rCVRs were evaluated according to visual grades for regional decreased CVR. Postprocedural rCVR obtained from parametric CVR images increased significantly from preprocedural rCVR. The rCVR was significantly correlated with visual grades of reduced CVR for each side of ICA territories. We generated parametric CVR images for basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT. As a quantitative measurement, rCVR obtained from the parametric image was feasibly assessed hemodynamic abnormalities with preserved anatomical information.

  19. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingqing; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained. PMID:23533377

  20. Imaging of neurosphere oxygenation with phosphorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Ruslan I; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Nolan, Yvonne M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2013-12-01

    Multicellular spheroids are useful models of mammalian tissue for studies of cell proliferation, differentiation, replacement therapies and drug action. Having a size of 100-500 μm they mimic in vivo micro-environment and characteristic gradients of O2, pH and nutrients. We describe the use of cell-penetrating O2 probes based on phosphorescent Pt-porphyrins to perform high-resolution 2D and 3D mapping of O2 in spheroid structures by live cell fluorescence imaging technique. Optimised procedures for preparation of neurospheres from cortical neural cells isolated from embryonic rat brain, their staining with the phosphorescent O2 probes NanO2 and MM2 and subsequent analysis of oxygenation on different live cell imaging platforms, including widefield and confocal phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM), conventional confocal and two-photon ratiometric intensity based O2 detection are presented. This is followed by a series of physiological experiments in which oxygenation patterns of the neurospheres are correlated with culturing conditions (atmospheric hypoxia and hyperoxia, size, growth factors), distribution of stem cells, mature neurons and astrocytes, HIF-2α stabilisation and responses to metabolic stimulation. The O2 imaging method allows multiplexing with many conventional fluorescent probes to perform multi-parametric imaging analysis of cells in 3D microenvironment. It can be applied to other types of spheroids and 3D tissue models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  2. Pinhole SPECT imaging of dopamine transporters correlates with dopamine transporter immunohistochemical analysis in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Gerda; Drukarch, Benjamin; Bol, John G J M; de Bruin, Kora; Sorman, Karolina; Habraken, Jan B A; Booij, Jan

    2005-07-15

    The in vivo analysis of dopaminergic degeneration in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), using pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), ideally should afford a serial study design, enabling the analysis of the degenerative process as well as the potential neuroprotective and/or restorative properties of drugs over time in living animals. Previously, we demonstrated that striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) levels in rats could be analyzed reproducibly, using pinhole SPECT with the DAT probe [(123)I]N-omega-fluoropropyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-{4-iodophenyl}nortropane (FP-CIT). However, the capacity of this approach to accurately detect a range of striatal DAT levels in the most widely used animal model of PD, i.e., the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mouse, remains to be determined. For this purpose, various levels of DAT were induced by treating c57BL/6J mice for 1, 3, or 5 days with MPTP (25 mg/kg ip), respectively. [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans were performed 5 days after the last MPTP injection. Mice were perfused 6 days after the last MPTP injection, and the SPECT data were compared to ex vivo striatal and nigral DAT levels as measured by immunohistochemistry within the same animals. The analysis of striatal DAT levels using SPECT and DAT immunohistochemistry yielded highly comparable results on the percentage of DAT reduction in each MPTP group. The in vivo data showed a decrease of specific striatal to non-specific binding ratios by 59%, 82%, and 76% in mice treated for 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively. Moreover, a strong, positive correlation was observed between the in vivo and ex vivo parameters. The present study provides the first evidence that [(123)I]FP-CIT pinhole SPECT allows the accurate detection of a range of striatal DAT (i.e., losses of approximately 60-80%) levels in mice. Since such large dopaminergic lesions could be detected, this SPECT method may at least be useful for analyzing

  3. Basic design and simulation of a SPECT microscope for in vivo stem cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Rex A.; Tang, Yang; Hugg, James W.; Meier, Dirk; Koos, David; Hartsough, Neal E.; Patt, Bradley E.; Wagenaar, Douglas J.

    2011-03-01

    The need to understand the behavior of individual stem cells at the various stages of their differentiation and to assess the resulting reparative action in pre-clinical model systems, which typically involves laboratory animals, provides the motivation for imaging of stem cells in vivo at high resolution. Our initial focus is to image cells and cellular events at single cell resolution in vivo in shallow tissues (few mm of intervening tissue) in laboratory mice and rates. In order to accomplish this goal we are building a SPECT-based microscope. We based our design on earlier theoretical work with near-field coded apertures and have adjusted the components of the system to meet the real-world demands of instrument construction and of animal imaging. Our instrumental design possesses a reasonable trade-off between field-of-view, sensitivity, and contrast performance (photon penetration). A layered gold aperture containing 100 pinholes and intended for use in coded aperture imaging application has been designed and constructed. A silicon detector connected to a TimePix readout from the CERN collaborative group was selected for use in our prototype microscope because of its ultra-high spatial and energy resolution capabilities. The combination of the source, aperture, and detector has been modeled and the coded aperture reconstruction of simulated sources is presented in this work.

  4. Application of Artificial Neural Network to Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease in Myocardial SPECT Bull's-eye Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujita, Hiroshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Uehara, Toshiisa; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1992-01-01

    .... The technique employs a neural network to analyze 201 Tl myocardial SPECT bull's-eye images. This multi-layer feed-forward neural network with a backpropagation algorithm has 256 input units (pattern...

  5. The impact of reconstruction and scanner characterisation on the diagnostic capability of a normal database for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickson, John C; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Booij, Jan; Ziebell, Morten; Morbelli, Silvia; Assenbaum-Nan, Susanne; Borght, Thierry Vander; Pagani, Marco; Kapucu, Ozlem L; Hesse, Swen; Van Laere, Koen; Darcourt, Jacques; Varrone, Andrea; Tatsch, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The use of a normal database for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging has been found to be helpful for cases which are difficult to interpret by visual assessment alone, and to improve reproducibility in scan interpretation...

  6. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study of cerebral blood flow patterns employing SPECT imaging in dental postsurgical pain patients with and without pain relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newberg, Andrew B; Hersh, Elliot V; Levin, Lawrence M; Giannakopoulos, Helen; Secreto, Stacey A; Wintering, Nancy A; Farrar, John T

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of this pilot study was to employ SPECT to measure CBF distribution associated with postoperative dental pain and to compare these CBF patterns to subsequent images in the same patients...

  7. Improved scatter correction with factor analysis for planar and SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter; Rahmim, Arman; Gültekin, Selma; Šámal, Martin; Ljungberg, Michael; Mirzaei, Siroos; Segars, Paul; Szczupak, Boguslaw

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative nuclear medicine imaging is an increasingly important frontier. In order to achieve quantitative imaging, various interactions of photons with matter have to be modeled and compensated. Although correction for photon attenuation has been addressed by including x-ray CT scans (accurate), correction for Compton scatter remains an open issue. The inclusion of scattered photons within the energy window used for planar or SPECT data acquisition decreases the contrast of the image. While a number of methods for scatter correction have been proposed in the past, in this work, we propose and assess a novel, user-independent framework applying factor analysis (FA). Extensive Monte Carlo simulations for planar and tomographic imaging were performed using the SIMIND software. Furthermore, planar acquisition of two Petri dishes filled with 99mTc solutions and a Jaszczak phantom study (Data Spectrum Corporation, Durham, NC, USA) using a dual head gamma camera were performed. In order to use FA for scatter correction, we subdivided the applied energy window into a number of sub-windows, serving as input data. FA results in two factor images (photo-peak, scatter) and two corresponding factor curves (energy spectra). Planar and tomographic Jaszczak phantom gamma camera measurements were recorded. The tomographic data (simulations and measurements) were processed for each angular position resulting in a photo-peak and a scatter data set. The reconstructed transaxial slices of the Jaszczak phantom were quantified using an ImageJ plugin. The data obtained by FA showed good agreement with the energy spectra, photo-peak, and scatter images obtained in all Monte Carlo simulated data sets. For comparison, the standard dual-energy window (DEW) approach was additionally applied for scatter correction. FA in comparison with the DEW method results in significant improvements in image accuracy for both planar and tomographic data sets. FA can be used as a user

  8. Dynamic molecular imaging of cardiac innervation using a dual headpinhole SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jicun; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Reutter, BryanW.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-03-29

    Typically 123I-MIBG is used for the study of innervation andfunction of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. The protocolinvolves two studies: first a planar or SPECT scan is performed tomeasure initial uptake of the tracer, followed some 3-4 hours later byanother study measuring the wash-out of the tracer from the heart. A fastwash-out is indicative of a compromised heart. In this work, a dual headpinhole SPECT system was used for imaging the distribution and kineticsof 123I-MIBG in the myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) andnormotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The system geometry was calibratedbased on a nonlinear point projection fitting method using a three-pointsource phantom. The angle variation effect of the parameters was modeledwith a sinusoidal function. A dynamic acquisition was performed byinjecting 123I-MIBG into rats immediately after starting the dataacquisition. The detectors rotated continuously performing a 360o dataacquisition every 90 seconds. We applied the factor analysis (FA)methodand region of interest (ROI) sampling method to obtain time activitycurves (TACs)in the blood pool and myocardium and then appliedtwo-compartment modeling to estimate the kinetic parameters. Since theinitial injection bolus is too fast for obtaining a consistenttomographic data set in the first few minutes of the study, we appliedthe FA method directly to projections during the first rotation. Then thetime active curves for blood and myocardial tissue were obtained from ROIsampling. The method was applied to determine if there were differencesin the kinetics between SHR and WKY rats and requires less time byreplacing the delayed scan at 3-4 hours after injection with a dynamicacquisition over 90 to 120 minutes. The results of a faster washout and asmaller distribution volume of 123IMIBG near the end of life in the SHRmodel of hypertrophic cardiomyopthy may be indicative of a failing heartin late stages of heart failure.

  9. A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiujuan; Wei, Wentao; Huang, Qiu; Song, Shaoli; Wan, Jieqing; Huang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring.

  10. Molecular Probes for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Maji, Dolonchampa; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of biological processes and pathologic conditions at the cellular and tissue levels largely rely on the use of fluorescence intensity signals from fluorophores or their bioconjugates. To overcome the concentration dependency of intensity measurements, evaluate subtle molecular interactions, and determine biochemical status of intracellular or extracellular microenvironments, fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging has emerged as a reliable imaging method complementary to intensity measurements. Driven by a wide variety of dyes exhibiting stable or environment-responsive FLTs, information multiplexing can be readily accomplished without the need for ratiometric spectral imaging. With knowledge of the fluorescent states of the molecules, it is entirely possible to predict the functional status of biomolecules or microevironment of cells. Whereas the use of FLT spectroscopy and microscopy in biological studies is now well established, in vivo imaging of biological processes based on FLT imaging techniques is still evolving. This review summarizes recent advances in the application of the FLT of molecular probes for imaging cells and small animal models of human diseases. It also highlights some challenges that continue to limit the full realization of the potential of using FLT molecular probes to address diverse biological problems, and outlines areas of potential high impact in the future. PMID:25961514

  11. In vivo imaging of dopamine transporter function in rat striatum using pinhole SPECT and 123I-beta-CIT coregistered with small animal MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish in vivo imaging of dopamine transporter function in a small animal model of Parkinson's disease using pinhole SPECT and 123I labeled beta-CIT. Since functional imaging of small animals can hardly be interpreted without localization to related anatomical structures, MRI-SPECT coregistration secondly was established as an inexpensive tool for in vivo monitoring of physiological and pathological alterations in striatal dopamine transporters using beta-CIT as an specific radionuclear ligand.

  12. Evaluation of Patients with Acute Chest Pain Using SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Prognostic Implications of Mildly Abnormal Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkorn, Ronen; Naimushin, Alexey; Beigel, Roy; Naimushin, Ekaterina; Narodetski, Michael; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2017-06-01

    While patients presenting to emergency departments (ER) with chest pain are increasingly managed in chest pain units (CPU) that utilize accelerated diagnostic protocols for risk stratification, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), data are lacking regarding the prognostic implications of mildly abnormal scans in this population. To evaluate the prognostic implications of mildly abnormal SPECT MPI results in patients with acute chest pain. Of the 3753 chest pain patients admitted to the CPU at the Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center 1593 were further evaluated by SPECT MPI. Scans were scored by extent and severity of stress-induced perfusion defects, with 1221 patients classified as normal, 82 with myocardial infarction without ischemia, 236 with mild ischemia, and 54 with more than mild ischemia. Mild ischemia patients were further classified to those who did and did not undergo coronary angiography within 7 days. Mild ischemia patients who underwent coronary angiography were more likely to be male (92% vs. 81%, P = 0.01) and to have left anterior descending ischemia (67% vs. 42%, P = 0.004). After 50 months, these patients returned less often to the ER with chest pain (53% vs. 87%, P acute coronary syndrome and death (8% vs. 16%, P patients with chronic stable angina, patients presenting with acute chest pain exhibiting mildly abnormal SPECT MPI findings should perhaps undergo a more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  13. Impact of the Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Technique on Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Bone SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Louis; Chambert, Benjamin; Alonso, Sandrine; Barrau, Corinne; D'Estanque, Emmanuel; Al Tabaa, Yassine; Collombier, Laurent; Demattei, Christophe; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Boudousq, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a routine bone SPECT/CT protocol using CT reconstructed with filtered backprojection (FBP) with an optimized protocol using low-dose CT images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR). In this prospective study, enrolled patients underwent bone SPECT/CT, with 1 SPECT acquisition followed by 2 randomized CT acquisitions: FBP CT (FBP; noise index, 25) and ASiR CT (70% ASiR; noise index, 40). The image quality of both attenuation-corrected SPECT and CT images was visually (5-point Likert scale, 2 interpreters) and quantitatively (contrast ratio [CR] and signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) estimated. The CT dose index volume, dose-length product, and effective dose were compared. Seventy-five patients were enrolled in the study. Quantitative attenuation-corrected SPECT evaluation showed no inferiority for contrast ratio and SNR issued from FBP CT or ASiR CT (respectively, 13.41 ± 7.83 vs. 13.45 ± 7.99 and 2.33 ± 0.83 vs. 2.32 ± 0.84). Qualitative image analysis showed no difference between attenuation-corrected SPECT images issued from FBP CT or ASiR CT for both interpreters (respectively, 3.5 ± 0.6 vs. 3.5 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5). Quantitative CT evaluation showed no inferiority for SNR between FBP and ASiR CT images (respectively, 0.93 ± 0.16 and 1.07 ± 0.17). Qualitative image analysis showed no quality difference between FBP and ASiR CT images for both interpreters (respectively, 3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 and 4.0 ± 0.1 vs. 4.0 ± 0.2). Mean CT dose index volume, dose-length product, and effective dose for ASiR CT (3.0 ± 2.0 mGy, 148 ± 85 mGy⋅cm, and 2.2 ± 1.3 mSv) were significantly lower than for FBP CT (8.5 ± 3.7 mGy, 365 ± 160 mGy⋅cm, and 5.5 ± 2.4 mSv). The use of 70% ASiR blending in bone SPECT/CT can reduce the CT radiation dose by 60%, with no sacrifice in attenuation-corrected SPECT and CT image quality, compared with the conventional protocol using FBP CT

  14. Count-based quantitation of functional renal volume by SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. A.; Narayanan, M.; Bohyer, C.; Licho, R.; Fung, L. C. T.

    1998-08-01

    The quantitation of absolute renal functional volume is of interest because many pathological processes are known to affect the growth and parenchymal volume of kidneys. Unlike thresholding and edge-detection methods, the count-based method of volume quantitation is not highly sensitive to boundary definition. In this investigation, count-based kidney volume quantitation was compared to that of fixed threshold-based estimation with and without including attenuation and scatter compensation in the reconstruction. The Alderson Organ Scanning Phantom kidneys were filled with a Tc-99m solution and placed in the Organ scanning phantom. Inserts shaped like the pelvis region of the kidneys were used to vary kidney volume. Emission imaging of the Tc-99m, and transmission imaging of a Gd-153 line source were performed by a triple-headed SPECT system. Without compensating for attenuation and scatter, the count-based method significantly under-estimated kidney volume. When attenuation and scatter compensation were included, count-based volume quantitation was more accurate than volume estimation with a fixed threshold adapted to the image acquisition and reconstruction strategies employed.

  15. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Dextrocardia with Situs Inversus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Olusegun Akinwale; Malan, Nico; Hammond, Emmanuel Niiboye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben

    2016-01-01

    Dextrocardia is a cardiac positional anomaly in which the heart is located in the right hemithorax with its base-to-apex axis directed to the right and caudad. Situs inversus is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes organs in the chest and abdomen to be positioned in a mirror image from their normal position. Dextrocardia may occur in isolation or as part of situs inversus. Similarly, situs inversus may occur with or without dextrocardia. Situs inversus accompanied with dextrocardia (situs inversus totalis) is a rare congenital abnormality occurring in 0.01% of live births. Herein, we present the case of a 35-year-old man with previously diagnosed situs inversus totalis with mirror-image dextrocardia, referred to our facility for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The incidence and presentation of CAD in patients with dextrocardia are similar to the normal population. However, considerable attention should be paid to the acquisition of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and data processing/analysis in this group of patients. The present case highlights the distinctive applications and potential pitfalls of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in patients with dextrocardia.

  16. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Dextrocardia with Situs Inversus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Akinwale Ayeni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrocardia is a cardiac positional anomaly in which the heart is located in the right hemithorax with its base-to-apex axis directed to the right and caudad. Situs inversus is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes organs in the chest and abdomen to be positioned in a mirror image from their normal position. Dextrocardia may occur in isolation or as part of situs inversus. Similarly, situs inversus may occur with or without dextrocardia. Situs inversus accompanied with dextrocardia (situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital abnormality occurring in 0.01% of live births. Herein, we present the case of a 35-yearold man with previously diagnosed situs inversus totalis with mirror-image dextrocardia, referred to our facility for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. The incidence and presentation of CAD in patients with dextrocardiaare similar to the normal population. However, considerable attention should be paid to the acquisition of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and data processing/analysis in this group of patients. The present case highlights thedistinctive applications and potential pitfalls of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging in patients with dextrocardia.

  17. Computational tools and methods for objective assessment of image quality in x-ray CT and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Robin

    Computational tools of use in the objective assessment of image quality for tomography systems were developed for computer processing units (CPU) and graphics processing units (GPU) in the image quality lab at the University of Arizona. Fast analytic x-ray projection code called IQCT was created to compute the mean projection image for cone beam multi-slice helical computed tomography (CT) scanners. IQCT was optimized to take advantage of the massively parallel architecture of GPUs. CPU code for computing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection images was written calling upon previous research in the image quality lab. IQCT and the SPECT modeling code were used to simulate data for multi-modality SPECT/CT observer studies. The purpose of these observer studies was to assess the benefit in image quality of using attenuation information from a CT measurement in myocardial SPECT imaging. The observer chosen for these studies was the scanning linear observer. The tasks for the observer were localization of a signal and estimation of the signal radius. For the localization study, area under the localization receiver operating characteristic curve (A LROC) was computed as AMeasLROC = 0.89332 ± 0.00474 and ANoLROC = 0.89408 ± 0.00475, where "Meas" implies the use of attenuation information from the CT measurement, and "No" indicates the absence of attenuation information. For the estimation study, area under the estimation receiver operating characteristic curve (AEROC) was quantified as AMeasEROC = 0.55926 ± 0.00731 and ANoEROC = 0.56167 ± 0.00731. Based on these results, it was concluded that the use of CT information did not improve the scanning linear observer's ability to perform the stated myocardial SPECT tasks. The risk to the patient of the CT measurement was quantified in terms of excess effective dose as 2.37 mSv for males and 3.38 mSv for females. Another image quality tool generated within this body of work was a singular value

  18. Quantification of GABAA receptors in the rat brain with [(123)I]Iomazenil SPECT from factor analysis-denoised images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Dumas, Noé; Tournier, Benjamin B; Ghezzi, Catherine; Charnay, Yves; Ginovart, Nathalie; Millet, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In vivo imaging of GABAA receptors is essential for the comprehension of psychiatric disorders in which the GABAergic system is implicated. Small animal SPECT provides a modality for in vivo imaging of the GABAergic system in rodents using [(123)I]Iomazenil, an antagonist of the GABAA receptor. The goal of this work is to describe and evaluate different quantitative reference tissue methods that enable reliable binding potential (BP) estimations in the rat brain to be obtained. Five male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for [(123)I]Iomazenil brain SPECT scans. Binding parameters were obtained with a one-tissue compartment model (1TC), a constrained two-tissue compartment model (2TCc), the two-step Simplified Reference Tissue Model (SRTM2), Logan graphical analysis and analysis of delayed-activity images. In addition, we employed factor analysis (FA) to deal with noise in data. BPND obtained with SRTM2, Logan graphical analysis and delayed-activity analysis was highly correlated with BPF values obtained with 2TCc (r=0.954 and 0.945 respectively, panalysis can provide equally reliable BPND values from rat brain [(123)I]Iomazenil SPECT. Acquisitions, however, can be much less time-consuming either with analysis of delayed activity obtained from a 20-minute scan 50min after tracer injection or with FA-denoising of images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the superselective radioligand [123I]PE2I for imaging of the dopamine transporter in SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten

    2011-01-01

    than [123I]FP-CIT. Because of its fast kinetic properties, quantification of [123I]PE2I binding to DAT is possible using kinetic or graphical analysis following bolus injection of tracer or as a combination of bolus and constant infusion. Based on preliminary bolus trials we have been able to calculate...... a B/I ratio of [123I]PE2I. This B/I ratio (2.7h) gave rise to steady state conditions and excellent reproducibility. Further, manual delineation of ROI directly on SPECT images performed equally well to a MRI-defined probability map based ROI delineation in terms of intrasubject variability of binding...... the more laborious B/I design it is currently to be considered the best radioligand for imaging the DAT in the human brain with SPECT....

  20. Evaluation of the superselective radioligand [123I]PE2I for imaging of the dopamine transporter in SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten

    than [123I]FP-CIT. Because of its fast kinetic properties, quantification of [123I]PE2I binding to DAT is possible using kinetic or graphical analysis following bolus injection of tracer or as a combination of bolus and constant infusion. Based on preliminary bolus trials we have been able to calculate...... a B/I ratio of [123I]PE2I. This B/I ratio (2.7h) gave rise to steady state conditions and excellent reproducibility. Further, manual delineation of ROI directly on SPECT images performed equally well to a MRI-defined probability map based ROI delineation in terms of intrasubject variability of binding...... the more laborious B/I design it is currently to be considered the best radioligand for imaging the DAT in the human brain with SPECT....

  1. Reduction of noise due to systematic uncertainties in 113mIn SPECT imaging using information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, P T; Phoha, Vir V; Iyengar, S S; Iyengar, Puneeth

    2009-05-01

    SPECT images using radiopharmaceuticals are limited by noise caused by both random and systematic uncertainties. All the efforts so far have been directed only to minimize the random uncertainty and no attempt has ever been made to minimize the noise due to systematic uncertainty. As these radiopharmaceuticals encounter many systematic uncertainties during their formation, we constructed the covariance matrix with some of these systematic uncertainties for the gamma count rate of (113m)In. We describe the algorithm we have developed based on the technique of determinant inequalities and the concept of minimization of mutual information to process the covariance matrix element by element to minimize the noise caused by systematic uncertainty in the SPECT imaging of (113m)In and its utility to experimentalists to design and improve their process of measurement and instrumentation.

  2. A study of partial volume effect on SPECT imaging using myocardial phantom. With HCM (ASH) model myocardial phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoguchi, Masahisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-05-01

    In order to evaluate simultaneously both myocardial perfusion and regional wall motion using ECG-gated myocardial SPECT imaging, correction for the partial volume effect (PVE) should be performed. For the quantitative analysis of myocardial SPECT imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), we formed a new phantom simulating HCM with various septal wall thicknesses and estimated PVE using the recovery coefficient (RC). The value of RC in all phantoms increased with increasing thickness of the septal wall reaching a plateau at 25 mm for the cylindrical phantom and 25 mm for the Ep-phantom. Compared with the RC value, the PMMA-phantom had little influence on PVE. Therefore, our results suggested that the count in the septal wall could be underestimated if PVE was corrected by the value obtained for the cylindrical phantom. In conclusion, our new phantom simulating HCM was useful in assessing PVE in the hypertrophic septal wall. (author)

  3. Selective Spleen Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Accessory Spleen/ Splenosis in Splenectomized/Nonsplenectomized Patients and the Contribution of SPECT Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Ekmekçi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the results of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS and contribution of SPECT imaging to planar imaging in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized patients. Methods: We retrospectively examined 112 SSSs of 96 patients. The patients were divided into two groups as splenectomized group (SP and non-splenectomized group (NSP. The findings were evaluated by comparing the results of surgery,computerized tomography (CT, ultrasonography (USG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In addition, whether or not differences existed between the results of SPECT and planar imaging was determined. Results: Of 66 scintigraphies performed in the NSP group, 3 (5% had positive, 3 (5% had suspicious and 60 (90% had negative results. In the NSP group, 28 patients underwent surgery and 12 accessory spleens were removed. Only 3 of these tissues were detected by scintigraphy. Of 46 patients in the SP group, 26 (57% had positive findings whereas 20 (43% had negative scintigraphies. Twelve accessory spleens/splenosis were removed surgically in 10 patients with a positive SSS in the SP group. There were no false positive results in both groups of patients who underwent surgery. There was no significant difference between the results of SSS, USG and CT. Of 39 patients to whom SPECT were performed, 10 had positive results both with planar and SPECT imaging. On the other hand, 26 patients, 3 of whom had suspected findings in SPECT images, demonstrated negative results when evaluated with both imaging methods. Remaining 3 were considered suspicious by only SPECT images for the hilar area. Conclusion: SSS has high specificity in the detection of accessory spleens/splenosis. The sensitivity of SSS is low in the NSP group,but higher in the SP group. There is no contribution of SPECT imaging to planar imaging

  4. Selective Spleen Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Accessory Spleen/Splenosis in Splenectomized/Nonsplenectomized Patients and the Contribution of SPECT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Şeyma; Diz-Küçükkaya, Reyhan; Türkmen, Cüneyt; Adalet, Işık

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the results of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) and contribution of SPECT imaging to planar imaging in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized patients. Methods: We retrospectively examined 112 SSSs of 96 patients. The patients were divided into two groups as splenectomized group (SP) and non-splenectomized group (NSP). The findings were evaluated by comparing the results of surgery,computerized tomography (CT), ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, whether or not differences existed between the results of SPECT and planar imaging was determined. Results: Of 66 scintigraphies performed in the NSP group, 3 (5%) had positive, 3 (5%) had suspicious and 60 (90%) had negative results. In the NSP group, 28 patients underwent surgery and 12 accessory spleens were removed. Only 3 of these tissues were detected by scintigraphy. Of 46 patients in the SP group, 26 (57%) had positive findings whereas 20 (43%) had negative scintigraphies. Twelve accessory spleens/splenosis were removed surgically in 10 patients with a positive SSS in the SP group. There were no false positive results in both groups of patients who underwent surgery. There was no significant difference between the results of SSS, USG and CT. Of 39 patients to whom SPECT were performed, 10 had positive results both with planar and SPECT imaging. On the other hand, 26 patients, 3 of whom had suspected findings in SPECT images, demonstrated negative results when evaluated with both imaging methods. Remaining 3 were considered suspicious by only SPECT images for the hilar area. Conclusion: SSS has high specificity in the detection of accessory spleens/splenosis. The sensitivity of SSS is low in the NSP group,but higher in the SP group. There is no contribution of SPECT imaging to planar imaging. PMID:25800591

  5. Dedicated scanner for laboratory investigations on cone-beam CT/SPECT imaging of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Russo, Paolo, E-mail: russo@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Cesarelli, Mario; Ospizio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Biomedica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Passeggio, Giuseppe; Roscilli, Lorenzo; Pontoriere, Giuseppe; Rocco, Raffaele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-02-11

    We describe the design, realization and basic tests of a prototype Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography (CBBCT) scanner, combined with a SPECT head consisting of a compact pinhole gamma camera based on a photon counting CdTe hybrid pixel detector. The instrument features a 40 {mu}m focal spot X-ray tube, a 50 {mu}m pitch flat panel detector and a 1-mm-thick, 55 {mu}m pitch CdTe pixel detector. Preliminary imaging tests of the separate CT and gamma-ray units are presented showing a resolution in CT of 3.2 mm{sup -1} at a radial distance of 50 mm from the rotation axis and that the 5 and 8 mm hot masses ({sup 99m}Tc labeled with a 15:1 activity ratio with respect to the background) can be detected in planar gamma-ray imaging with a contrast-to-noise ratio of about 4.

  6. SPECT imaging as a tool to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Tobias; Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan; Håkansson, Ane

    2007-10-01

    International efforts are taken to avoid the proliferation of material and technologies that may lead to the development of nuclear weapons. These activities are called safeguards and involve inspections of spent nuclear fuel at nuclear power plants and storage facilities. At these inspections, various measuring techniques are employed for verifying the presence and identity of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. However, a fuel assembly contains about 100-300 fuel rods and techniques are also required for verifying that no individual fuel rods have been removed from the assembly. For this purpose, a non-destructive tomographic measurement technique for spent-fuel assemblies is being developed at Uppsala University, based on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The technique utilizes the γ-ray emission from spent fuel. The first step of the methodology is the recording of the γ-ray flux distribution in a large number of positions around the fuel assembly, using γ-ray detectors attached to a collimator system. In the following step, a cross-sectional image of the source distribution in the fuel assembly is reconstructed. Because the fuel rods are highly activated during reactor operation, and because they are stored in water with practically no radioactive content, they appear very clearly in this type of image. The technique has earlier been used for determining the power distribution in fuel assemblies [S. Jacobsson Svärd, A. Håkansson, et al., Nucl. Technol. 151(1) (2005) 70. [1

  7. Evaluation of two conjugate gradient based algorithms for quantitation in cardiac SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sire, P.; Grangeat, P.; Iovleff, S.; Mallon, L.A. [LETI CEA - Technologies Avancees, Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Correction attenuation in SPECT is a very important issue in cardiac imaging. In this paper we evaluate two conjugate gradient (CG) based algorithms to reconstruct an attenuation compensated emission map. The first algorithm is a classic preconditioned CG approach, the second one uses the minimal residual (MR) algorithm. We discuss the emission reconstruction problem and the difficulty to get a good uniformity within the reconstructed cardiac wall. An evaluation on numerical and real phantoms shows that the point spread function (PSF) of the system strongly affects the uniformity. Thus, two essential improvements are made. First, the response of the reconstruction procedure is made isotropic by replacing the classic 1D apodized ramp reconstruction filter with a 2D filter. Second, to improve the spatial resolution, we apply a PSF deconvolution to the projections. A threshold parameter is used to prevent the deconvolution from amplifying high-frequency noise. Stabilization is also achieved by incorporating into the reconstruction algorithms a regularization, which is made spatially adaptive to preserve high contrast within the heart while smoothing the rest of the image. Results obtained on numerical and anatomic phantoms show that the proposed algorithms lead to fast, stabilized and more accurate attenuation compensation.

  8. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT : Application in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, R.; Wu, C.; Tio, R.A.; Zeebregts, C.J.; Petrov, A.D.; Beekman, F.J.; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Boersma, H.H.; Slart, R.H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses

  9. Noninvasive quantification of coronary endothelial function by SPECT imaging in children with a history of Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicala, Silvana; Paladini, Rodolfo; Leva, Francesco de [Santobono-Pausilipon Children Medical Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Naples (Italy); Pellegrino, Teresa; Caprio, Maria Grazia [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [IRCCS, CROB, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Mainolfi, Ciro; Cuocolo, Alberto [Federico II University, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The feasibility of coronary function estimation by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been recently demonstrated. The aim of this study was to apply SPECT imaging in patients with previous Kawasaki disease (KD) to assess the coronary functional status at long-term follow-up of the acute phase of the disease. Sixteen children with a history of KD underwent {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi imaging at rest and during the cold pressor test (CPT). Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was estimated by measuring first transit counts in the pulmonary artery and myocardial counts from SPECT images. Coronary endothelial function was expressed as the ratio of the CPT to rest MBF. Six KD patients without coronary artery lesions served as controls and ten with coronary artery aneurysms during the acute phase of the disease were separated into two groups: group 1 (n = 4) with regressed and group 2 (n = 6) with persistent aneurysm at follow-up. The estimated coronary endothelial function was higher in controls compared to patients with coronary artery aneurysms (2.5 {+-} 0.3 vs 1.7 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.05). A significant difference in coronary endothelial function among groups was found (F = 5.21, p < 0.02). Coronary endothelial function was higher in patients of group 1 than in those of group 2 (1.9 {+-} 0.6 vs 1.4 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.02). SPECT may be applied as a noninvasive method for assessing coronary vascular function in children with a history of KD, demonstrating an impaired response to the CPT, an endothelial-dependent vasodilator stimulus. These findings reinforce the concept that coronary endothelial dysfunction may represent a long-term sequela of KD. (orig.)

  10. NP-59 SPECT/CT Imaging in Stage 1 Hypertensive and Atypical Primary Aldosteronism: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis of Clinicolaboratory and Imaging Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We retrospectively analyzed all primary aldosteronism (PA patients undergoing NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging with regard to their clinicolaboratory and imaging features, investigation, and outcomes. Material and Methods. 11 PA patients who presented to our hospital for NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging between April 2007 and March 2012 and managed here were analyzed. Results. Among 11 PA patients, eight (73% had stage 1 hypertension, three (27% stage 2 hypertension, four (36% normal plasma aldosterone concentration, nine (82% nonsuppressed plasma renin activity (PRA, six (55% normal aldosterone-renin-ratio (ARR, eight (73% serum potassium ≧3 mEq/L, seven (64% subclinical presentation, seven (64% negative confirmatory testing, and four (36% inconclusive results on CT scan and seven (64% on planar NP-59 scan. All 11 (100% patients had positive results on NP-59 SPECT/CT scan. Two (18% met typical triad and nine (82% atypical triad. Among nine atypical PA patients, three (33% had clinical presentation, six (67% subclinical presentation, six (67% negative confirmatory testing, and four (44% inconclusive results on CT scan and six (67% on planar NP-59 scan. All patients had improved outcomes. Significant differences between typical and atypical PA existed in PRA and ARR. Conclusions. NP-59 SPECT/CT may provide diagnostic potential in stage 1 hypertensive and atypical PA.

  11. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  12. SPECT {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi/{sup 123}I subtraction images merged to the scanner: interest of patients with hyperparathyroidism, candidates to surgery; Images de soustraction SPECT 99mTc-Sestamibi/123 I fusionnees au scanner: interet chez des patients avec hyperparathyroidie, candidats a la chirurgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullias, X.; Hapdey, S.; Salles, A.; Vera, P.; Edet-Sanson, A. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Guernou, M. [Centre cardiologique du Nord, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Hitzel, A. [CHU de Toulouse, 31 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: the aim of this study is to evaluate the interest of SPECT subtraction images merged to the scanner (S/CT), compared to planar subtraction (S/PL) and to echography, in the framework of hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions: Although subtraction SPECT images merged on CT have a sensitivity close to planar subtraction images, making this modality often allows to visualize the lesion to define its size and anatomical reports. These elements are a help for surgical management. (N.C.)

  13. Deuteron induced Tb-155 production, a theranostic isotope for SPECT imaging and auger therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2016-12-01

    Several terbium isotopes are suited for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. Tb-155 is of interest for SPECT imaging and/or Auger therapy. High radionuclide purity is mandatory for many applications in medicine. The quantification of the activity of the produced contaminants is therefore as important as that of the radionuclide of interest. The experiments performed at the ARRONAX cyclotron (Nantes, France), using the deuteron beam delivered up to 34MeV, provide an additional measurement of the excitation function of the Gd-nat(d,x)Tb-155 reaction and of the produced terbium and gadolinium contaminants. In this study, we investigate the achievable yield for each radionuclide produced in natural gadolinium as a function of the deuteron energy. Other reactions are discussed in order to define the production route that could provide Tb-155 with a high yield and a high radionuclide purity. This article aims to improve data for the Gd-nat(d,x) reaction and to optimize the irradiation conditions required to produce Tb-155. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the scanning linear estimator (SLE) and ROI methods for quantitative SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Arda; Kupinski, Meredith; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; King, Michael A.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-08-01

    In quantitative emission tomography, tumor activity is typically estimated from calculations on a region of interest (ROI) identified in the reconstructed slices. In these calculations, unpredictable bias arising from the null functions of the imaging system affects ROI estimates. The magnitude of this bias depends upon the tumor size and location. In prior work it has been shown that the scanning linear estimator (SLE), which operates on the raw projection data, is an unbiased estimator of activity when the size and location of the tumor are known. In this work, we performed analytic simulation of SPECT imaging with a parallel-hole medium-energy collimator. Distance-dependent system spatial resolution and non-uniform attenuation were included in the imaging simulation. We compared the task of activity estimation by the ROI and SLE methods for a range of tumor sizes (diameter: 1-3 cm) and activities (contrast ratio: 1-10) added to uniform and non-uniform liver backgrounds. Using the correct value for the tumor shape and location is an idealized approximation to how task estimation would occur clinically. Thus we determined how perturbing this idealized prior knowledge impacted the performance of both techniques. To implement the SLE for the non-uniform background, we used a novel iterative algorithm for pre-whitening stationary noise within a compact region. Estimation task performance was compared using the ensemble mean-squared error (EMSE) as the criterion. The SLE method performed substantially better than the ROI method (i.e. EMSE(SLE) was 23-174 times lower) when the background is uniform and tumor location and size are known accurately. The variance of the SLE increased when a non-uniform liver texture was introduced but the EMSE(SLE) continued to be 5-20 times lower than the ROI method. In summary, SLE outperformed ROI under almost all conditions that we tested.

  15. The prognostic value of regadenoson SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukky, Rami; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Campagnoli, Tania; Wassouf, Marwan; Ali, Amjad

    2017-02-01

    The prognostic value of regadenoson SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been specifically studied in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We prospectively followed ESRD patients enrolled in the ASSUAGE and ASSUAGE-CKD trials in which they received regadenoson-stress 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT-MPI. Images were semiquantitatively analyzed by an investigator blinded to clinical and outcome data. Patients were followed for cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and coronary revascularization (CR). Revascularizations occurring >90 days post-MPI were considered "late" events. Survival analysis was performed using Cox regression models, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and known coronary artery disease. We analyzed 303 patients (mean age 54 years; 64% men), who were followed for 35 ± 10 months. Adjusting for clinical covariates, abnormal regadenoson-stress MPI (SSS ≥ 4) was associated with increased risk of the composite of cardiac death or MI (23.9% vs 14.4%; HR 1.88; CI 1.04-3.41; P = .037) and the composite of cardiac death, MI, or late CR (27.3% vs 16.7%; HR 1.80; CI 1.03-3.14; P = .039). Adjusting for clinical covariates, regadenoson-induced myocardial ischemia (SDS ≥ 2) was associated with increased rate of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, or CR (33.3% vs 16.9%; HR 1.97; CI 1.19-3.27; P = .008). Regadenoson-stress SPECT-MPI provides a significant prognostic value in patients with ESRD. ESRD patients with normal SPECT-MPI have relatively high adverse event rates.

  16. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural bodily orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. To solve this problem, this work describes an approach for recovering images from. tightly confined spaces using multimode fibers and analytically demonstrates that the concept is sound. The proof of concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The described approach also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually unaccessible).

  17. Micro-CT for anatomic referencing in PET and SPECT: radiation dose, biologic damage, and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersemans, Veerle; Thompson, James; Cornelissen, Bart; Woodcock, Michael; Allen, Philip D; Buls, Nico; Muschel, Ruth J; Hill, Mark A; Smart, Sean C

    2011-11-01

    CT is widely used for anatomic referencing of PET and SPECT images of small animals but requires sufficiently high radiation doses capable of causing significant DNA damage. Therefore, we described the relationship between radiation dose, biologic damage, and image quality to determine whether CT can be used without significantly compromising radiotherapy and tumor development studies. The CT dose index generated by the nanoSPECT/CT system was compared with measurements using EBT2 gafchromic film. The effects of micro-CT were evaluated in 2 mouse strains that differ in sensitivity to radiation. γH2AX foci analysis to determine leukocyte, liver, and jejunum DNA damage and hematoxylin and eosin staining to investigate macroscopic jejunum damage were performed. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and scanner linearity were determined to assess image quality. For the standard settings, that is, as set by the manufacturers, EBT2 gafchromic film dosimetry showed that the nanoSPECT/CT system underestimated the absorbed dose. Moreover, significant doses were obtained, resulting in a significant increase in γH2AX formation in leukocytes, liver, and jejunum 40 min after CT, using preset parameters when compared with nonimaged controls. The jejenum response was more pronounced for the more radiosensitive strain. In contrast to leukocytes, the liver and jejunum still showed evidence of DNA damage 3 d after CT. Contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, and scanner linearity were sufficient to allow for anatomic referencing for both imaging protocols tested. Anatomic reference images can be produced with no observable DNA damage or compromising image quality using low radiographic voltage, flux, and duration.

  18. Reduction in occupational and patient radiation exposure from myocardial perfusion imaging: impact of stress-only imaging and high-efficiency SPECT camera technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, W Lane; Guma, Krista A; Kamen, Jacob; Croft, Lori B; Parides, Michael; George, Titus; Henzlova, Milena J

    2013-08-01

    Recently introduced high-efficiency SPECT cameras have demonstrated the ability to reduce radiation exposure to patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging studies, especially when combined with stress-only imaging protocols. To date there have been no relevant studies examining the reduced occupational radiation exposure to medical staff. We sought to determine whether changes in stress myocardial perfusion imaging protocols and camera technology can reduce the occupational radiation exposure to the staff of a nuclear cardiology laboratory. Monthly radiation dosimeter readings from 4 nuclear technologists, 4 nurses, and 2 administrative employees were analyzed from two 12-mo periods: October 2007-September 2008 (period 1), before the use of high-efficiency SPECT, and October 2010-September 2011 (period 2), after high-efficiency SPECT was introduced. The average monthly dose equivalent in millirems (1 mrem = 0.01 mSv) was recorded from personal dosimeters worn on laboratory coats. The total activity of (99m)Tc used per month, mean (99m)Tc administered activity per patient, average number of patients per month, patient time spent in the laboratory, and proportion of stress-only studies were determined. There were 3,539 patients in period 1 and 3,898 in period 2. An approximately 40% reduction in the dose equivalent across all staff members occurred during this time (-16.9 and -16.2 mrem for nuclear technologists and nurses, respectively; P efficiency SPECT technology and stress-only protocols resulted in a 34.7% reduction in mean total (99m)Tc administered activity between time periods, with camera technology being responsible for 39.2% of the reduction and stress-only protocols for 60.8%. A combination of high-efficiency SPECT technology and selective use of stress-only protocols significantly reduces the occupational radiation dose equivalent to the staff of a nuclear cardiology laboratory.

  19. Calculation of variability in myocardial uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin at exercise and rest SPECT images. Application to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nii, Takeshi; Nishida, Takuji; Kakizaki, Junko; Sugahara, Syuji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We examined whether or not it is better to use delayed myocardial SPECT images in determining the variability in myocardial uptake ({Delta}TF) of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin under the one-day protocol. We injected 370 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin at peak exercise, and initial (TF1) and delayed (TF2) exercise SPECT images were acquired 30 min and 3 hr, respectively, after the injection. Then, 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin was reinjected soon after TF2 acquisition, and rest SPECT images (TF3) were obtained 30 min later. Myocardial counts of TF1, TF2, and TF3 were defined as C1, C2, and C3, respectively, and {Delta}TF was determined by the following formula: {Delta}TF(A) = ({l_brace}C1 x R-(C3-C2`){r_brace}/(C3-C2`)) x 100(%). {Delta}TF(B) = ({l_brace}C1 x R-(C3-C1`){r_brace}/(C3-C1`)) x 100(%), where R is dose ratio, A is the procedure of imaging with delayed exercise SPECT, and B is the procedure of imaging without delayed exercise SPECT. The combination in which the delayed image was used better clarified the decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin at the hypertrophied myocardium, and thus proved to be useful. (author)

  20. The Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis Using SPECT V/Q Imaging Combined with D-Dimer Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xia;MENG Jing-jing;XIE Xiao-fen;WANG Qian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 全文: PDF (2692 KB HTML (1 KB 输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS 摘要 研究V/Q断层显像半定量分析联合测定血浆D-二聚体早期、准确诊断肺栓塞的价值,尤其在小面积肺栓塞诊断中的应用优势。疑诊肺栓塞来核医学科行V/Q断层显像患者共156例,以CT肺血管造影(computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, CTPA)检查及临床诊断为分组标准,肺栓塞组患者101例,非肺栓塞组患者55例。比较SPECT V/Q断层显像、血浆D-二聚体测定以及SPECT V/Q断层显像联合血浆D-二聚体测定三种方法对肺栓塞的诊断效能。应用Philips公司Oasis图像后处理软件对栓塞面积进行半定量分析,进一步评估对于肺栓塞面积占双肺容积≤15%的小面积肺栓塞的诊断价值。结果显示,血浆D-二聚体测定对于肺栓塞的诊断有较高的灵敏度(70.3%),但是特异性(61.8%)差;SPECT V/Q断层显像半定量分析对于肺栓塞的诊断具有较高的灵敏度和特异性,分别为85.1%、90.9%;而二者联合应用,诊断肺栓塞效能最高,灵敏度和特异性分别为91.1%、98.2%。 其中SPECT V/Q断层显像半定量分析对于肺栓塞面积小于15%的小面积肺栓塞诊断有优势。放射性核素SPECT V/Q断层显像联合测定血浆D-二聚体能显著提高肺栓塞的诊断效能,是临床实用、安全有效的肺栓塞疑诊患者诊断策略。 服务 把本文推荐给朋友 加入我的书架 加入引用管理器 E-mail Alert RSS 作者相关文章 卢霞 孟晶晶 解小芬 王蒨 关键词 : 肺栓塞, SPECT V/Q显像, 血浆D-二聚体测定, 诊断效能 Abstract: To evaluate the early and accurate diagnostic value of SPECT V/Q imaging combined with D-dimer assay,especially in non massive pulmonary embolism group. 156 patients with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA, Geneva score, response of anticoagulation treatments, who was selected from 321

  1. Risk stratification using line source attenuation correction with rest/stress Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Afrooz; Ahlberg, Alan W; Katten, Deborah M; Santilli, Krista; Polk, Donna M; Bateman, Timothy M; Heller, Gary V

    2014-02-01

    Although line source attenuation correction (AC) in SPECT MPI studies improves diagnostic accuracy, its prognostic value is less understood. Consecutive patients (n = 6,513) who underwent rest/stress AC ECG-gated SPECT MPI were followed for cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). A 17-segment model and AC summed stress score (SSS) were used to classify images. Of the 6,513 patients, cardiac death or non-fatal MI occurred in 267 (4.1%), over 2.0 ± 1.4 years. The AC-SSS in patients with a cardiac event (5.6 ± 7.8) was significantly higher than in those without (1.9 ± 4.6, P 8 with annualized cardiac event rates of 1.1%, 3.2%, and 8.5%, respectively (P 8 emerged as independent predictors of cardiac events (P stress ECG-gated SPECT MPI with line source AC provides highly effective and incremental risk stratification for future cardiac events.

  2. Disappearance of myocardial perfusion defects on prone SPECT imaging: Comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients without established coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedén Bo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is of great clinical importance to exclude myocardial infarction in patients with suspected coronary artery disease who do not have stress-induced ischemia. The diagnostic use of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT in this situation is sometimes complicated by attenuation artifacts that mimic myocardial infarction. Imaging in the prone position has been suggested as a method to overcome this problem. Methods In this study, 52 patients without known prior infarction and no stress-induced ischemia on SPECT imaging were examined in both supine and prone position. The results were compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR with delayed-enhancement technique to confirm or exclude myocardial infarction. Results There were 63 defects in supine-position images, 37 of which disappeared in the prone position. None of the 37 defects were associated with myocardial infarction by CMR, indicating that all of them represented attenuation artifacts. Of the remaining 26 defects that did not disappear on prone imaging, myocardial infarction was confirmed by CMR in 2; the remaining 24 had no sign of ischemic infarction but 2 had other kinds of myocardial injuries. In 3 patients, SPECT failed to detect small scars identified by CMR. Conclusion Perfusion defects in the supine position that disappeared in the prone position were caused by attenuation, not myocardial infarction. Hence, imaging in the prone position can help to rule out ischemic heart disease for some patients admitted for SPECT with suspected but not documented ischemic heart disease. This would indicate a better prognosis and prevent unnecessary further investigations and treatment.

  3. Double-phase (131)I whole body scan and (131)I SPECT-CT images in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: their effectiveness for accurate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Makoto; Inaki, Anri; Nakamura, Ayane; Kayano, Daiki; Kinuya, Seigo

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to determine whether a (131)I double-phase whole body scan (WBS) and SPECT-CT images have added value over a single-phase WBS image in identifying benign and malignant lesions in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at their first radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment. This study included 42 DTC patients who underwent their first radioablation. Post-therapeutic WBS images were acquired after 3 days (early phase) and 7 days (delayed phase). Following early-phase WBS, SPECT-CT images were obtained. The images were reviewed independently of the clinical data by 2 board-certified observers with a 6-point scoring system (benign to malignant -3 to +3). The double-phase WBS and SPECT-CT images showed 115 radioiodine-avid localizations (81 benign and 34 malignant accumulations). Confidence levels of benign accumulations were significantly higher with SPECT-CT (average score -2.40 ± 1.06) compared to those of the early-phase WBS (average score -1.39 ± 1.88) (p images (average score -1.49 ± 1.19) (p confidence score in the early-phase WBS image, the confidence level of the delayed-phase WBS was higher compared to that of the early-phase WBS images (p = 0.0012). The confidence levels of malignant accumulations were significantly higher with SPECT-CT images (average score 2.37 ± 0.96) compared to the early-phase WBS (average score 1.44 ± 1.21) (p images (average score 1.50 ± 1.13) (p image was superior to the early-phase WBS image in enhancing the confidence level and accurately localizing the lesions. The delayed-phase WBS image contributed to the accurate diagnosis of benign lesions with a low confidence level in the early-phase WBS image.

  4. SPECT imaging of myocardial infarction using {sup 99m}Tc-labeled C2A domain of synaptotagmin I in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Wei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037 (China); Wang Feng [Nuclear Medicine Department, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210006 (China); Ji Shundong [Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, 1st Hospital of Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhu Xiaoguang [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53226 (United States); Meier, Heidi T. [Clinical Veterinarian and Radiology Research, Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53295 (United States); Hellman, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53226 (United States); Brindle, Kevin M. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH (United Kingdom); Davletov, Bazbek [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Zhao Ming [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53226 (United States)], E-mail: mzhao@mcw.edu

    2007-11-15

    Introduction: The C2A domain of synaptotagmin I recognizes necrotic and apoptotic cells by binding to exposed anionic phospholipids. The goal is to explore the potential imaging utility of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled C2A in the detection of acute cardiac cell death in a porcine model that resembles human cardiovascular physiology. Methods: Ischemia (20-25 min) was induced in pigs (M/F, 20-25 kg) using balloon angioplasty. {sup 99m}Tc-C2A-GST (n=7) or {sup 99m}Tc-BSA (n=2) was injected intravenously 1-2 h after reperfusion. Noninfarct animals were injected with {sup 99m}Tc-C2A-GST (n=4). SPECT images were acquired at 3 and 6 h postinjection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed to confirm the presence of cell death. Results: Focal uptake was detected in five out of seven subjects at 3 h and in all infarct subjects at 6 h postinjection but not in infarct animals injected with {sup 99m}Tc-BSA or in noninfarct animals with {sup 99m}Tc-C2A-GST. Gamma counting of infarct versus normal myocardium yielded a 10.2{+-}5.7-fold elevation in absolute radioactivity, with histologically confirmed infarction. Conclusions: We present data on imaging myocardial cell death in the acute phase of infarction in pigs. C2A holds promise and warrants further development as an infarct-avid molecular probe.

  5. Voxel-based multimodel fitting method for modeling time activity curves in SPECT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrut, David; Halty, Adrien; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ferrer, Ludovic; Bardiès, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics from time-sequence SPECT images on a per-voxel basis is useful for studying activity nonuniformity or computing absorbed dose distributions by convolution of voxel kernels or Monte-Carlo radiation transport. Current approaches are either region-based, thus assuming uniform activity within the region, or voxel-based but using the same fitting model for all voxels. We propose a voxel-based multimodel fitting method (VoMM) that estimates a fitting function for each voxel by automatically selecting the most appropriate model among a predetermined set with Akaike criteria. This approach can be used to compute the time integrated activity (TIA) for all voxels in the image. To control fitting optimization that may fail due to excessive image noise, an approximated version based on trapezoid integration, named restricted method, is also studied. From this comparison, the number of failed fittings within images was estimated and analyzed. Numerical experiments were used to quantify uncertainties and feasibility was demonstrated with real patient data. Regarding numerical experiments, root mean square errors of TIA obtained with VoMM were similar to those obtained with bi-exponential fitting functions, and were lower ( 10%) than with single model approaches that consider the same fitting function for all voxels. Failure rates were lower with VoMM and restricted approaches than with single-model methods. On real clinical data, VoMM was able to fit 90% of the voxels and led to less failed fits than single-model approaches. On regions of interest (ROI) analysis, the difference between ROI-based and voxel-based TIA estimations was low, less than 4%. However, the computation of the mean residence time exhibited larger differences, up to 25%. The proposed voxel-based multimodel fitting method, VoMM, is feasible on patient data. VoMM leads organ-based TIA estimations similar to conventional ROI-based method. However, for

  6. SPECT/CT for imaging of the spine and pelvis in clinical routine: a physician's perspective of the adoption of SPECT/CT in a clinical setting with a focus on trauma surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyerer, Max J.; Zimmermann, Stefan M.; Osterhoff, Georg; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Werner, Clement M.L. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma Surgery, Zuerich (Switzerland); Pietsch, Carsten [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Injuries of the axial skeleton are an important field of work within orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. Most lesions following trauma may be diagnosed by means of conventional plain radiography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. However, for some aspects SPECT/ CT can be helpful even in a trauma setting. In particular, the combination of highly sensitive but nonspecific scintigraphy with nonsensitive but highly specific computed tomography makes it particularly useful in anatomically complex regions such as the pelvis and spine. From a trauma surgeon's point of view, the four main indications for nuclear medicine imaging are the detection of (occult) fractures, and the imaging of inflammatory bone and joint diseases, chronic diseases and postoperative complications such as instability of instrumentation or implants. The aim of the present review was to give an overview of the adoption of SPECT/CT in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  7. SPECT/CT for imaging of the spine and pelvis in clinical routine: a physician's perspective of the adoption of SPECT/CT in a clinical setting with a focus on trauma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyerer, Max J; Pietsch, Carsten; Zimmermann, Stefan M; Osterhoff, Georg; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Werner, Clement M L

    2014-05-01

    Injuries of the axial skeleton are an important field of work within orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. Most lesions following trauma may be diagnosed by means of conventional plain radiography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. However, for some aspects SPECT/ CT can be helpful even in a trauma setting. In particular, the combination of highly sensitive but nonspecific scintigraphy with nonsensitive but highly specific computed tomography makes it particularly useful in anatomically complex regions such as the pelvis and spine. From a trauma surgeon's point of view, the four main indications for nuclear medicine imaging are the detection of (occult) fractures, and the imaging of inflammatory bone and joint diseases, chronic diseases and postoperative complications such as instability of instrumentation or implants. The aim of the present review was to give an overview of the adoption of SPECT/CT in a clinical setting.

  8. SPECT image analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imon, Y; Matsuda, H; Ogawa, M; Kogure, D; Sunohara, N

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Parkinson's disease using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 28 patients with Parkinson's disease and 48 age-matched healthy volunteers. The Parkinson's disease patients were divided into two groups, 16 patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage I or II and 12 patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage III or IV. We used the raw data (absolute rCBF parametric maps) and the adjusted rCBF images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global CBF for each subject to 50 mL/100 g/min with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with SPM. In patients with stage I or II Parkinson's disease, we found a diffuse decrease in absolute rCBF in the whole brain with sparing of the central gray matter, hippocampus and right lower temporal lobe compared with healthy volunteers. Adjusted rCBF increased in both putamina and the right hippocampus. In patients with stage III or IV disease, rCBF decreased throughout the whole brain. Adjusted rCBF increased bilaterally in the putamina, globi pallidi, hippocampi and cerebellar hemispheres (dentate nuclei) and in the left ventrolateral thalamus, right insula and right inferior temporal gyrus. SPM analysis showed that significant rCBF changes in Parkinson's disease accompanied disease progression and related to disease pathophysiology in the functional architecture of thalamocortex-basal ganglia circuits and related systems.

  9. Brain SPECT imaging and whole-body biodistribution with [{sup 123}I]ADAM - a serotonin transporter radiotracer in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.-J. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-Y. [Neuroscience Research Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wey, S.-P. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jay [Health Physics Divisions, Atomic Energy Council, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.-K. [Atomic Energy Council, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yen1110@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2006-02-15

    Introduction: [{sup 123}I]-2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine ([{sup 123}I]ADAM), a novel radiotracer, has promising application in the imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the human brain. In this study, the optimal scanning time for acquiring brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was determined by performing dynamic SPECT studies at intervals from 0 to 6 h postinjection of [{sup 123}I]ADAM. Additionally, radiation-absorbed doses were determined for three healthy human subjects using attenuation-corrected images. Methods: Twelve subjects were randomized into one of three study groups as follows: whole-body distribution imaging (n=3), dynamic SPECT imaging (n=3) and brain SPECT imaging (n=6). The radiation-absorbed dose was calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 software with attenuation-corrected data. The specific binding (SB) ratio of the brain stem was measured from dynamic SPECT images to determine the optimal scanning time. Results: Dynamic SPECT images showed that the SB of the brain stem gradually increased to a maximum 4 h postinjection. Single photon emission computed tomography images at 4 h postinjection showed a high uptake of the radiotracer (SB) in the hypothalamus (1.40{+-}0.12), brain stem (1.44{+-}0.16), pons (1.13{+-}0.14) and medial temporal lobe (0.59{+-}0.10). The mean adult male value of effective dose was 3.37x10{sup -2} mSv/MBq with a 4.8-h urine-voiding interval. Initial high uptake in SERT-rich sites was demonstrated in the lung and brain. A prominent washout of the radiotracer from the lung further increased brain radioactivity that reached a peak value of 5.03% of injected dose 40 min postinjection. Conclusions: [{sup 123}I]ADAM is a promising radiotracer for SPECT imaging of SERT in humans with acceptable dosimetry and high uptake in SERT-rich regions. Brain SPECT images taken within 4 h following injection show optimal levels of radiotracer uptake in known SERT sites. However, dynamic

  10. Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Avaliacao de foco epileptogenico do lobo temporal: correlacao entre SPECT ictal, ressonancia magnetica e ressonancia magnetica com espectroscopia de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegues, Maria Elena Martins [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: emartyns@terra.com.br; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video-EEG monitoring, using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD, administered to patients at the time of the ictus. MRI was performed in T1, T2 and FLAIR sequences and MRS was obtained using the PRESS technique, with a single voxel positioned in both hippocampi. The statistical analysis included the determination of the values of Kappa (k), standard error (se) and significance level (p) for the lateralization of the ictal focus. The analysis of all findings was based on EEG localization of the ictal discharge, seizure duration (109-280 s; 152 s average) and time of radiotracer injection (30-262 s; 96 s average). We obtained correlated data in four patients (67 per cent) and values of k = 0.67, se = 0.38, and p 0.041. We concluded that there is a concordance between ictal SPECT, MRI and MRS data and the usefulness of the radioisotopic procedure is related to a non diagnostic EEG and when there is a discordant or misleading diagnosis after a comparative analysis of EEG and MRS. (author)

  11. LV dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Dianfu; Miao, Changqing; Zhou, Yanli; Cao, Kejiang [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Feng, Jianlin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lloyd, Michael S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen, Ji [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome pre- and post-radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) using phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Forty-five WPW patients were enrolled and had gated SPECT MPI pre- and 2-3 days post-RFA. Electrophysiological study (EPS) was used to locate accessory pathways (APs) and categorize the patients according to the AP locations (septal, left and right free wall). Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed pre- and post-RFA to confirm successful elimination of the APs. Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI was used to assess LV dyssynchrony pre- and post-RFA. Among the 45 patients, 3 had gating errors, and thus 42 had SPECT phase analysis. Twenty-two patients (52.4 %) had baseline LV dyssynchrony. Baseline LV dyssynchrony was more prominent in the patients with septal APs than in the patients with left or right APs (p < 0.05). RFA improved LV synchrony in the entire cohort and in the patients with septal APs (p < 0.01). Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI demonstrated that LV mechanical dyssynchrony can be present in patients with WPW syndrome. Septal APs result in the greatest degree of LV mechanical dyssynchrony and afford the most benefit after RFA. This study supports further investigation in the relationship between electrical and mechanical activation using EPS and phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  12. A miniature forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui

    2012-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had a tremendous global health impact upon the current ability to diagnose, treat, and monitor multiple eye diseases. We propose that a miniature forward-imaging OCT probe can be developed for real-time ocular imaging. A miniature 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was designed and developed to use with an 850 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC). Imaging parameters were determined. Ocular tissues were examined with the miniature OCT probe. A miniature SDOCT probe was developed with the scanning driver within the hand piece. The SDOCT fiber-scanning probe maximally transmitted power of 800 μW. The scanning range was 3 mm when the probe tip was held 3 to 5 mm from the tissue surface. The axial resolution was 6 μm and the lateral resolution was 30-35 μm. The 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was used to image cellophane tape, eyelid skin, cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, anterior lens, anterior chamber angle, retina, retinal tear, retinal detachment, optic nerve head, and optic nerve sheath. Images obtained from the miniature probe appeared similar to images from a 3 mm scanning range of a commercial large handheld OCT probe (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC).

  13. Prospective clinical and DaT-SPECT imaging in premotorLRRK2G2019S-associated Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; González-Aramburu, Isabel; Jiménez-Alonso, Mikel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Berciano, José; Banzo, Ignacio; Infante, Jon

    2017-08-01

    To assess the value of baseline clinical and imaging biomarkers in a cohort of asymptomatic LRRK2 G2019S carriers for predicting conversion to Parkinson disease (PD) at 4 years. Thirty-two asymptomatic carriers of LRRK2 G2019S mutation underwent baseline and 4-year evaluation including clinical examination (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III, olfaction University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test [UPSIT]) and dopamine transporter (DaT) SPECT ( 123 I-ioflupane). Visual and semiquantitative analysis of images was performed. The specific striatal binding ratio was calculated (striatal region of interest [ROI] - occipital ROI/occipital ROI). Three carriers, asymptomatic at baseline, had converted to PD at 4-year evaluation. Twenty-three participants were fully evaluated. PD converters had lower striatal DaT binding at baseline than nonconverters ( p = 0.002). A baseline scan with a ratio of bilateral striatal uptake below 1 predicted conversion to PD within the 4-year period with high sensitivity and specificity (area under the curve 1; p = 0.006). The slope of DaT binding decline between the 2 scans was similar in PD converters and nonconverters. Age-adjusted UPSIT score at baseline and at 4 years was similar in both groups. Semiquantitative DaT-SPECT could be used to predict early conversion to PD in asymptomatic carriers of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation. Rate of conversion to PD at 4 years in this cohort aged ∼64 years was 12%. The slope of DaT binding decline on DaT-SPECT imaging seems to be similar across different stages of the premotor period. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Radiolabeled Cyclic RGD Peptides as Radiotracers for Imaging Tumors and Thrombosis by SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Liu, Shuang

    2011-01-18

    The integrin family is a group of transmembrane glycoprotein comprised of 19 α- and 8 β-subunits that are expressed in 25 different α/β heterodimeric combinations on the cell surface. Integrins play critical roles in many physiological processes, including cell attachment, proliferation, bone remodeling, and wound healing. Integrins also contribute to pathological events such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, infection by pathogenic microorganisms, and immune dysfunction. Among 25 members of the integrin family, the α(v)β(3) is studied most extensively for its role of tumor growth, progression and angiogenesis. In contrast, the α(IIb)β(3 )is expressed exclusively on platelets, facilitates the intercellular bidirectional signaling ("inside-out" and "outside-in") and allows the aggregation of platelets during vascular injury. The α(IIb)β(3) plays an important role in thrombosis by its activation and binding to fibrinogen especially in arterial thrombosis due to the high blood flow rate. In the resting state, the α(IIb)β(3) on platelets does not bind to fibrinogen; on activation, the conformation of platelet is altered and the binding sites of α(IIb)β(3 )are exposed for fibrinogen to crosslink platelets. Over the last two decades, integrins have been proposed as the molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy of cancer, thrombosis and other diseases. Several excellent review articles have appeared recently to cover a broad range of topics related to the integrin-targeted radiotracers and their nuclear medicine applications in tumor imaging by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or a positron-emitting radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET). This review will focus on recent developments of α(v)β(3)-targeted radiotracers for imaging tumors and the use of α(IIb)β(3)-targeted radiotracers for thrombosis imaging, and discuss different approaches to maximize the targeting capability of

  15. Radiolabeled Cyclic RGD Peptides as Radiotracers for Imaging Tumors and Thrombosis by SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Liu, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    The integrin family is a group of transmembrane glycoprotein comprised of 19 α- and 8 β-subunits that are expressed in 25 different α/β heterodimeric combinations on the cell surface. Integrins play critical roles in many physiological processes, including cell attachment, proliferation, bone remodeling, and wound healing. Integrins also contribute to pathological events such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, infection by pathogenic microorganisms, and immune dysfunction. Among 25 members of the integrin family, the αvβ3 is studied most extensively for its role of tumor growth, progression and angiogenesis. In contrast, the αIIbβ3 is expressed exclusively on platelets, facilitates the intercellular bidirectional signaling (“inside-out” and “outside-in”) and allows the aggregation of platelets during vascular injury. The αIIbβ3 plays an important role in thrombosis by its activation and binding to fibrinogen especially in arterial thrombosis due to the high blood flow rate. In the resting state, the αIIbβ3 on platelets does not bind to fibrinogen; on activation, the conformation of platelet is altered and the binding sites of αIIbβ3 are exposed for fibrinogen to crosslink platelets. Over the last two decades, integrins have been proposed as the molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy of cancer, thrombosis and other diseases. Several excellent review articles have appeared recently to cover a broad range of topics related to the integrin-targeted radiotracers and their nuclear medicine applications in tumor imaging by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or a positron-emitting radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET). This review will focus on recent developments of αvβ3-targeted radiotracers for imaging tumors and the use of αIIbβ3-targeted radiotracers for thrombosis imaging, and discuss different approaches to maximize the targeting capability of cyclic RGD peptides

  16. Imaging bacterial peptidoglycan with near-infrared fluorogenic azide probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Peyton; Siegrist, M. Sloan; Cullen, Andrew J.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent probes designed for activation by bioorthogonal chemistry have enabled the visualization of biomolecules in living systems. Such activatable probes with near-infrared (NIR) emission would be ideal for in vivo imaging but have proven difficult to engineer. We present the development of NIR fluorogenic azide probes based on the Si-rhodamine scaffold that undergo a fluorescence enhancement of up to 48-fold upon reaction with terminal or strained alkynes. We used the probes for mammalian cell surface imaging and, in conjunction with a new class of cyclooctyne d-amino acids, for visualization of bacterial peptidoglycan without the need to wash away unreacted probe. PMID:24706769

  17. Comparison of SPECT imaging using monoclonal antibodies with computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for detection of recurrences of colorectal carcinoma: A prospective clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatal, J.F.; Saccavini, J.C.; Douillard, J.Y.; Curtet, C.; Kremer, M.; Le Mevel, B.

    1985-05-01

    A prospective clinical study compared SPECT imaging, ultrasonography (US), and computed tomography (CT) in 22 patients clinically or biologically (increased CEA and/or CA 19-9 serum concentration) suspected of recurrence of colorectal carcinoma. The recordings were performed 3 to 5 days after injection of 111 to 129.5 MBq of cocktail of I-131-labeled anti-CEA and 19-9 (F(ab')2 fragments) monoclonal antibodies. Twenty nine tumor sites were demonstrated by surgery or concordant results of conventional diagnostic methods. SPECT visualized 21 of these 29 tumor sites (72%). It was negative in 4 cases with no demonstrated recurrence (by any method and follow-up). With respect to localization of tumor sites, SPECT visualized 7/12 liver metastases, 8/8 local pelvic recurrences and 6/8 abdominal recurrences. CT and US, systematically performed blind after SPECT, respectively visualized 9/10 and 9/12 liver metastases, 7/12 and 4/13 pelvic and abdominal recurrences. Image interpretation of SPECT was difficult due to poor tumor contrast and the large number of low-intensity, nonspecific radioactive foci. A focus had to recur in at least 3 successive slices to be considered pathological. Four tumor sites were visualized with SPECT and not with US and CT (negative or uncertain results). SPECT would appear to be useful for localizing pelvic or abdominal recurrences in cases in which interpretation of US and CT images is difficult, often because their nonspecific approach does not make it possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from post-operative anatomical changes.

  18. The current status of SPECT or SPECT/CT in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Yong An [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon Saint Mary' s HospitalThe Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used. In Korea, SPECT/CT was for the first time installed in 2003. SPECT/CT can eliminate many possible pitfalls on SPECT-alone images, making better attenuation correction and thereby improving image quality. Therefore, SPECT/CT is clinically preferred in many hospitals in various aspects. More recently, additional SPECT/CT images taken from the region with equivocal uptake on planar images have been helpful in making precise interpretation as part of their clinical workup in postoperative thyroid cancer patients. SPECT and SPECT/CT have various advantages, but its clinical application has gradually decreased in recent few years. While some researchers investigated the myocardial blood flow with cardiac PET using F-18 FDG or N-13 ammonia, myocardial perfusion SPECT is, at present, the radionuclide imaging study of choice for the risk stratification and guiding therapy in the coronary artery disease patients in Korea. New diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for AD have received increasing attention; nevertheless, brain SPECT will remain the most reliable modality evaluating cerebral perfusion.

  19. Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled PSMA-SPECT/CT imaging in prostate cancer patients who have undergone biochemical relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Chuan Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using conventional imaging modalities, it is difficult to detect recurrent lesions in prostate cancer patients who have undergone biochemical relapse, especially in patients with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. We retrospectively reviewed the files of fifty patients with histopathologically confirmed prostate cancer who underwent 99mTc-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and bone scan within a 30-day period. PSMA-SPECT/CT indicated metastatic lesions in 39 patients and had a higher detection rate (78.0% than bone scan (34.0% or MRI (40.0%. The diagnostic efficiency of PSMA-SPECT/CT imaging for bone and lymph node metastases (50.0% and 42.0% was better than bone scan (34.0% and 0.0% or MRI (24.0% and 20.0%. PSMA-SPECT/CT provided a higher detection rate at serum PSA levels of ≤1 ng ml−1, 1-4 ng ml−1, 4-10 ng ml−1, and >10 ng ml−1. No correlation was found between Gleason score, PSA level, and the tracer tumor/background ratio of metastatic lesions. With the aid of PSMA-SPECT/CT imaging, the therapeutic strategy was changed for 31 patients, and this may have enhanced their clinical outcome. In conclusion, PSMA-SPECT/CT imaging could detect more metastatic lesions and achieve a higher detection rate than conventional imaging modalities at different serum PSA levels in prostate cancer patients who had undergone biochemical relapse.

  20. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  1. Preparation and biodistribution assessment of {sup 111}In-BPAMD as a novel agent for bone SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    An early diagnosis of bone metastases is very important for providing a profound decision on a subsequent therapy. In this study, a new agent for SPECT-imaging of bone metastases, {sup 111}In-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) -1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid ({sup 111}In-BPAMD) complex has been developed with specific activity of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography method indicated high radiochemical purity > 95% at the optimal conditions. The complex demonstrated significant stability at room temperature and in human serum at least for 48 h. Hydroxyapatite (HA) binding assay showed high binding ability of the radiolabeled complex even at the low amounts of HA. Also, log P measurements highlighted the strong hydrophilic nature of the complex. Biodistribution studies as well as planar imaging after injection of the complex into the male Syrian mice showed major accumulation of the labelled compound in the bone tissue. Totally, the obtained results indicated that {sup 111}In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics as an agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastases.

  2. Limitations of Tc99m-MIBI-SPECT imaging scans in persistent primary hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Janneke E.; Kievit, Job; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Morreau, Hans; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hamdy, Neveen A. T.

    2011-01-01

    In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) the predictive value of technetium 99m sestamibi single emission computed tomography (Tc99m-MIBI-SPECT) for localizing pathological parathyroid glands before a first parathyroidectomy (PTx) is 83-100%. Data are scarce in patients undergoing reoperative

  3. Collar Osteophytes Mimicking Osteonecrosis in Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Usefulness of SPECT/CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jr-Jian; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The use of prednisolone is one major risk factor for osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bone scintigraphy can be a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis. We present a case who had collar osteophytes at the bilateral femoral heads, which mimicked osteonecrosis in the planar bone scintigram. An SPECT/CT scan avoided this pitfall and increased the diagnostic accuracy for osteonecrosis.

  4. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, C.; De Bruin, K.; Beekman, F.J.; Booij, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [123I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [123I]IBZM

  5. SPECT imaging of D-2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Cynthia; de Bruin, Kora; Beekman, Freek; Booij, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The dopamine D-2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [I-123]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [I-123]IBZM

  6. Corrective 111 In Capromab Pendetide SPECT Image Reconstruction Methods for Improved Detection of Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    with compensation for attenuation and detector response (OSAD). The results in pink are from 25% lesion contrast with respect to background and the...Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1980. NS-27(3): p. 1137-1153. 10. Jaszczak, R.J., C.E. Floyd , Jr., and R.E. Coleman, Scatter Compensation Techniques For SPECT

  7. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.

  8. TH-C-17A-06: A Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of Robotic SPECT: Toward Molecular Imaging Onboard Radiation Therapy Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S; Touch, M [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Bowsher, J; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Cheng, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch. The system has potential for on-board functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was developed utilizing a Digirad 2020tc detector and a KUKA KR150-L110 robot. An imaging study was performed with the PET CT Phantom, which includes 5 spheres: 10, 13, 17, 22 and 28 mm in diameter. Sphere-tobackground concentration ratio was 6:1 of Tc99m. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired with a parallel-hole collimator and a single pinhole collimator. The robotic system navigated the detector tracing the flat-top table to maintain the closest possible proximity to the phantom. For image reconstruction, detector trajectories were described by six parameters: radius-of-rotation, x and z detector shifts, and detector rotation θ, tilt ϕ and twist γ. These six parameters were obtained from the robotic system by calibrating the robot base and tool coordinates. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector-to-COR (center-ofrotation) distance. In acquisitions with background at 1/6th sphere activity concentration, photopeak contamination was heavy, yet the 17, 22, and 28 mm diameter spheres were readily observed with the parallel hole imaging, and the single, targeted sphere (28 mm diameter) was readily observed in the pinhole region-of-interest (ROI) imaging. Conclusion: Onboard SPECT could be achieved by a robot maneuvering a SPECT detector about patients in position for radiation therapy on a flat-top couch. The robot inherent coordinate frame could be an effective means to estimate detector pose for use in SPECT image reconstruction. PHS/NIH/NCI grant R21-CA156390-01A1.

  9. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  10. SPECT imaging using [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]IBF in extrapyramidal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takahiro; Amano, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Atsushi; Fukuuchi, Yasuo [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-01-01

    Imaging of dopaminergic function is useful in the investigation of patients with Parkinson disease (iPD) and other extrapyramidal diseases. Using agents that bind to dopamine transporters ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) and receptors ([{sup 123}I]IBF SPECT), we investigated SPECT in 9 healthy volunteers and 24 patients for dopamine transporters as well as 15 patients for dopamine receptors. In {beta}-CIT SPECT studies, we examined 17 iPD patients (63.3{+-}9.9 y/o), 3 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients (olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type) (64.0{+-}8.0 y/o), 2 vascular parkinsonism (VP) patients (71.0{+-}0.0 y/o), 1 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patient (69 y/o), 1 cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) patient (50 y/o) and nine healthy controls (39.1{+-}9.3 y/o). For IBF SPECT studies 11 iPD patients (60.6{+-}10.9 y/o), 3 MSA patients (2 OPCA type (50.5{+-}3.5 y/o) and 1 striatonigral degeneration (SND) type (65 y/o)) and 1 PSP patient (60 y/o) underwent SPECT scans after the injection of [{sup 123}I]IBF. The specific to nonspecific striatal ratio (St/Oc-1), ratio of putaminal uptake to caudatal uptake (Pu/Ca), and asymmetry indices (AI) were estimated. {beta}-CIT studies showed ST/Oc-1 as follows; iPD: 2.66{+-}1.09 (n=17), VP: 5.73 and 7.39, MSA: 1.84{+-}0.46 (n=3), PSP: 2.34, CBD: 2.16. In all extrapyramidal diseases except VP, St/Oc-1 ratios were significantly lower than those in normal volunteers (6.46{+-}1.08) (p<0.01). Also in early-phase iPD patients (Yahr I-II), St/Oc-1 (3.16{+-}1.49: n=4) was significantly lower than those in normal volunteers (p<0.01). In IBF studies, St/Oc-1 ratios were significantly higher in early-phase (Yahr I-II) iPD patients (1.82{+-}0.25: n=5) than those in late-phase (Yahr III-IV) iPD patients (1.38{+-}0.32: n=6) (p<0.05). The Pu/Ca ratios in iPD patients (1.12{+-}0.13) and MSA (OPCA type) patients (0.95{+-}0.05) were higher than that in MSA (SND type) patient (0.78) and were lower than that in PSP patient (1.55). In conclusion

  11. Comparison of HR-SPECT and MR-imaging in the diagnosis of Perthes disease; Vergleich von HR-SPECT und MRT bei der Diagnostik des Morbus Perthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellerowicz, H. [Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, Oskar-Helene-Heim, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schulze, C. [Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, Oskar-Helene-Heim, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Stelling, E. [Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, Oskar-Helene-Heim, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Stabell, U. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Schedel, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Children, who are supposed to suffer from M. Legg-Perthes, are diagnosed by clinical-, X-ray examination and today mostly by MRT. MRT gives the most reliable information but high cost, small availability and the demand for resting motionless during the examination is regarded as a problem, especially concerning children. The aim of our study was to evaluate 3D-HR-SPECT as an alternative diagnostic procedure to MRT. 28 children (2-12 years, mean 6,2 years) suspected of suffering from M. Legg-Perthes underwent 3D-HR-SPECT and 16 of them MRT examination. In all 28 children diagnostic assessment of M. Legg-Perthes could be achieved by HR-SPECT (incl. 4 negative cases of transient synovialitis). In 10 cases findings corresponded to MRT evaluation. The statement upon the area of necrosis was similar in both methods, but the reaction of bone to necrosis could be judged in a more differentiated way in HR-SPECT. Besides lower costs further advantages of HR-SPECT were found due to the deficit of movement artifacts (no sedation was required). A disadvantage of this method is X-ray contamination at a low level of 250-400 MBrg. To our experience HR-SPECT is an alternative to MRT for early diagnosis of M. Calve-Legg-Perthes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei Kindern mit klinischem Verdacht auf einen M. Perthes ist neben der Anamnese, der klinischen Untersuchung und dem konventionellen Roentgenbild heute haeufig die Durchfuehrung einer kernspintomographischen Untersuchung der naechste Schritt. Der hohen Treffsicherheit dieses Verfahrens stehen jedoch die vergleichsweise geringe Verfuegbarkeit, die hohen Kosten und die Notwendigkeit, waehrend der Untersuchung ruhig zu liegen, was vor allem juengeren Kindern nicht immer gelingt, gegenueber. Ziel unserer Studie war es, die diagnostische Wertigkeit der 3D-HR-SPECT (High Resolution - Single Photonen Emission Computed Tomography) als alternatives Verfahren zur MRT zu ueberpruefen. Hierzu wurden 28 Kinder im Alter von 2-12 Jahren mit klinischem

  12. The influence of the image reconstruction in relative quantification in SPECT/PET/CT animal; A influencia da reconstrucao da imagem na quantificacao relativa em SPECT/PET/CT animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Sarah; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de, E-mail: sarahsoriano@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Sergio; Barboza, Thiago [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the spatial resolution of the equipment SPECT/PET/CT animal to different reconstruction methods and the influence of this parameter in the mouse dosimetry C57BL6, aimed at development of new radiopharmaceuticals for use in humans. CT and SPECT images were obtained from a simulator composed of four spheres of different diameters (d), which simulate captating lesions by the equipment FLEX ™ Triumph ™ Pre-Clinical Imaging System used for preclinical studies in the Hospital Universitario (HU/UFRJ). In order to simulate a real study, the total volume of the simulator (body) was filled with a solution of {sup 99m}Tc diluted in water and the spheres were filled with concentrations four time higher than the body of the simulator. From the gross SPECT images it was used filtered backprojection method (FBP) with application of different filters: Hamming, Hann and Ramp, ranging the cutoff frequencies. The resolution of the equipment found in the study was 9.3 to 9.4 mm, very below the value provided by the manufacturer of 1.6mm. Thus, the protocol for mice can be optimized as being the FBP reconstruction method of Hamming filter, cutoff of 0.5 to yield a resolution from 9.3 to 9.4mm. This value indicates that captating regions of diameter below 9.3 mm are not properly quantified.

  13. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Improved image quality in pinhole SPECT by accurate modeling of the point spread function in low magnification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain and Servei de Física Mèdica i Protecció Radiològica, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08907 (Spain); Roé, Nuria [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain and Grupo de Imagen Molecular, Instituto de Investigacións Sanitarias de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Galicia 15782 (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 08036, Spain and CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 080836 (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); and Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery

  15. Hybrid CCTA/SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging findings in patients with anomalous origin of coronary arteries from the opposite sinus and suspected concomitant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräni, Christoph; Benz, Dominik C; Schmied, Christian; Vontobel, Jan; Mikulicic, Fran; Possner, Mathias; Clerc, Olivier F; Stehli, Julia; Fuchs, Tobias A; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Gaemperli, Oliver; Buechel, Ronny R; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2017-02-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries originating from the opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS) are associated with adverse cardiac events. Discrimination between ACAOS and coronary artery disease (CAD)-related perfusion defects may be difficult. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of hybrid coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)/SPECT-MPI in patients with ACAOS and possible concomitant CAD. We retrospectively identified 46 patients (mean age 56 ± 12 years) with ACAOS revealed by CCTA who underwent additional SPECT-MPI. ACAOS with an interarterial course were classified as malignant, whereas all other variants were considered benign. CCTA/SPECT-MPI hybrid imaging findings (ischemia or scar) were analyzed according to the territory subtended by an anomalous vessel or a stenotic coronary artery. Twenty-six (57%) patients presented with malignant ACAOS. Myocardial ischemia or scar was found only in patients who had concomitant obstructive CAD in the vessel matching the perfusion defect as evidenced by hybrid CCTA/SPECT imaging. Hybrid CCTA/SPECT-MPI represents a valuable non-invasive tool to discriminate the impact of ACAOS from concomitant CAD on myocardial ischemia. Our results suggest that in a middle-aged population myocardial ischemia due to ACAOS per se may be exceedingly rare and is more likely attributable to concomitant CAD.

  16. Influence of proton-pump inhibitors on stomach wall uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouden, Mohamed; Rijkee, Karlijn S; Schreuder, Nanno; Timmer, Jorik R; Jager, Pieter L

    2015-02-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) induce potentially interfering stomach wall activity in single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestamibi. However, no data are available for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin. We assessed the influence of prolonged (>2 weeks) PPI use on the stomach wall uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in patients referred for stress MPI with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based SPECT camera and its relation with dyspepsia symptoms. Consecutive patients (n=127) underwent a 1-day adenosine stress-first SPECT-MPI with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, of whom 54 (43%) patients had been on PPIs for more than 2 weeks. Stomach wall activity was identified on stress SPECT using computed tomographic attenuation maps and was scored using a four-point grading scale into clinically relevant (scores 2 or 3) or nonrelevant (scores 0 or 1).Patients on PPIs had stomach wall uptake more frequently as compared with patients not using PPIs (22 vs. 7%, P=0.017). Dyspepsia was similar in both groups. Prolonged use of PPIs is associated with stomach wall uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in stress cadmium-zinc-telluride-SPECT images. Gastric symptoms were not associated with stomach wall uptake.

  17. [Development of a Fluorescence Probe for Live Cell Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aya

    2017-01-01

    Probes that detect specific biological materials are indispensable tools for deepening our understanding of various cellular phenomena. In live cell imaging, the probe must emit fluorescence only when a specific substance is detected. In this paper, we introduce a new probe we developed for live cell imaging. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity is higher in tumor cells than in normal cells and is involved in the development of resistance to various anticancer drugs. We previously reported the development of a general strategy for the synthesis of probes for detection of GST enzymes, including fluorogenic, bioluminogenic, and 19 F-NMR probes. Arylsulfonyl groups were used as caging groups during probe design. The fluorogenic probes were successfully used to quantitate very low levels of GST activity in cell extracts and were also successfully applied to the imaging of microsomal MGST1 activity in living cells. The bioluminogenic and 19 F-NMR probes were able to detect GST activity in Escherichia coli cells. Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are powerful tools for nucleic acid sensing. This strategy exploits the target strand as a template for two functionalized probes and provides a simple molecular mechanism for multiple turnover reactions. We developed a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction-triggered fluorescent probe. The probe completed its reaction within 30 s of initiation and amplified the fluorescence signal from 0.5 pM target oligonucleotide by 1500 fold under isothermal conditions. Additionally, we applied the oligonucleotide-templated reaction for molecular releasing and peptide detection.

  18. Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Mediastinum Characterized by Histology and Functional Imaging with I-123 SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare entity and when discovered it is typically along the pathway of embryologic migration of the thyroid. We present a case of incidental finding of ectopic thyroid tissue within mediastinum in a 61-year-old female patient with a history of total thyroidectomy for thyroiditis and nodules. The patient presented to emergency room with cough and right chest pain and underwent a chest computed tomographic angiogram (CTA to exclude pulmonary embolism as part of chest pain workup. One right paratracheal mediastinal soft tissue nodule was visualized on the images of CTA. This right paratracheal soft tissue mass was found to be ectopic benign thyroid tissue by histological analysis of the biopsied tissue samples. The function of this ectopic thyroid tissue was characterized by I-123 radioiodine uptake and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT imaging. This case illustrates that ectopic thyroid tissue should be included for differential diagnosis of a hyperdense soft tissue mass located within mediastinum. I-123 SPECT/CT is useful for guiding tissue biopsy of ectopic thyroid tissue distant from orthotopic thyroid gland and functional and anatomic characterization of mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue for surgical resection when it is medically necessary.

  19. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with (99m)Tc- and (123)I-labelled probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Meyer-Kirchrath, J; Hohlfeld, T; Vollmar, S; Oros-Peusquens, A M; Flögel, U; Jacoby, C; Krügel, U; Schramm, N

    2009-09-01

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of (123)I- and (99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D(2) receptor ligand [(123)I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [(99m)Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [(123)I]IPPA (0.94 +/- 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [(99m)Tc]sestamibi (3.8 +/- 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP(3) receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [(123)I]IBZM and of cardiac [(99m)Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [(123)I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [(99m)Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [(123)I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of (123)I- and (99m)Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers.

  20. Feasibility and image quality of dual-isotope SPECT using 18F-FDG and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin after acipimox administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Boen L R; Valkema, Roelf; Poldermans, Don; Bax, Jeroen J; Reijs, Ambroos E M; Rambaldi, Riccardo; Boersma, Eric; Rietveld, Trinet; Roelandt, Jos R T C; Krenning, Eric P

    2003-02-01

    Currently, with the rapidly increasing number of patients with heart failure due to chronic coronary artery disease, the need for viability studies to guide treatment in these patients is increasing. The most accurate method for viability assessment is metabolic imaging with (18)F-FDG with PET or SPECT. To obtain excellent image quality in all patients, the (18)F-FDG studies should be performed during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping. However, this approach is time-consuming and is not feasible in busy nuclear medicine laboratories. Recently, the use of a nicotinic acid derivative, acipimox, has been suggested, but limited data are available on the image quality of the (18)F-FDG studies using this approach. We evaluated the feasibility and image quality of (18)F-FDG SPECT (with dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) using (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin to assess perfusion) after acipimox administration in 50 nondiabetic patients. The image quality of both (18)F-FDG and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin was assessed visually and quantitatively using myocardium-to-blood-pool (M/B) ratios as a measure of target-to-background ratio. The image quality and diagnostic value of DISA (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT was compared with standard (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT at baseline. After acipimox administration, the plasma levels of free fatty acids were extremely low (68 +/- 89 nmol/L). No severe side effects were observed, only paroxysmal flushing. The (18)F-FDG image quality was good in 46 patients (92%) and moderate but still interpretable in the other 4 patients (8%). The clinical information of the baseline (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT was retained in the DISA (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT images because we did observe no substantial fill-in of perfusion defects by high (18)F-FDG uptake in the same segment. Cardiac (18)F-FDG SPECT after acipimox is safe and resulted consistently in good image quality; this simple approach may be the method of choice for routine cardiac metabolic imaging.

  1. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. Long-term prognostic value in diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehli, M. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland); Monbaron, D.; Gaillard, R.C.; Ruiz, J. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland); Prior, J.O.; Bischof Delaloye, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland); Calcagni, M.L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland); Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland); Fivaz-Arbane, M.; Stauffer, J.C. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: To determine the long-term prognostic value of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the occurrence of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. Patients, methods: SPECT MPI of 210 consecutive Caucasian diabetic patients were analysed using Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curve and independent predictors were determined by Cox multivariate analyses. Results: Follow-up was complete in 200 (95%) patients with a median period of 3.0 years (0.8-5.0). The population was composed of 114 (57%) men, age 65 {+-} 10 years, 181 (90.5%) type 2 diabetes mellitus, 50 (25%) with a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 98 (49%) presenting chest pain prior to MPI. The prevalence of abnormal MPI was 58%. Patients with a normal MPI had neither cardiac death, nor myocardial infarction, independently of a history of coronary artery disease or chest pain. Among the independent predictors of cardiac death and myocardial infarction, the strongest was abnormal MPI (p < 0.0001), followed by history of CAD (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 15.9; p = 0.0001), diabetic retinopathy (HR = 10.0; p = 0.001) and inability to exercise (HR = 7.7; p = 0.02). Patients with normal MPI had a low revascularisation rate of 2.4% during the follow-up period. Compared to normal MPI, cardiovascular events increased 5.2 fold for reversible defects, 8.5 fold for fixed defects and 20.1 fold for the association of both defects. Conclusion: Diabetic patients with normal MPI had on excellent prognosis independently of history of CAD. On the opposite, an abnormal MPI led to a > 5-fold increase in cardiovascular events. This emphasizes the value of SPECT MPI in predicting and risk-stratifying cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. (orig.)

  2. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  3. Clinical features and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in drug-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Escobar-Delgado, Teresa [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Sanz-Viedma, Salome [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad Diagnostica de Medicina Nuclear, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Solis, David [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad Diagnostica de Medicina Nuclear, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain); Mir, Pablo [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain); Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento. Servicio de Neurologia, Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    To determine clinical predictors and accuracy of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in the differentiation of drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Several clinical features and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images in 32 patients with DIP, 25 patients with PD unmasked by antidopaminergic drugs (PDu) and 22 patients with PD without a previous history of antidopaminergic treatment (PDc) were retrospectively evaluated. DIP and PD shared all clinical features except symmetry of parkinsonian signs which was more frequently observed in patients with DIP (46.9%) than in patients with PDu (16.0%, p<0.05) or PDc (4.5%, p<0.01). Qualitatively {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images were normal in 29 patients with DIP (90.6%) and abnormal in all patients with PD, and this imaging technique showed high levels of accuracy. DIP and PD are difficult to differentiate based on clinical signs. The precision of clinical diagnosis could be reliably enhanced by {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. (orig.)

  4. PET/MR and SPECT/MR multimodal imaging constructs: Direct radiolabelling of silica shell iron oxide nanorods for use in liver imaging and potential for hyperthermia therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignell, Haylay [University of Hull (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as T2 magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. Nanorods (NRs) offer an interesting alternative to the more widely used nanospheres as they have shown to offer enhanced T2 relaxivities. The combination of MRI with nuclear imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) increases the data available from a single diagnostic scan (e.g. quantification, multiple image overlay). Radiolabelling of SPIONs allows high sensitivity nanoparticle biodistribution data which can both aid in future construct design and be used directly for precise liver lesion imaging. In this work we report the synthesis and characterisation of silica shell iron oxide NRs functionalised with varying ratios of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the tetraazamacrocyclic chelator, DO3A. Direct and facile radiolabelling of the constructs with the radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) proceeded with quantitative radiochemical yields in 15 min and no evidence of radioisotope dissociation was observed after 3 h in both serum and in competition with apo-transferrin. Interestingly, it was observed that neither the radiolabelling process nor stability in vitro or in vivo was compromised by the absence of the bifunctional chelating moiety. Consequently silica shell NRs with 100 % PEG coating were evaluated for potential use as SPECT/MR imaging agents; direct radiolabelling with technetium-99m (t1/2 = 6.02 h) proceeded with analogous radiochemical yields and stabilities. In vivo imaging studies showed rapid liver uptake with high T2 contrast, demonstrating the application of silica shell iron oxide NRs as bimodal PET/MR and SPECT/MR liver imaging agents. Preliminary magnetic hyperthermia evaluation indicates the potential future use of the constructs developed as multimodal theranostic agents.

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer incorporating SPECT ventilation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Iram; Yaremko, Brian P; Craig, Jeff; Oliver, Michael; Gaede, Stewart; Rodrigues, George; Yu, Edward; Reid, Robert Henderson; Leung, Eugene; Urbain, Jean-Luc; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene

    2010-04-01

    The authors performed this retrospective study to investigate the impact of using ventilation scans obtained from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in selecting beam directions in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in lung cancer radiotherapy to spare dosimetrically well ventilated lung. For ten consecutive stage III non-small-cell lung cancer patients, the authors obtained both ventilation/perfusion SPECT scans and four-dimensional CT scans for treatment planning purposes. Each ventilation scan was registered with the corresponding planning CT and ventilation volumes corresponding to either > or = 50% (vv50) or > or = 70% (vv70) of the maximum SPECT count were automatically segmented. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated: One using nine equally spaced beams optimized according to nonfunctional lung based mean lung dose and lung v20; a second using nine equally spaced beams optimized to avoid vv50 and vv70; and a third plan using only three beams with gantry angles chosen based on minimum mean ventilated lung dose calculated for each conformal beam at every 10 degrees gantry angle avoiding vv50 and vv70. Resultant dose volume histogram indices were calculated for each plan and were compared with respect to calculated SPECT-based ventilation parameters in order to quantify the potential utility of ventilation SPECT in this setting. Two patient groups were identified based on (i) the overlap volume between PTV and vv50 and (ii) the average angular mean ventilated lung dose (AAMvLD). The first parameter quantifies the proximity of the PTV to well ventilated lung and the second parameter quantifies the degree of ventilation that surrounds the PTV. For group 1 patients, 5% of the vv50 overlapped the PTV. Group 1 was further classified into subgroups 1A and 1B: For subgroup 1A, AAMvLD is >18 Gy, implying that the functional lung surrounds the PTV; for subgroup 1B, AAMvLD is ventilated lung does not completely surround PTV

  6. A multivendor phantom study comparing the image quality produced from three state-of-the-art SPECT-CT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tyler; Celler, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Ongoing advancements in single photon emission computed tomography with on-board X-ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT) hardware and software raise important questions regarding the relative performances of various cameras and their respective image-processing software. This phantom-based study compares images produced from three state-of-the-art cameras using four image quality measurements. A thorax phantom modeling the spine, lungs, a healthy heart, and three tumors (cylindrical bottles) was scanned using the following SPECT-CT systems: Philips' Precedence (PP), GE's Infinia-Hawkeye (GH), and Siemens' Symbia-T6 (SS). For each scan, Tc-99m solutions were injected into the heart, three bottles, and thorax to yield activity concentration ratios of roughly 6:1 for both heart:thorax and tumor:thorax. The data were reconstructed using the most advanced software available on the cameras, namely, Evolution for Bone and Evolution for Cardiac (EVB and EVC, respectively), Astonish (AST), and Flash3D (FLA) for GH, PP, and SS, respectively. In addition, all sets of data were reconstructed using our in-house software. The mean values of activity error, uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast error were used as figures of merit (FOM). No significant differences were observed for all FOM between all in-house reconstructions using PP, GH, and SS acquisition data. The mean activity error for the AST reconstruction (-24.0±1.6%) was significantly closer to the truth relative to EVB (-38.0±1.6%), EVC (-34.5±2.3%), and FLA (-33.8±1.6%). No significant differences were found between EVC and FLA for all FOM. In this phantom-based study, Philips' AST provided the most quantitatively accurate and highest contrast images, whereas Siemens' FLA and GE's EVC provided relatively higher signal-to-noise ratios and more uniform images.

  7. In vivo SPECT imaging of tumors by {sup 198,199}Au-labeled graphene oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef [Nuclear Medicine Research Group, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, Omid, E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology (SUT), P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology (SUT), P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology (SUT), P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Afarideh, Hossein [Nuclear Medicine Research Group, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets functionalized by aminopropylsilyl groups (8.0 wt.%) were labeled by {sup 198,199}Au nanoparticle radioisotopes (obtained through reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} in sodium citrate solution followed by thermal neutron irradiation) for fast in vivo targeting and SPECT imaging (high purity germanium-spectrometry) of tumors. Using instant thin layer chromatography method, the physicochemical properties of the amino-functionalized GO sheets labeled by {sup 198,199}Au NPs ({sup 198,199}Au@AF-GO) were found to be highly stable enough in organic phases, e.g. a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the {sup 198,199}Au@AF-GO composite was investigated in rats bearing fibrosarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The {sup 198,199}Au@AF-GO nanostructure exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake (with uptake ratio of tumor to muscle of 167 after 4 h intravenous injection) that resulted in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the {sup 198,199}Au@AF-GO caused to its fast excretion (∼ 24 h) throughout the body by the kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of {sup 198,199}Au radioisotopes, the {sup 198,199}Au@AF-GO with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Graphical abstract: Amino-functionalized graphene oxide sheets were labeled with radioactive gold nanoparticles as effective SPECT imaging and therapeutic agents. - Highlights: • GO sheets were functionalized by amino groups and labeled by Au NP radioisotopes. • Au@AF-GO nanocomposites were used for in vivo targeting and SPECT imaging of tumors. • In vivo biodistribution study showed high tumor uptake of the nanocomposites. • Low lipophilicity of the nanocomposite caused its fast excretion

  8. Accurate Estimation of Functional Liver Volume Using Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI Compared to MDCT/99mTc-SPECT Fusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, Yuji; Enkhbold, Chinbold; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Syuichi; Saito, Y U; Yamada, Shinichiro; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2017-10-01

    We assessed the utility of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadoxetate-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-aceticpenta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) (EOB-MRI) for estimating functional liver volume compared to 99m Tc-galactosyl albumin single-photon-emission computed tomography ( 99m Tc-GSA SPECT). Regional functional liver volume (left lateral, medial, right anterior, right posterior) of 58 hepatectomized patients was assessed using EOB-MRI and 99m Tc-GSA SPECT, and compared to the actual liver volume with MDCT-3D volumetry. 99m Tc-GSA SPECT found a significantly lower functional volume of the left lateral section than the actual volume found by MDCT-3D volumetry (p=0.003) and EOB-MRI (pliver volume of right anterior section found with 99m Tc-GSA SPECT was significantly higher than that found by MDCT-3D volumetry (p=0.04), despite no differences in asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1) or ATP-dependent organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (OATP) expression between the left lateral and right anterior sections. 99m Tc-GSA SPECT might underestimate the function of the left lobe and overestimate that of the right lobe. Therefore, EOB-MRI could be better for estimating the true regional functional liver reserve. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio E-mail: fnobili@smartino.ge.it; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-08-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2{+-}6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score {>=}15, mean 20.3{+-}3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0

  10. Diagnostic Performance of the Visual Reading of 123I-Ioflupane SPECT Images With or Without Quantification in Patients With Movement Disorders or Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Jan; Dubroff, Jacob; Pryma, Daniel; Yu, Jian; Agarwal, Rajan; Lakhani, Paras; Kuo, Phillip H.

    2017-01-01

    Visual interpretation of 123I-ioflupane SPECT images has high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating parkinsonian syndromes (PS), from essential tremor and probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer disease. In this study, we investigated the impact on accuracy and reader confidence

  11. Synthesis of (R,R) sup 123 I-QNB, a SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging agent for cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J.; McCulloch, J. (Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom)); Murray, T. (Glasgow Western Infirmary (United Kingdom)); Wyper, D. (Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Inst. of Neurological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist (R,R) I-QNB ((R)-(-)-1-Azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(4-( {sup 127}I)iodophenyl)-{alpha}-phenyl Acetate) has been labeled with iodine-123 to give a suitable ligand for SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) imaging of the human brain. (author).

  12. Reduction in camera-specific variability in [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT outcome measures by image reconstruction optimized for multisite settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchert, Ralph; Kluge, Andreas; Tossici-Bolt, Livia

    2016-01-01

    of [(123)I]FP-CIT recruited at six centres, 70 aged between 20 and 82 years were included. SPECT images were reconstructed using the QSPECT software package which provides fully automated detection of the outer contour of the head, camera-specific correction for scatter and septal penetration...

  13. Semiquantitative evaluation of {sup 99}mTctrodat1 binding potential by two methods of SPECT image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Melissa Furlaneto Lellis; Reis, Marilia Alves dos; Oliveira, Cassio Miri; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca, E-mail: mefurlaneto@hotmail.com, E-mail: rodrigoabressan@gmail.com, E-mail: mario.castiglioni@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    TRODAT-1 is a radiopharmaceutical derived from tropane and linked to Technetium-99m ([{sup 99m}Tc] TRODAT-1) has been used in studies of dopamine transporter (DAT) in central nervous system. Associated with the SPECT technique of acquisition, is able to detect changes in neurological disorders like Parkinson´s disease, evaluating the binding potential (BP) of DAT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the image reconstruction methods, Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (OSEM), in BP values at the striatal region in 30 healthy volunteers. Images were analyzed by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis. Regions of interest (ROI) were made over striatal areas on both sides. Nonparametric Wilcoxon statistical analysis was performed between the BP values from the FBP and OSEM methods. Our results showed that the reconstruction methods have a statistical significant BP values difference in the total striatum (Z = -2,2787 p = 0.005), right striatum (Z = -2,602 p = 0.009) and left striatum (Z= 2,746 p = 0.006). The effect size was calculated to see if there influence in this test: the 'large effect size' for all measurements was observed (total striatum r= -0.51; right striatum r= -0.48; left striatum r= -0.50). FBP is the usual method of reconstruction for brain SPECT images, and our results showed influence of the OSEM method in BP. It is concluded that the method of image reconstruction adopted should be standardized to avoid incorrect evaluations of BP values using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1. (author)

  14. 3D dosimetry estimation for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SPECT/CT images: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.

  15. SU-E-I-81: Targeting of HER2-Expressing Tumors with Dual PET-MR Imaging Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, P; Peng, Y; Sun, M; Yang, X [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology Chinese Academy o, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression in malignant tumors provides important information influencing patient management. Radionuclide in vivo imaging of HER2 may permit the detection of HER2 in both primary tumors and metastases by a single noninvasive procedure. Trastuzumab, effective in about 15 % of women with breast cancer, downregulates signalling through the Akt/PI3K and MAPK pathways.These pathways modulate metabolism which can be monitored by positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: The relationship between response of HER2 overexpressing tumours and changes in imaging PET or SPECT and MRI will be examined by a integrated bimodal imaging probe.Small (7 kDa) high-affinity anti-HER2 Affibody molecules and KCCYSL targeting peptide may be suitable tracers for visualization of HER2-expressing tumors. Peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) as MRI imaging and CB-TE2A as PET imaging are integrated into a single synthetic molecule in the HER2 positive cancer. Results: One of targeted contrast bimodal imaging probe agents was synthesized and evaluated to target HER2-expressing tumors in a HER2 positive rat model. We will report the newest results regarding the development of bimodal imaging probes. Conclusion: The preliminary results of the bimodal imaging probe presents high correlation of MRI signal and PET imaging intensity in vivo. This unique feature can hardly be obtained by single model contrast agents. It is envisioned that this bimodal agents can hold great potential for accurate detection of HER2-expressing tumors which are critical for clinical management of the disease.

  16. An investigation of head movement with a view to minimising motion artefact during SPECT and PET imaging of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, H.; Clarke, G.H.; Guy, R. [RMIT, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Medical Radiations Science; McKay, W.J. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for Positron Emission Tomography

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Motion artefact has long been recognised as a major cause of image degradation. Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the brain are playing an important role in the diagnosis and management of several neurological disorders. If these imaging modalities are to contribute fully to medical imaging it is essential that the improved spatial resolution of these systems is not compromised by patient movement. Thirty volunteer subjects have been examined using a simple video technique and the video images were used to classify and measure head movements which may occur during brain imaging. All subjects demonstrated angular movement within the transverse plane or rotation of the head. Angular movement within the sagittal plane or flexion/extension of the neck occurred in 69% of subjects and 72% of subjects exhibited translational movement of the sagittal plane. There was no movement of the coronal plane; nor was there any translational movement of the sagittal plane. These results suggest that when positioning the patient`s head for brain imaging a system of head restraint which minimises rotation of the head should be used if image quality is to be maintained

  17. Colorful protein-based fluorescent probes for collagen imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J A Aper

    Full Text Available Real-time visualization of collagen is important in studies on tissue formation and remodeling in the research fields of developmental biology and tissue engineering. Our group has previously reported on a fluorescent probe for the specific imaging of collagen in live tissue in situ, consisting of the native collagen binding protein CNA35 labeled with fluorescent dye Oregon Green 488 (CNA35-OG488. The CNA35-OG488 probe has become widely used for collagen imaging. To allow for the use of CNA35-based probes in a broader range of applications, we here present a toolbox of six genetically-encoded collagen probes which are fusions of CNA35 to fluorescent proteins that span the visible spectrum: mTurquoise2, EGFP, mAmetrine, LSSmOrange, tdTomato and mCherry. While CNA35-OG488 requires a chemical conjugation step for labeling with the fluorescent dye, these protein-based probes can be easily produced in high yields by expression in E. coli and purified in one step using Ni2+-affinity chromatography. The probes all bind specifically to collagen, both in vitro and in porcine pericardial tissue. Some first applications of the probes are shown in multicolor imaging of engineered tissue and two-photon imaging of collagen in human skin. The fully-genetic encoding of the new probes makes them easily accessible to all scientists interested in collagen formation and remodeling.

  18. A Point-Scoring System for the Clinical Diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome Based on Quantified SPECT Imaging of Salivary Gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available To establish a point-scoring diagnostic system for Sjögren's syndrome (SS based on quantified SPECT imaging of salivary gland, and evaluate its feasibility and performance compared with 2002 AECG criteria and 2012 ACR criteria.213 patients with suspected SS enrolled in this study. The related clinical data of all patients were collected. All patients were evaluated and grouped on a clinical basis and posttreatment follow-up by rheumatology specialists as the unified standard (SS group with 149 cases and nSS group with 64 cases. From SPECT imaging of salivary gland, Tmax, UImax, Ts and EFs were derived for bilateral parotid and submandibular glands, and compared between the groups. A point-scoring diagnostic system for SS was established based on the quantified SPECT imaging of salivary gland. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy for the new diagnostic system, compared with 2002 AECG criteria and 2012 ACR criteria.When 7.0 was used as the cut-off point, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for the new point-scoring system in diagnosing SS were 89.93% (134/149, 93.75% (60/64, 97.10% (134/138, 80.00% (60/75 and 91.08% (194/213, respectively. The new point-scoring diagnostic system based on quantified SPECT imaging of salivary gland keeps the specificity comparatively to 2002 AECG criteria and 2012 ACR criteria, but improves the sensitivity significantly (P<0.01.The new point-scoring diagnostic system for SS based on quantified SPECT imaging of salivary gland may be superior to 2002 AECG criteria and 2012 ACR criteria, with higher sensitivity and similar specificity in the diagnosis of SS. Additionally, it also has good feasibility in the clinical settings.

  19. Tumor targeting and SPECT imaging properties of an {sup 111}In-labeled galectin-3 binding peptide in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Veterans Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Figueroa, Said D. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Veterans Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Kumar, Senthil R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail: kumars@missouri.edu

    2009-02-15

    Introduction: Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a carbohydrate binding protein that has been implicated in cell adhesion, tumor invasion and metastasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tumor targeting and imaging properties of a gal-3 binding peptide selected by phage display in a mouse model of metastatic human prostate carcinoma expressing gal-3. Methods: A gal-3 binding peptide, ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR, was synthesized with a Gly-Ser-Gly (GSG) spacer and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and then radiolabeled with {sup 111}In. The in vitro cell binding properties of {sup 111}In-DOTA-(GSG)-ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR were determined in metastatic human PC3-M prostate carcinoma cells. The pharmacokinetics and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT/CT) imaging with the radiolabeled peptide were evaluated in SCID mice bearing human PC3-M prostate carcinoma tumor xenografts. Results: The radiolabeled peptide bound with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 191{+-}10.2 nM to cultured PC3-M prostate carcinoma cells. In vivo tumor uptake and retention coupled with fast whole-body clearance of the peptide were demonstrated in PC3-M tumor-bearing SCID mice. The tumor uptake rates of the radiolabeled peptide were 1.27{+-}0.10%ID/g at 30 min, 0.82{+-}0.15%ID/g at 1 h and 0.57{+-}0.09%ID/g at 2 h. MicroSPECT/CT studies revealed good tumor uptake of {sup 111}In-DOTA-(GSG)-ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR 2 h postinjection, while uptake in normal organs was low, with the exception of the kidneys. Conclusions: In vitro cell binding along with tumor uptake of {sup 111}In-DOTA-(GSG)-ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR in PC3-M human prostate carcinoma tumor-bearing SCID mice suggests the potential of this peptide as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging of gal-3-expressing prostate tumors.

  20. Near-infrared molecular probes for in vivo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Bloch, Sharon; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-04-01

    Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo imaging because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications.

  1. Patient-specific dosimetry based on quantitative SPECT imaging and 3D-DFT convolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, G.; Hawkins, W.G.; Eckblade, M.B.; Leichner, P.K. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the use of a 3-D discrete Fourier Transform (3D-DFT) convolution method to carry out the dosimetry for I-131 for soft tissues in radioimmunotherapy procedures. To validate this convolution method, mathematical and physical phantoms were used as a basis of comparison with Monte Carlo transport (MCT) calculations which were carried out using the EGS4 system code. The mathematical phantom consisted of a sphere containing uniform and nonuniform activity distributions. The physical phantom consisted of a cylinder containing uniform and nonuniform activity distributions. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction was carried out using the Circular Harmonic Transform (CHT) algorithm.

  2. SemiSPECT: A Small-animal Imaging System Based on Eight CdZnTe Pixel Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd E; Kim, Hyunki; Crawford, Michael J; Gershman, Benjamin M; Hunter, William C J; Barber, H Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Woolfenden, James M; Barrett, Harrison H

    We have constructed a SPECT system for small animals that utilizes eight CdZnTe pixel detectors. The eight detectors are arranged in a single octagonal ring, where each views the object to be imaged through a single pinhole. Additional projections are obtained via rotation of the animal. Each CdZnTe detector is approximately 2 mm in thickness and is patterned on one surface into a 64×64 array of pixels with 380 micron pitch. We have designed an electronic readout system capable of collecting data from the eight detectors in listmode. In this scheme each event entry for a gamma-ray hit includes the pulse height of the pixel with the largest signal and the pulse height for each of its eight nearest neighbors. We present details of the overall design, the electronics, and system performance.

  3. TSPO Imaging in Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Direct Comparison Between 123I-CLINDE SPECT, 18F-FET PET, and Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per; Feng, Ling; Law, Ian; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte M; Mikkelsen, Jens D; de Nijs, Robin; Larsen, Vibeke A; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Thomsen, Gerda; Fischer, Walter; Guilloteau, Denis; Pinborg, Lars H

    2015-09-01

    Here we compare translocator protein (TSPO) imaging using 6-chloro-2-(4'-(123)I-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide SPECT ((123)I-CLINDE) and amino acid transport imaging using O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine PET ((18)F-FET) and investigate whether (123)I-CLINDE is superior to (18)F-FET in predicting progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at follow-up. Three patients with World Health Organization grade IV GBM were scanned with (123)I-CLINDE SPECT, (18)F-FET PET, and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Molecular imaging data were compared with follow-up gadolinium-enhanced MR images or contrast-enhanced CT scans. The percentage overlap between volumes of interest (VOIs) of increased (18)F-FET uptake and (123)I-CLINDE binding was variable (12%-42%). The percentage overlap of MR imaging baseline VOIs was greater for (18)F-FET (79%-93%) than (123)I-CLINDE (15%-30%). In contrast, VOIs of increased contrast enhancement at follow-up compared with baseline overlapped to a greater extent with baseline (123)I-CLINDE VOIs than (18)F-FET VOIs (21% vs. 8% and 72% vs. 55%). Our preliminary results suggest that TSPO brain imaging in GBM may be a useful tool for predicting tumor progression at follow-up and may be less susceptible to changes in blood-brain barrier permeability than (18)F-FET. Larger studies are warranted to test the clinical potential of TSPO imaging in GBM, including presurgical planning and radiotherapy. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. Image-Based Analysis of Tumor Localization After Intra-Arterial Delivery of Technetium-99m-Labeled SPIO Using SPECT/CT and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Joon Lee MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the localization of 99mTc-labeled dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles to the liver tumor using image-based analysis. We delivered 99mTc-SPIO intravenously or intra-arterially (IA with/without Lipiodol to compare the tumor localization by gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a rabbit liver tumor. The gamma and SPECT image-based analysis shows that the uptake ratio of the tumor to the normal liver parenchyma is highest after delivery of 99mTc-SPIO with Lipiodol IA and that well correlates with the trend of the signal decrease in the liver MRIs. Intra-arterial delivery of SPIO with Lipiodol might be a good drug delivery system targeting the hepatic tumors, as confirmed by image-based analysis.

  5. Image-Based Analysis of Tumor Localization After Intra-Arterial Delivery of Technetium-99m-Labeled SPIO Using SPECT/CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Joon; Park, Ji Yong; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Jaeil; Kim, Euishin Edmund; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Seonji; Kim, Eun Jeong; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the localization of (99m)Tc-labeled dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to the liver tumor using image-based analysis. We delivered (99m)Tc-SPIO intravenously or intra-arterially (IA) with/without Lipiodol to compare the tumor localization by gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a rabbit liver tumor. The gamma and SPECT image-based analysis shows that the uptake ratio of the tumor to the normal liver parenchyma is highest after delivery of (99m)Tc-SPIO with Lipiodol IA and that well correlates with the trend of the signal decrease in the liver MRIs. Intra-arterial delivery of SPIO with Lipiodol might be a good drug delivery system targeting the hepatic tumors, as confirmed by image-based analysis.

  6. Photoacoustic Imaging for Noninvasive Periodontal Probing Depth Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Y; Chen, F; Hariri, A; Chen, C J; Wilder-Smith, P; Takesh, T; Jokerst, J V

    2018-01-01

    The periodontal probe is the gold standard tool for periodontal examinations, including probing depth measurements, but is limited by systematic and random errors. Here, we used photoacoustic ultrasound for high-spatial resolution imaging of probing depths. Specific contrast from dental pockets was achieved with food-grade cuttlefish ink as a contrast medium. Here, 39 porcine teeth (12 teeth with artificially deeper pockets) were treated with the contrast agent, and the probing depths were measured with novel photoacoustic imaging and a Williams periodontal probe. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 measurement approaches for distal, lingual, and buccal sites but not mesial. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that all bias values were < ±0.25 mm, and the coefficients of variation for 5 replicates were <11%. The photoacoustic imaging approach also offered 0.01-mm precision and could cover the entire pocket, as opposed to the probe-based approach, which is limited to only a few sites. This report is the first to use photoacoustic imaging for probing depth measurements with potential implications to the dental field, including tools for automated dental examinations or noninvasive examinations.

  7. Superior diagnostic performance of perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus SPECT to detect coronary artery disease: The secondary endpoints of the multicenter multivendor MR-IMPACT II (Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Myocardial Perfusion Assessment in Coronary Artery Disease Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is generally accepted as an alternative to SPECT to assess myocardial ischemia non-invasively. However its performance vs gated-SPECT and in sub-populations is not fully established. The goal was to compare in a multicenter setting the diagnostic performance of perfusion-CMR and gated-SPECT for the detection of CAD in various populations using conventional x-ray coronary angiography (CXA) as the standard of reference. Methods In 33 centers (in US and Europe) 533 patients, eligible for CXA or SPECT, were enrolled in this multivendor trial. SPECT and CXA were performed within 4 weeks before or after CMR in all patients. Prevalence of CAD in the sample was 49% and 515 patients received MR contrast medium. Drop-out rates for CMR and SPECT were 5.6% and 3.7%, respectively (ns). The study was powered for the primary endpoint of non-inferiority of CMR vs SPECT for both, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CAD (using a single-threshold reading), the results for the primary endpoint were reported elsewhere. In this article secondary endpoints are presented, i.e. the diagnostic performance of CMR versus SPECT in subpopulations such as multi-vessel disease (MVD), in men, in women, and in patients without prior myocardial infarction (MI). For diagnostic performance assessment the area under the receiver-operator-characteristics-curve (AUC) was calculated. Readers were blinded versus clinical data, CXA, and imaging results. Results The diagnostic performance (= area under ROC = AUC) of CMR was superior to SPECT (p = 0.0004, n = 425) and to gated-SPECT (p = 0.018, n = 253). CMR performed better than SPECT in MVD (p = 0.003 vs all SPECT, p = 0.04 vs gated-SPECT), in men (p = 0.004, n = 313) and in women (p = 0.03, n = 112) as well as in the non-infarct patients (p = 0.005, n = 186 in 1–3 vessel disease and p = 0.015, n = 140 in MVD). Conclusion

  8. Effect of a patient-specific minimum activity in stress myocardial perfusion imaging using CZT-SPECT: Prognostic value, radiation dose, and scan outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, J D; Borren, N M; Mouden, M; van Dalen, J A; Ottervanger, J P; Jager, P L

    2017-08-18

    SPECT Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is associated with a relatively high radiation burden and decreasing image quality in heavy patients. Patient-specific low-activity protocols (PLAPs) are suggested but follow-up data is lacking. Our aim was to compare the use of a standard fixed-activity protocol (FAP) with a PLAP in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-SPECT MPI. We retrospectively included 1255 consecutive patients who underwent CZT-SPECT stress-optional rest MPI. 668 Patients were scanned using FAP (370 MBq) and 587 patients using PLAP (2.25 MBq·kg(-1)). Percentage of scans interpreted as normal, radiation dose, and 1-year follow-up including hard event rates (all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction) were collected and compared. The percentage of scans interpreted as normal was 67% in FAP and 70% in PLAP groups (P = .29). The annualized hard event rates in these patients were 1.0% in the FAP and 0.9% in the PLAP group (P = .86). However, the mean radiation dose decreased by 23% for stress-only and by 15% to 2.6 mSv for stress-optional rest MPI after introduction of the PLAP (p<0.001). Introduction of a patient-specific low-activity protocol does not affect the percentage of scans interpreted as normal or prognosis but significantly lowers the radiation dose for CZT-SPECT MPI.

  9. Two-position supine/prone myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) imaging improves visual inter-observer correlation and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanjani, Reza; Hayes, Sean W; Fish, Mathews; Shalev, Aryeh; Nakanishi, Rine; Thomson, Louise E J; Friedman, John D; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S; Slomka, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to compare the inter-observer agreement between two experienced readers using supine vs combined supine/prone myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) in a large population. 1,181 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing rest (201)Tl/stress (99m)Tc-sestamibi MPS studies were evaluated. Visual reads were performed in two consecutive steps, with readers scoring the stress supine perfusion images during step 1 and rescoring the images using both supine/prone data during step 2. Visual summed stress scores (SSS) of two readers including regional scores in different vascular territories were compared. The specificity for both readers improved using combined supine/prone imaging (reader 1: 92% vs 86% [P = .0002], reader 2: 88% vs 72% [P only reading. The overall correlation between SSS scores for two readers improved with supine/prone imaging for both genders, as well as in the left anterior descending and right coronary territories. The inter-observer correlation and agreement significantly improve using two-position supine/prone vs supine-only imaging.

  10. Proposal for the standardisation of multi-centre trials in nuclear medicine imaging: prerequisites for a European 123I-FP-CIT SPECT database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, John Caddell; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; de Nijs, Robin; Booij, Jan; Bagnara, Maria Claudia; Seese, Anita; Koulibaly, Pierre Malick; Akdemir, Umit Ozgur; Jonsson, Cathrine; Koole, Michel; Raith, Maria; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak; George, Jean; Zito, Felicia; Tatsch, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Multi-centre trials are an important part of proving the efficacy of procedures, drugs and interventions. Imaging components in such trials are becoming increasingly common; however, without sufficient control measures the usefulness of these data can be compromised. This paper describes a framework for performing high-quality multi-centre trials with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a pan-European initiative to acquire a normal control dopamine transporter brain scan database as an example. A framework to produce high-quality and consistent SPECT imaging data was based on three key areas: quality assurance, the imaging protocol and system characterisation. Quality assurance was important to ensure that the quality of the equipment and local techniques was good and consistently high; system characterisation helped understand and where possible match the performance of the systems involved, whereas the imaging protocol was designed to allow a degree of flexibility to best match the characteristics of each imaging device. A total of 24 cameras on 15 sites from 8 different manufacturers were evaluated for inclusion in our multi-centre initiative. All results matched the required level of specification and each had their performance characterised. Differences in performance were found between different system types and cameras of the same type. Imaging protocols for each site were modified to match their individual characteristics to produce comparable high-quality SPECT images. A framework has been designed to produce high-quality data for multi-centre SPECT studies. This framework has been successfully applied to a pan-European initiative to acquire a healthy control dopamine transporter image database.

  11. Characterization of TCP-1 probes for molecular imaging of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglin; Gray, Brian D; Barber, Christy; Bernas, Michael; Cai, Minying; Furenlid, Lars R; Rouse, Andrew; Patel, Charmi; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Liang, Rongguang; Gmitro, Arthur F; Witte, Marlys H; Pak, Koon Y; Woolfenden, James M

    2016-10-10

    Molecular probes capable of detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed for early CRC diagnosis. The objective of this study was to characterize c[CTPSPFSHC]OH (TCP-1), a small peptide derived from phage display selection, for targeting human CRC xenografts using technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled TCP-1 and fluorescent cyanine-7 (Cy7)-labeled form of the peptide (Cy7-TCP-1). (99m)Tc-TCP-1 was generated by modifying TCP-1 with succinimidyl-6-hydrazino-nicotinamide (S-HYNIC) followed by radiolabeling. In vitro saturation binding experiments were performed for (99m)Tc-TCP-1 in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. SCID mice with human HCT116 cancer xenografts were imaged with (99m)Tc-TCP-1 or control peptide using a small-animal SPECT imager: Group I (n=5) received no blockade; Group II (n=5) received a blocking dose of non-radiolabeled TCP-1. Group III (n=5) were imaged with (99m)Tc-labeled control peptide (inactive peptide). SCID mice with human PC3 prostate cancer xenografts (Group IV, n=5) were also imaged with (99m)Tc-TCP-1. Eight additional SCID mice bearing HCT116 xenografts in dorsal skinfold window chambers (DSWC) were imaged by direct positron imaging of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and fluorescence microscopy of Cy7-TCP-1. In vitro(99m)Tc-HYNIC-TCP-1 binding assays on HCT 116 cells indicated a mean Kd of 3.04±0.52nM. In cancer xenografts, (99m)Tc-TCP-1 radioactivity (%ID/g) was 1.01±0.15 in the absence of blockade and was reduced to 0.26±0.04 (PTCP-1 or HCT116 tumors with inactive peptide. Cy7-TCP-1 activity localized not only in metabolically active tumors, as defined by (18)F-FDG imaging, but also in peritumoral microvasculature. In conclusion, TCP-1 probes may have a distinct targeting mechanism with high selectivity for CRC and tumor-associated vasculature. Molecular imaging with TCP-1 probes appears promising to detect malignant colorectal lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 123}I-labelled probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissarek, M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Nuclear Chemistry (INB-4), Juelich (Germany); Meyer-Kirchrath, J.; Hohlfeld, T. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Vollmar, S. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, A.M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Medicine (INB-3), Juelich (Germany); Floegel, U.; Jacoby, C. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Heart and Circulation Physiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kruegel, U. [University of Leipzig, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schramm, N. [Research Centre Juelich, Central Institute for Electronics, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor ligand [{sup 123}I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [{sup 123}I]IPPA (0.94 {+-} 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi (3.8 {+-} 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP{sub 3} receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [{sup 123}I]IBZM and of cardiac [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [{sup 123}I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [{sup 123}I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers. (orig.)

  13. Noninvasive quantification of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity by Markovian analysis in SPECT nuclear imaging; Quantification non invasive de l'heterogeneite de la perfusion du myocarde par analyse markovienne en imageries nucleaire SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, G.

    2011-04-28

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and third of these deaths are caused by coronary artery disease and rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The heterogeneous alteration of the coronary microcirculation is an early phenomenon associated with many cardiovascular risk factors that can strongly predict the subsequent development of coronary artery disease, and lead to the appearance of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity. Nuclear medicine allows the study of myocardial perfusion in clinical routine through scintigraphic scans performed after injection of a radioactive tracer of coronary blood flow. Analysis of scintigraphic perfusion images currently allows the detection of myocardial ischemia, but the ability of the technique to measure the perfusion heterogeneity in apparently normally perfused areas is unknown. The first part of this thesis focuses on a retrospective clinical study to determine the feasibility of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity quantification measured by Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. The clinical study has demonstrated the ability of routine thallium-201 SPECT imaging to quantify greater myocardial perfusion heterogeneity in diabetic patients compared with normal subjects. The second part of this thesis tests the hypothesis that the myocardial perfusion heterogeneity could be quantified in small animal SPECT imaging by Thallium-201 and/or Technetium-99m-MIBI in an experimental study using two animal models of diabetes, and is correlated with histological changes. The lack of difference in myocardial perfusion heterogeneity between control and diabetic animals suggests that animal models are poorly suited, or that the technology currently available does not seem satisfactory to obtain similar results as the clinical study. (author)

  14. Phase imaging quality improvement by modification of AFM probes' cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, J; Rebis, J; Kaczmarek, L; Wejrzanowski, T; Plocinski, T; Rozniatowski, K

    2017-08-16

    Imaging of the surface of materials by atomic force microscopy under tapping and phase imaging mode, with use of modified probes is addressed. In this study, the circularly shaped holes located in varying distance from the probe base, were cut out by focused ion beam. Such modification was a consequence of the results of the previous experiments (probe tip sharpening and cantilever thinning) where significant improvement of image quality in tapping and phase imaging mode has been revealed. The solution proposed herein gives similar results, but is much simpler from the technological point of view. Shorter exposition time of the tip onto gallium ions during FIB processing allows to reduce material degradation. The aim of this modification was to change harmonic oscillators' properties in the simplest and fastest way, to obtain stronger signal for higher resonant frequencies, which can be advantageous for improving the quality of imaging in PI mode. Probes shaped in that way were used for AFM investigations with Bruker AFM nanoscope 8. As a testing material, titanium roughness standard sample, supplied by Bruker, was used. The results have shown that the modifications performed within these studies influence the oscillation of the probes, which in some cases may result in deterioration of the imaging quality under tapping mode for one or both self-resonant frequencies. However, phase imaging results obtained using modified probes are of higher quality. The numerical simulations performed by application of finite element method were used to explain the results obtained experimentally. Phenomenon described within this study allows to apply developed modelling methodology for prediction of effects of various modifications on the probes' tip, and as a result, to predict how proposed modifications will affect AFM imaging quality. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Time of flight diffraction imaging for double-probe technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Fo; Hsieh, Cheng-I

    2002-06-01

    Due to rapid progress in microelectronics and computer technologies, the system evolving from analog to digital, and a programmable and flexible synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for the single-probe pulse-echo imaging technique of ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) becomes feasible. The double-probe reflection technique usually is used to detect the nonhorizontal flaws in the ultrasonic NDT. Because there is an offset between the transmitter and receiver, the position and size of the flaw cannot be directly read from the image. Therefore, a digital signal processing (DSP) imaging method is proposed to process the ultrasonic image obtained by double-probe reflection technique. In the imaging, the signal is redistributed on an ellipsoid with the transmitter and receiver positions as focuses, and the traveltime sum for the echo from the ellipsoid to the focuses as the traveltime of signal. After redistributing all the signals, the useful signals can be constructively added in some point in which the reflected point is; otherwise, the signals will be destructively added. Therefore, the image resolution of the flaw can be improved and the position and size of the flaw can be estimated directly from the processed image. Based on the experimental results, the steep flaw (45 degrees) cannot be detected by the pulse echo technique but can be detected by the double-probe method, and the double-probe B-scan image of 30 degrees tilted crack is clearer than the pulse echo B-scan image. However, the flaw image departs from its true position greatly. After processing, the steep flaw image can be moved to its true position. When the flaws are not greater than the probe largely, the sizes of the flaws are difficult to be discriminated in both pulse echo and double-probe B-scan images. In the processed double-probe B-scan image, the size of the flaws can be estimated successfully, and the images of the flaws are close to their true shape.

  16. Rest myocardial perfusion/metabolism imaging using simultaneous dual-isotope acquisition SPECT with technetium-99m-MIBI/fluorine-18-FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, D; Videlefsky, S; Patton, J A; Campbell, M G; Martin, W H; Ohana, I; Sandler, M P

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) protocol using a multihead SPECT camera equipped with an ultrahigh-energy (UHE) collimator to evaluate simultaneously rest cardiac perfusion and metabolism with 99mTc-MIBI/18FDG. Physical measurements were first performed with phantoms to develop the acquisition protocol. Fifteen patients underwent DISA-SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI/18FDG to validate the protocol. To evaluate the quality of the 99mTc-MIBI images acquired with the UHE collimator, four patients underwent a resting 99mTc-MIBI scan acquired with a high-resolution, low-energy collimator prior to DISA-SPECT. With a window of 20% for both photopeaks and a 99mTc/18F concentration ratio of 3.2:1, the spillover from 18F into the 99mTc window is 6% of the counts in the window for normal subjects. Phantom images clearly demonstrated defects measuring 2 x 1 and 2 x 0.5 cm. Technetium-99m-MIBI images obtained with the UHE and high-resolution collimators provided similar diagnostic information. Using a stenosis of > 70% as criteria to diagnose coronary artery disease, DISA-SPECT had a sensitivity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 93%. Simultaneous evaluation of rest myocardial perfusion/metabolism with a multihead SPECT camera equipped with an UHE collimator is possible using 99mTc-MIBI/18FDG with a dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition protocol.

  17. [Correlation of examination couch position and height with image registration accuracy in an effective field of vision of SPECT/CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihui; Qwang, Siyun; Wang, Shuxia; Zhu, Linbo

    2014-07-01

    To explore the correlation of the position and height of the examination couch with the accuracy of image registration in an exact effective field of vision (FOV) of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and determine the optimal position of the examination couch for best image registration. The tests were performed on a SPECT/CT with 6 radioactive (153)Gd sources in 3 groups (two in each group with energy peak of 40.9 Kev, 41.54 Kev, and 103.18 Kev) in an assorted standard pattern. Thirteen groups of slice data were obtained by changing the position and height of the bed but keeping the tomograpy slice constant. The bias of the accuracy of image registration was acquired using ALIGNMENT software and compared for different examination couch positions and heights. The position of the examination couch at 0 cm in the Z axis and -4 cm in the Y axis showed the least error of image registration. To achieve optimal SPECT and CT image fusion, quality control must be implemented and calibration of image registration accuracy should be done when necessary.

  18. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, M.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, A.C.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, I.R. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fu, G. [GE Global Research, Schenectady, NY (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bressan, R.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaro, E. Jr [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-06

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s{sup -1}·MBq{sup -1} were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging {sup 99m}Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  19. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The single photon emission microscope (SPEM is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD. Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  20. SPECT-CT Hybrid cardiac imaging synchronized to Ecg for the mouse after myocardium infarction; Imagerie cardiaque hybride TEMP-TDM synchronisee a l'ECG chez la souris apres infarctus du myocarde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet, P.; Goetz, C.; Aubertin, G.; Hubele, F. [HUS Strasbourg, Service de biophysique et medecine nucleaire, 67 (France); El-Fertak, L.; Monassier, L. [Laboratoire de pharmacologie cardiovasculaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-07-01

    The preclinical SPECT-CT imaging synchronized to electrocardiogram among mice allows to acquire isotropic morphological and functional data, data of high spatial and temporal resolutions with relatively short acquisition times. (N.C.)

  1. Amyloid-β positron emission tomography imaging probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepe, Vladimir; Moghbel, Mateen C; Långström, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly rising prevalence and cost of Alzheimer's disease in recent decades has made the imaging of amyloid-β deposits the focus of intense research. Several amyloid imaging probes with purported specificity for amyloid-β plaques are currently at various stages of FDA approval. However...

  2. Study of the point spread function (PSF) for {sup 123}I SPECT imaging using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cot, A [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, J [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pareto, D [Unitat de BiofIsica i Bioenginyeria, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Bullich, S [Unitat de BiofIsica i Bioenginyeria, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); PavIa, J [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital ClInic i Provincial de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Calvino, F [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ros, D [Unitat de BiofIsica i Bioenginyeria, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-07-21

    The iterative reconstruction algorithms employed in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allow some quantitative parameters of the image to be improved. These algorithms require accurate modelling of the so-called point spread function (PSF). Nowadays, most in vivo neurotransmitter SPECT studies employ pharmaceuticals radiolabelled with {sup 123}I. In addition to an intense line at 159 keV, the decay scheme of this radioisotope includes some higher energy gammas which may have a non-negligible contribution to the PSF. The aim of this work is to study this contribution for two low-energy high-resolution collimator configurations, namely, the parallel and the fan beam. The transport of radiation through the material system is simulated with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. We have developed a main program that deals with the intricacies associated with tracking photon trajectories through the geometry of the collimator and detection systems. The simulated PSFs are partly validated with a set of experimental measurements that use the 511 keV annihilation photons emitted by a {sup 18}F source. Sensitivity and spatial resolution have been studied, showing that a significant fraction of the detection events in the energy window centred at 159 keV (up to approximately 49% for the parallel collimator) are originated by higher energy gamma rays, which contribute to the spatial profile of the PSF mostly outside the 'geometrical' region dominated by the low-energy photons. Therefore, these high-energy counts are to be considered as noise, a fact that should be taken into account when modelling PSFs for reconstruction algorithms. We also show that the fan beam collimator gives higher signal-to-noise ratios than the parallel collimator for all the source positions analysed.

  3. 3-Pyridyl ethers as SPECT radioligands for imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, D.J.; Eberl, S.; Thomson, S.; Smith, A.; Allan, R.D.; Fulham, M.J.; Loiacono, R.; Kassiou, M. E-mail: mkassiou@med.usyd.edu.au

    2004-05-01

    To develop a suitable single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radioligand for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that displays faster in vivo kinetics than 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-85380, we synthesised the radioiodinated analogue of A-84543. 5-[{sup 123}I]Iodo-A-84543 was prepared by electrophilic iododestannylation in a modest yield of 23%. In the baboon brain, 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-85380 displayed a profile consistent with the known distribution of nAChRs, however, 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-84543 displayed a homogenous uptake with no preferential localisation in regions known to contain nAChRs. To examine the effect of halogen substitution on the 3-pyridyl ether, A-84543, the 5-chloro, 5-bromo and 5-iodo analogues were synthesised and evaluated with respect to nAChR binding. In vitro binding data revealed that halogen substitution at the 5-position of A-84543 was not well tolerated with an increase in halogen size resulting in lower binding towards nAChRs. The 5-chloro analogue 4 displayed highest affinity, K{sub i}=1.3 nM, compared to the 5-bromo and 5-iodo compounds, 5 K{sub i}=3.3 nM and 3 K{sub i}=40.8 nM, respectively. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-84543 is not suitable for the study of nAChRs in vivo using SPECT.

  4. Imaging of intestinal lymphocyte homing by means of pinhole SPECT in a TNBS colitis mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, Roelof J. E-mail: r.bennink@amc.uva.nl; Montfrans, Catherine van; Jonge, Wouter J. de; Bruin, Kora de; Deventer, Sander J. van; Velde, Anje A. te

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The increasing knowledge of the molecular basis of leukocyte trafficking results in the development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). For optimal evaluation of therapy efficacy, information about inflammatory activity in bowel segments or lymphocyte recirculation and kinetics in the follow-up of experimental treatment for IBD is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate a non-invasive scintigraphic technique, able to assess lymphocyte trafficking in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced mouse colitis model of IBD. Methods: TNBS sensitized and non-sensitized murine total splenocytes were labeled in vitro with {sup 111}In-oxine and injected into either control or TNBS colitis BALB/c mice. Biodistribution and specific radioactive uptake, representing transferred cells, were determined by serial dedicated animal planar scintigraphy and pinhole SPECT of the abdomen 4, 24 and 48h post injection of labeled cells. In addition, the severity of inflammation was. Results: Migration of {sup 111}In labeled splenocytes to the colon increased in time and was maximal at 48h after administration. The highest specific radioactive uptake ratio in the colon after 48h was observed in mice with TNBS colitis that received TNBS sensitized lymphocytes. Histological scoring confirmed the presence of colitis in the TNBS treated groups. Conclusion: Homing of TNBS-sensitized lymphocytes can be assessed in vivo by means of dedicated animal pinhole SPECT. Generally, this technique enables serial measurement of specific cell trafficking with potential of in vivo evaluation of novel anti-inflammatory strategies in inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT (DaTSCAN imaging in the diagnosis of patients with movement disorders: First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. 123I-FP-CIT brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, DaTSCAN imaging, offers a possibility to study structural and biochemical integrity of presinaptic dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT scintigraphy in patients with extrapyramidal diseases. Methods. Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females, aged 26-81 years, presenting with extrapyramidal symptoms entered the study. Out of them, 7 patients were diagnosed with definite clinical form of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD or clinical probable for PD clinical stage 2-4 using the Hoehn&Yahr scale (H&Y; 6 patients were with atypical parkinsonism (AP, 1 patient with essential, and 1 with psychogenic tremor. SPECT was performed 180 min after injection of 185 MBq 123IFP- CIT using a dual head Gamma camera. Sixty four one minutes’ frames were acquired using a noncircular rotation mode into a 128 × 128 image matrix. Transverse slices were reconstructed using a 0.6 order Butterworth filter. Visual interpretation was based on striatal uptake, left to right asymmetry and substructures most affected. The ratio of binding for the entire striatum, caudate and putamen to nonspecific binding in occipital cortex was calculated. SPECT findings were categorized as normal and abnormal (incipient, moderate and severe presinaptic deficit. Results. 123I-FP-CIT uptake was reduced in the striatum of 6/7 patients with PD and 5/6 patients with AP. Two patients with PD and AP showed a negative finding. The remaining 2 negative results were obtained in the patients diagnosed with essential tremor and psychogenic tremor. The mean striato-occipital ratio (SDR of the most affected side was lower in the patients with PD. Conclusion. Our first results confirm the usefulness of 123I-FPCIT brain SPECT in differential diagnosis of extrapyramidal diseases.

  6. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  7. A case of Cotard syndrome: (123)I-IBZM SPECT imaging of striatal D(2) receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risio, Sergio; De Rossi, Giuseppe; Sarchiapone, Marco; Camardese, Giovanni; Carli, Vladimir; Cuomo, Chiara; Satta, Maria Antonietta; Di Giuda, Daniela

    2004-01-15

    A case of 'dèlire de nègation' that suddenly appeared in a 43-year-old male is presented. No alteration in regional cerebral blood, as measured by (99m)Tc-HMPAO-SPECT, was found, but (123)I-IBZM-SPECT analysis showed reduced striatal D(2) receptor binding that further decreased after treatment.

  8. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  9. Monte Carlo modeling of ultrasound probes for image guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena, E-mail: bazalova@uvic.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Schlosser, Jeffrey [SoniTrack Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Chen, Josephine [Department of Radiation Oncology, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Hristov, Dimitre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To build Monte Carlo (MC) models of two ultrasound (US) probes and to quantify the effect of beam attenuation due to the US probes for radiation therapy delivered under real-time US image guidance. Methods: MC models of two Philips US probes, an X6-1 matrix-array transducer and a C5-2 curved-array transducer, were built based on their megavoltage (MV) CT images acquired in a Tomotherapy machine with a 3.5 MV beam in the EGSnrc, BEAMnrc, and DOSXYZnrc codes. Mass densities in the probes were assigned based on an electron density calibration phantom consisting of cylinders with mass densities between 0.2 and 8.0 g/cm{sup 3}. Beam attenuation due to the US probes in horizontal (for both probes) and vertical (for the X6-1 probe) orientation was measured in a solid water phantom for 6 and 15 MV (15 × 15) cm{sup 2} beams with a 2D ionization chamber array and radiographic films at 5 cm depth. The MC models of the US probes were validated by comparison of the measured dose distributions and dose distributions predicted by MC. Attenuation of depth dose in the (15 × 15) cm{sup 2} beams and small circular beams due to the presence of the probes was assessed by means of MC simulations. Results: The 3.5 MV CT number to mass density calibration curve was found to be linear with R{sup 2} > 0.99. The maximum mass densities in the X6-1 and C5-2 probes were found to be 4.8 and 5.2 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Dose profile differences between MC simulations and measurements of less than 3% for US probes in horizontal orientation were found, with the exception of the penumbra region. The largest 6% dose difference was observed in dose profiles of the X6-1 probe placed in vertical orientation, which was attributed to inadequate modeling of the probe cable. Gamma analysis of the simulated and measured doses showed that over 96% of measurement points passed the 3%/3 mm criteria for both probes placed in horizontal orientation and for the X6-1 probe in vertical orientation. The

  10. Intraarterial Hepatic SPECT/CT Imaging Using 99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin in Preparation for Radioembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Vanessa L; Singh, Nimarta; Lewandowski, Robert J; Spies, Stewart; Salem, Riad

    2015-08-01

    Current standard practice for radioembolization treatment planning makes use of nuclear medicine imaging (NMI) of (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) arterial distributions for the assessment of lung shunting and extrahepatic uptake. Our aim was to retrospectively compare NMI with mapping angiography in the detection and localization of extrahepatic (99m)Tc-MAA and to evaluate the typical and atypical findings of NMI in association with catheter placement. One hundred seventy-four patients underwent diagnostic angiography in preparation for radioembolization. (99m)Tc-MAA was administered to the liver via a microcatheter positioned in the desired hepatic artery. Planar scintigraphy imaging followed by SPECT/CT imaging was obtained within 2 h. All images were reviewed for hepatic and extrahepatic (99m)Tc-MAA deposition and compared with the mapping angiogram. Intrahepatic lobe shunting was present on NMI in only 2.9% of the cases but was present in 62.5% of the patients with portal vein thrombosis. Extrahepatic distributions included lungs (100%), the gallbladder (49%) if present, and locations involving hepaticoenteric arterial anatomy recognized on angiograms (16%). Free pertechnetate was identified on 38% of the nuclear medicine images. Three percent of nuclear medicine images showed alternative findings such as a thyroid nodule or metallic artifact. Patients being considered for radioembolization should undergo both angiography and scintigraphy for the assessment of hepaticoenteric arterial anatomy, hepatopulmonary shunting, and appropriate dosimetry considerations. Knowledge of the expected distribution of (99m)Tc-MAA with normal variants and potential nontarget delivery to adjacent structures is critical in improving clinical outcomes. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. [⁹⁹mTc]O₂-AMD3100 as a SPECT tracer for CXCR4 receptor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartimath, Siddesh V; Domanska, Urszula M; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Rudi A J O, Dierckx; de Vries, Erik F J

    2013-05-01

    CXCR4 plays an important role in HIV infection, tumor progression, neurogenesis, and inflammation. In-vivo imaging of CXCR4 could provide more insight in the role of this receptor in health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate [(99m)Tc]O₂-AMD3100 as a potential SPECT tracer for imaging of CXCR4. AMD3100 was labelled with [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate. A cysteine challenge assay was performed to test the tracer stability. Heterologous and homologous receptor binding assay and internalization assay were performed in CXCR4 expressing Jurkat-T cells. Ex vivo biodistribution was studied in healthy mice at 30, 60, and 120 min after tracer injection. Tumor uptake of the tracer was determined by microSPECT imaging in nude mice xenografted with human PC-3 prostate tumor. Specificity of tracer uptake was determined by blocking studies using an excess of unlabelled AMD3100. AMD3100 was labelled with technetium-99m with a radiochemical yield of >98%. The tracer was stable in PBS and mouse plasma for at least 6h at 37 °C. Heterologous and homologous binding assays with AMD3100 showed IC50 values of 240 ± 10 μM, and 92 ± 5 μM for [(125)I]SDF-1α and [(99m)Tc]O₂-AMD3100 respectively, with negligible receptor internalisation. The tracer showed high uptake in liver, lungs, spleen, thymus, intestine and bone. Blocking dose of AMD3100.8HCl (20mg/kg) decreased the uptake in these organs (ptracer showed 1.7 times less tumor uptake as compared to control animals (p<0.05). [(99m)Tc]O2-AMD3100 is readily labelled, is stable in plasma and displays a favourable binding affinity for the CXCR4 receptors. [(99m)Tc O₂-AMD3100 shows specific binding in organs with high CXCR4 expression and in CXCR4 positive tumors. These results justify further evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical as a potential biomarker for the non-invasive imaging of CXCR4 receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of quantitative Y-90 SPECT and non-time-of-flight PET imaging in post-therapy radioembolization of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jianting; Mauxion, Thibault; Reyes, Diane K; Lodge, Martin A; Hobbs, Robert F; Rong, Xing; Dong, Yinfeng; Herman, Joseph M; Wahl, Richard L; Geschwind, Jean-François H; Frey, Eric C

    2016-10-01

    Radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres may be optimized with patient-specific pretherapy treatment planning. Dose verification and validation of treatment planning methods require quantitative imaging of the post-therapy distribution of yttrium-90 (Y-90). Methods for quantitative imaging of Y-90 using both bremsstrahlung SPECT and PET have previously been described. The purpose of this study was to compare the two modalities quantitatively in humans. Calibration correction factors for both quantitative Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT and a non-time-of-flight PET system without compensation for prompt coincidences were developed by imaging three phantoms. The consistency of these calibration correction factors for the different phantoms was evaluated. Post-therapy images from both modalities were obtained from 15 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatic radioembolization using Y-90 glass microspheres. Quantitative SPECT and PET images were rigidly registered and the total liver activities and activity distributions estimated for each modality were compared. The activity distributions were compared using profiles, voxel-by-voxel correlation and Bland-Altman analyses, and activity-volume histograms. The mean ± standard deviation of difference in the total activity in the liver between the two modalities was 0% ± 9% (range -21%-18%). Voxel-by-voxel comparisons showed a good agreement in regions corresponding roughly to treated tumor and treated normal liver; the agreement was poorer in regions with low or no expected activity, where PET appeared to overestimate the activity. The correlation coefficients between intrahepatic voxel pairs for the two modalities ranged from 0.86 to 0.94. Cumulative activity volume histograms were in good agreement. These data indicate that, with appropriate reconstruction methods and measured calibration correction factors, either Y-90 SPECT/CT or Y-90 PET/CT can be used for quantitative post-therapy monitoring of Y

  13. The hidden sentinel node and SPECT/CT in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, Iris M.C. van der; Kroon, Bin B.R.; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Nieweg, Omgo E. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    In a minority of breast cancer patients, lymphoscintigraphy shows no lymphatic drainage and 'hidden' sentinel nodes may remain undiscovered. The purpose of this study was to explore the additional value of the recently introduced hybrid SPECT/CT in breast cancer patients with axillary non-visualisation on planar images. The role of blue dye and careful palpation of the axilla was evaluated in patients in whom axillary sentinel nodes remained hidden after SPECT/CT. Fifteen breast cancer patients with non-visualisation on planar lymphoscintigraphy and 13 women with only extra-axillary sentinel nodes underwent SPECT/CT following late planar imaging without re-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT/CT visualised lymphatic drainage in eight of the 15 patients (53%) with non-visualisation on planar imaging, depicted nine of the 14 harvested sentinel nodes (64%) and three of five tumour-positive sentinel nodes. In two of the 13 patients (15%) with only extra-axillary sentinel nodes on their planar lymphoscintigram, SPECT/CT showed an axillary sentinel node that appeared to be uninvolved. Careful exploration of the axilla with the combined use of blue dye, a gamma probe and intra-operative palpation revealed an axillary sentinel node in the remaining 18 patients. SPECT/CT showed the exact anatomical location of all visualised sentinel nodes. SPECT/CT discovered 'hidden' sentinel nodes in the majority of patients with non-visualisation, but was less valuable in patients with only extra-axillary lymphatic drainage on the planar images. Exploration of the axilla in patients with persistent non-visualisation improved the identification of axillary (involved) sentinel nodes. (orig.)

  14. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R

    1994-04-01

    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  15. TSPO imaging in glioblastoma multiforme: A direct comparison between 123ICLINDE-SPECT, 18F-FET PET and gadolinium-enhanced MRI.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Per; Feng, Li; Law, Ian; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; de Nijs, Robin; Larsen, Vibeke A; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Thomsen, Gerda; Fischer, Walter; Guilloteau, Denis; Pinborg, Lars H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we compare TSPO imaging using 123 I-CLINDE and amino acid transport imaging using 18 F-FET and investigate if 123 I-CLINDE is superior to 18 F-FET in predictingprogression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at follow up. Methods  Three patients with WHO grade IV GBM were scanned with 123 I-CLINDE SPECT, 18 F-FET PET and Gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gadolinium-MRI). Molecular imaging data were compared to follow-up gadolinium-MRI or contrast enhanc...

  16. SPECT imaging of GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine receptors and cerebral perfusion in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappata, Sabina; Varrone, Andrea; Vicidomini, Caterina; Sansone, Valeria; Comerci, Marco; Panico, Maria Rosaria; Quarantelli, Mario [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Milan, Graziella; De Falco, Caterina; Lore, Elisa; Postiglione, Alfredo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Naples (Italy); Iavarone, Alessandro [Neurologic and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The involvement of neocortical and limbic GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial and mainly reported in advanced stages. The status of these receptors in the very early stages of AD is unclear and has not been explored in vivo. Our aims were to investigate in vivo the integrity of cerebral cortical GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to compare possible receptor changes to those in cerebral perfusion. [{sup 123}I]Iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO SPECT images were acquired in 16 patients with amnestic MCI and in 14 normal elderly control subjects (only [{sup 123}I]iomazenil imaging in 5, only [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 4, and both [{sup 123}I]iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 5). Region of interest (ROI) analysis and voxel-based analysis were performed with cerebellar normalization. Neither ROI analysis nor voxel-based analysis showed significant [{sup 123}I]iomazenil binding changes in MCI patients compared to control subjects, either as a whole group or when considering only those patients with MCI that converted to AD within 2 years of clinical follow-up. In contrast, the ROI analysis revealed significant hypoperfusion of the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex in the whole group of MCI patients and in MCI converters as compared to control subjects. Voxel-based analysis showed similar results. These results indicate that in the very early stages of AD, neocortical and limbic neurons/synapses expressing GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors are essentially preserved. They suggest that in MCI patients functional changes precede neuronal/synaptic loss in neocortical posterior regions and that [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO rCBF imaging is more sensitive than [{sup 123}I]iomazenil GABA{sub A}/BZD receptor imaging in detecting prodromal AD. (orig.)

  17. Pre-clinical Evaluation of a Cyanine-Based SPECT Probe for Multimodal Tumor Necrosis Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Stammes (Marieke A.); Knol-Blankevoort, V.T. (Vicky T.); Cruz, L.J. (Luis J.); Feitsma, H.R.I.J. (Hans R. I. J.); L. Mezzanotte (Laura); Cordfunke, R.A. (Robert A.); Sinisi, R. (Riccardo); Dubikovskaya, E.A. (Elena A.); Maeda, A. (Azusa); DaCosta, R.S. (Ralph S.); Bierau, K. (Katja); Chan, A. (Alan); E.L. Kaijzel (Eric); T.J.A. Snoeks (thomas); E.R. van Beek (Ermond); C.W.G.M. Löwik (Clemens)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Recently we showed that a number of carboxylated near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) cyanine dyes possess strong necrosis avid properties in vitro as well as in different mouse models of spontaneous and therapy-induced tumor necrosis, indicating their potential use for cancer

  18. SPECT in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, J.C.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Yudd, A.P.

    1985-05-01

    Tc99m labeled red blood cell blood flow and delayed static blood pool imaging is widely accepted as a reliable, accurate method for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomata. The purpose of this study is to assess the relative value of SPECT blood pool imaging in the evaluation of hepatic hemangionata. A total of 68 patients, including 21 patients with proven hepatic cavernous hemangiomas, were studied using both planar and SPECT imaging techniques. All patients underwent multi-phase evaluation which included a hepatic flow study, immediate planar images of the liver, followed by a 360/sup 0/ tomographic (SPECT) study and subsequent 60 minute delayed static planar hepatic blood pool images. All 21 patients with proven hepatic hemangiomas had a positive SPECT exam and 17 of the 21 (81%) patients had a positive planar exam. In the 21 patients, there were a total of 36 hemangiomas ranging in size from .7 cm to 13 cm. The SPECT imaging technique correctly identified all 36 lesions (100%) where as planar imaging detected 25 of the 36 lesions (69.4%). In all the remaining patients (10-normal, 17-metastatic disease, 12-hepatocellular disease, 6-hepatoma, 2-liver cysts), both the planar and SPECT imaging techniques were interpreted as showing no evidence of focal sequestration of red blood cells. SPECT hepatic blood pool imaging represents an improvement in the evaluation of hepatic hemangioma as a result of a reduction in imaging time (less than thirty minutes), improved spatial resolution and greater overall accuracy.

  19. Optimisation of reconstruction, volumetry and dosimetry for 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET images: Towards reliable dose-volume histograms for selective internal radiation therapy with 90Y-microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, M; Thevenet, H; Berthold, C; Desbrée, A; Smadja, C; Desiré, C; Bianciardi, M; Ghazzar, N

    2017-07-01

    In Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT), 99mTc-MAA SPECT images are commonly used to predict microspheres distribution but recent works used 90Y-microspheres PET images. Nevertheless, evaluation of the predictive power of 99mTc-MAA has been hampered by the lack of reliable comparisons between 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET images. Our aim was to determine the "in situ" optimisation procedure in order to reliably compare 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET images and achieve optimal personal dosimetry. We acquired 99mTc-SPECT/CT and 90Y-PET/CT images of NEMA and Jaszczak phantoms. We found the best reconstruction parameters for quantification and for volume estimations. We determined adaptive threshold curves on the volumetric reconstruction. We copied the optimised volumes on the quantitative reconstruction, named here the "cross volumes" technique. Finally, we compared 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET Dose Volume Histograms. Our "in situ" optimisation procedure decreased errors on volumes and quantification (from -44.2% and -15.8% to -3.4% and -3.28%, respectively, for the 26.5mL PET phantom sphere). Moreover, 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET DVHs were equivalent only after the optimisation procedure (difference in mean dose optimise volumes and quantification of 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET images and allowed to achieve a reliable comparison between patient treatment planning and post implant dosimetry, notably by the use of the "cross volumes" technique. Methodology developed in this work will enable robust evaluations of the predictive power of 99mTc-SPECT, as well as dose-response relationship and side effects in SIRT treatments. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A micro-SPECT imaging pilot study of myocardial perfusion in mice; Etude pilote de la perfusion myocardique chez la souris par micro-imagerie TEMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinesco, A.; Choquet, P.; Israel-Jost, V. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Israel-Jost, V.; Sonnendrucker, E. [Institut de Recherche Mathematique Avancee de Strasbourg, 67 (France); Monassier, L. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM U333), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Elfertak, L. [Institut Clinique de la Souris (ICS), 67 - Illkirch (France)

    2004-04-01

    Objective: demonstrate the feasibility of micro-SPECT for myocardial perfusion imaging in mice. Methods: a micro-SPECT dedicated camera with a field of view of 17 cm x 17 cm, a 1,5 mm pinhole with a focal distance of 12 cm was used. An infra millimetric linear phantom permitted to measure the planar and tomographic FWHM. Two normal adult mice were studied under gaseous anaesthesia (isoflurane 1,5%) and after IV administration of 0,1 mL of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi (350 MBq) in one case and {sup 201}Tl (64 MBq) in the other case. In the two cases, 48 projections of 1 mn over 180 deg C in a 64 x 64 image format with a radius of rotation of 2,5 cm were used with a 20% window centered on the photoelectric peak of 99mTc or the 71 KeV of {sup 201}Tl. Tomographic reconstruction was done with a specific ART cone beam algorithm. Results: phantoms FWHM were respectively 1.6 mm and 1.5 mm in planar and tomographic modes with a reconstructed field of view of 26 mm and 1 mm when the reconstructed field of view was 10 mm. Micro-SPECT perfusion images using a reconstructed voxel volume of 0.064 mm{sup 3} of the mice myocardium were obtained with a better anatomical resolution with Sestamibi than thallium. Conclusion: this pilot study demonstrate the potential of micro-SPECT imaging for mice nuclear cardiology. (author)

  1. Atomic Resolution Imaging with a sub-50 pm Electron Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erni, Rolf P.; Rossell, Marta D.; Kisielowski, Christian; Dahmen, Ulrich

    2009-03-02

    Using a highly coherent focused electron probe in a 5th order aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on resolving a crystal spacing less than 50 pm. Based on the geometrical source size and residual coherent and incoherent axial lens aberrations, an electron probe is calculated, which is theoretically capable of resolving an ideal 47 pm spacing with 29percent contrast. Our experimental data show the 47 pm spacing of a Ge 114 crystal imaged with 11-18percent contrast at a 60-95percent confidence level, providing the first direct evidence for sub 50-pm resolution in ADF STEM imaging.

  2. Optimization of the image contrast in SPECT-CT bremsstrahlung imaging for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of liver malignancies with Y-90 microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonutti, Faustino; Magro, Giuseppe; Cecotti, Andrea; Della Schiava, Emanuele; Del Dò, Elena; Longo, Francesco; Herassi, Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Rossi, Marina; Ferretti, Guido; Geatti, Onelio; Padovani, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The quality of SPECT Bremsstrahlung images of patients treated with Y-90 is poor, mainly because of scattered radiation and collimator septa penetration. To minimize the latter effect, High Energy (HE) or Medium Energy (ME) collimators can be used. Scatter correction is not possible through the methods commonly used for the diagnostic radionuclides (Tc-99m, etc.) because the Bremsstrahlung radiation does not have distinct photopeaks, but a broad spectrum of energies ranging from zero to the maximum one detectable by the gamma-camera crystal is registered. Scatter radiation and collimator septa penetration affect the Contrast and the Contrast Recovery Coefficient (CRC) : our research focused on finding the best energy position for the acquisition window in order to maximize these parameters. To be guided in this finding, we first made a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of a SPECT acquisition of a Y-90 cylindrical phantom and then we measured at different energies the Line Spread Function (LSF) of a linear Y-90 sour...

  3. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of {sup 125/131}I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcellaaraugio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: santosr@cdtn.br; Silveira, Marina B.; Simal, Carlos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with {sup 125/131}I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. {sup 125}I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while {sup 131}I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}= 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). {sup 131}I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  4. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  5. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  6. IQ SPECT allows a significant reduction in administered dose and acquisition time for myocardial perfusion imaging: evidence from a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Kaiser, Stefano Ren; Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M; Chieregato, Matteo; Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Savelli, Giordano; Galelli, Marco; Guerra, Ugo Paolo

    2014-12-01

    We recently demonstrated in a clinical trial the ability of a new protocol, IQ SPECT, to acquire myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies in a quarter of the time (12 s/view) of the standard protocol, with preserved diagnostic accuracy. We now aim to establish the lower limit of radioactivity that can be administered to patients and the minimum acquisition time in SPECT MPI using an IQ SPECT protocol, while preserving diagnostic accuracy. An anthropomorphic cardiac phantom was used to acquire clinical rest scans with a simulated in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin at full dose (740 MBq) and at doses equal to 50%, 25%, and 18%. For each dose, 2 sets of images were acquired, with and without a transmural defect (TD). Variable acquisition times were also used for each dose. We analyzed raw data and reconstructed images, including no correction and correction for attenuation (AC), for scatter (SC), or for both (ACSC). Images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively in order to assess left ventricle (LV) wall thickness (full width at half maximum of the medial sections), TD, and cavity contrast in the LV wall. Data were compared across different acquisition times within the same dose and across doses with the same acquisition time. Images were visually scored as very-good quality except those acquired with 4 s/view or less at 100% dose and 6 s/view or less with 50%, 25%, or 18% dose, due to false-positive defects. LV wall thickness was not significantly different among all acquisitions. Cavity contrast remained unchanged within the same dose for all images and tended to be higher in AC and ACSC images. TD contrast remained unchanged within the same dose for all images. In SC and no-correction images, contrast was constant for all doses. AC images had significantly higher TD contrast values, and ACSC images showed a drop in TD contrast for a 50% dose. IQ SPECT effectively preserved both image quality and quantitative measurements with reduced acquisition

  7. The discriminating nature of dopamine transporter image in parkinsonism: the competency of dopaminergic transporter imaging in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Jang, Sung June; Eo, Jae Seon; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating nature of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism. {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images acquired from the 18 normal controls; NC (60.4 {+-} 10.0 yr) and 237 patients with parkinsonism (65.9 {+-} 9.2 yr) were analyzed. From spatially normalized images, regional counts of the caudate, putamen, and occipital lobe were obtained using region of interest method. Binding potential (BP) was calculated with the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding activity at equilibrium. Additionally, the BP ratio of putamen to caudate (PCR) and asymmetric index (ASI) were measured. BPs of NC (3.37 {+-} 0.57, 3.10{+-} 0.41, 3.23 {+-} 0.48 for caudate, putamen, whole striatum, respectively) had no significant difference with those of essential tremor; ET (3.31 {+-} 0.64, 3.06 {+-} 0.61, 3.14 {+-} 0.63) and Alzheimer's disease; AD (3.33 {+-} 0.60, 3.29 {+-} 0.79, 3.31 {+-} 0.70), but were higher than those of Parkinson's disease; PD (1.92 {+-} 0.74, 1.39 {+-}0.68, 1.64 {+-} 0.68), multiple system atrophy; MSA (2.36 {+-} 1.07, 2.16 {+-} 0.91, 2.26 {+-} 0.96), and dementia with Lewy body; DLB (1.95{+-} 0.72, 1.64 {+-} 0.65, 1.79 {+-} 0.66)({rho} < 0.005). PD had statistically lower values of PCR and higher values of ASI than those of NC ({rho} < 0.005). And PD had significantly lower value of PCR, higher ASI and lower BP in the putamen and whole striatum than MSA ({rho} < 0.05). Dopamine transporter image of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT was a good value in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism.

  8. Quantification and reduction of the collimator-detector response effect in SPECT by applying a system model during iterative image reconstruction: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Faraz; Rajabi, Hossein; Saghari, Mohsen

    2012-03-01

    Detector blurring and non-ideal collimation decrease the spatial resolution of the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) can incorporate degrading factors during reconstruction. We investigated the quantitative errors associated with poor SPECT resolution and evaluated the importance of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) resolution recovery by modelling system response during iterative image reconstruction. Different phantoms consisted of the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) liver phantom with small tumors, the Zubal brain phantom and the NCAT heart phantom were used in this study. Monte Carlo simulation was used to create SPECT projections. Gaussian functions were used to model collimator detector response (CDR). Modeled CDRs were applied during OSEM. Both noise-free and noisy projections were created. Even with noise-free projections, conventional OSEM algorithm provided limited quantitative accuracy compared to both 2D and 3D resolution recovery. The 3D implementation of resolution recovery, however, yielded superior results compared to its 2D implementation. For the liver phantom, the ability to distinguish small tumors in both transverse and axial planes was improved. For the brain phantom, gray to white matter activity ratio was increased from 3.14 ± 0.04 in simple OSEM to 3.84 ± 0.06 in 3D OSEM. For the NCAT heart phantom, 3D resolution recovery, results in images with thinner wall and higher contrast for different noise levels. There are considerable quantitative errors associated with CDR, especially when the size of the target is comparable with the spatial resolution of the system. Between different reconstruction algorithms, 3D OSEM that consider the 3D nature of CDR, improve both the visual quality and the quantitative accuracy of any SPECT studies.

  9. MEMS ultrasonic probe rotary scanning imaging system for medical endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin

    2006-11-01

    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of an electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro motor, acquiring fault histology features of digestive organs. Compared with external ultrasonic detection, the system reduces the distance between the transducer and the organ, diminishing the effects on imaging of fats and body cavity gas. On the basis of ultrasonic imaging system, this paper implements a pulse echo imaging system. We describe the ultrasonic probe, emission circuit, receiving circuit and protective circuit in detail. With the demodulation circuit, we get the amplitude of echo which indicates the objects. And to achieve the rotary scan, we design a synchronous control circuit and a data transfer circuit basing on the USB2.0 interface. Finally we get a grey image with 256 grey levels after coordinate conversion.

  10. Development of a Bioluminescent Nitroreductase Probe for Preclinical Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika G Vorobyeva

    Full Text Available Bacterial nitroreductases (NTRs have been widely utilized in the development of novel antibiotics, degradation of pollutants, and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT of cancer that reached clinical trials. In case of GDEPT, since NTR is not naturally present in mammalian cells, the prodrug is activated selectively in NTR-transformed cancer cells, allowing high efficiency treatment of tumors. Currently, no bioluminescent probes exist for sensitive, non-invasive imaging of NTR expression. We therefore developed a "NTR caged luciferin" (NCL probe that is selectively reduced by NTR, producing light proportional to the NTR activity. Here we report successful application of this probe for imaging of NTR in vitro, in bacteria and cancer cells, as well as in vivo in mouse models of bacterial infection and NTR-expressing tumor xenografts. This novel tool should significantly accelerate the development of cancer therapy approaches based on GDEPT and other fields where NTR expression is important.

  11. Development of a Bioluminescent Nitroreductase Probe for Preclinical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika G; Stanton, Michael; Godinat, Aurélien; Lund, Kjetil B; Karateev, Grigory G; Francis, Kevin P; Allen, Elizabeth; Gelovani, Juri G; McCormack, Emmet; Tangney, Mark; Dubikovskaya, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial nitroreductases (NTRs) have been widely utilized in the development of novel antibiotics, degradation of pollutants, and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) of cancer that reached clinical trials. In case of GDEPT, since NTR is not naturally present in mammalian cells, the prodrug is activated selectively in NTR-transformed cancer cells, allowing high efficiency treatment of tumors. Currently, no bioluminescent probes exist for sensitive, non-invasive imaging of NTR expression. We therefore developed a "NTR caged luciferin" (NCL) probe that is selectively reduced by NTR, producing light proportional to the NTR activity. Here we report successful application of this probe for imaging of NTR in vitro, in bacteria and cancer cells, as well as in vivo in mouse models of bacterial infection and NTR-expressing tumor xenografts. This novel tool should significantly accelerate the development of cancer therapy approaches based on GDEPT and other fields where NTR expression is important.

  12. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal 199Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of 199Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased 199Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased 199Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI was 95%. The 199Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the 99mTc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  14. Microglia specific fluorescent probes for live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Cheryl; Lee, Sung Chan; Ock, Jiyeon; Li, Xin; See, Peter; Park, Sung Jin; Ginhoux, Florent; Yun, Seong-Wook; Chang, Young-Tae

    2014-02-04

    Small molecule fluorescent probes offer significant advantages over conventional antibody and fluorescent protein labeling techniques. Here we present and , dyes that label live microglia specifically. They may be applied to the isolation and imaging of live microglia when investigating their role in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. Magnetic source imaging and ictal SPECT in MRI‐negative neocortical epilepsies: Additional value and comparison with intracranial EEG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Felix; Irene Wang, Z; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Almubarak, Salah; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Nair, Dileep; Mosher, John C; Najm, Imad M; Burgess, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    .... Methods:  Studied were 14 consecutive patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation including ICEEG, positive MSI, and localizing subtraction Ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) analysis. Follow...

  16. Optimization of energy window for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Ghaly, Michael; Frey, Eric C

    2013-06-01

    In yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy (90)Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of (90)Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a Gaussian distribution; the signal was

  17. [ I - 123 ] IPT SPECT Dopamine Reuptake Site Imaging : Differences in Normal Controls and Parkinson's Patients by Semiquantitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Hee Kyung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Joo Hyuck; Lee, Myung Chong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Dopamine transporter concentrations have been known to decrease in Parkinson's disease (PD) or increase in Tourette's disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of [I-123]N-(3-iodopropene-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane (IPT) as an imaging agent for measuring changes in transporter concentrations with PD. IPT labelled with 6.69+/-0.64 mCi (247.53+/-23.68 MBq) of I-123 was intravenously injected into ten patients(age: 55+/-11) with PD, and six normal controls(NC)(age: 46+/-14) as a bolus. Dynamic SPECT scans of the brain were then performed for 5 minutes each over 120 minutes on a triple headed camera. Time activity curves were generated for the left basal ganglia(LBG), right basal ganglia(RBG), and occipital cortex(OCC). The statistical parameters included the time to peak activity, the contrast ratio of LEG and RBG to OCC at several time points, and the accumulated specific binding counts/mCi/pixel (ASBC) from 0 to 115 minutes. The uptake of IPT in the brains of PD and NC peaked within 10 minutes of injection in all subjects. The maximum target to background ratio in the basal ganglia of PD and NC occurred at 85+/-20 min and 110-+/-6 min of injection, respectively. The BG/OCC ratios at 115 minutes for PD and NC were 2.15+/-0.54 and 4.26+/-0.73, respectively. The ASBC at 115 minutes for PD and NC were 152.91+/-50.09 and 289.51+/-49.00, respectively. The ratio of BG/OCC for the NC was significantly higher than the ratio for PD. SPECT data matched with clinical diagnosis for PDs. The ratio between BG and OCC and the ASBC for PD were clearly separated from NC and may be useful outcome measures for clinical diagnosis. The findings suggest that IPT may be a very useful tracer for early diagnosis of PD and study of dopamine reuptake site.

  18. Potential diagnostic value of regional myocardial adrenergic imaging using {sup 123}I-MIBG SPECT to identify patients with Lewy body diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebasnier, Adrien; Peyronnet, Damien; Bouvard, Gerard [University Hospital Center of Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Lamotte, Guillaume; Defer, Gilles [University Hospital Center of Caen, Department of Neurology, Caen (France); Manrique, Alain [University Hospital Center of Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Cyceron PET Centre, Caen (France); Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Agostini, Denis [University Hospital Center of Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Normandie Universite, Caen (France)

    2015-01-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential diagnostic value of regional myocardial adrenergic {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to identify patients with Lewy body diseases (LBD+). Sixty-four consecutive patients who underwent cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG SPECT to differentiate LBD+, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), from patients without LBD (LBD-) were retrospectively reviewed. A neurologist expert in memory disorders determined the final clinical diagnosis by using international clinical diagnostic criteria. Planar [heart to mediastinum ratio (HMR)] and {sup 123}I-MIBG SPECT[innervation defect score (IDS)] using the 17-segment left ventricular model (five-point scale) were obtained 4 h after the injection of {sup 123}I-MIBG on a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal HMR and IDS cut-off values to discriminate LBD+ from LBD-. Of the 64 patients, 45 (70 %) were diagnosed LBD+ (DLB, n = 27; PD, n = 18) and 19 were diagnosed LBD- (5 other dementias, 14 other parkinsonisms). The HMR and IDS of LBD+ were significantly different from those of LBD- (1.30 ± 0.21 vs 1.65 ± 0.26, p < 0.001; 39 ± 28 vs 8 ± 16, p = 0.001). The optimal HMR and IDS cut-off values to discriminate LBD+ (n = 45) from LBD- (n = 19) were 1.47 and 6/68, providing a sensitivity and specificity of 82.2 and 84.2 % and 86.7 and 73.7 %, respectively. Regional myocardial adrenergic {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging SPECT has a potential diagnostic value to identify LBD+. (orig.)

  19. Development of new Molecular Imaging probes; Desarrollo de nuevas sondas de Imagen Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Vallejo, V.; Baz, Z.; Llop, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are essential tools for the early diagnose of certain pathologies, and have been widely applied to the mechanistic investigation of disease, the visualization of biological and physiological phenomena and in the process of drug development. PET and SPECT require the administration of a radiotracer (compound labelled with a radioactive nuclide) to the subject under investigation (patient, healthy volunteer or experimental animal). Due to their high sensitivity and their noninvasive nature, nuclear imaging techniques have a great potential. However, only a few radiotracers are currently routinely used in clinical diagnose. In contrast, new tracers suitable for the visualization of new targets or showing improved specificity, selectivity or pharmacokinetic properties are continuously designed, synthesized and assayed in the preclinical setting. Far from performing an exhaustive revision of the new radiotracers currently under development, this paper aims to collate recent advances related to the preparation of novel nuclear imaging probes, which have a significant scientific impact in terms of literature volume, and which could be translated to the clinical environment in the near future. First, peptides and nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed. Finally, antibody derivatives and the recently developed pretargeting strategy, which enables the visualization of tumours while lowering significantly the effective dose posed on the subject under investigation, will be briefly covered. [Spanish] Las técnicas de imagen nuclear, entre las que se encuentran la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) y la tomografía por emisión de fotón único (SPECT) son herramientas fundamentales no sólo en el entorno clínico diagnóstico, sino también para el estudio mecanístico de determinadas patologías, la visualización de procesos biol

  20. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jögi J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Jögi,1 Hanna Markstad,2 Ellen Tufvesson,3 Leif Bjermer,3 Marika Bajc1 1Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Skåne University Hospital and Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Ventilation/perfusion (V/P single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT, may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I–IV and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD

  1. Nanoparticle imaging probes for molecular imaging with computed tomography and application to cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Ryan K.; Curtis, Tyler E.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Irimata, Lisa E.; McGinnity, Tracie L.; Cole, Lisa E.; Vargo-Gogola, Tracy; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2017-03-01

    Precision imaging is needed to realize precision medicine in cancer detection and treatment. Molecular imaging offers the ability to target and identify tumors, associated abnormalities, and specific cell populations with overexpressed receptors. Nuclear imaging and radionuclide probes provide high sensitivity but subject the patient to a high radiation dose and provide limited spatiotemporal information, requiring combined computed tomography (CT) for anatomic imaging. Therefore, nanoparticle contrast agents have been designed to enable molecular imaging and improve detection in CT alone. Core-shell nanoparticles provide a powerful platform for designing tailored imaging probes. The composition of the core is chosen for enabling strong X-ray contrast, multi-agent imaging with photon-counting spectral CT, and multimodal imaging. A silica shell is used for protective, biocompatible encapsulation of the core composition, volume-loading fluorophores or radionuclides for multimodal imaging, and facile surface functionalization with antibodies or small molecules for targeted delivery. Multi-agent (k-edge) imaging and quantitative molecular imaging with spectral CT was demonstrated using current clinical agents (iodine and BaSO4) and a proposed spectral library of contrast agents (Gd2O3, HfO2, and Au). Bisphosphonate-functionalized Au nanoparticles were demonstrated to enhance sensitivity and specificity for the detection of breast microcalcifications by conventional radiography and CT in both normal and dense mammary tissue using murine models. Moreover, photon-counting spectral CT enabled quantitative material decomposition of the Au and calcium signals. Immunoconjugated Au@SiO2 nanoparticles enabled highly-specific targeting of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells for contrast-enhanced detection in model tumors.

  2. Waveguide volume probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a probe for use within the field of nuclear magnetic resonance, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). One embodiment relates to an RF probe for magnetic resonance imaging and/or spectroscopy comprising a conductive...... non-magnetic hollow waveguide having an internal volume and at least one open end, one or more capacitors and at least a first conductive non-magnetic wire, wherein said first conductive wire connects at least one of said one or more capacitors to opposite walls of one open end of the waveguide...... and wherein said first conductive wire and said one or more capacitors are located outside of said internal volume, wherein the internal volume of the hollow waveguide defines an imaging volume or sample volume....

  3. Raman imaging of biofilms using gold sputtered fiber optic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Christina Grace Charlet; Manoharan, Hariharan; Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Sai, V. V. Raghavendra

    2016-12-01

    In this work we report characterization of bacterial biofilm using gold sputtered optical fiber probe as substrates for confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements. The chemical composition and the heterogeneity of biofilms in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was evaluated. The spatial distribution of bacterial biofilm on the substrates during their growth phase was studied using Raman imaging. Further, the influence of substrate's surface on bacterial adhesion was investigated by studying growth of biofilms on surfaces with hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings. This study validates the use of gold sputtered optical fiber probes as SERS substrates in confocal microscopic configuration to identify and characterize clinically relevant biofilms.

  4. Elimination of periodic damped artifacts in scanning probe microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Huang, Wenhao

    2010-04-01

    When scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is operated at high scan rates, stripe-like artifacts will appear frequently in the SPM images. The removal of the image artifacts is highly demanded because they will distort the results in precise measurements. In this work, a method based on Prony analysis has been introduced to erase such periodic damped artifacts. Results demonstrate that this method prevails against the conventional fast Fourier transformation (FFT) method. Clean eliminations of the image artifacts are obtained, with almost no sacrifice of the detailed surface information. Even for arbitrary rough surfaces, the image artifacts can also be reduced by more than one order of magnitude. However, small amounts of stripes may still remain in the images. In these cases, the Prony analysis combined with locally weighted smoothing will provide better image quality. The artifacts reduction can have a meaning in the SPM-based visualization of dynamic phenomena with a nanoscale resolution.

  5. [Outlines of interdisciplinary addiction research given by the example of medical imaging with PET, SPECT and fMRI regarding effects of psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ertl, Markus; Riemer, Yvonne; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Ennemoser, Oswald; Rössler, Haimo; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The addiction phenomenon provides a fertile ground for the application of the tools of medical imaging which contribute to the development of scientific conceptualization of the effect of psychotropic substances. Medical imaging as for instance PET (Positron Emission Tomography), SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are well established for the examination of functional activity in the living brain. Medical imaging permits the development of functional activation maps during perceptual, cognitive or emotional efforts with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Medical imaging devices have therefore also been used to help our understanding of many aspects of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of abused drugs. Because Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine continue to be the most commonly used illicit drugs, their effects on the brain function are of major interest. The cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist Delta(9)-THC as for instance has also been suggested for treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). This article provides an overview of present applications of medical imaging with PET, SPECT, and fMRI and its results regarding addiction-related research on Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine.

  6. [Head to head comparison of dobutamine alone and combined with nitrate stress echocardiography and 99mTc-MIBI/18FDG myocardial SPECT image for diagnosis of viable myocardium in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue-jin; Yang, Wei-xian; Shi, Rong-fang; Hu, Feng-huan; You, Shi-jie; Tian, Yue-qin; He, Zuo-xiang; Wang, Yan-wu; Ye, Ling; Chen, Ji-lin; Gao, Run-lin; Chen, Zai-jia

    2005-04-01

    This study was sought to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of (1) dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) myocardial image with (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((99m)Tc-MIBI/(18)FDG); (2) low dose dobutamine alone and combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate (ISDN: Isoket) stress two dimensional echocardiography (2DE) to predict regional movement recovery after revascularization (CRV) in patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Twenty-six patients (mean age 51 +/- 8 years, male 25, female 1) with OMI and severe left ventricular dysfunction (mean left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF (38.6% +/- 4.9%) underwent low dose dobutamine 10 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (Dob10 microg) and ISDN (286 +/- 31 microg/min) combined with Dob5 microg (ISDN-Dob 5 microg) 2DE and DISA SPECT within one week. In echocardiogram and DISA SPECT images: the left ventricle (LV) was divided into 16 segments. The semi-quantitative scoring system was used for both images. Myocardial viability was defined as an improvement of at least >or= 1 grade in at least two contiguous segments at rest 2DE after CRV. The viable segments detecting rate with stress 2DE and DISA SPECT were compared. Compared with the results of post-CRV, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting viable segments of two methods were calculated. Among 272 abnormal segments in 26 patients, 156 (57.4%) segments showed contractile improvement after CRV. The viable segments detecting rate with DISA SPECT was 72.4% (134/254), which was significantly higher than the contractile improved rate after CRV (P 0.05). With DISA SPECT, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.7%, 55% and 76.8%, respectively. Compared with DISA SPECT, Dob10 microg 2DE showed similar sensitivity (88.6%), specificity (64.2%) and the accuracy (77.9%). When ISDN combined with Dob5 microg, the sensitivity (91.4%), specificity

  7. Correlation between neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Fujii, Shinya; Tanabe, Yoshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging (MRI) can visualize neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and its utility has been reported in the evaluation of parkinsonism. Conversely, dopamine transporter imaging by {sup 123}I-N-v-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (FP-CIT) SPECT (DaTSCAN) is now an established method for evaluating parkinsonism, detecting presynaptic dopamine neuronal dysfunction. Both methods can assist differentiating neurodegenerative and other forms of parkinsonism. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies concerning a correlation between the two methods. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of neuromelanin-sensitive MRI for diagnosing parkinsonism by examining a correlation with DaTSCAN. Twenty-three patients with parkinsonism who underwent both neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and DaTSCAN were included. We measured the neuromelanin-positive SNc region volume by manually contouring the high signal intensity region of the SNc on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and measured the specific binding ratio (SBR) on DaTSCAN. The asymmetry index of neuromelanin-positive SNc volume and the asymmetry index of SBR were also calculated. The volume of the neuromelanin-positive SNc region showed significant correlation with specific binding ratio (SBR) (right P <.001, ρ = 0.78, left P <.001, ρ = 0.86). The asymmetry index of neuromelanin-positive SNc volume also showed significant correlations with the asymmetry index of SBR (P <.001, ρ = 0.73). Decrease of the high signal intensity region of the SNc on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI would indicate damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons. We conclude that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI is a useful diagnostic biomarker for parkinsonism. (orig.)

  8. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  9. Measurement of [123I]FP-CIT binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy mouse striatum using dedicated small animal SPECT imaging: feasibility, optimization and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A; Zannetti, A; Pappatà, S; Albanese, A; Coda, A R; Ragucci, M; Nardelli, A; Brunetti, A; Cuocolo, A; Salvatore, M

    2015-09-01

    In vivo imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT), a reliable marker of degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation, has gained increasing interest in preclinical neurodegenerative research for studying disease mechanisms and testing new therapeutic strategies. We assessed the feasibility and the reliability of in vivo and ex vivo quantification of Methyl (3S,4S,5R)-8-(3-fluoropropyl)-3-(4-iodophenyl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-4- carboxylate ([123I]FP-CIT) binding to striatal DAT sites in mouse brain. Dedicated small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of [123I]FPCIT binding were obtained in 3 groups of healthy mice: untreated (n=6), pre-treated with lugol solution (n=4), and pre-treated with selective dopamine transporter uptake inhibitor GBR12909 (n=4). Ex-vivo autoradiography studies were performed at the end of SPECT studies with phosphor image system in 4 out of the 6 untreated mice and in all mice pretreated with lugol. Regions of interest were defined over the striatum. The specific binding (SB) was calculated using the cerebral cortex as reference region. SPECT images in untreated mice showed high [123I]FP-CIT uptake in the striatum and extra-cerebral regions. Lugol pre-treatment improved striatal images quality decreasing salivary and thyroid glands uptake. SB was higher (plugol (5.97±0.60) than in untreated mice (2.25±0.28). Autoradiography showed similar SB findings in untreated (2.27±0.33) and lugol-treated (4.27±0.57) mice (plugol might improve striatal [123I]FP-CIT SB in mice.

  10. Evaluation of myocardial CT perfusion in patients presenting with acute chest pain to the emergency department: comparison with SPECT-myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuchtner, Gudrun Maria; Plank, Fabian; Pena, Constantino; Battle, Juan; Min, James; Leipsic, Jonathon; Labounty, Troy; Janowitz, Warren; Katzen, Barry; Ziffer, Jack; Cury, Ricardo C

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether evaluation of resting myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) from coronary CT angiography (CTA) datasets in patients presenting with chest pain (CP) to the emergency department (ED), might have added value to coronary CTA. 76 Patients (age 54.9 y±13; 32 (42%) women) presenting with CP to the ED underwent coronary 64-slice CTA. Myocardial perfusion defects were evaluated for CTP (American Heart Association 17-segment model) and compared with rest sestamibi single-photon emission CT myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). CTA was assessed for >50% stenosis per vessel. CTP demonstrated a sensitivity of 92% and 89%, specificity of 95% and 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% and 82% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98% and 99% for each patient and for each segment, respectively. CTA showed an accuracy of 92%, sensitivity of 70.4%, specificity of 95.5%, PPV 67.8%, and NPV of 95% compared with SPECT-MPI. When CTP findings were added to CTA the PPV improved from 67% to 90.1%. In patients presenting to the ED with CP, the evaluation of rest myocardial CTP demonstrates high diagnostic performance as compared with SPECT-MPI. Addition of CTP to CTA improves the accuracy of CTA, primarily by reducing rates of false-positive CTA.

  11. Combined SPECT/CT improves detection of initial bone invasion and determination of resection margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared to conventional imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Mund-Kiefer und Gesichtschirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Schuster, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Chlebowski, A.; Kesting, M.; Bissinger, O.; Weitz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Lange, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Munich (Germany); Scheidhauer, K.; Schwaiger, M.; Dinges, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of bone infiltration is crucial for planning the resection of potential bone-infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Routinely, plain-film radiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for preoperative staging, but they show relatively high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate has the ability to show increased metabolic bone activity. If combined with anatomical imaging (e.g. (SPECT)/CT), it facilitates the precise localization of malignant bone lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the indications and advantages of SPECT/CT compared with standard imaging modalities and histology with regard to specificity and sensitivity A longitudinally evaluated group of 30 patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC adjacent to the mandible underwent {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate SPECT/CT, MRI, MSCT and conventional radiography before partial or rim resection of the mandible was performed. Bone infiltration was first evaluated with plain films, MSCT and MRI. In a second reading, SPECT/CT data were taken into account. The results (region and certainty of bone invasion) were evaluated among the different imaging modalities and finally compared with histological specimens from surgical resection as the standard of reference. For a better evaluation of the hybrid property of SPECT/CT, a retrospectively evaluated group of 20 additional patients with tumour locations similar to those of the longitudinally examined SPECT/CT group underwent SPECT, MSCT and MRI. To assess the influence of dental foci on the specificity of the imaging modalities, all patients were separated into two subgroups depending on the presence or absence of teeth in the area of potential tumour-bone contact. Histologically proven bone infiltration was found in 17 patients (57 %) when analysed by conventional imaging modalities. SPECT/CT data

  12. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness.

  13. The impact of regimented aminophylline use on extracardiac radioisotope activity in patients undergoing regadenoson stress SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging: a substudy of the ASSUAGE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballany, Wassim; Mansour, Khaled; Morales Demori, Raysa; Al-Amoodi, Mohammed; Doukky, Rami

    2014-06-01

    In patients undergoing regadenoson stress SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), the impact of the regimented administration of aminophylline on the cardiac-to-extracardiac photon activity ratio is unknown. This is a substudy of the ASSUAGE trial (NCT01250496); a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial which investigated the attenuation of regadenoson-related adverse effects using 75 mg of intravenous aminophylline vs placebo, administered 90 seconds following (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin injection in patients undergoing regadenoson stress SPECT-MPI. In subjects with normal MPI enrolled in the trial, we sampled from the antero-posterior planar projection of the post-stress scintigraphic data the mean photon activity in the myocardium, liver, bowel, and lungs. The mean cardiac-to-extracardiac activity ratios were compared between patients randomized to aminophylline vs placebo. We studied 158 eligible subjects, randomized to receive aminophylline (n = 86) or placebo (n = 72). The means of photon activity ratios of the heart-to-liver, heart-to-bowel, heart-to-lungs, inferior wall of the heart-to-liver, and inferior wall of the heart-to-bowel were not statistically different between those who received aminophylline vs placebo (P values > .30). Only the time lapse between stress (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin injection and stress SPECT acquisition independently correlated with higher heart-to-liver and heart-to-bowel activity ratios (P values ≤ .01). Patients' body mass index independently correlated with lower heart-to-lung ratio (P = .009). The regimented intravenous aminophylline use following regadenoson stress does not significantly improve the cardiac-to-extracardiac photon activity ratio in patients undergoing regadenoson stress (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT-MPI.

  14. Multimodality molecular imaging of disease progression in living ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imaging techniques, (ii) radionuclide-based positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emitted computed tomography (SPECT), (iii) X-ray-based computed tomography (CT), (iv) magnetic resonance imaging. (MRI) and (v) ultrasound imaging (US). Functional molecular imaging requires an imaging probe that is ...

  15. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  16. Nanomaterial-based activatable imaging probes: from design to biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Cheng, Fangfang; Huang, Haiping; Li, Lingling; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-11-07

    Activatable imaging probes as alternatives to "always on" imaging probes have attracted more and more attention due to their improved sensitivity and specificity. They are commonly designed to amplify or boost imaging signals only in response to specific biomolecular recognition or interaction. Thus, the design strategies play a vital role in the fabrication of activatable imaging probes. In this review, we focus on the design mechanisms and biological applications of those nanomaterial-based activatable imaging probes reported in the past five years, benefitting greatly from the good development of nanotechnology. These probes not only include the most studied activatable fluorescence imaging probes, but also cover more activatable MR imaging probes based on nanoparticle contrast agents and activatable photoacoustic imaging probes, providing more bases for clinical translation.

  17. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail: rodrigo_dsp@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia

    2008-11-15

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  18. A digital data acquisition scheme for SPECT and PET small animal imaging detectors for Theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, M.; Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.

    2017-11-01

    Nanoparticle based drug delivery is considered as a new, promising technology for the efficient treatment of various diseases. When nanoparticles are radiolabelled it is possible to image them, using molecular imaging techniques. The use of magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia is one of the most promising nanomedicine directions and requires the accurate, non-invasive, monitoring of temperature increase and drug release. The combination of imaging and therapy has opened the very promising Theranostics domain. In this work, we present a digital data acquisition scheme for nuclear medicine dedicated detectors for Theranostic applications.

  19. Prognostic Value of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride SPECT Camera in Patients Suspected of Having Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M; Timmer, Jorik R; Mouden, Mohamed; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L; Ottervanger, Jan Paul

    2017-09-01

    The prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with the cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) SPECT camera is not well established. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MPI performed with a CZT SPECT camera in a large cohort of patients suspected of having coronary artery disease. Methods: Consecutive symptomatic stable patients (n = 4,057) without a history of coronary artery disease underwent CZT SPECT MPI. During a median follow-up of 2.4 y (25th-75th percentile, 1.7-3.4), patients were monitored for primary (nonfatal myocardial infarction and cardiac mortality) and secondary outcomes (late revascularization [>90 d after scanning] and primary outcome). Results: Patients with normal perfusion demonstrated low annual event rates (primary outcome, 0.2%; secondary outcome, 0.6%). Annual event rates increased with the extent of abnormality of myocardial perfusion. In patients with small ischemic perfusion defects, annual event rates were 0.7% and 2.8% for the primary and secondary outcome, respectively. In patients with moderate or large ischemic perfusion defects, these event rates were 1.2% and 4.3%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the risk for events was significantly associated with the extent of ischemia (hazard ratio for small ischemic defects: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-5.9 and 4.6, 95% CI, 2.8-7.6, for primary and secondary outcomes, respectively; hazard ratio for moderate or large ischemic defects: 4.0, 95% CI, 1.5-10.5 and 12.1, 95% CI, 7.2-20.2, for primary and secondary outcomes, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings show that MPI acquired with a CZT SPECT camera provides excellent prognostic information, with low event rates in patients with normal myocardial perfusion. In patients with abnormal SPECT MPI, the extent of abnormality is independently associated with an increased risk of events. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. Probes for multidimensional nanospectroscopic imaging and methods of fabrication thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Cabrini, Stefano; Bao, Wei; Melli, Mauro; Yablonovitch, Eli; Schuck, Peter J

    2015-03-17

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to probes for multidimensional nanospectroscopic imaging. In one aspect, a method includes providing a transparent tip comprising a dielectric material. A four-sided pyramidal-shaped structure is formed at an apex of the transparent tip using a focused ion beam. Metal layers are deposited over two opposing sides of the four-sided pyramidal-shaped structure.

  1. Development of a bioluminescent nitroreductase probe for preclinical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika G.; Michael Stanton; Aurélien Godinat; Kjetil B Lund; Karateev, Grigory G.; Francis, Kevin P.; Elizabeth Allen; Gelovani, Juri G; Emmet McCormack; Mark Tangney; Dubikovskaya, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial nitroreductases (NTRs) have been widely utilized in the development of novel antibiotics, degradation of pollutants, and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) of cancer that reached clinical trials. In case of GDEPT, since NTR is not naturally present in mammalian cells, the prodrug is activated selectively in NTR-transformed cancer cells, allowing high efficiency treatment of tumors. Currently, no bioluminescent probes exist for sensitive, non-invasive imaging of NTR express...

  2. Hybrid cardiac imaging: SPECT/CT and PET/CT. A joint position statement by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), the European Society of Cardiac Radiology (ESCR) and the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flotats, Albert; Gutberlet, Matthias; Knuuti, Juhani

    2011-01-01

    improvement in the management of patients with cancer over stand-alone acquired CT and PET images. Hybrid cardiac imaging either with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or PET combined with CT depicts cardiac and vascular anatomical abnormalities and their physiologic consequences in a single....... The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), the European Society of Cardiac Radiology (ESCR) and the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC) in this paper want to present a position statement of the institutions on the current roles of SPECT/CT and PET/CT hybrid cardiac imaging in patients...

  3. Use of Cyclic Backbone NGR-Based SPECT to Increase Efficacy of Postmyocardial Infarction Angiogenesis Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Hendrikx

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As CD13 is selectively expressed in angiogenesis, it can serve as a target for molecular imaging tracers to noninvasively visualize angiogenic processes in vivo. The CD13-targeting moiety NGR was synthesized and cyclized by native chemical ligation (NCL instead of disulfide bridging, leading to a cyclic peptide backbone: cyclo(Cys-Asn-Gly-Arg-Gly (coNGR. Beside this new monomeric coNGR, a tetrameric NGR peptide co(NGR4 was designed and synthesized. After radiolabeling, their in vitro and in vivo characteristics were determined. Both coNGR-based imaging agents displayed considerably higher standardized uptake values (SUVs at infarcted areas compared to the previously reported disulfide-cyclized cNGR imaging agent. Uptake patterns of 111In-coNGR and 111In-co(NGR4 coincided with CD13 immunohistochemistry on excised hearts. Blood stability tests indicated better stability for both novel imaging agents after 50 min blood incubation compared to the disulfide-cyclized cNGR imaging agent. In mice, both coNGR peptides cleared rapidly from the blood mainly via the kidneys. In addition, co(NGR4 showed a significantly higher specific uptake in infarcted myocardium compared to coNGR and thus is a promising sensitive imaging agent for detection of angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium.

  4. Molecular imaging using PET and SPECT for identification of breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Yao; Wu, Shuang; Song, Fahuan; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Breast cancer is a major disease with high morbidity and mortality in women. As a highly heterogeneous tumor, it contains different molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2-positive, and triple-negative subtypes. As each subtype has unique features, it may not be universal to the optimal treatment and expected response for individual patients. Therefore, it is critical to identify different breast cancer subtypes. Targeting subcellular levels, molecular imaging, especially PET and single photon emission computed tomography, has become a promising means to identify breast cancer subtypes and monitor treatment. Different biological processes between various subtypes, including changes correlated with receptor expression, cell proliferation, or glucose metabolism, have the potential for imaging with PET and single photon emission computed tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Receptor imaging, with radiopharmaceuticals targeting estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or human epidermal growth factor 2, is available to distinguish receptor-positive tumors from receptor-negative ones. Cell proliferation imaging with fluorine-18 fluorothymidine PET aids identification of luminal A and B subtypes on the basis of the correlation with the immunohistochemical biomarker Ki-67. Glucose metabolism imaging with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET may have potential to discriminate triple-negative subtypes from others. With increasing numbers of novel radiopharmaceuticals, noninvasive molecular imaging will be applied widely for the identification of different subtypes and provide more in-vivo information on individualized management of breast cancer patients.

  5. Reporter protein-targeted probes for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Renee C; Mastarone, Daniel J; Sukerkar, Preeti A; Song, Ying; Ipsaro, Jonathan J; Meade, Thomas J

    2011-10-19

    Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging are frequently employed as experimental and clinical probes. Drawbacks include low signal sensitivity, fast clearance, and nonspecificity that limit efficacy in experimental imaging. In order to create a bioresponsive MR contrast agent, a series of four Gd(III) complexes targeted to the HaloTag reporter were designed and synthesized. HaloTag is unique among reporter proteins for its specificity, versatility, and the covalent interaction between substrate and protein. In similar systems, these properties produce prolonged in vivo lifetimes and extended imaging opportunities for contrast agents, longer rotational correlation times, and increases in relaxivity (r(1)) upon binding to the HaloTag protein. In this work we report a new MR contrast probe, 2CHTGd, which forms a covalent bond with its target protein and results in a dramatic increase in sensitivity. A 6-fold increase in r(1), from 3.8 to 22 mM(-1) s(-1), is observed upon 2CHTGd binding to the target protein. This probe was designed for use with the HaloTag protein system which allows for a variety of substrates (specific for MRI, florescence, or protein purification applications) to be used with the same reporter.

  6. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  7. Reduced coronary flow reserve in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a study by G-SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Cecilia [CNR Institute of Bioimages and Molecular Physiology Milan, Genoa (Italy); Giusti, Massimo; Vera, Lara; Minuto, Francesco [University of Genoa, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Armonino, Riccardo; Ghigliotti, Giorgio; Bezante, Gian Paolo; Morbelli, Silvia; Pomposelli, Elena; Massollo, Michela; Gandolfo, Patrizia; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanisms underlying increased cardiovascular risk in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) have not been fully defined. Recently, this issue has become the subject of renewed interest due to the increasing evidence that the endothelium and vascular wall are targets for parathyroid hormone (PTH). The aim of this study was to measure regional coronary flow reserve (CFR) to determine whether the vascular damage induced by pHPT extends to affect the coronary microvascular function. A total of 22 pHPT patients without a history of coronary artery disease and 7 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Dipyridamole myocardial blood flow (MBF) was assessed using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi by measuring first-transit counts in the pulmonary artery and myocardial count rate from G-SPECT images. Baseline MBF was estimated 2 h later according to the same procedure. Regional CFR was defined as the ratio between dipyridamole and baseline MBF using a 17-segment left ventricular model. Three pHPT patients showed reversible perfusion defects and were excluded from the analysis. In the remaining 19, CFR was significantly lower with respect to the control subjects (1.88 {+-} 0.64 vs. 3.36 {+-} 0.66, respectively; p < 0.01). Moreover, patients studied for more than 28 months from pHPT diagnosis showed lower CFR values than the others (1.42 {+-} 0.18 vs. 2.25 {+-} 0.64, respectively; p < 0.01). Consequently, the time from diagnosis to the nuclear study showed a reasonable correlation with the degree of CFR impairment (Spearman's rho -0.667, p < 0.02). pHPT is associated with a significant dysfunction of the coronary microcirculation. This disorder might contribute to the high cardiovascular risk of conditions characterized by chronic elevations in serum PTH levels. (orig.)

  8. Intra-image referencing for simplified assessment of HER2-expression in breast cancer metastases using the Affibody molecule ABY-025 with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Dan; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Joergen; Lindman, Henrik [Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala (Sweden); Velikyan, Irina; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim [Affibody AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2017-08-15

    In phase I/II-studies radiolabelled ABY-025 Affibody molecules identified human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in breast cancer metastases using PET and SPECT imaging. Here, we wanted to investigate the utility of a simple intra-image normalization using tumour-to-reference tissue-ratio (T/R) as a HER2 status discrimination strategy to overcome potential issues related to cross-calibration of scanning devices. Twenty-three women with pre-diagnosed HER2-positive/negative metastasized breast cancer were scanned with [{sup 111}In]-ABY-025 SPECT/CT (n = 7) or [{sup 68}Ga]-ABY-025 PET/CT (n = 16). Uptake was measured in all metastases and in normal spleen, lung, liver, muscle, and blood pool. Normal tissue uptake variation and T/R-ratios were established for various time points and for two different doses of injected peptide from a total of 94 whole-body image acquisitions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to verify HER2 expression in 28 biopsied metastases. T/R-ratios were compared to IHC findings to establish the best reference tissue for each modality and each imaging time-point. The impact of shed HER2 in serum was investigated. Spleen was the best reference tissue across modalities, followed by blood pool and lung. Spleen-T/R was highly correlated to PET SUV in metastases after 2 h (r = 0.96,P < 0.001) and reached an accuracy of 100% for discriminating IHC HER2-positive and negative metastases at 4 h (PET) and 24 h (SPECT) after injection. In a single case, shed HER2 resulted in intense tracer retention in blood. In the remaining patients shed HER2 was elevated, but without significant impact on ABY-025 biodistribution. T/R-ratios using spleen as reference tissue accurately quantify HER2 expression with radiolabelled ABY-025 imaging in breast cancer metastases with SPECT and PET. Tracer binding to shed HER2 in serum might affect quantification in the extreme case. (orig.)

  9. Intra-image referencing for simplified assessment of HER2-expression in breast cancer metastases using the Affibody molecule ABY-025 with PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Dan; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Velikyan, Irina; Olofsson, Helena; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik; Sörensen, Jens

    2017-08-01

    In phase I/II-studies radiolabelled ABY-025 Affibody molecules identified human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in breast cancer metastases using PET and SPECT imaging. Here, we wanted to investigate the utility of a simple intra-image normalization using tumour-to-reference tissue-ratio (T/R) as a HER2 status discrimination strategy to overcome potential issues related to cross-calibration of scanning devices. Twenty-three women with pre-diagnosed HER2-positive/negative metastasized breast cancer were scanned with [ 111 In]-ABY-025 SPECT/CT (n = 7) or [ 68 Ga]-ABY-025 PET/CT (n = 16). Uptake was measured in all metastases and in normal spleen, lung, liver, muscle, and blood pool. Normal tissue uptake variation and T/R-ratios were established for various time points and for two different doses of injected peptide from a total of 94 whole-body image acquisitions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to verify HER2 expression in 28 biopsied metastases. T/R-ratios were compared to IHC findings to establish the best reference tissue for each modality and each imaging time-point. The impact of shed HER2 in serum was investigated. Spleen was the best reference tissue across modalities, followed by blood pool and lung. Spleen-T/R was highly correlated to PET SUV in metastases after 2 h (r = 0.96, P HER2-positive and negative metastases at 4 h (PET) and 24 h (SPECT) after injection. In a single case, shed HER2 resulted in intense tracer retention in blood. In the remaining patients shed HER2 was elevated, but without significant impact on ABY-025 biodistribution. T/R-ratios using spleen as reference tissue accurately quantify HER2 expression with radiolabelled ABY-025 imaging in breast cancer metastases with SPECT and PET. Tracer binding to shed HER2 in serum might affect quantification in the extreme case.

  10. Extraperitoneal urine leak after renal transplantation: the role of radionuclide imaging and the value of accompanying SPECT/CT - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostakoglu Lale

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation of the nature of a fluid collection as a complication of kidney transplantation is important for management and treatment planning. Early and delayed radionuclide renography can play an important role in the evaluation of a urine leak. However, it is sometimes limited in the evaluation of the exact location and extent of a urine leak. Case Presentation A 71-year-old male who had sudden anuria, scrotal swelling and elevated creatinine level after cadaveric renal transplantation performed Tc-99 m MAG3 renography to evaluate the renal function, followed by an ultrasound which was unremarkable. An extensive urine leak was evident on the planar images. However, an exact location of the urine leak was unknown. Accompanying SPECT/CT images confirmed a urine leak extending from the lower aspect of the transplant kidney to the floor of the pelvic cavity, presacral region and the scrotum via right inguinal canal as well as to the right abdominal wall. Conclusions Renal scintigraphy is very useful to detect a urine leak after renal transplantation. However, planar imaging is sometimes limited in evaluating the anatomical location and extent of a urine leak accurately. In that case accompanying SPECT/CT images are very helpful and valuable to evaluate the anatomical relationships exactly.

  11. The importance of a correct positioning of the heart using IQ-SPECT system with multifocal collimators in myocardial perfusion imaging: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Ren Kaiser, Stefano; Thackeray, James Thomas; Bengel, Frank Michael; Chieregato, Matteo; Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Savelli, Giordano; Guerra, Ugo Paolo; Galelli, Marco; Zoccarato, Orazio

    2015-02-01

    We have recently validated a quarter-time protocol in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging named IQ-SPECT, whose basic principle is to implement a multifocal collimator; However, in clinical practice, it may sometimes be difficult to center the heart in the region of highest magnification of the multifocal collimators (the so-called sweet spot). We therefore aimed to evaluate whether a heart mispositioning may affect results in MPI. We simulated a rest study with an anthropomorphic phantom with an in vivo distribution of 400 MBq [(99m)Tc]tetrofosmin, with and without a transmural defect (TD). For each set of images, we performed 5 acquisitions, one with a correct centering and with other 4 degrees of mispositioning. Raw data and reconstructed images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, including no corrections, correction for attenuation, for scatter or for both. We assessed polar plot uniformity, LV wall thickness, and TD and cavity contrast. Images obtained either with a correct heart centering or with mild misposition showed no differences, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Those obtained with major mispositioning differed in uniformity and TD contrast depending on correction parameters. This is the first study investigating how a heart mispositioning can affect diagnostic accuracy with IQ-SPECT system. Mild-to-moderate mispositioning (≤2.5 cm) is unlikely to significantly affect results.

  12. Planar and SPECT ventilation/perfusion imaging and computed tomography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, and cost and dose comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.J., E-mail: jimphillips@nhs.net [Nuclear Medicine, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom); Straiton, J. [Radiology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom); Staff, R.T. [Nuclear Medicine, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is an indication for scintillation V/Q imaging (planar and SPECT) and/or CTPA. This study reviews, compares and aggregates the published diagnostic performance of each modality and assesses the short-term consequences in terms of diagnostic outcomes, monetary cost, and radiation burden. We performed a formal literature review of available data and aggregated the finding using a summary receiver operating characteristic. A decision tree approach was used to estimate cost and dose per correct diagnosis. The review found 19 studies, which comprised 27 data sets (6393 examinations, from 5923 patients). The results showed that planar V/Q was significantly inferior to both V/Q SPECT and CTPA with no difference between the latter two. CTPA represents best value; £129 per correct diagnosis compared to £243 (SPECT) and £226 (planar). In terms of radiation burden V/Q SPECT was the most effective with a dose of 2.12 mSv per correct diagnosis compared with 3.46 mSv (planar) and 4.96 (CTPA) mSv. These findings show no performance difference between V/Q SPECT and CTPA; planar V/Q is inferior. CTPA is clearly the most cost effective technique. V/Q SPECT should be considered in situations where radiation dose is of concern or CTPA is inappropriate.

  13. Quantification of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies with {sup 123}I-labelled radioligands. A comparison between different imaging systems and data acquisition protocols using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Cristina; Aguiar, Pablo [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); Gallego, Judith [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Cot, Albert [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Seccio d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domenec [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Bullich, Santiago [Hospital del Mar, Center for Imaging in Psychiatry, CRC-MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Pareto, Deborah [CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); PRBB, Institut d' Alta Tecnologia, Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, Josep [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Lomena, Francisco [IDIBAPS, Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Calvino, Francisco [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Seccio d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain); Pavia, Javier [CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); IDIBAPS, Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    {sup 123}I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a reconstruction without corrections (OSEM), 45% for a reconstruction with attenuation correction (OSEM-A), 56% for a 3D reconstruction with attenuation and PSF corrections (OSEM-AP), 68% for OSEM-AP with scatter correction (OSEM-APS) and 97% for OSEM-APS plus PVE compensation (OSEM-APSV). For the fan-beam imaging system, the recovered SUR was 41% without corrections, 55% for OSEM-A, 65% for OSEM-AP, 75% for OSEM-APS and 102% for OSEM-APSV. Our findings indicate that the correction for degradations increases the quantification accuracy, with PVE compensation playing a major role in the SUR quantification. The proposed methodology allows us to reach similar SUR values for different SPECT systems, thereby allowing a reliable standardisation in multicentric studies. (orig.)

  14. Quantification of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies with 123I-labelled radioligands. A comparison between different imaging systems and data acquisition protocols using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Cristina; Gallego, Judith; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Bullich, Santiago; Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Sempau, Josep; Lomeña, Francisco; Calviño, Francisco; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Domènec

    2008-07-01

    (123)I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a reconstruction without corrections (OSEM), 45% for a reconstruction with attenuation correction (OSEM-A), 56% for a 3D reconstruction with attenuation and PSF corrections (OSEM-AP), 68% for OSEM-AP with scatter correction (OSEM-APS) and 97% for OSEM-APS plus PVE compensation (OSEM-APSV). For the fan-beam imaging system, the recovered SUR was 41% without corrections, 55% for OSEM-A, 65% for OSEM-AP, 75% for OSEM-APS and 102% for OSEM-APSV. Our findings indicate that the correction for degradations increases the quantification accuracy, with PVE compensation playing a major role in the SUR quantification. The proposed methodology allows us to reach similar SUR values for different SPECT systems, thereby allowing a reliable standardisation in multicentric studies.

  15. Influence of PET/CT 68Ga somatostatin receptor imaging on proceeding with patients, who were previously diagnosed with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrzak, Dorota; Mikołajczak, Renata; Kamiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of utility of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) by SPECT imaging using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC) in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) or suspected NEN, referred to Nuclear Medicine Dept. of Voivodship Specialty Center in Rzeszow. The selected group of patients was referred also to 68Ga PET/CT. The posed question was the ratio of patients for whom PET/CT with 68Ga would change their management. The distribution of somatostatin receptors was imaged using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in 61 planar and SPECT studies between 13/05/2010 and 04/02/2013 in Nuclear Medicine Dept. of Voivodship Specialty Center in Rzeszow. The patient age was within a range of 17-80, with the average age of 57.6. The average age of women (65% of patients over-all) was 55.6 and the average age of men (35% of patients overall) was 61.4. In 46 participants (75% of the study group), that underwent SRS, NEN was documented using pathology tests. Selected patients were referred to PET/CT with 68Ga labeled somatostatin analogs, DOTATATE or DOTANOC. This study group consisted of 14 female and 10 male participants with age range of 35-77 and average age of 55.5 years. Patients were classified into 3 groups, as follows: detection - referral due to clinical symptoms and/or biochemical markers (CgA-Chromogranin A, IAA-indoleacetic acid) with the aim of primary diagnosis, staging - referral with the aim of assessment of tumor spread, and follow-up - assessment of the therapy. Out of 61 patients, 24 underwent both 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide SPECT and 68Ga PET/CT. The result of PET/CT was used as a basis for further evaluation. Therefore, the patients were divided into groups; true positive TP (confirmed presence of tissue somatostatin receptors with 68Ga PET/CT) and TN (68Ga PET/CT did not detect any changes and the results were comparable and had the same influence on treatment protocol). In case of SPECT, the results

  16. Assessing Cardiac Injury in Mice With Dual Energy-MicroCT, 4D-MicroCT, and MicroSPECT Imaging After Partial Heart Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Min, Hooney [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Befera, Nicholas; Clark, Darin; Qi, Yi [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Das, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T. [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a mouse model of cardiac injury after partial heart irradiation (PHI) and to test whether dual energy (DE)-microCT and 4-dimensional (4D)-microCT can be used to assess cardiac injury after PHI to complement myocardial perfusion imaging using micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods and Materials: To study cardiac injury from tangent field irradiation in mice, we used a small-field biological irradiator to deliver a single dose of 12 Gy x-rays to approximately one-third of the left ventricle (LV) of Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/+} and Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice, where 1 or both alleles of p53 are deleted in endothelial cells. Four and 8 weeks after irradiation, mice were injected with gold and iodinated nanoparticle-based contrast agents, and imaged with DE-microCT and 4D-microCT to evaluate myocardial vascular permeability and cardiac function, respectively. Additionally, the same mice were imaged with microSPECT to assess myocardial perfusion. Results: After PHI with tangent fields, DE-microCT scans showed a time-dependent increase in accumulation of gold nanoparticles (AuNp) in the myocardium of Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice. In Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice, extravasation of AuNp was observed within the irradiated LV, whereas in the myocardium of Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/+} mice, AuNp were restricted to blood vessels. In addition, data from DE-microCT and microSPECT showed a linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.97) between the fraction of the LV that accumulated AuNp and the fraction of LV with a perfusion defect. Furthermore, 4D-microCT scans demonstrated that PHI caused a markedly decreased ejection fraction, and higher end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, to develop in Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice, which were associated with compensatory cardiac hypertrophy of the heart that was not irradiated. Conclusions: Our results show that DE-microCT and 4D-microCT with nanoparticle-based contrast agents are novel imaging approaches

  17. SU-E-J-104: Single Photon Image From PET with Insertable SPECT Collimator for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Suh, T [The catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine/Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, K [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. Methods: Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX) source code. The coincidence events were first compiled on the PET detector, and then, the events of the prompt gamma ray were collected after neutron emission by using a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) collimator on the PET. The obtaining of full width at half maximum (FWHM) values from the energy spectrum was performed to collect effective events for reconstructed image. In order to evaluate the images easily, five boron regions in a brain phantom were used. The image profiles were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of a phantom. The image was reconstructed using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm. The image profiles and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were compiled for quantitative analysis from the two kinds of reconstructed image. Results: The prompt gamma ray energy peak of 478 keV appeared in the energy spectrum with a FWHM of 41 keV (6.4%). On the basis of the ROC curve in Region A to Region E, the differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of the PET and SPECT images were found to be 10.2%, 11.7%, 8.2% (center, Region C), 12.6%, and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Future Planning (MSIP)(Grant No

  18. Serotonin transporters in dopamine transporter imaging: a head-to-head comparison of dopamine transporter SPECT radioligands 123I-FP-CIT and 123I-PE2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Holm-Hansen, Signe; Thomsen, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Current SPECT radioligands available for in vivo imaging of the dopamine transporter (DAT) also show affinity for monoamine transporters other than DAT, especially the serotonin transporter (SERT). The effect of this lack of selectivity for in vivo imaging is unknown. In this study, we compared...

  19. Geometric feature-based multimodal image registration of contrast-enhanced cardiac CT with gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jonghye; Slomka, Piotr J; Dey, Damini; Cheng, Victor Y; Hong, Byung-Woo; Ramesh, Amit; Berman, Daniel S; Karlsberg, Ronald P; Kuo, C-C Jay; Germano, Guido

    2009-12-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provide clinically complementary information in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fused anatomical and physiological data acquired sequentially on separate scanners can be coregistered to accurately diagnose CAD in specific coronary vessels. A fully automated registration method is presented utilizing geometric features from a reliable segmentation of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) volumes, where regions of myocardium and blood pools are extracted and used as an anatomical mask to de-emphasize the inhomogeneities of intensity distribution caused by perfusion defects and physiological variations. A multiresolution approach is employed to represent coarse-to-fine details of both volumes. The extracted voxels from each level are aligned using a similarity measure with a piecewise constant image model and minimized using a gradient descent method. The authors then perform limited nonlinear registration of gated MPS to adjust for phase differences by automatic cardiac phase matching between CT and MPS. For phase matching, they incorporate nonlinear registration using thin-plate-spline-based warping. Rigid registration has been compared with manual alignment (n=45) on 20 stress/rest MPS and coronary CTA data sets acquired from two different sites and five stress CT perfusion data sets. Phase matching was also compared to expert visual assessment. As compared with manual alignment obtained from two expert observers, the mean and standard deviation of absolute registration errors of the proposed method for MPS were4.3±3.5, 3.6±2.6, and 3.6±2.1mm for translation and 2.1±3.2°, 0.3±0.8°, and 0.7±1.2° for rotation at site A and 3.8±2.7, 4.0±2.9, and 2.2±1.8mm for translation and 1.1±2.0°, 1.6±3.1°, and 1.9±3.8° for rotation at site B. The results for CT perfusion were 3.0±2.9, 3.5±2.4, and 2.8±1.0mm for translation and 3.0±2.4°, 0.6±0.9°, and 1

  20. Adenosine-stress dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging with second-generation dual-source CT: comparison with conventional catheter coronary angiography and SPECT nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yining; Qin, Ling; Shi, Ximin; Zeng, Yong; Jing, Hongli; Schoepf, U Joseph; Jin, Zhengyu

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of adenosine-stress dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with 128-MDCT dual-source CT for detecting myocardial ischemia in comparison with conventional catheter coronary angiography and nuclear MPI. Thirty patients (21 men and nine women; mean [± SD] age, 59.2 ± 7.6 years) prospectively underwent a combined stress CT perfusion and CT angiography (CTA) examination. Complete time-attenuation curves of the myocardium were acquired with prospectively ECG-triggered axial images at two alternating positions. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified according to dynamic CT perfusion, and MBF values of normal and abnormal segments were compared. Findings on CT perfusion were compared with those for stress and rest SPECT. Perfusion defects according to CT were correlated to flow-obstructing stenosis detected on CTA and catheter coronary angiography. On stress CT perfusion, 19 patients (63%) and 83 of 504 segments (16%) had perfusion abnormalities. There was a significant difference in MBF values between normal (142.9 ± 30.6 mL/100 mL/min) and hypoperfused (90.0 ± 22.8 mL/100 mL/min) segments (p stress CT perfusion detects myocardial perfusion defects in good correlation with nuclear MPI. CT perfusion combined with CTA improves the diagnostic accuracy for identifying flow-obstructing stenosis compared with CTA alone.

  1. Extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine: imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate SPECT/CT enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapiro, Andrew H.; Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lin, Tom K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Frischer, Jason S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Silverman, Ayaka [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine is a rare, but potentially life-threatening condition characterized by multifocal or long-segment heterotopic gastric mucosa within the bowel lumen that is often associated with other anomalies including malrotation and annular pancreas. Although the imaging findings are characteristic, this entity may be unrecognized due to its unusual imaging appearance and rarity. CT or MR enterography and {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate scintigraphy can provide complementary information that enables specific diagnosis and accurate assessment of disease extent. We present a case of extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine imaged by simultaneous, combined {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT enterography to both familiarize the reader with the condition and describe an imaging strategy that enables specific diagnosis and assists with treatment planning. (orig.)

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 4-(5-dimethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfon-amido)-3-(4-iodophenyl)butanoic acid as a novel molecular probe for apoptosis imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Wenbin, E-mail: wbzeng@hotmail.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tongzipo Road, Changsha 410078 (China); Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, 1924 Alcoa Hwy, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States); Miao, Weimin [Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, 1924 Alcoa Hwy, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States); Le Puil, Michael [Center of Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, 676 Dabney Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Shi, Guangqing [The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 168 Tongzipo Road, Changsha 410078 (China); Biggerstaff, John [Center of Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, 676 Dabney Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Kabalka, George W.; Townsend, David [Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, 1924 Alcoa Hwy, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Annexin V is the gold standard probe for imaging apoptosis. {yields} Unfavorable profiles of Annexin V make it difficult to apply in the clinic. {yields} A novel small-molecular probe DNSBA was designed as an alternative to Annexin V. {yields} DNSBA specifically and selectively detect apoptotic cancer cells at all stages. {yields} DNSBA is a potential SPECT and PET agent when labeled with radioiodine. -- Abstract: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many disorders, thus the detection of apoptotic cells can provide the physician with important information to further therapeutic strategies and would substantially advance patient care. A small molecule, 4-(5-dimethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfonamido)-3-(4-iodo-phenyl)butanoic acid (DNSBA), was designed as a novel probe for imaging apoptosis and synthesized with good yield. The biological characterization demonstrated that DNSBA can be used to specifically and selectively detect apoptotic cancer cells at all stages. DNSBA is also designed as a potential SPECT and PET probe when labeled with radioiodine (I-123, -124, and -131).

  3. Hybrid imaging (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) in differentiated thyroid cancer; Imagerie hybride (TEMP/TDM, TEP/TDM) et cancer differencie de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardet, S.; Ciappuccini, R.; Aide, N. [Unite de concertation pluridisciplinaire thyroide, service de medecine nucleaire, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France); Barraux, V. [Unite de radiophysique, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France); Rame, J.P. [Chirurgie ORL, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France)

    2010-08-15

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is generally associated with a good prognosis. Local recurrences, mainly lymph-node involvement, account for 15-20% of cases and are surgically treated. Distant metastases, mostly in lungs and more rarely in bones, are present in 5% of patients. When iodine uptake is sufficient (in approximately 60% of patients), distant metastases can be destroyed by iterative activities of iodine 131. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg), which can be assessed either on hormonal treatment or on TSH stimulation is considered as the tumour marker in DTC. Functional (iodine 131 scintigraphy, FDG PET, bone scintigraphy) or anatomical (neck ultrasound, thoracic CT, bone MRI) imaging methods can be performed when Tg increases in order to show residual/recurrent disease. In recent years, new hybrid equipments integrating both a gamma camera and CT scan (SPECT/CT) have been commercialized while positron emission tomography cameras associated with CT (PET/CT) have been installed on the whole French territory. These equipments, which allow us to directly correlate functional and anatomical images, greatly improve the interpretation of planar scintigraphy or that of PET alone. Hybrid imaging enables us to precisely localize scintigraphic foci and most often, to immediately verify whether they correspond to tumour lesions. The aim of this article is to review the role of SPECT/CT and PET/CT in the management of patients with DTC in 2010. (authors)

  4. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic cardiac imaging; Comparison to myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium in ischemic cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, G.L.; Magill, H.L. [Baptist Memorial Hospital (United States); Schad, N.C.

    1993-12-01

    Recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium is essential in this era of cardiac revascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) accurately identifies viability but is costly and unavailable to most patients. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging is a potentially cost-effective alternative to PET. Using transmural myocardial biopsies obtained during coronary bypass surgery as the viability gold standard, resting IPPA imaging agreed with 39/43 (91%) biopsies, with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36(92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%) in patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eighty percent of IPPA viable, infarcted segments improved wall motion postoperatively. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-Tl) scans after myocardial infarction, there was IPPA-Tl concordance in 27/35 (77%)(Kappa=0.536, p=0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-Tl, 26/35 (74%) vs. 18/35 (51%)(p=0.047). Finally, when compared to transvenous endomyocardial biopsy for detecting rejection following cardiac transplantation, IPPA sensitivity for {>=}Grade II rejection was 100%, and IPPA screening assessment for the necessity of biopsy could result in a 31% cost-savings. Therefore, IPPA metabolic cardiac imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique with a promising future. (author).

  5. Multimodal imaging analysis of single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography for improving diagnosis of Parkinson's disease; Multimodale SPECT- und MRT-Bilddatenanalyse zur Verbesserung der Diagnostik des idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndroms

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    Barthel, H.; Georgi, P. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mueller, U.; Waechter, T.; Murai, T. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neuropsychologische Forschung, Leipzig (Germany); Slomka, P. [Universitaet West-Ontario, London (Canada). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dannenberg, C.; Kahn, T. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2000-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of nigrostriated dopaminergic neurons, which can be imaged with {sup 123}I-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl) tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the quality of the region of interest (ROI) technique used for quantitative analysis of SPECT data is compromised by limited anatomical information in the images. We investigated whether the diagnosis of PD can be improved by combining the use of SPECT images with morphological image data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT). We examined 27 patients (8 men, 19 women; aged 55{+-}13 years) with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.1{+-}0.8) by high-resolution [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT (185-200 MBq, Ceraspect camera). SPECT images were analyzed both by a unimodal technique (ROIs defined directly within the SPECT studies) and a multimodal technique (ROIs defined within individual MRI/CT studies and transferred to the corresponding interactively coregistered SPECT studies). [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding ratios (cerebellum as reference), which were obtained for heads of caudate nuclei