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Sample records for speckled rattlesnakes viperidae

  1. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size.Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively.Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over

  2. The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768 (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae.

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    Marcovan Porto

    Full Text Available Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ.

  3. Limitations of climatic data for inferring species boundaries: insights from speckled rattlesnakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik

    Full Text Available Phenotypes, DNA, and measures of ecological differences are widely used in species delimitation. Although rarely defined in such studies, ecological divergence is almost always approximated using multivariate climatic data associated with sets of specimens (i.e., the "climatic niche"; the justification for this approach is that species-specific climatic envelopes act as surrogates for physiological tolerances. Using identical statistical procedures, we evaluated the usefulness and validity of the climate-as-proxy assumption by comparing performance of genetic (nDNA SNPs and mitochondrial DNA, phenotypic, and climatic data for objective species delimitation in the speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii complex. Ordination and clustering patterns were largely congruent among intrinsic (heritable traits (nDNA, mtDNA, phenotype, and discordance is explained by biological processes (e.g., ontogeny, hybridization. In contrast, climatic data did not produce biologically meaningful clusters that were congruent with any intrinsic dataset, but rather corresponded to regional differences in atmospheric circulation and climate, indicating an absence of inherent taxonomic signal in these data. Surrogating climate for physiological tolerances adds artificial weight to evidence of species boundaries, as these data are irrelevant for that purpose. Based on the evidence from congruent clustering of intrinsic datasets, we recommend that three subspecies of C. mitchellii be recognized as species: C. angelensis, C. mitchellii, and C. Pyrrhus.

  4. Geographic distribution and apparent decline of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768; Serpentes, Viperidae) in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Prigioni, Carlos M.; Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; Colina, Marcelo; González, Enrique M.

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768; Serpentes, Viperidae) is a rare species in Uruguay, where it reaches the southern boundaries of its distribution. The most recent distribution map available for this species in Uruguay is based on a few specimens that were collected during the 1950s and 1960s. Herein, we make a comprehensive account of rattlesnake records in this country obtained from herpetological literature and other bibliographic sources, specimens accessioned ...

  5. Trichomoniasis in Bothrops jararaca (serpentes, viperidae

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    F. C. Vilela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of trichomoniasis in a Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP/UNESP. The animal had diarrhea with great quantity of flagellated protozoa in the feces. Microscopic examination of fecal smears stained with Giemsa revealed the presence of trichomonads, morphologically similar to Trichomonas acosta. Trichomonads were not detected in fecal exams after treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg metronidazole (Flagyl®.

  6. Microhabitat use by species of the genera Bothrops and Crotalus (Viperidae in semi-extensive captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence microhabitat including climate and the occurrence of predators, prey and suitable shelters. The influence of predators in a semi-extensive breeding system is minimized due to frequent monitoring of the area. This situation enables the independent analysis of such other variables as refuges and temperature. Some specimens of the Viperidae family are kept in a semi-extensive breeding system at the Butantan Institute for display and study. These animals are widely distributed in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, two biomes with distinct climatic characteristics. We compared the daily activity pattern and microhabitat use of the species Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus. Our main questions were whether rattlesnakes and lancehead snakes respond to habitat selection differently in similar climatic conditions and if they choose similar microhabitats. Species of the genus Bothrops were frequently found under shelters regardless of the time of day. On the other hand, snakes of the genus Crotalus were frequently found sheltered during the early morning, then migrated to sunnier areas and returned to shelters in late afternoon.

  7. Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, F. P.; Jin, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, N.

    Before the milestone work of Leedertz in 1970 coherent speckles generated from a laser illuminated object are considered noise to be eliminated or minimized. Leedertz shows that coherent speckles are actually information carriers. Since then the speckle technique has found many applications to fields of mechanics, metrology, nondestructive evaluation and material sciences. Speckles need not be coherent. Artificially created socalled white light speckles can also be used as information carriers. In this paper we present two recent developments of speckle technique with applications to micromechanics problems using SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy), to nondestructive evaluation of crevice corrosion and composite disbond and vibration of large structures using TADS (Time-Average Digital Specklegraphy).

  8. Year End Progress Report on Rattlesnake Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ortensi, Javier [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schunert, Sebastian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Rattlesnake is a MOOSE-based radiation transport application developed at INL to support modern multi-physics simulations. At the beginning of the last year, Rattlesnake was able to perform steady-state, transient and eigenvalue calculations for the multigroup radiation transport equations. Various discretization schemes, including continuous finite element method (FEM) with discrete ordinates method (SN) and spherical harmonics expansion method (PN) for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation, continuous FEM (CFEM) with SN for the least square (LS) formulation, diffusion approximation with CFEM and discontinuous FEM (DFEM), have been implemented. A separate toolkit, YAKXS, for multigroup cross section management was developed to support Rattlesnake calculations with feedback both from changes in the field variables, such as fuel temperature, coolant density, and etc., and in isotope inventory. The framework for doing nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) within Rattlesnake has been set up, and both NDA calculations with SAAF-SN-CFEM scheme and Monte Carlo with OpenMC have been performed. It was also used for coupling BISON and RELAP-7 for the full-core multiphysics simulations. Within the last fiscal year, significant improvements have been made in Rattlesnake. Rattlesnake development was migrated into our internal GITLAB development environment at the end of year 2014. Since then total 369 merge requests has been accepted into Rattlesnake. It is noted that the MOOSE framework that Rattlesnake is based on is under continuous developments. Improvements made in MOOSE can improve the Rattlesnake. It is acknowledged that MOOSE developers spent efforts on patching Rattlesnake for the improvements made on the framework side. This report will not cover the code restructuring for better readability and modularity and documentation improvements, which we have spent tremendous effort on. It only details some of improvements in the following sections.

  9. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC 5 s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin

  10. Speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Rajpal S.

    2002-03-01

    Illumination of a rough surface by a coherent monochromatic wave creates a grainy structure in space termed a speckle pattern. It was considered a special kind of noise and was the bane of holographers. However, its information-carrying property was soon discovered and the phenomenon was used for metrological applications. The realization that a speckle pattern carried information led to a new measurement technique known as speckle interferometry (SI). Although the speckle phenomenon in itself is a consequence of interference among numerous randomly dephased waves, a reference wave is required in SI. Further, it employs an imaging geometry. Initially SI was performed mostly by using silver emulsions as the recording media. The double-exposure specklegram was filtered to extract the desired information. Since SI can be configured so as to be sensitive to the in-plane displacement component, the out-of-plane displacement component or their derivatives, the interferograms corresponding to these were extracted from the specklegram for further analysis. Since the speckle size can be controlled by the F number of the imaging lens, it was soon realized that SI could be performed with electronic detection, thereby increasing its accuracy and speed of measurement. Furthermore, a phase-shifting technique can also be incorporated. This technique came to be known as electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It employed the same experimental configurations as SI. ESPI found many industrial applications as it supplements holographic interferometry. We present three examples covering diverse areas. In one application it has been used to measure residual stress in a blank recordable compact disk. In another application, microscopic ESPI has been used to study the influence of relative humidity on paint-coated figurines and also the effect of a conservation agent applied on top of this. The final application is to find the defects in pipes. These diverse applications

  11. Rattlesnake envenomation in 12 New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykgraaf, Susanne; Pusterla, Nicola; Van Hoogmoed, Linda M

    2006-01-01

    Rattlesnake envenomation of New World camelids is a seasonal problem with often dramatic clinical signs. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical signs, laboratory results, treatment methods, and outcome for rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids. Medical records from 1988 to 2004 were searched for New World camelids presented for rattlesnake bite or clinical signs suspected to be related to recent envenomation. Twelve records were identified. From these records a retrospective study was performed. Nine camelids presented for acute disease (2/9 arrived dead), whereas 3 presented for subacute onset of disease. Swelling of the lips, head and neck, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, and lethargy were the most common presenting signs. Snake bites were most commonly located to the muzzle (10/12). Common complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemical abnormalities were neutrophilia, lymphopenia, increased muscle enzyme activity, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia. Treatment included combinations of intravenous fluid therapy, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory drugs, tetanus prophylaxis, tracheostomy, supplemental oxygen, antivenom, total parenteral nutrition, and nursing care. Five of the 10 animals with acute onset of clinical signs survived, and all animals with subacute presentation died. The mortality rate for New World camelids with severe local tissue reaction and systemic signs of envenomation was 58%. New World camelids that sustain rattlesnake envenomation and severe facial swelling precluding prehension and mastication have a guarded prognosis for survival. Aggressive treatment is recommended to optimize the chances of survival. Animals with less severe local tissue reaction and absence of systemic signs have a better prognosis.

  12. Dynamical properties of speckled speckles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hansen, Rene Skov

    2010-01-01

    the static diffuser and the plane of observation consist of an optical system that can be characterized by a complex-valued ABCD-matrix (e.g. simple and complex imaging systems, free space propagation in both the near-and far-field, and Fourier transform systems). The use of the complex ABCD-method means...... to be Gaussian but the derived expressions are not restricted to a plane incident beam. The results are applicable for speckle-based systems for determining mechanical displacements, especially for long-range systems, and for analyzing systems for measuring biological activity beyond a diffuse layer, e.g. blood...

  13. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, J M; Hackett, E S; Callan, R J; Holt, T N; Hackett, T B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids (NWC) from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Twenty-seven NWC admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute rattlesnake envenomation between 1992 and 2012. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively. Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. The face was the most common site of envenomation, observed in 96% of recorded cases. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Median hospitalization time was 3 days and overall survival rate was 69%. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. A study of bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garcia-Lima

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom isolated from snakes in captivity and wild snakes caught recently. The captive snakes showed a relatively high incidence of bacterial contamination of their venom.

  15. Speckle: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph W.

    2013-05-01

    Speckle appears whenever coherent radiation of any kind is used. We review here the basic properties of speckle, the negative effects it has on imaging systems of various kinds, and the positive benefits it offers in certain nondestructive testing and metrology problems.

  16. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  17. Entendue invariance in speckle fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.F.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.; Henao, R.; Trivi, M.

    2000-04-01

    Experimental evidence is shown that confirms the Entendue invariance in speckle fields. Because of this condition, the coherence patch of the speckle field can be significantly greater than the mean size of the speckles, as is shown by double exposure speckle interferometry. (author)

  18. Viperidae Zehirli Isırıkları Tedavi Yönetimi

    OpenAIRE

    İnce, Bilsev; Dadacı, Mehmet; Altuntaş, Zeynep; Bilgen, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Yılan ısırması zehirlenmesi ciddi bir sağlık problemidir ve tüm dünyada görülebilir. Viperidae ailesi Anadolu'da zehirli yılan ısırması vakalarının bir çoğunluğu sorumludur. Uygun tedavi başlandığında düşük bir komplikasyon oranı varken, aksi takdirde ciddi sekeller oluşabilir. Viperidae ailesinden yılan ısırmasına bağlı zehirlenmede lokal ve hematolojik belirtiler ortaya çıkar. Lokal bulgular ödem, hiperemi, morluk, diş izleri, kabarma, ağrı, nekroz ve bölgesel lenfadenopati olarak sayı...

  19. Preliminary Results for the OECD/NEA Time Dependent Benchmark using Rattlesnake, Rattlesnake-IQS and TDKENO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Mark D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mausolff, Zander [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Weems, Zach [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Popp, Dustin [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Smith, Kristin [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shriver, Forrest [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Goluoglu, Sedat [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Prince, Zachary [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ragusa, Jean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    One goal of the MAMMOTH M&S project is to validate the analysis capabilities within MAMMOTH. Historical data has shown limited value for validation of full three-dimensional (3D) multi-physics methods. Initial analysis considered the TREAT startup minimum critical core and one of the startup transient tests. At present, validation is focusing on measurements taken during the M8CAL test calibration series. These exercises will valuable in preliminary assessment of the ability of MAMMOTH to perform coupled multi-physics calculations; calculations performed to date are being used to validate the neutron transport solver Rattlesnake\\cite{Rattlesnake} and the fuels performance code BISON. Other validation projects outside of TREAT are available for single-physics benchmarking. Because the transient solution capability of Rattlesnake is one of the key attributes that makes it unique for TREAT transient simulations, validation of the transient solution of Rattlesnake using other time dependent kinetics benchmarks has considerable value. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently developed a computational benchmark for transient simulations. This benchmark considered both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D configurations for a total number of 26 different transients. All are negative reactivity insertions, typically returning to the critical state after some time.

  20. Geographic distribution and apparent decline of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti 1768; Serpentes, Viperidae) in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Prigioni, Carlos M.; Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; González, Enrique M.; Colina, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we make a comprehensive account of rattlesnake records in this country obtained from herpetological literature and other bibliographic sources, specimens accessioned in herpetological and non-specialized local collections, and new information gathered during field surveys. Asociación Herpetológica Argentina

  1. Speckle interferometry of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.

    1988-01-01

    By studying the image two-dimensional power spectra or autocorrelations projected by an asteroid as it rotates, it is possible to locate its rotational pole and derive its three axes dimensions through speckle interferometry under certain assumptions of uniform, geometric scattering, and triaxial ellipsoid shape. However, in cases where images can be reconstructed, the need for making the assumptions is obviated. Furthermore, the ultimate goal for speckle interferometry of image reconstruction will lead to mapping albedo features (if they exist) as impact areas or geological units. The first glimpses of the surface of an asteroid were obtained from images of 4 Vesta reconstructed from speckle interferometric observations. These images reveal that Vesta is quite Moon-like in having large hemispheric-scale albedo features. All of its lightcurves can be produced from a simple model developed from the images. Although undoubtedly more intricate than the model, Vesta's lightcurves can be matched by a model with three dark and four bright spots. The dark areas so dominate one hemisphere that a lightcurve minimum occurs when the maximum cross-section area is visible. The triaxial ellipsoid shape derived for Vesta is not consistent with the notion that the asteroid has an equilibrium shape in spite of its having apparently been differentiated

  2. Preliminary Results for the OECD/NEA Time Dependent Benchmark using Rattlesnake, Rattlesnake-IQS and TDKENO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Mausolff, Zander; Weems, Zach; Popp, Dustin; Smith, Kristin; Shriver, Forrest; Goluoglu, Sedat; Prince, Zachary; Ragusa, Jean

    2016-01-01

    One goal of the MAMMOTH M&S project is to validate the analysis capabilities within MAMMOTH. Historical data has shown limited value for validation of full three-dimensional (3D) multi-physics methods. Initial analysis considered the TREAT startup minimum critical core and one of the startup transient tests. At present, validation is focusing on measurements taken during the M8CAL test calibration series. These exercises will valuable in preliminary assessment of the ability of MAMMOTH to perform coupled multi-physics calculations; calculations performed to date are being used to validate the neutron transport solver Rattlesnake\\citelesnake) and the fuels performance code BISON. Other validation projects outside of TREAT are available for single-physics benchmarking. Because the transient solution capability of Rattlesnake is one of the key attributes that makes it unique for TREAT transient simulations, validation of the transient solution of Rattlesnake using other time dependent kinetics benchmarks has considerable value. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently developed a computational benchmark for transient simulations. This benchmark considered both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D configurations for a total number of 26 different transients. All are negative reactivity insertions, typically returning to the critical state after some time.

  3. Physiological importance of the coronary arterial blood supply to the rattlesnake heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette; Abe, Augusto S.; Falk, Erling

    2008-01-01

    Pa and 58.2±2.2 beats min-1, respectively, during activity and the ECG was not affected. This was not different from sham-operated snakes. Thus, while the outer compact layer of the rattlesnake heart clearly has an extensive coronary supply, rattlesnakes sustain a high blood pressure and heart rate during...

  4. Complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Missoula County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Dolores M.

    1986-01-01

    The Rattlesnake Roadless Area was identified by the U.S. Forest Service as a possible addition to the Wilderness System.  This 120 square mile area is north of Missoula, Mont. (see index map); Rattlesnake Creek forms the major drainage to the south.

  5. Spatial ecology of timber rattlesnakes on the hardwood ecosystem experiment: pre-treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. MacGowan; Zachary J. Walker

    2013-01-01

    The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is a species of conservation concern throughout much of its geographic range and may serve as a sentinel species in investigations of the effects of timber harvesting on forest reptiles. Our objective was to determine the effect of even-aged timber management regimes on timber rattlesnake home range and...

  6. Minimum area thresholds for rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meik, Jesse M; Makowsky, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We expand a framework for estimating minimum area thresholds to elaborate biogeographic patterns between two groups of snakes (rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes) on islands in the western Gulf of California, Mexico. The minimum area thresholds for supporting single species versus coexistence of two or more species relate to hypotheses of the relative importance of energetic efficiency and competitive interactions within groups, respectively. We used ordinal logistic regression probability functions to estimate minimum area thresholds after evaluating the influence of island area, isolation, and age on rattlesnake and colubrid occupancy patterns across 83 islands. Minimum area thresholds for islands supporting one species were nearly identical for rattlesnakes and colubrids (~1.7 km 2 ), suggesting that selective tradeoffs for distinctive life history traits between rattlesnakes and colubrids did not result in any clear advantage of one life history strategy over the other on islands. However, the minimum area threshold for supporting two or more species of rattlesnakes (37.1 km 2 ) was over five times greater than it was for supporting two or more species of colubrids (6.7 km 2 ). The great differences between rattlesnakes and colubrids in minimum area required to support more than one species imply that for islands in the Gulf of California relative extinction risks are higher for coexistence of multiple species of rattlesnakes and that competition within and between species of rattlesnakes is likely much more intense than it is within and between species of colubrids.

  7. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  8. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  9. Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beçak Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The positioning of macrochromosomes of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops insularis (Viperidae was studied in undistorted radial metaphases of uncultured cells (spermatogonia and oogonia not subjected to spindle inhibitors. Colchicinized metaphases from uncultured (spleen and intestine and cultured tissues (blood were also analyzed. We report two antagonic non-random chromosome arrangements in untreated premeiotic cells: the parallel configuration with homologue chromosomes associated side by side in the metaphase plate and the antiparallel configuration having homologue chromosomes with antipolar distribution in the metaphase ring. The antiparallel aspect also appeared in colchicinized cells. The spatial chromosome arrangement in both configurations is groupal size-dependent and maintained through meiosis. We also describe, in untreated gonia cells, endomitosis followed by reductional mitosis which restores the diploid number. In B. jararaca males we observed that some gonad regions present changes in the meiotic mechanism. In this case, endoreduplicated cells segregate the diplochromosomes to opposite poles forming directly endoreduplicated second metaphases of meiosis with the suppression of first meiosis. By a successive division, these cells form nuclei with one set of chromosomes. Chromosome doubling in oogonia is known in hybrid species and in parthenogenetic salamanders and lizards. This species also presented chromosome rearrangements leading to aneuploidies in mitosis and meiosis. It is suggested that somatic pairing, endomitosis, meiotic alterations, and chromosomal aberrations can be correlated processes. Similar aspects of nuclei configurations, endomitosis and reductional mitosis were found in other Viperidae and Colubridae species.

  10. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Marcelo Ribeiro; Menezes, Frederico Alcântara

    2013-01-01

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of B...

  11. A study of bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garcia-Lima

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom isolated from snakes in captivity and wild snakes caught recently. The captive snakes showed a relatively high incidence of bacterial contamination of their venom.Os autores estudaram a contaminação bacteriana do veneno dë cascavéis mantidas em cativeiro e das recentemente capturadas. Verificaram que os venenos dos animais cativos apresentaram alta incidência de contaminação e os tidos como recentemente capturados estavam com baixa contaminação aparente.

  12. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  13. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Parker, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Primers for 10 microsatellite loci were developed for midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor), a small bodied subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake, which is found in the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming. In a screen of 23 individuals from the most northern portion of the subspecies range in southwestern Wyoming, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from 4 to 11 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, which will ultimately aid in management efforts for this rare subspecies of rattlesnake.

  14. Roads, interrupted dispersal, and genetic diversity in timber rattlesnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Brown, William S; Stechert, Randy; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often creates barriers to animal movement, transforming formerly contiguous habitat into a patchwork of habitat islands with low connectivity. Roadways are a feature of most landscapes that can act as barriers or filters to migration among local populations. Even small and recently constructed roads can have a significant impact on population genetic structure of some species, but not others. We developed a research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. We examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Our results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites (7 to 10 generations of rattlesnakes), the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads.

  15. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  16. Speckle imaging of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, B.J. III

    1990-01-01

    Speckle imaging is a powerful tool for high resolution astronomy. Its application to the core regions of globular clusters produces high resolution stellar maps of the bright stars, but is unable to image the faint stars which are most reliable dynamical indicators. The limits on resolving these faint, extended objects are physical, not algorithmic, and cannot be overcome using speckle. High resolution maps may be useful for resolving multicomponent stellar systems in the cluster centers. 30 refs

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  18. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectiv...

  19. Molecular exclusion chromatographic analysis on 60Co irradiated rattlesnake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic to be able of breaking chemical bonds and as result of that molecules of substances present in the irradiated will be chemically changed and their biological properties affected also. In this paper the effects of gamma radiation of Co-60 on the rattlesnake venom were studied. A pool of positive crotamina Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0,15 M NaCl and irradiated with Co-60. Doses of 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500 and 2000 Gy were applied at the dose rate of 1190 Gy/h. With doses over 500 Gy the solutions became turbid, suggesting the presence of aggregates and structural changes of the proteins. The concentration of proteins from the filtered solution was measured by the Lowry method. One ml samples were measured at 230 nm. The partition coefficients and the areas of the three main fraction obtained were calculated. (author) [pt

  20. Dynamical speckles in watery surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovera-Gonzalez, J.J.; Moreno-Yeras, A.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Alvarez-Salgado, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of watery surfaces with monolayer of surfactant substances is of interest in diverse technological applications. The format ion and study of molecular monolayer deposited in these surfaces require the application of measurements techniques that allow evaluating the recovery grade locally without modifying practically the studied surface. In this paper the preliminary results obtained by the authors it plows exposed applying the technique of dynamic speckle interferometry in watery surfaces and their consideration like to possible resource to measure the grade of local recovery of these surfaces on the it bases that the speckles pattern dog reveal the dynamics of evaporation that takes place in the same ones. (Author)

  1. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  2. Speckle dynamics under ergodicity breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdobnov, Anton; Bykov, Alexander; Molodij, Guillaume; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Jarvinen, Topias; Popov, Alexey; Kordas, Krisztian; Meglinski, Igor

    2018-04-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a well-known and versatile approach for the non-invasive visualization of flows and microcirculation localized in turbid scattering media, including biological tissues. In most conventional implementations of LSCI the ergodic regime is typically assumed valid. However, most composite turbid scattering media, especially biological tissues, are non-ergodic, containing a mixture of dynamic and static centers of light scattering. In the current study, we examined the speckle contrast in different dynamic conditions with the aim of assessing limitations in the quantitative interpretation of speckle contrast images. Based on a simple phenomenological approach, we introduced a coefficient of speckle dynamics to quantitatively assess the ratio of the dynamic part of a scattering medium to the static one. The introduced coefficient allows one to distinguish real changes in motion from the mere appearance of static components in the field of view. As examples of systems with static/dynamic transitions, thawing and heating of Intralipid samples were studied by the LSCI approach.

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  4. Antibacterial activity of different types of snake venom from the Viperidae family against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Nascimento Canhas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxins and venoms produced by living organisms have exhibited a variety of biological activities against microorganisms. In this study, we tested seven snake venoms from the family Viperidae for antibacterial activity and the activities of reversal of antibiotic resistance and inhibition of biofilm formation against 22 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Bothrops moojeni venom exhibited anti staphylococcal activity with the lowest mean value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Moreover, reversal of antibiotic resistance was observed for combinations of B. moojeni venom (½ x MIC and norfloxacin or ampicillin (both ½ x MIC for 86.4% and 50% of the isolates, respectively. B. moojeni venom alone at ½ MIC inhibited 90% of biofilm formation, whereas in combination with ciprofloxacin, both at ½ MIC, a reduction on the NorA efflux pump activity was observed. The detection of in vitro mutants colonies of S. aureus resistant to B. moojeni venom was low and they did not survive. A phospholipase A2 was purified from the venom of B. moojeni and displayed anti-staphylococcal activity when tested alone or in combination with ciprofloxacin. The results presented here will contribute to the search for new antimicrobial agents against resistant S. aureus.

  5. Porocephalus species (Pentastomida infecting Boa constrictor (Boidae and Lachesis muta (Viperidae in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p165 Espécies de Porocephalus (Pentastomida infectando Boa constrictor (Boidae e Lachesis muta (Viperidae na Região Nordeste do Brasil.  O Brasil possui uma grande diversidade de cobras, mas há poucos trabalhos realizados sobre parasitismo destas por pentastomídeos. No intuito de investigar o parasitismo pulmonar por pentastomídeos em grandes cobras na região nordeste, foram examinados seis espécimes de Boa constrictor e duas de Lachesis muta pertencentes à coleção do Serpentário da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco–UFPE, todos coletadas em localidades de mata úmida (Mata Atlântica. Apenas um espécime de B. constrictor estava infectado por Porocephalus sp. (intensidade de infecção 5,0. Apenas um espécime de L. muta estava infectado por P. stilesi (intensidade de infecção 15,0.

  6. Statistics of spatially integrated speckle intensity difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Yura, Harold

    2009-01-01

    We consider the statistics of the spatially integrated speckle intensity difference obtained from two separated finite collecting apertures. For fully developed speckle, closed-form analytic solutions for both the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived...... here for both arbitrary values of the mean number of speckles contained within an aperture and the degree of coherence of the optical field. Additionally, closed-form expressions are obtained for the corresponding nth statistical moments....

  7. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  8. The impact of roads on the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    1998-01-01

    Roads and associated vehicular traffic have the potential to significantly impact vertebrate populations. In eastern Texas we compared the densities of paved and unpaved roads within 2 and 4 km radii of timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) ocations and of random points. Road networks were significantly more dense at random points than at snake...

  9. Responses of timber rattlesnakes to fire: Lessons from two prescribed burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Beaupre; Lara E. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) are excellent model organisms for understanding the effects of large scale habitat manipulations because of their low-energy lifestyle, rapid response to changes in resource environment, uniform diet (small mammals), and simple behaviors. We present two case studies that illustrate interactions between timber...

  10. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  11. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides

  12. Development of Speckle Interferometry Algorithm and System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsir, A. A. M.; Jafri, M. Z. M.; Lim, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) method is a wholefield, non destructive measurement method widely used in the industries such as detection of defects on metal bodies, detection of defects in intergrated circuits in digital electronics components and in the preservation of priceless artwork. In this research field, this method is widely used to develop algorithms and to develop a new laboratory setup for implementing the speckle pattern interferometry. In speckle interferometry, an optically rough test surface is illuminated with an expanded laser beam creating a laser speckle pattern in the space surrounding the illuminated region. The speckle pattern is optically mixed with a second coherent light field that is either another speckle pattern or a smooth light field. This produces an interferometric speckle pattern that will be detected by sensor to count the change of the speckle pattern due to force given. In this project, an experimental setup of ESPI is proposed to analyze a stainless steel plate using 632.8 nm (red) wavelength of lights.

  13. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  14. A review of neogene and quaternary snakes of Central and Eastern Europe. Part 11: natricinae, elapidae, viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyndlar, Z.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary "natricine" colubrids, elapids and viperids, including snakes previously described and those undescribed yet, coming from Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are discussed. The following taxa, including 11 extinct species, were recognized: "Natricinae": Neonatrix nova, Neonatrix sp., Palaeonatrix silesiaca, Palaeonatrix lehmani, Natrix longivertebrata, Natrix cf. N. longivertebrata, Natrix natrix, Natrix tesselata, Natrix cf. N. tesselata, Natrix sp., "Natricinae" indet.; Elapidae: Naja romani, Naja sp., cf. Naja sp.; Viperidae: Vipera platyspondyla, Vipera sarmatica, Vipera burgenlandica, Vipera gedulyi, Vipera kuchurganica, Vipera antiqua, Vipera cf. V. ammodytes, Vipera berus, Vipera sp ('Oriental vipers' group, Vipera sp. ('aspis' group, Vipera sp. ('berus' group, Vipera sp. . (status unknown. Taxonomic status of two other extinct species, Natrix parva and Laophis crotaloides, is uncertain. Modern species appeared fírst in Central and East Europe in the middle Pliocene (MN 15. Older snakes belonged to extinct species of either extinct or extant genera; taxonomic distinction of most extinct genera is, however, not fully demonstrated. Best recognized oldest snakes from the area (Elapidae, Viperidae, and sorne Colubridae are clearly referable to modern genera and intrageneric subdivisions occurring today are observed in oldest (Iower Miocene remains; closest living relatives of these fossils are presently distributed in the Oriental Realm.Se revisan y estudian los restos neógenos y cuaternarios de colúbridos «natricinos», elápidos y vipéridos, incluyendo tanto serpientes previamente descritas como- otras inéditas. Los materiales analizados proceden de Polonia, Ukrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumania, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones, incluyendo 11 especies extinguidas: Natricinae: Neonatrix nova

  15. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  16. Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

  17. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  18. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Mackessy, S P

    1987-01-01

    Electrical shocks, even crudely delivered from 'stun guns' and gasoline engine spark plugs, have been reported to be effective in the treatment of snake bite. We thus applied similar electric shocks to mice artificially injected with reconstituted rattlesnake venom at various LD50 multiples. Those envenomated mice treated with electric shock survived no better than the controls. We thus found no evidence that electric shocks crudely administered had any life saving effect in mice.

  19. Gross and histologic features of gastritis due to Ophidascaris arndti in tropical rattlesnakes ( Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É.M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus is a snake of great importance for biomedical industry since its poison is used for the production of antiophidic serum and researches. Several conditions related to animal health, such as diseases and parasites, which can promote the reduction of poison production by these snakes should be investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gross and microscopic lesions related to the presence of Ophidascaris arndti in stomachs of tropical rattlesnakes. The gastrointestinal tract of thirty-five South American rattlesnakes captured in Southeastern region of Brazil were analyzed and nineteen animals showed infestation by the parasites, found in the small intestine and, especially, in the stomach of the hosts. Grossly, lesions were characterized by mucosal ulcers occasionally associated with hemorrhage. Microscopic alterations included histiocytic granulomas, fibrosis, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of a parasitic granulomatous disease was made. The lesions may be related to the cause of death in captivity snakes, since the lesions can promote secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria. Moreover, the intense inflammatory response accompanied by fibrosis may be related to poor functioning of the gastric snakes, which it may exhibit frequent regurgitation of the food.

  20. Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on the statistical properties of polarization speckle, described by stochastic Stokes parameters fluctuating in space. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the random electric field components and polar-interferometer, we investigated theoretically...... and experimentally the statistics of Stokes parameters of polarization speckle, including probability density function of Stokes parameters with the spatial degree of polarization, autocorrelation of Stokes vector and statistics of spatial derivatives for Stokes parameters....

  1. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpies, S D; Light, R A; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2014-01-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device

  2. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpies, S. D.; Light, R. A.; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S. O.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device.

  3. Digital Speckle Photography of Subpixel Displacements of Speckle Structures Based on Analysis of Their Spatial Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, L. A.; Ryabukho, P. V.; Mysina, N. Yu.; Lyakin, D. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the capabilities of the method of digital speckle interferometry for determining subpixel displacements of a speckle structure formed by a displaceable or deformable object with a scattering surface. An analysis of spatial spectra of speckle structures makes it possible to perform measurements with a subpixel accuracy and to extend the lower boundary of the range of measurements of displacements of speckle structures to the range of subpixel values. The method is realized on the basis of digital recording of the images of undisplaced and displaced speckle structures, their spatial frequency analysis using numerically specified constant phase shifts, and correlation analysis of spatial spectra of speckle structures. Transformation into the frequency range makes it possible to obtain quantities to be measured with a subpixel accuracy from the shift of the interference-pattern minimum in the diffraction halo by introducing an additional phase shift into the complex spatial spectrum of the speckle structure or from the slope of the linear plot of the function of accumulated phase difference in the field of the complex spatial spectrum of the displaced speckle structure. The capabilities of the method have been investigated in natural experiment.

  4. Speckle perception and disturbance limit in laser based projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector. For this purpose, we equipped a movie theatre room with a prototype laser projector. A group of 186 participants was gathered to evaluate the speckle perception of several, short movie trailers in a subjective `Quality of Experience' experiment. This study is important as the introduction of lasers in projection systems has been hampered by the presence of speckle in projected images. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers' responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. As is also discussed in [Verschaffelt et al., Scientific Reports 5, art. nr. 14105, 2015] we find that, for moving images, the speckle becomes disturbing if the speckle contrast becomes larger than 6.9% for the red, 6.0% for the green, and 4.8% for the blue primary colors of the projector, whereas for still images the speckle detection threshold is about 3%. As we could not independently tune the speckle contrast of each of the primary colors, this speckle disturbance limit seems to be determined by the 6.9% speckle contrast of the red color as this primary color contains the largest amount of speckle. The speckle disturbance limit for movies thus turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  5. Speckle-learning-based object recognition through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-12-28

    We experimentally demonstrated object recognition through scattering media based on direct machine learning of a number of speckle intensity images. In the experiments, speckle intensity images of amplitude or phase objects on a spatial light modulator between scattering plates were captured by a camera. We used the support vector machine for binary classification of the captured speckle intensity images of face and non-face data. The experimental results showed that speckles are sufficient for machine learning.

  6. Finding small displacements of recorded speckle patterns: revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Chakrabarti, Maumita

    2015-01-01

    An analytical expression for the bias effect in digital speckle correlation is derived based on a Gaussian approximation of the spatial pixel size and array extent. The evaluation is carried out having assumed an incident speckle field. The analysis is focused on speckle displacements in the order...

  7. Statistical Image Recovery From Laser Speckle Patterns With Polarization Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    several techniques for speckle suppression in optical imaging [19]. However, averaging nonimaged laser speckle patterns does not yield the same result...Comparison”. Applied Optics , 21(15):2758–2769, August 1982. 13. Fienup, James R. “Image Formation from Nonimaged Laser Speckle Patterns”. S. R. Robinson...6 ν Optical Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 t Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ϕ

  8. PROVENANCE SNAKES OF GENUS Bothrops AND Crotalus (VIPERIDAE CATALOGED IN SERPENTARIUM ZOO UNIVERSITY OF CAXIAS DO SUL (UCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Capeletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snakes are reptiles that have large environmental adaptations, which favored it's distribution among the various ecosystems. In Brazil, there are found 392 species of snakes, while in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, this research field, 79 species have been described, of which there is the Viperidae family. The objective of this work is to verify the origin of snakes of genus Bothrops and Crotalus, according to the records of the last 15 years of the serpentarium the University of Caxias do Sul, representing the first survey in captivity of the northeastern region of RS. By extension, we seek to investigate whether there is a relationship between the amount of snakes records and abiotic factors: precipitation, temperature and humidity during the period. The research was developed at UCS's serpentarium, by documental analysis of notebook records describing serpents entries between the years 2000 and 2014, in addition to literature review that helped to understand the distribution of the species and gather of the environmental parameters at the Instituto Nacional de Metereologia for further analysis. It was found that the received species are distributed in 26 cities in the RS state, of which the highlights are the municities of Nova Petrópolis and Caxias do Sul, with 148 and 42 individuals respectively. Further, it was found that there was no relationship between the amount of animals and registered temperature, precipitation and humidity. Keywords: Geographic distribution; Bothrops; Crotalus; abiotic factors; northeastern RS.

  9. Hybrid PN-SN Calculations with SAAF for the Multiscale Transport Capability in Rattlesnake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Two interface conditions, the Lagrange multiplier method and the upwinding method, for hybrid \\pn-\\sn calculations is proposed for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation of the transport equation using the continuous finite element method (FEM) for spatial discretization. These interface conditions are implemented in Rattlesnake, the radiation transport application built on MOOSE, for the on-going multiscale transport simulation effort at INL. For smoothing the solution at the interface for the Lagrange multiplier method, a method based on \\sn Lagrange interpolation on the sphere is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the interface conditions give the expected convergence.

  10. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  11. Partial characterization of the venom of the Peruvian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Remuzgo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus from the region of Sandia, Puno, has been investigated for its protein content and some enzymatic activities, using for it the whole venom as well as the fractions obtained by gel filtration chromatography in Sephadex G-100. The protein percentage calculated by the method of Lowry was of 68,6% for the whole venom; 3 peaks were obtained during the fractionation; the first showed proteolytic activity, the second, amidolytic, clotting and phospholipase A2 activities, while the third, another proteolytic activity. Acetylcholinesterase activity was not found while L-aminoacid oxidase activity was found only in the whole venom.

  12. Speckle disturbance limit in laser-based cinema projection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-09-01

    In a multi-disciplinary effort, we investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector based on a quality of experience experiment with movie clips shown to a test audience in a real-life movie theatre setting. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers’ responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. The speckle disturbance limit for movies turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  13. PROVENANCE SNAKES OF GENUS Bothrops AND Crotalus (VIPERIDAE) CATALOGED IN SERPENTARIUM ZOO UNIVERSITY OF CAXIAS DO SUL (UCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Capeletti; Michel Mendes; Diezza Biondo; Marcia Maria Dosciatti de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Snakes are reptiles that have large environmental adaptations, which favored it's distribution among the various ecosystems. In Brazil, there are found 392 species of snakes, while in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), this research field, 79 species have been described, of which there is the Viperidae family. The objective of this work is to verify the origin of snakes of genus Bothrops and Crotalus, according to the records of the last 15 years of the serpentarium the University of Caxias do Sul, repr...

  14. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.

  15. Speckle reduction techniques in digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, David; Kelly, Damien; Hennelly, Bryan [Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Javidi, Bahram, E-mail: bryanh@cs.nuim.i [University of Connecticut Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 371 Fairfield Road, Unit 2157 Storrs, CT 06269-2157 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We have studied several speckle reduction techniques, applicable to digital holography. These include the use of optical diffusers, wavelet filtering, simulating temporal incoherence and filtering in the Fourier domain. The Digital Holograms (DHs) used in this study are captured using a Phase Shift Interferometric (PSI) in-line setup and subsequently reconstructed numerically.

  16. Vascular effects and electrolyte homeostasis of the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon rattlesnake) venom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, S.L.; Dias-Junior, C.A.; Baldasso, P.A.; Damico, D.C.; Carvalho, B.M.; Garanto, A.; Acosta, G.; Oliveira, E.; Albericio, F.; Soares, A.M.; Marangoni, S.; Resende, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a rattlesnake that is usually found in the Grand Canyon, United States of America. Knowledge regarding the composition of C. o. abyssus venom is scarce. New natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of members of the Crotalinae

  17. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  18. Seasonal variation in hormonal responses of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) to reproductive and environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, William I; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T; Reinert, Howard K

    2009-08-01

    Data addressing adrenocortical modulation across taxonomic groups are limited, especially with regard to how female reproductive condition influences the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated seasonal and reproductive variation in basal and stress-induced hormone profiles in a population of free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in north-central Pennsylvania during spring (i.e., May), summer (i.e., July), and early fall (i.e., September). Baseline corticosterone concentrations varied seasonally and were significantly lower during the summer sampling period in July. We observed a significant negative relationship between baseline corticosterone and testosterone in male snakes, while baseline corticosterone and estradiol tended to be positively correlated in females. Treatment of snakes with 1 h of capture stress significantly increased corticosterone across all seasons. However, there was a significant interaction between corticosterone responses to capture stress and season, suggesting that adrenocortical function is modulated seasonally. Because elevated corticosterone may be associated with reproduction, we asked whether hormonal stress responses vary with female reproductive condition. Although sample sizes are low, reproductive snakes had significantly higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations than non-reproductive or post-parturient females. Further, despite similar baseline corticosterone concentrations between non-reproductive and post-parturient rattlesnakes, post-parturient females responded to capture stress with a significantly higher increase in corticosterone. Collectively, these data suggest that the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis varies both seasonally and with changing reproductive states.

  19. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidaeparasitando serpentes da família Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days. Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para est

  20. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  1. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  2. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G.; Florez, J.; Borelli, R.; Fong, W.; Miko, J.; Trujillo, C.

    1989-01-01

    With the construction of several new large aperture telescopes and the development of large format array detectors in the near IR, the ability to obtain diffraction limited seeing via IR array speckle interferometry offers a powerful tool. We are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element 2D complex FFT, and to average the power spectrum all within the 25 msec coherence time for speckles at near IR wavelength. The processor is a compact unit controlled by a PC with real time display and data storage capability. It provides the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with off-line methods

  3. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  4. Speckle Tracking and Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marins Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Amyloidosis is a disease caused by deposits of insoluble fibrils in extracellular spaces. The most common type of familial amyloidosis is mediated by mutation of transthyretin, especially Val30Met. Symptoms and ejection fraction decrease may occur in cardiac amyloidosis only in case of poor prognosis. Myocardial strain detected by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography can indicate changes in myocardial function at early stages of the disease. Objective: To determine the accuracy of left ventricular longitudinal strain by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with familial amyloidosis caused by Val30Met transthyretin mutation. Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients, carriers of transthyretin mutation, were evaluated by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, by which myocardial strain curves were obtained, following the American Society of Echocardiography recommendations. Results: Patients were divided into three groups: 1- Val30Met with cardiac amyloidosis; 2-Val30Met with extracardiac amyloidosis; 3 - Val30Met without evidence of disease. As the three groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney test, we found a statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in the mean longitudinal tension (p=0.01, mean basal longitudinal strain (p=0.014; in mean longitudinal tension and mean longitudinal strain between groups 1 and 3 (p=0.005; and in the ratio of longitudinal strain of apical septum segment to longitudinal strain of basal septum (p=0.041 between groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Left ventricular longitudinal strain detected by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography is able to diagnose left ventricular dysfunction in early stages of familial amyloidosis caused by transthyretin Val30Met mutation.

  5. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  6. Full Core TREAT Kinetics Demonstration Using Rattlesnake/BISON Coupling Within MAMMOTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, Javier [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alberti, Anthony L. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Palmer, Todd S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report summarizes key aspects of research in evaluation of modeling needs for TREAT transient simulation. Using a measured TREAT critical measurement and a transient for a small, experimentally simplified core, Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH simulations are performed building from simple infinite media to a full core model. Cross sections processing methods are evaluated, various homogenization approaches are assessed and the neutronic behavior of the core studied to determine key modeling aspects. The simulation of the minimum critical core with the diffusion solver shows very good agreement with the reference Monte Carlo simulation and the experiment. The full core transient simulation with thermal feedback shows a significantly lower power peak compared to the documented experimental measurement, which is not unexpected in the early stages of model development.

  7. Multiscale Capability in Rattlesnake using Contiguous Discontinuous Discretization of Self-Adjoint Angular Flux Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Weixiong [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In this report, we present a new upwinding scheme for the multiscale capability in Rattlesnake, the MOOSE based radiation transport application. Comparing with the initial implementation of multiscale utilizing Lagrange multipliers to impose strong continuity of angular flux on interface of in-between subdomains, this scheme does not require the particular domain partitioning. This upwinding scheme introduces discontinuity of angular flux and resembles the classic upwinding technique developed for solving first order transport equation using discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) on the subdomain interfaces. Because this scheme restores the causality of radiation streaming on the interfaces, significant accuracy improvement can be observed with moderate increase of the degrees of freedom comparing with the continuous method over the entire solution domain. Hybrid SN-PN is implemented and tested with this upwinding scheme. Numerical results show that the angular smoothing required by Lagrange multiplier method is not necessary for the upwinding scheme.

  8. Static speckle experiments using white synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar; Panzner, Tobias; Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Static speckle experiments were performed using coherent white X-ray radiation from a bending magnet at BESSYII. Semiconductor and polymer surfaces were investigated under incidence condition smaller than the critical angle of total external reflection. The scattering pattern of the sample results from the illumination function modified by the surface undulations. The periodic oscillations are caused by the illumination function whereas other irregular features are associated with sample surface. The speckle map of reflection from a laterally periodic structure like GaAs grating is studied. Under coherent illumination the grating peaks split into speckles because of fluctuations on the sample surface. It is important to understand which length scales on the sample surface are responsible for the oscillations in reflectivity map. To investigate this experiments are done with a triangular shaped sample. Different parts of the sample are illuminated with the footprint on the sample larger or smaller than the actual sample length. This gives prior information about total illuminated area on the sample. Using this additional information a detailed surface profile of the sample is reconstructed.

  9. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  10. Sensationalistic journalism and tales of snakebite: are rattlesnakes rapidly evolving more toxic venom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, William K; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2010-03-01

    Recent reports in the lay press have suggested that bites by rattlesnakes in the last several years have been more severe than those in the past. The explanation, often citing physicians, is that rattlesnakes are evolving more toxic venom, perhaps in response to anthropogenic causes. We suggest that other explanations are more parsimonious, including factors dependent on the snake and factors associated with the bite victim's response to envenomation. Although bites could become more severe from an increased proportion of bites from larger or more provoked snakes (ie, more venom injected), the venom itself evolves much too slowly to explain the severe symptoms occasionally seen. Increased snakebite severity could also result from a number of demographic changes in the victim profile, including age and body size, behavior toward the snake (provocation), anatomical site of bite, clothing, and general health including asthma prevalence and sensitivity to foreign antigens. Clinical management of bites also changes perpetually, rendering comparisons of snakebite severity over time tenuous. Clearly, careful study taking into consideration many factors will be essential to document temporal changes in snakebite severity or venom toxicity. Presently, no published evidence for these changes exists. The sensationalistic coverage of these atypical bites and accompanying speculation is highly misleading and can produce many detrimental results, such as inappropriate fear of the outdoors and snakes, and distraction from proven snakebite management needs, including a consistent supply of antivenom, adequate health care, and training. We urge healthcare providers to avoid propagating misinformation about snakes and snakebites. Copyright (c) 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural history of a northern population of twin-spotted rattlesnakes, Crotalus pricei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prival, D.B.; Goode, M.J.; Swann, D.E.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Schroff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei) is a small-bodied pitviper that has received little attention in the literature to date. The species reaches the northern limit of its range in southeastern Arizona, where it inhabits higher elevations than any of the state's 10 other rattlesnake species. During 1997-2000, we captured, measured, and marked 127 C. pricei in Arizona's Chiricahua Mountains between 2530 and 2900 m elevation. We also used radiotelemetry to track the movements of 16 C. pricei in the study area during 1997-1998. Mean (?? SE) snout-vent length of C. pricei was 387.8 ?? 8.3 mm (range = 168-572), and mean mass was 53.5 ?? 3.3 g (range = 3.6-188.5). Based on fecal analyses, lizards constituted the bulk of prey (74%), but the diet of C. pricei also included mammals, birds, and a conspecific. Mating was concentrated in August and early September and parturition took place during late July and August. Mean number of embryos was 3.94 ?? 0.34 (range = 1-6) and female reproduction appeared biennial or less frequent. Based on shed and growth rates, female C. pricei develop embryos at 4-5 years of age. Gravid females maintained warmer body temperatures relative to substrate temperature than nongravid females or males, presumably by spending more time basking than other snakes. Radiotelemetry revealed that movement patterns varied from year to year, as males moved over six times farther per week during the 1998 monsoon season (July to September) than during the 1997 monsoon season. Additionally, use of talus slopes by males decreased during 1998. During dry years, such as 1998, males may be forced off talus into cooler microclimates where resources are less concentrated than on talus.

  12. Compound speckles and their statistical and dynamical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Skov Hansen, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Two issues will be treated in this presentation, both focusing on gaining a deeper understanding of dynamic speckles, aiming at the use for probing dynamical properties of scattering structures. The first issue to be addressed is the dynamics of speckles arising from illuminating a solid surface...

  13. Correlation of Spatially Filtered Dynamic Speckles in Distance Measurement Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Dmitry V.; Nippolainen, Ervin; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Miridonov, Serguei V.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper statistical properties of spatially filtered dynamic speckles are considered. This phenomenon was not sufficiently studied yet while spatial filtering is an important instrument for speckles velocity measurements. In case of spatial filtering speckle velocity information is derived from the modulation frequency of filtered light power which is measured by photodetector. Typical photodetector output is represented by a narrow-band random noise signal which includes non-informative intervals. Therefore more or less precious frequency measurement requires averaging. In its turn averaging implies uncorrelated samples. However, conducting research we found that correlation is typical property not only of dynamic speckle patterns but also of spatially filtered speckles. Using spatial filtering the correlation is observed as a response of measurements provided to the same part of the object surface or in case of simultaneously using several adjacent photodetectors. Found correlations can not be explained using just properties of unfiltered dynamic speckles. As we demonstrate the subject of this paper is important not only from pure theoretical point but also from the point of applied speckle metrology. E.g. using single spatial filter and an array of photodetector can greatly improve accuracy of speckle velocity measurements

  14. Speckle reduction in digital holography with resampling ring masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan

    2018-01-01

    One-shot digital holographic imaging has the advantages of high stability and low temporal cost. However, the reconstruction is affected by the speckle noise. Resampling ring-mask method in spectrum domain is proposed for speckle reduction. The useful spectrum of one hologram is divided into several sub-spectra by ring masks. In the reconstruction, angular spectrum transform is applied to guarantee the calculation accuracy which has no approximation. N reconstructed amplitude images are calculated from the corresponding sub-spectra. Thanks to speckle's random distribution, superimposing these N uncorrelated amplitude images would lead to a final reconstructed image with lower speckle noise. Normalized relative standard deviation values of the reconstructed image are used to evaluate the reduction of speckle. Effect of the method on the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is also quantitatively evaluated. Experimental and simulation results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. An adaptive Kalman filter for speckle reductions in ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, G.; Labate, D.; Masotti, L.; Mannini, E.; Rocchi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Speckle is the term used to describe the granular appearance found in ultrasound images. The presence of speckle reduces the diagnostic potential of the echographic technique because it tends to mask small inhomogeneities of the investigated tissue. We developed a new method of speckle reductions that utilizes an adaptive one-dimensional Kalman filter based on the assumption that the observed image can be considered as a superimposition of speckle on a ''true images''. The filter adaptivity, necessary to avoid loss of resolution, has been obtained by statistical considerations on the local signal variations. The results of the applications of this particular Kalman filter, both on A-Mode and B-MODE images, show a significant speckle reduction

  16. Characterization of a human coagulation factor Xa-binding site on Viperidae snake venom phospholipases A2 by affinity binding studies and molecular bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Veerabasappa T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snake venom group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 (SVPLA2, present in the Viperidae snake family exhibit a wide range of toxic and pharmacological effects. They exert their different functions by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PL at the membrane/water interface and by highly specific direct binding to: (i presynaptic membrane-bound or intracellular receptors; (ii natural PLA2-inhibitors from snake serum; and (iii coagulation factors present in human blood. Results Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR protein-protein interaction measurements and an in vitro biological test of inhibition of prothrombinase activity, we identify a number of Viperidae venom SVPLA2s that inhibit blood coagulation through direct binding to human blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa via a non-catalytic, PL-independent mechanism. We classify the SVPLA2s in four groups, depending on the strength of their binding. Molecular electrostatic potentials calculated at the surface of 3D homology-modeling models show a correlation with inhibition of prothrombinase activity. In addition, molecular docking simulations between SVPLA2 and FXa guided by the experimental data identify the potential FXa binding site on the SVPLA2s. This site is composed of the following regions: helices A and B, the Ca2+ loop, the helix C-β-wing loop, and the C-terminal fragment. Some of the SVPLA2 binding site residues belong also to the interfacial binding site (IBS. The interface in FXa involves both, the light and heavy chains. Conclusion We have experimentally identified several strong FXa-binding SVPLA2s that disrupt the function of the coagulation cascade by interacting with FXa by the non-catalytic PL-independent mechanism. By theoretical methods we mapped the interaction sites on both, the SVPLA2s and FXa. Our findings may lead to the design of novel, non-competitive FXa inhibitors.

  17. Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.

    1986-01-01

    The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references

  18. Phase-processing as a tool for speckle reduction in pulse-echo images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healey, AJ; Leeman, S; Forsberg, F

    1991-01-01

    . Traditional speckle reduction procedures regard speckle correction as a stochastic process and trade image smoothing (resolution loss) for speckle reduction. Recently, a new phase acknowledging technique has been proposed that is unique in its ability to correct for speckle interference with no image......Due to the coherent nature of conventional ultrasound medical imaging systems interference artefacts occur in pulse echo images. These artefacts are generically termed 'speckle'. The phenomenon may severely limit low contrast resolution with clinically relevant information being obscured...

  19. Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)

  20. Lagrangian speckle model and tissue-motion estimation--theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, R L; Bertrand, M

    1999-07-01

    It is known that when a tissue is subjected to movements such as rotation, shearing, scaling, etc., changes in speckle patterns that result act as a noise source, often responsible for most of the displacement-estimate variance. From a modeling point of view, these changes can be thought of as resulting from two mechanisms: one is the motion of the speckles and the other, the alterations of their morphology. In this paper, we propose a new tissue-motion estimator to counteract these speckle decorrelation effects. The estimator is based on a Lagrangian description of the speckle motion. This description allows us to follow local characteristics of the speckle field as if they were a material property. This method leads to an analytical description of the decorrelation in a way which enables the derivation of an appropriate inverse filter for speckle restoration. The filter is appropriate for linear geometrical transformation of the scattering function (LT), i.e., a constant-strain region of interest (ROI). As the LT itself is a parameter of the filter, a tissue-motion estimator can be formulated as a nonlinear minimization problem, seeking the best match between the pre-tissue-motion image and a restored-speckle post-motion image. The method is tested, using simulated radio-frequency (RF) images of tissue undergoing axial shear.

  1. Multiple speckle illumination for optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Florian; Stasio, Nicolino; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy offers exquisite and specific contrast to optical absorption. Conventional approaches generally involves raster scanning a focused spot over the sample. Here, we demonstrate that a full-field illumination approach with multiple speckle illumination can also provide diffraction-limited optical-resolution photoacoustic images. Two different proof-of-concepts are demonstrated with micro-structured test samples. The first approach follows the principle of correlation/ghost imaging,1, 2 and is based on cross-correlating photoacoustic signals under multiple speckle illumination with known speckle patterns measured during a calibration step. The second approach is a speckle scanning microscopy technique, which adapts the technique proposed in fluorescence microscopy by Bertolotti and al.:3 in our work, spatially unresolved photoacoustic measurements are performed for various translations of unknown speckle patterns. A phase-retrieval algorithm is used to reconstruct the object from the knowledge of the modulus of its Fourier Transform yielded by the measurements. Because speckle patterns naturally appear in many various situations, including propagation through biological tissue or multi-mode fibers (for which focusing light is either very demanding if not impossible), speckle-illumination-based photoacoustic microscopy provides a powerful framework for the development of novel reconstruction approaches, well-suited to compressed sensing approaches.2

  2. Características biológicas e inmunológicas del veneno de Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops cotiara es una serpiente que se encuentra en la provincia de Misiones (Argentina, el Sur de Brasil y Paraguay. La información sobre las características clínicas de los accidentes por esta serpiente es muy escasa y existen pocos datos sobre su veneno y la capacidad neutralizante de las actividades tóxicas del mismo por antivenenos terapéuticos. En este trabajo se estudiaron características bioquímicas, actividades tóxicas y la reactividad inmunoquímica del veneno de B. cotiara. Seis antivenenos anti Viperinos Sudamericanos fueron estudiados frente a este veneno por el método ELISA y se probó la capacidad neutralizante de tres de estos frente a las actividades hemorrágica, necrotizante, procoagulante, trombina-símil, hemolítica indirecta y la potencia letal de veneno de ejemplares de B. cotiara de la provincia de Misiones. Los patrones cromatográficos y electroforéticos mostraron características similares a los de otros venenos de Bothrops. Las actividades tóxicas estuvieron dentro de los ámbitos descritos para los venenos botrópicos. Los seis antivenenos mostraron gran reactividad inmunoquímica por ELISA y las potencias neutralizantes de los tres estudiados fueron muy próximas para las actividades letal, hemorrágica, necrotizante, hemolítica indirecta, coagulante y trombina-símil. Los resultados de los estudios de neutralización indicarían que ante la mordedura de esta poco común especie de Bothrops, pueden usarse los diferentes tipos de antivenenos botrópicos o botrópico-crotálicos para uso terapéutico disponibles en esa región.Biological and immunological characteristics of the poison of Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae. Bothrops cotiara is a venomous snake sporadically found in the province of Misiones in Argentina, South of Brazil and Paraguay. Data on the clinics of the envenomation produced by its bite and on its venom are scarce. There is no information on the neutralizing capacity of the

  3. A SIMPLE HETERODYNE TEMPORAL SPECKLE-PATTERN INTERFEROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W. O.; Gao, Z.; Lu, J.

    2010-01-01

    A common light path design of heterodyne speckle pattern interferometer based on temporal speckle pattern interferometry is proposed for non-contact, full-field and real-time continuous displacement measurement. Double frequency laser is produced by rotating a half wave plate. An experiment was carried out to measure the dynamic displacement of a cantilever plate for testing the proposed common path heterodyne speckle pattern interferometer. The accuracy of displacement measurement was checked by measuring the motion at the mid-point of the plate with a point displacement sensor.

  4. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-01-01

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. Enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    A technique for enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field (PDSF) and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated experimentally. A smooth test wavefront impinges on a phase diffuser, forming a PDSF that is directed to a 4f setup. Two defocused speckle...... intensity measurements are recorded at the output plane corresponding to axially-propagated representations of the PDSF in the input plane. The speckle intensity measurements are then used in a conventional transport of intensity equation (TIE) to reconstruct directly the test wavefront. The PDSF in our...

  6. Quantization analysis of speckle intensity measurements for phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maallo, Anne Margarette S.; Almoro, Percival F.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    Speckle intensity measurements utilized for phase retrieval (PR) are sequentially taken with a digital camera, which introduces quantization error that diminishes the signal quality. Influences of quantization on the speckle intensity distribution and PR are investigated numerically...... and experimentally in the static wavefront sensing setup. Resultsshowthat 3 to 4 bits are adequate to represent the speckle intensities and yield acceptable reconstructions at relatively fast convergence rates. Computer memory requirements may be eased down by 2.4 times if a 4 bit instead of an 8 bit camera is used...

  7. Analyzing speckle contrast for HiLo microscopy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferri, J.; Kunik, D.; Belisle, J. M.; Singh, K.; Lefrançois, S.; Costantino, S.

    2011-07-01

    HiLo microscopy is a recently developed technique that provides both optical sectioning and fast imaging with a simple implementation and at a very low cost. The methodology combines widefield and speckled illumination images to obtain one optically sectioned image. Hence, the characteristics of such speckle illumination ultimately determine the quality of HiLo images and the overall performance of the method. In this work, we study how speckle contrast influence local variations of fluorescence intensity and brightness profiles of thick samples. We present this article as a guide to adjust the parameters of the system for optimizing the capabilities of this novel technology.

  8. Ecology and conservation of an endangered rattlesnake, Sistrurus catenatus, in Missouri, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R A

    1986-01-01

    The life history and ecology of the massasauga Sistrurus catenatus, an endangered rattlesnake, was studied from 1979 to 1983 at the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge, Missouri. Except for tail length, this population exhibits little sexual dimorphism. Massasaugas are active from April to October, and are primarily diurnal, except in summer. Snakes are found mainly in a cordgrass prairie in spring and autumn, utilizing drier, upland areas in summer. Mean brood size for this population was 6.35, and there was a significant positive relationship between brood size and female body size. Although this species apparently demonstrates considerable geographic variation in reproductive potential, the significance of this variation cannot be currently assessed. Growth rates, estimated from size-frequency data, suggest an age of maturity of 3-4 years for females. Massasaugas at Squaw Creek feed mainly on rodents and other snakes. Current refuge practices, such as controlled burning of the prairie and unrestricted visitor usage, may have significant negative impacts on Sistrurus populations. Recommendations for mitigating these impacts are provided.

  9. Geophysical logging and hydrologic testing of deep basalt flows in the Rattlesnake Hills Well Number One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Deju, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Geophysical logging and hydrologic testing were conducted in the Rattlesnake Hills Well Number One located along the western boundary of the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Three-dimensional velocity, Seisviewer and caliper logging were completed across 2,000 feet of basalt rock within the Wanapum and Grande Ronde formations. Drillstem testing focused along a 250-foot interval of the Grande Ronde Formation. Individual high- (approx. 2.7-2.9 grams per cubic centimeter) and low-density (approx. 2.3-2.6 grams per cubic centimeter) basalt zones within the Wanapum Formation are generally less than 50 feet thick. Within the estimated thickness of the Grande Ronde Formation, 85 percent of the low-density zones are less than 50 feet thick, compared to 55 percent of those of higher density. The Grande Ronde Formation has 13 high-density zones varying in thickness from 51 to 230 feet. Logging data suggest the thicknesses of low-density are independent of the thicknesses of the associated and underlying higher density columnar basalts. Eleven drillstem tests were conducted across selected intervals within the Grande Ronde Formation. Hydraulic conductivity values calculated for the low-density basalt zones ranged between 1.7 x 10 -7 and 3.8 x 10 -9 centimeters per second; those for high-density zones were between 1.1 x 10 -8 and 4.7 x 10 -9 centimeters per second

  10. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Zufelt, R.K.; Turner, S.; Cadwell, L.L.; Bender, L.; Turner, G.K.

    2000-10-10

    Population characteristics of the Rattlesnake Hills elk herd indicate reduced herd growth rates from the 1980s compared to the 1990s (McCorquodale 1988; Eberhardt 1996). However, the population continued to grow approximately 25% annually through the 1990s, reaching a high of 838 animals in summer 1999. Calf recruitment rates appear to be cyclic and are likely related to reduced calf survival during the first weeks of life; however, late-term abortions may also have occurred. The cause(s) could be predator-related and/or a function of shifts in nutritional condition (age-class distributions, assuming older-age cows are less likely to recruit calves, major climate shifts) or changes in the human-related disturbances during gestation, and/or calf rearing periods. In fall 1999 and spring 2000, the population was reduced from 838 individuals to 660 individuals. The primary controlling factors were modified hunting seasons on private and state lands and the large-scale roundup conducted in spring 2000. Continued removal of animals (particularly females) within the population will be pivotal to maintain the population at a level that minimizes land damage complaints, animal-vehicle collisions, use of central Hanford areas, and deterioration of natural resources.

  11. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Precision Gravity Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.; Langford, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole domestic water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the fracture controlled aquifer system. We have conducted a series of precision gravity surveys (station spacing 200 to 300 m in a 4 x 4 km area), combined with other geophysical studies and geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our combined results suggest several pathways for water to enter the springs. A series of WNW-ESE striking features are apparent in our gravity data that appear to align with relict spring valleys we have mapped to the west of the springs. A self potential survey indicates that water is entering the springs at a shallow level from the northwest direction. However, gravity data also indicate a north-south trending fracture system could be providing a pathway for water to enter from the south. This is consistent with drawdown tests conducted in the 1950’s and 1960’s on irrigation wells located to the south of the springs. The north-south fracture system appears related to a basin bounding fault system observed in the regional gravity data.

  12. Application of laser speckle to randomized numerical linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C.; Shaw, Thomas J.; Stapleton, Andrew D.; Scofield, Adam C.; Sefler, George A.; Johannson, Leif

    2018-02-01

    We propose and simulate integrated optical devices for accelerating numerical linear algebra (NLA) calculations. Data is modulated on chirped optical pulses and these propagate through a multimode waveguide where speckle provides the random projections needed for NLA dimensionality reduction.

  13. The Study Of Optometry Apparatus Of Laser Speckles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao-cheng, Wang; Kun, Yao; Xiu-qing, Wu; Chang-ying, Long; Jia-qi, Shi; Shi-zhong, Shi

    1988-01-01

    Based on the regularity of laser speckles movement the method of exam the uncorrected eyes is determined. The apparatus with micro-computer and optical transformation is made. Its practical function is excellent.

  14. MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF SPECKLE TRACKING ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle-tracking echocardiography is promising modern technique for evaluation of structural and functional changes in the myocardium. It evaluates the indicator of global longitudinal myocardial deformation, which is more sensitive than ejection fraction to early changes of left ventricular contractility. The diagnostic capabilities of speckle tracking echocardiography are reflected in clinical recommendations and consensus statements of European Society of Cardiology (ESC, European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE. The aim of this paper is describe basic principles of speckle tracking echocardiography and clinical applications of this new technology. Attention is paid to the use of speckle tracking echocardiography in such heart pathologies as heart failure, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis of the heart, valvular heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. A decade of innovation with laser speckle metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettemeyer, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Speckle Pattern Interferometry has emerged from the experimental substitution of holographic interferometry to become a powerful problem solving tool in research and industry. The rapid development of computer and digital imaging techniques in combination with minaturization of the optical equipment led to new applications which had not been anticipated before. While classical holographic interferometry had always required careful consideration of the environmental conditions such as vibration, noise, light, etc. and could generally only be performed in the optical laboratory, it is now state of the art, to handle portable speckle measuring equipment at almost any place. During the last decade, the change in design and technique has dramatically influenced the range of applications of speckle metrology and opened new markets. The integration of recent research results into speckle measuring equipment has led to handy equipment, simplified the operation and created high quality data output.

  16. Differential expression of speckled POZ protein, SPOP: Putative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... In other mouse tissues and human cancer cell lines analysed, only low SPOP ... speckled POZ protein; SRC-3, steroid receptor co-activator-3; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; ...... complexity of primary human prostate cancer.

  17. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.

  18. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-02-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  19. Simple educational tool for digital speckle shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Martocchia, Andrea; Papalillo, Donato; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an educational tool has been prepared for obtaining short-term and more economic training on digital speckle shearography (DSS). Shearography non-destructive testing (NDT) has gained wide acceptance over the last decade, providing a number of important and exciting inspection solutions in aerospace, electronics and medical device manufacturing. For exploring these motivations, it is important to develop didactic tools to understand the potential of digital shearography through training and didactic courses in the field of NDT. In this paper we describe a simple tool for making one familiar with the potential of DSS in the area of education and training. The system is realized with a simple and economic optical setup and a virtual instrument based on the LabVIEW™ and DAQ. (paper)

  20. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT SOAR IN 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2015-01-01

    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits

  1. Laser speckle velocimetry for robot manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrett, Thomas O. H.; Bandari, Yashwanth K.; Michel, Florent; Ding, Jialuo; Williams, Stewart W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2017-06-01

    A non-contact speckle correlation sensor for the measurement of robotic tool speed is presented for use in robotic manufacturing and is capable of measuring the in-plane relative velocities between a robot end-effector and the workpiece or other surface. The sensor performance was assessed in the laboratory with the sensor accuracies found to be better than 0:01 mm/s over a 70 mm/s velocity range. Finally an example of the sensors application to robotic manufacturing is presented where the sensor was applied to tool speed measurement for path planning in the wire and arc additive manufacturing process using a KUKA KR150 L110/2 industrial robot.

  2. Speckle imaging using the principle value decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Obtaining diffraction-limited images in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is a topic of current interest. Two types of approaches have evolved: real-time correction and speckle imaging. A speckle imaging reconstruction method was developed by use of an ''optimal'' filtering approach. This method is based on a nonlinear integral equation which is solved by principle value decomposition. The method was implemented on a CDC 7600 for study. The restoration algorithm is discussed and its performance is illustrated. 7 figures

  3. Statistical characterization of speckle noise in coherent imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid; Shefler, A.

    2003-05-01

    Speckle noise imposes fundamental limitation on image quality in coherent radiation based imaging and optical metrology systems. Speckle noise phenomena are associated with properties of objects to diffusely scatter irradiation and with the fact that in recording the wave field, a number of signal distortions inevitably occur due to technical limitations inherent to hologram sensors. The statistical theory of speckle noise was developed with regard to only limited resolving power of coherent imaging devices. It is valid only asymptotically as much as the central limit theorem of the probability theory can be applied. In applications this assumption is not always applicable. Moreover, in treating speckle noise problem one should also consider other sources of the hologram deterioration. In the paper, statistical properties of speckle due to the limitation of hologram size, dynamic range and hologram signal quantization are studied by Monte-Carlo simulation for holograms recorded in near and far diffraction zones. The simulation experiments have shown that, for limited resolving power of the imaging system, widely accepted opinion that speckle contrast is equal to one holds only for rather severe level of the hologram size limitation. For moderate limitations, speckle contrast changes gradually from zero for no limitation to one for limitation to less than about 20% of hologram size. The results obtained for the limitation of the hologram sensor"s dynamic range and hologram signal quantization reveal that speckle noise due to these hologram signal distortions is not multiplicative and is directly associated with the severity of the limitation and quantization. On the base of the simulation results, analytical models are suggested.

  4. Bioquímica plasmática de cascavéis (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758 em cativeiro Blood biochemical parameters from captivity rattlesnake (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes com seres humanos envolvendo a espécie Caudisona durissa possuem a mais alta taxa de letalidade dentre os viperídeos brasileiros. Ressalta-se então a importância para a saúde pública da criação dessa espécie em cativeiro para produção de soro antiofídico. No entanto, essa atividade ainda hoje encontra alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel, evidenciando a importância de estudos sobre a fisiologia de serpentes. Dessa forma, foram realizadas análises de bioquímica plasmática em 53 serpentes da espécie Caudisona durissa, mantidas em cativeiro. Foram utilizadas amostras de plasma com heparina e as dosagens bioquímicas realizadas em aparelho automatizado (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Os resultados e seus respectivos desvios-padrões foram: uréia -1,32mg dL-1 (±1,1; ácido úrico - 2,08mg dL-1 (±1,4; creatinina - 0,52mg dL-1 (±0,2; proteína total - 3,7g dL-1 (±0,7; albumina - 1,62g dL-1 (±0,4; globulinas - 2,08g dL-1 (±0,5; cálcio - 15,25mg dL-1 (±2,8; fósforo - 4,61mg dL-1 (±1,9; colesterol - 171,58mg dL-1 (±52,7; triglicerídeos - 19,29mg dL-1 (±14,3; fosfatase alcalina - 31,04U L-1 (±12,4; aspartato aminotransferase (AST - 22,25U L-1 (±11,4; alanina aminotransferase (ALT - 7,11U L-1 (±5,4 e Amilase - 1385,23U L-1 (±568,7. Foram calculados os seguintes índices: relação uréia/creatinina - 2,5 e relação cálcio/fósforo - 3,3. O conjunto de resultados das análises bioquímicas do sangue das cascavéis em cativeiro pode servir como referência para apoio diagnóstico na espécie estudada e para outros trabalhos com o mesmo caráter de observação.Human accidents involving rattlesnake Caudisona durissa have the highest fatality rate among the Brazilian Viperidae family. Breeding this specie in captivity in order to produce antivenoms is very important to public health. Nevertheless, there are some challenges that this activity must face, like the onset of diseases on the

  5. Hydrologic test results for the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed and Pomona basalt flow top at Borehole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents results and description of hydrologic test activities for the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed and Pomona basalt flow top at Borehole DB-15. Hydrologic tests conducted include constant discharge air-lift and constant discharge submersible pumping tests. An observed hydraulic head for the test interval was 409 ± 1 feet above mean sea level. Transmissivity values determined from hydrologic tests performed, ranged between 493 and 469 ft 2 /day. The best estimate of transmissivity is 480 ft 2 /day. The best estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity, based on an effective test thickness of 56 feet is 8.6 ft/day. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  7. The Compartment Syndrome Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis due to Rattlesnake Bite: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ciprian Tincu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite is a health issue specific to some parts of the world, especially in the tropical area, where it produces many victims. The main clinical damage caused by snake bite involves hemotoxic, neurotoxic and myotoxic reactions. It is also established that the importance of systemic impairment varies according to individual factors and are related to organ dysfunction, shock or hypotension. We report the case of a young woman suffering from snakebite who developed deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome. Case Report: We present the case of a 32-year-old Romanian woman who was injured by her own Crotalinae snake (also known as pit viper or rattlesnake on her left forearm. When admitted to our Emergency Department, she was conscious with a Glasgow coma scale of 12/15, somnolent, febrile, suffering of headache, tachypnea; the marks of the snakebite were located in the distal part of the anterior left forearm; she had pain and bleeding at the bite site and swelling of the left upper limb with lymphangitis up to the axilla. She experienced fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb and required unfractionated heparin and closed monitored using activated partial thromboplastin time evolution due micro-thrombosis in the brachial vein. Local improvement was achieved in the next 4 days with progressive diminish of local tenderness and swelling. Conclusion: Limb deep vein thrombosis might be induced by snakebite, despite pro-hemorrhagic general condition induced by the envenomation. High index of clinical suspicion is needed for early diagnosis and timely management which can improve survival of these patients

  8. Dendrogeomorphic Assessment of the Rattlesnake Gulf Landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulonis, Kathryn L.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic techniques were used to assess soil movement within the Rattlesnake Gulf landslide in the Tully Valley of central New York during the last century. This landslide is a postglacial, slow-moving earth slide that covers 23 acres and consists primarily of rotated, laminated, glaciolacustrine silt and clay. Sixty-two increment cores were obtained from 30 hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees across the active part of the landslide and from 3 control sites to interpret the soil-displacement history. Annual growth rings were measured and reaction wood was identified to indicate years in which ring growth changed from concentric to eccentric, on the premise that soil movement triggered compensatory growth in displaced trees. These data provided a basis for an 'event index' to identify years of landslide activity over the 108 years of record represented by the oldest trees. Event-index values and total annual precipitation increased during this time, but years with sudden event-index increases did not necessarily correspond to years with above-average precipitation. Multiple-regression and residual-values analyses indicated a possible correlation between precipitation and movement within the landslide and a possible cyclic (decades-long) tree-ring response to displacement within the landslide area from the toe upward to, and possibly beyond, previously formed landslide features. The soil movement is triggered by a sequence of factors that include (1) periods of several months with below-average precipitation followed by persistent above-average precipitation, (2) the attendant increase in streamflow, which erodes the landslide toe and results in an upslope propagation of slumping, and (3) the harvesting of mature trees within this landslide during the last century and continuing to the present.

  9. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  10. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  11. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  12. Intraspecific venom variation in the medically significant Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): biodiscovery, clinical and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Scheib, Holger; Gren, Eric C K; Cochran, Chip; Person, Carl E; Koludarov, Ivan; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K; King, Glenn F; Antunes, Agosthino; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2014-03-17

    Due to the extreme variation of venom, which consequently results in drastically variable degrees of neutralization by CroFab antivenom, the management and treatment of envenoming by Crotalus oreganus helleri (the Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), one of the most medically significant snake species in all of North America, has been a clinician's nightmare. This snake has also been the subject of sensational news stories regarding supposed rapid (within the last few decades) evolution of its venom. This research demonstrates for the first time that variable evolutionary selection pressures sculpt the intraspecific molecular diversity of venom components in C. o. helleri. We show that myotoxic β-defensin peptides (aka: crotamines/small basic myotoxic peptides) are secreted in large amounts by all populations. However, the mature toxin-encoding nucleotide regions evolve under the constraints of negative selection, likely as a result of their non-specific mode of action which doesn't enforce them to follow the regime of the classic predator-prey chemical arms race. The hemorrhagic and tissue destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) were secreted in larger amounts by the Catalina Island and Phelan rattlesnake populations, in moderate amounts in the Loma Linda population and in only trace levels by the Idyllwild population. Only the Idyllwild population in the San Jacinto Mountains contained potent presynaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex characteristic of Mohave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) and Neotropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). The derived heterodimeric lectin toxins characteristic of viper venoms, which exhibit a diversity of biological activities, including anticoagulation, agonism/antagonism of platelet activation, or procoagulation, appear to have evolved under extremely variable selection pressures. While most lectin α- and β-chains evolved rapidly under the influence of positive Darwinian selection, the β-chain lectin of

  13. The genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) in East Africa: phylogeny and the role of rifting and climate in shaping the current pattern of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, M; Loader, S P; Marsden, S J; Branch, W R; Davenport, T R B; Ursenbacher, S

    2014-10-01

    Past climatic and tectonic events are believed to have strongly influenced species diversity in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the East African genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae), and explored temporal and spatial relationships between Atheris species across Africa, and the impact of palaeoclimatic fluctuations and tectonic movements on cladogenesis of the genus. Using mitochondrial sequence data, the phylogeny of East African species of Atheris shows congruent temporal patterns that link diversification to major tectonic and aridification events within East Africa over the last 15million years (my). Our results are consistent with a scenario of a delayed direct west-east colonisation of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Atheris by the formation of the western rift. Based on the phylogenetic patterns, this terrestrial, forest-associated genus has dispersed into East Africa across a divided route, on both west-southeasterly and west-northeasterly directions (a C-shaped route). Cladogenesis in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Southern Highlands of Tanzania corresponds to late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene climatic shifts. Taxonomically, our data confirmed the monophyly of Atheris as currently defined, and reveal four major East African clades, three of which occur in discrete mountain ranges. Possible cryptic taxa are identified in the Atheris rungweensis and A. ceratophora clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deformation measurements of materials at low temperatures using laser speckle photography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumio Nakahara; Yukihide Maeda; Kazunori Matsumura; Shigeyoshi Hisada; Takeyoshi Fujita; Kiyoshi Sugihara

    1992-01-01

    The authors observed deformations of several materials during cooling down process from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature using the laser speckle photography method. The in-plane displacements were measured by the image plane speckle photography and the out-of-plane displacement gradients by the defocused speckle photography. The results of measurements of in-plane displacement are compared with those of FEM analysis. The applicability of laser speckle photography method to cryogenic engineering are also discussed

  15. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2015-08-01

    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  16. Speckle Interferometry of Red Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Miles, Korie N.; Subasavage, John P.; Raghavan, Deepak; Henry, Todd J.

    2018-05-01

    We report high-resolution optical speckle observations of 336 M dwarfs, which results in 113 measurements of the relative position of 80 systems and 256 other stars with no indications of duplicity. These are the first measurements for two of the systems. We also present the earliest measurements of relative position for 17 others. We include orbits for six of the systems, two revised and four reported for the first time. For one of the systems with a new orbit, G 161-7, we determine masses of 0.156 ± 0.011 and 0.1175+/- 0.0079 {{ \\mathcal M }}ȯ for the A and B components, respectively. All six of these new calculated orbits have short periods (between five and 38 years) and hold the promise of deriving accurate masses in the near future. For many other pairs we can establish their nature as physical or chance alignment, depending on their relative motion. Of the 80 systems, 32 have calculated orbits, 25 others are physical pairs, four are optical pairs, and 19 are currently unknown.

  17. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases. (paper)

  18. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical description and experimental implementation of a speckle-tracking-based instrument which permits the characterisation of X-ray pulse wavefronts. An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology

  19. Speckle Imaging of Binary Stars with Large-Format CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, E.; Ninkov, Z.; Slawson, R. W.; van Altena, W. F.; Meyer, R. D.; Girard, T. M.

    1997-12-01

    In the past, bare (unintensified) CCDs have not been widely used in speckle imaging for two main reasons: 1) the readout rate of most scientific-grade CCDs is too slow to be able to observe at the high frame rates necessary to capture speckle patterns efficiently, and 2) the read noise of CCDs limits the detectability of fainter objects where it becomes difficult to distinguish between speckles and noise peaks in the image. These facts have led to the current supremacy of intensified imaging systems (such as intensified-CCDs) in this field, which can typically be read out at video rates or faster. We have developed a new approach that uses a large format CCD not only to detect the incident photons but also to record many speckle patterns before the chip is read out. This approach effectively uses the large area of the CCD as a physical ``memory cache'' of previous speckle data frames. The method is described, and binary star observations from the University of Toronto Southern Observatory 60-cm telescope and the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5-m telescope are presented. Plans for future observing and instrumentation improvements are also outlined.

  20. Applications of polarization speckle in skin cancer detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Phillips, Jamie; Louie, Daniel C.; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    Polarization speckle is a rapidly developed field. Unlike laser speckle, polarization speckle consists of stochastic interference patterns with spatially random polarizations, amplitudes and phases. We have been working in this exciting research field, developing techniques to generate polarization patterns from skin. We hypothesize that polarization speckle patterns could be used in biomedical applications, especially, for detecting and monitoring skin cancers, the most common neoplasmas for white populations around the world. This paper describes our effort in developing two polarization speckle devices. One of them captures the Stokes parameters So and S1 simultaneously, and another one captures all four Stokes parameters So, S1, S2, and S3 in one-shot, within milliseconds. Hence these two devices could be used in medical clinics and assessed skin conditions in-vivo. In order to validate our hypothesis, we conducted a series of three clinical studies. These are early pilot studies, and the results suggest that the devices have potential to detect and monitor skin cancers.

  1. Speckle reduction methods in laser-based picture projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M. Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan

    2016-02-01

    Laser sources have been promised for many years to be better light sources as compared to traditional lamps or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for projectors, which enable projectors having wide colour gamut for vivid image, super brightness and high contrast for the best picture quality, long lifetime for maintain free operation, mercury free, and low power consumption for green environment. A major technology obstacle in using lasers for projection has been the speckle noise caused by to the coherent nature of the lasers. For speckle reduction, current state of the art solutions apply moving parts with large physical space demand. Solutions beyond the state of the art need to be developed such as integrated optical components, hybrid MOEMS devices, and active phase modulators for compact speckle reduction. In this article, major methods reported in the literature for the speckle reduction in laser projectors are presented and explained. With the advancement in semiconductor lasers with largely reduced cost for the red, green and the blue primary colours, and the developed methods for their speckle reduction, it is hoped that the lasers will be widely utilized in different projector applications in the near future.

  2. Identification of a chemical inhibitor for nuclear speckle formation: Implications for the function of nuclear speckles in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, Yutaro; Matsuo, Yota; Mihara, Yuki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Shigaki-Miyamoto, Kaya; Toyota, Syukichi; Azuma, Yuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Laboratory of Disease Biology, Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Tani, Tokio, E-mail: ttani@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We identified tubercidin as a compound inducing aberrant formation of the speckles. • Tubercidin causes delocalization of poly (A){sup +}RNAs from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin induces dispersion of splicing factors from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin affects alternative pre-mRNA splicing. • Nuclear speckles play a role in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. - Abstract: Nuclear speckles are subnuclear structures enriched with RNA processing factors and poly (A){sup +} RNAs comprising mRNAs and poly (A){sup +} non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Nuclear speckles are thought to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, such as pre-mRNA splicing. By screening 3585 culture extracts of actinomycetes with in situ hybridization using an oligo dT probe, we identified tubercidin, an analogue of adenosine, as an inhibitor of speckle formation, which induces the delocalization of poly (A){sup +} RNA and dispersion of splicing factor SRSF1/SF2 from nuclear speckles in HeLa cells. Treatment with tubercidin also decreased steady-state MALAT1 long ncRNA, thought to be involved in the retention of SRSF1/SF2 in nuclear speckles. In addition, we found that tubercidin treatment promoted exon skipping in the alternative splicing of Clk1 pre-mRNA. These results suggest that nuclear speckles play a role in modulating the concentration of splicing factors in the nucleoplasm to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

  3. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)

  4. Simulation of speckle patterns with pre-defined correlation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lipei; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Xueyan; Zhao, Xing; Elson, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    We put forward a method to easily generate a single or a sequence of fully developed speckle patterns with pre-defined correlation distribution by utilizing the principle of coherent imaging. The few-to-one mapping between the input correlation matrix and the correlation distribution between simulated speckle patterns is realized and there is a simple square relationship between the values of these two correlation coefficient sets. This method is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The square relationship enables easy conversion from any desired correlation distribution. Since the input correlation distribution can be defined by a digital matrix or a gray-scale image acquired experimentally, this method provides a convenient way to simulate real speckle-related experiments and to evaluate data processing techniques. PMID:27231589

  5. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements

  6. Speckle Interferometry with the OCA Kuhn 22" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Rick

    2018-04-01

    Speckle interferometry measurements of double stars were made in 2015 and 2016, using the Kuhn 22-inch classical Cassegrain telescope of the Orange County Astronomers, a Point Grey Blackfly CMOS camera, and three interference filters. 272 observations are reported for 177 systems, with separations ranging from 0.29" to 2.9". Data reduction was by means of the REDUC and Speckle Tool Box programs. Equipment, observing procedures, calibration, data reduction, and analysis are described, and unusual results for 11 stars are discussed in detail.

  7. Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

  8. Spatially resolved speckle-correlometry of sol-gel transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, A. A.; Isaeva, E. A.; Pantyukov, A. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Sol-gel transition was studied using the speckle correlometry method with a localized light source and spatial filtering of backscattered radiation. Water solutions of technical or food gelatin with added TiO2 nanoparticles were used as studied objects. Structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was studied at various temperatures from 25°C to 50°C using analysis of the correlation and structure functions of speckle intensity fluctuations. The characteristic temperatures of "sol - gel" transition were evaluated for studied systems. Obtained results can be used for various applications in biomedicine and food industry.

  9. Density of states in an optical speckle potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, G. M.; Fedorenko, A. A.; Giacomelli, J.; Modugno, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the single-particle density of states of a one-dimensional speckle potential, which is correlated and non-Gaussian. We consider both the repulsive and the attractive cases. The system is controlled by a single dimensionless parameter determined by the mass of the particle, the correlation length, and the average intensity of the field. Depending on the value of this parameter, the system exhibits different regimes, characterized by the localization properties of the eigenfunctions. We calculate the corresponding density of states using the statistical properties of the speckle potential. We find good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IMPROVED QUASI-STATIC METHOD IN RATTLESNAKE/MOOSE FOR TIME-DEPENDENT RADIATION TRANSPORT MODELLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachary M. Prince; Jean C. Ragusa; Yaqi Wang

    2016-02-01

    Because of the recent interest in reactor transient modeling and the restart of the Transient Reactor (TREAT) Facility, there has been a need for more efficient, robust methods in computation frameworks. This is the impetus of implementing the Improved Quasi-Static method (IQS) in the RATTLESNAKE/MOOSE framework. IQS has implemented with CFEM diffusion by factorizing flux into time-dependent amplitude and spacial- and weakly time-dependent shape. The shape evaluation is very similar to a flux diffusion solve and is computed at large (macro) time steps. While the amplitude evaluation is a PRKE solve where the parameters are dependent on the shape and is computed at small (micro) time steps. IQS has been tested with a custom one-dimensional example and the TWIGL ramp benchmark. These examples prove it to be a viable and effective method for highly transient cases. More complex cases are intended to be applied to further test the method and its implementation.

  11. Morulustatin, A Disintegrin that Inhibits ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation, Isolated from the Mexican Tamaulipan Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Miguel; Galan, Jacob Anthony; Cantu, Esteban; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lazcano, David; Lucena, Sara; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, y Elda Eliza

    2016-01-01

    The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus) is a montane snake that occurs in the humid pine-oak forest and the upper cloud forest of the Sierra Madre Oriental in southwestern Tamaulipas, central Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila in Mexico. Venom from this rattlesnake was fractionated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the purpose of discovering disintegrin molecules. Disintegrins are non-enzymatic, small molecular weight peptides that interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by binding to various cell receptors. Eleven fractions were collected by anion exchange chromatography and pooled into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI). Proteins of the six groups were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using antibodies raised against a disintegrin. The antibodies recognized different protein bands in five (II, III, IV, V, and VI) of six groups in a molecular mass range of 7 to 105 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed fewer protein bands in the higher molecular mass range and two bands in the disintegrin weight range in group II compared with the other four groups. Proteins in group II were further separated into nine fractions using reverse phase C18 chromatography. Fraction 4 inhibited platelet aggregation and was named morulustatin, which exhibited a single band with a molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of fraction 4 revealed the identification of disintegrin peptides LRPGAQCADGLCCDQCR (MH+ 2035.84) and AGEECDCGSPANCCDAATCK (MH+ 2328.82). Morulustatin inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood and was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 89.5 nM ± 12. PMID:28713196

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of satellite DNA sequences from constitutive heterochromatin of the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Seki, Risako; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-12-01

    Highly repetitive DNA sequences of the centromeric heterochromatin provide valuable molecular cytogenetic markers for the investigation of genomic compartmentalization in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of sauropsids. Here, the relationship between centromeric heterochromatin and karyotype evolution was examined using cloned repetitive DNA sequences from two snake species, the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Crotalinae, Viperidae) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae). Three satellite DNA (stDNA) families were isolated from the heterochromatin of these snakes: 168-bp PFL-MspI from P. flavoviridis and 196-bp PBI-DdeI and 174-bp PBI-MspI from P. bivittatus. The PFL-MspI and PBI-DdeI sequences were localized to the centromeric regions of most chromosomes in the respective species, suggesting that the two sequences were the major components of the centromeric heterochromatin in these organisms. The PBI-MspI sequence was localized to the pericentromeric region of four chromosome pairs. The PFL-MspI and the PBI-DdeI sequences were conserved only in the genome of closely related species, Gloydius blomhoffii (Crotalinae) and Python molurus, respectively, although their locations on the chromosomes were slightly different. In contrast, the PBI-MspI sequence was also in the genomes of P. molurus and Boa constrictor (Boidae), and additionally localized to the centromeric regions of eight chromosome pairs in B. constrictor, suggesting that this sequence originated in the genome of a common ancestor of Pythonidae and Boidae, approximately 86 million years ago. The three stDNA sequences showed no genomic compartmentalization between the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, suggesting that homogenization of the centromeric and/or pericentromeric stDNA sequences occurred in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of these snakes.

  13. The POKEMON Speckle Survey of Nearby M-Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, Gerard; von Braun, Kaspar; Horch, Elliott; Clark, Catherine; DSSI Speckle Team

    2018-01-01

    The POKEMON (Pervasive Overview of Kompanions of Every M-dwarf in Our Neighborhood) survey of nearby M-dwarfs intends to inspect, at diffraction-limited resolution, every low-mass star out to 15pc, along with selected additional objects to 25pc. The primary emphasis of the survey is detection of low-mass companions to these M-dwarfs for refinement of the low-mass star multiplicity rate. The resultant catalog of M-dwarf companions will also guide immediate refinement of transit planet detection results from surveys such as TESS. POKEMON is using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) speckle camera, along with the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager (NESSI) speckle imager on 3.5-m WIYN; the survey takes advantage of the extremely rapid observing cadence rates possible with WIYN and (especially) DCT. The current status and preliminary results from the first 20+ nights of observing will be presented. Gotta observe them all!

  14. Ultrasound speckle reduction based on fractional order differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dangguo; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Fan; Yi, Sanli; Xiang, Yan; Ma, Lei; Xiong, Xin; He, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound images show a granular pattern of noise known as speckle that diminishes their quality and results in difficulties in diagnosis. To preserve edges and features, this paper proposes a fractional differentiation-based image operator to reduce speckle in ultrasound. An image de-noising model based on fractional partial differential equations with balance relation between k (gradient modulus threshold that controls the conduction) and v (the order of fractional differentiation) was constructed by the effective combination of fractional calculus theory and a partial differential equation, and the numerical algorithm of it was achieved using a fractional differential mask operator. The proposed algorithm has better speckle reduction and structure preservation than the three existing methods [P-M model, the speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) technique, and the detail preserving anisotropic diffusion (DPAD) technique]. And it is significantly faster than bilateral filtering (BF) in producing virtually the same experimental results. Ultrasound phantom testing and in vivo imaging show that the proposed method can improve the quality of an ultrasound image in terms of tissue SNR, CNR, and FOM values.

  15. 3-color photometry of a sunspot using speckle masking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehr, E.; Sütterlin, P.

    1998-01-01

    A three-colour photometry is used to deduce the temperature of sunspot fine-structures. Using the Speckle-Masking method for image restoration, the resulting images (one per colour and burst) have a spatial resolution only limited by the telescope's aperture, i.e. 95km (blue), 145 km (red) and

  16. Speckle Suppression by Weighted Euclidean Distance Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengcheng Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To better reduce image speckle noise while also maintaining edge information in synthetic aperture radar (SAR images, we propose a novel anisotropic diffusion algorithm using weighted Euclidean distance (WEDAD. Presented here is a modified speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD method, which constructs a new edge detection operator using weighted Euclidean distances. The new edge detection operator can adaptively distinguish between homogenous and heterogeneous image regions, effectively generate anisotropic diffusion coefficients for each image pixel, and filter each pixel at different scales. Additionally, the effects of two different weighting methods (Gaussian weighting and non-linear weighting of de-noising were analyzed. The effect of different adjustment coefficient settings on speckle suppression was also explored. A series of experiments were conducted using an added noise image, GF-3 SAR image, and YG-29 SAR image. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only significantly suppress speckle, thus improving the visual effects, but also better preserve the edge information of images.

  17. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: theory, instrumentation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Rege, Abhishek; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V

    2013-01-01

    Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution (~10 μm) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology.

  18. Spatial Behaviour of Singularities in Fractal- and Gaussian Speckle Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Alexander P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    Peculiarities of the spatial behaviour of the dislocation lines resulting from scattering of coherent radiation from random and fractal rough surfaces are studied. The technique of optical correlation is proposed for diagnostics of phase singularities in a complex speckle field by comparing...

  19. Thermoregulation under semi-natural conditions in speckled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recorded body temperature (Tb) in speckled mousebirds (Colius striatus) under semi-natural conditions in outdoor aviaries, and examined interactions between behavioural and metabolic thermoregulation by experimentally manipulating food availability and communal roosting behaviour. When food was available ad ...

  20. Review of speckle observations of Supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, W.P.S.

    1988-01-01

    SN 1987A is sufficiently close to allow a unique examination of the morphology of a supernova, using speckle interferometry. Several groups [Center for Astrophysics (CfA); Imperial College (IC); Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories/Anglo-Australian Observatory (M/A)] have reported optical speckle observations. At Hα, both CfA and M/A have determined the angular extent of the emission, and reasonable agreement is obtained. The speckle-derived values are consistent with those obtained from line profiles. IC has also succeeded in resolving the supernova at Hα. At wavelengths other than Hα, at early epochs, angular diameters obtained by CfA are larger than those derived from photometric and spectroscopic measurements, possibly due to scattering effects. At later epochs, the diameters exhibit little variation between the wavelengths examined. CfA reports significant asymmetry in the late epoch data. Several attempts have been made to re-observe (at optical wavelengths) the companion object, but none have succeeded. The nature of this phenomenon is still controversial, but the evidence indicates that the companion was real, with emission from dust apparently being the least problematic explanation. Support for this may lie in IR speckle observations (Haute Provence/Lyon) which, on about day 115, indicated the presence of one or more resolved components at an angular displacement comparable to that of the optical companion. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Application of speckle decorrelation method for small translation measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Pavel; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Šmíd, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2004), s. 203-218 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : speckle * decorrelation * in-plane and normal translation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2004

  2. Granulometry use for the study of dynamics speckles patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavilioa, Adriana; Fernandez, Margarita; Trivi, Marcelo; Rabal, Hector; Arizaga, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic speckle patterns are generated by laser light scattering on surfaces that exhibit some kind of activity, due to physical or biological processes that take place in the illuminated object. The characterization of this dynamic process is carried out by studying the texture changes of auxiliary images: temporal history of the speckle pattern (THSP) obtained from this speckles patterns. The drying process of water borne paint is studied through a method based on mathematical morphology applied to the THSP image processing. It is based on obtaining the granulometry of these images and their characteristic granulometric spectrum. From the granulometric size distribution of each THSP image four parameters are obtained: mean length, standard deviation, asymmetry and kurtosis. These parameters are found to be suitable as texture features. The Mahalanobis distance is calculated between the texture features of the THSP images representative of the temporary stages of the drying process and the features of the final stage or pattern texture. The behavior of the distance function describes satisfactorily the drying process of the water borne paint. Finally, these results are compared with the obtained by other methods. Compared with others, the granulometric method reported in this work distinguished by its simplicity and easy implementation and can be used to characterize the evolution of any process recorded through dynamic speckles. (Author)

  3. Impact of transducer frequency setting on speckle tracking measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars

    2018-01-01

    .5/3.0 MHz. The images were obtained immediately after each other at the exact same position for the two settings. Speckle tracking was performed in three apical projections, allowing for acquisition of layered global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate measures. Concordance between the frequency...

  4. Estudio de técnicas speckle opto-digitales

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Henao, Rodrigo de Jesús

    1997-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Tesis se dirigió a la investigación, creación, desarrollo e implementación de técnicas que hacen uso del speckle y de su correlación digital, siendo su representante mas exitoso el DPSI. Doctor en Física(Facultad de Ciencias Exactas)

  5. Laser speckle imaging: a novel method for detecting dental erosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H Koshoji

    Full Text Available Erosion is a highly prevalent condition known as a non-carious lesion that causes progressive tooth wear due to chemical processes that do not involve the action of bacteria. Speckle images proved sensitive to even minimal mineral loss from the enamel. The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of laser speckle imaging analysis in the spatial domain to quantify shifts in the microstructure of the tooth surface in an erosion model. 32 fragments of the vestibular surface of bovine incisors were divided in for groups (10 min, 20 min. 30 min and 40 min of acid etching immersed in a cola-based beverage (pH approximately 2.5 twice a day during 7 days to create an artificial erosion. By analyzing the laser speckle contrast map (LASCA in the eroded region compared to the sound it was observed that the LASCA map shifts, proportionally to the acid each duration, by: 18%; 23%; 39% and 44% for the 10 min; 20 min; 30 min and 40 min groups, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the correlation between speckle patterns and erosion progression.

  6. Correcting for motion artifact in handheld laser speckle images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsakdadet, Ben; Yang, Bruce Y.; Dunn, Cody E.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Crouzet, Christian; Bernal, Nicole; Durkin, Anthony J.; Choi, Bernard

    2018-03-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a wide-field optical technique that enables superficial blood flow quantification. LSI is normally performed in a mounted configuration to decrease the likelihood of motion artifact. However, mounted LSI systems are cumbersome and difficult to transport quickly in a clinical setting for which portability is essential in providing bedside patient care. To address this issue, we created a handheld LSI device using scientific grade components. To account for motion artifact of the LSI device used in a handheld setup, we incorporated a fiducial marker (FM) into our imaging protocol and determined the difference between highest and lowest speckle contrast values for the FM within each data set (Kbest and Kworst). The difference between Kbest and Kworst in mounted and handheld setups was 8% and 52%, respectively, thereby reinforcing the need for motion artifact quantification. When using a threshold FM speckle contrast value (KFM) to identify a subset of images with an acceptable level of motion artifact, mounted and handheld LSI measurements of speckle contrast of a flow region (KFLOW) in in vitro flow phantom experiments differed by 8%. Without the use of the FM, mounted and handheld KFLOW values differed by 20%. To further validate our handheld LSI device, we compared mounted and handheld data from an in vivo porcine burn model of superficial and full thickness burns. The speckle contrast within the burn region (KBURN) of the mounted and handheld LSI data differed by burns. Collectively, our results suggest the potential of handheld LSI with an FM as a suitable alternative to mounted LSI, especially in challenging clinical settings with space limitations such as the intensive care unit.

  7. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  8. Understanding the exposure-time effect on speckle contrast measurements for laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Kubota, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of exposure time on speckle noise for laser displays, speckle contrast measurement method was developed observable at a human eye response time using a high-sensitivity camera which has a signal multiplying function. The nonlinearity of camera light sensitivity was calibrated to measure accurate speckle contrasts, and the measuring lower limit noise of speckle contrast was improved by applying spatial-frequency low pass filter to the captured images. Three commercially available laser displays were measured over a wide range of exposure times from tens of milliseconds to several seconds without adjusting the brightness of laser displays. The speckle contrast of raster-scanned mobile projector without any speckle-reduction device was nearly constant over various exposure times. On the contrary to this, in full-frame projection type laser displays equipped with a temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, some of their speckle contrasts close to the lower limits noise were slightly increased at the shorter exposure time due to the noise. As a result, the exposure-time effect of speckle contrast could not be observed in our measurements, although it is more reasonable to think that the speckle contrasts of laser displays, which are equipped with the temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, are dependent on the exposure time. This discrepancy may be attributed to the underestimation of temporal averaging factor. We expected that this method is useful for evaluating various laser displays and clarify the relationship between the speckle noise and the exposure time for a further verification of speckle reduction.

  9. Analysis of statistical properties of laser speckles, forming in skin and mucous of colon: potential application in laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Vladimir; Kapralov, Sergey; Chalyk, Iuri; Ulianova, Onega; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2013-02-01

    Statistical properties of laser speckles, formed in skin and mucous of colon have been analyzed and compared. It has been demonstrated that first and second order statistics of "skin" speckles and "mucous" speckles are quite different. It is shown that speckles, formed in mucous, are not Gaussian one. Layered structure of colon mucous causes formation of speckled biospeckles. First- and second- order statistics of speckled speckles have been reviewed in this paper. Statistical properties of Fresnel and Fraunhofer doubly scattered and cascade speckles are described. Non-gaussian statistics of biospeckles may lead to high localization of intensity of coherent light in human tissue during the laser surgery. Way of suppression of highly localized non-gaussian speckles is suggested.

  10. New developments in NDT through electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Murugesan, P; Mas, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Optical holography and speckle interferometry are the emerging optical techniques that can be used for the measurements of microscopic parameters such as displacement, strain, stress and slope. These techniques are applied in various fields such as surface studies, non destructive testing, speckle metrology and steller interferometry. Even though many new NDT methods are available, the suitability for a specific application is based on the material property, nature of defects and sensitivity of detection. Difficulty in radiographic technique is that it fails in detecting tight cracks, planar defects and debonds. Microwave techniques has limited sensitivity for the defect detection and it is not suitable for the objects with metallic cases since the metals are perfect reflectors for the microwaves. Low modulus material attenuates the acoustic energy completely, making ultrasonic testing techniques not feasible. The recently evolved optoelectronic technique namely Electronic Speckle Pattern interferometry (ESPI) is a fast developing optical technique widely used for measuring displacement components, their derivatives, surface roughness, surface contours, shape and others. Due to non contact nature and high sensitivity, this technique has been used as a powerful on line inspection tool for non destructive pattern of materials in industrial environment. The salient feature of ESPI is its capability to display the correlation fringes in a real time on a monitor without the need of photographic processing or optical filtering. ESPI is an alternate non destructive technique suitable for propellant grains and other low modulus materials used in space vehicle systems. The optoelectronic technique can be used to detect cracks, voids and residual stresses etc.., in the components in the industrial environment. In the present investigation, speckle non destructive testing has been carried out on some selected low modulus materials used in space vehicles. The

  11. Statistical spatial properties of speckle patterns generated by multiple laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cain, A.; Sajer, J. M.; Riazuelo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates hot spot characteristics generated by the superposition of multiple laser beams. First, properties of speckle statistics are studied in the context of only one laser beam by computing the autocorrelation function. The case of multiple laser beams is then considered. In certain conditions, it is shown that speckles have an ellipsoidal shape. Analytical expressions of hot spot radii generated by multiple laser beams are derived and compared to numerical estimates made from the autocorrelation function. They are also compared to numerical simulations performed within the paraxial approximation. Excellent agreement is found for the speckle width as well as for the speckle length. Application to the speckle patterns generated in the Laser MegaJoule configuration in the zone where all the beams overlap is presented. Influence of polarization on the size of the speckles as well as on their abundance is studied.

  12. Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba, Orly; Lew, Matthew D.; Sorelle, Elliott D.; Dutta, Rebecca; Sen, Debasish; Moshfeghi, Darius M.; Chu, Steven; de La Zerda, Adam

    2017-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful biomedical imaging technology that relies on the coherent detection of backscattered light to image tissue morphology in vivo. As a consequence, OCT is susceptible to coherent noise (speckle noise), which imposes significant limitations on its diagnostic capabilities. Here we show speckle-modulating OCT (SM-OCT), a method based purely on light manipulation that virtually eliminates speckle noise originating from a sample. SM-OCT accomplishes this by creating and averaging an unlimited number of scans with uncorrelated speckle patterns without compromising spatial resolution. Using SM-OCT, we reveal small structures in the tissues of living animals, such as the inner stromal structure of a live mouse cornea, the fine structures inside the mouse pinna, and sweat ducts and Meissner's corpuscle in the human fingertip skin--features that are otherwise obscured by speckle noise when using conventional OCT or OCT with current state of the art speckle reduction methods.

  13. Spiking cortical model-based nonlocal means method for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Li, Liu; Zhu, Fei; Hou, Wenguang; Chen, Xinjian

    2014-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are usually degraded by significant speckle noise, which will strongly hamper their quantitative analysis. However, speckle noise reduction in OCT images is particularly challenging because of the difficulty in differentiating between noise and the information components of the speckle pattern. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM)-based nonlocal means method is presented. The proposed method explores self-similarities of OCT images based on rotation-invariant features of image patches extracted by SCM and then restores the speckled images by averaging the similar patches. This method can provide sufficient speckle reduction while preserving image details very well due to its effectiveness in finding reliable similar patches under high speckle noise contamination. When applied to the retinal OCT image, this method provides signal-to-noise ratio improvements of >16 dB with a small 5.4% loss of similarity.

  14. Position control of ECRH launcher mirrors by laser speckle sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Poul K.; Bindslev, Henrik; Hansen, Rene Skov; Hanson, Steen G.

    2003-01-01

    The planned ECRH system for JET included several fixed and steerable mirrors some of which should have been fixed to the building structure and some to the JET vessel structure. A similar system may be anticipated for ITER and for other fusion devices in the future. In order to have high reproducibility of the ECRH beam direction, it is necessary to know the exact positions of the mirrors. This is not a trivial problem because of thermal expansion of the vessel structures and of the launcher itself and of its support structure, the mechanical load on mirrors and support structures, and the accessibility to the various mirrors. We suggest to use a combination of infrared diagnostic of beam spot positions and a new technique published recently, which is based on a non-contact laser speckle sensor for measuring one- and two-dimensional angular displacement. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field from a single laser beam that illuminates the target. The angular distribution of the light field at the target is linearly mapped onto an array image sensor placed in the Fourier plane. Measuring the displacement of this so-called speckle pattern facilitates the determination of the mirror orientation. Transverse target movement can be measured by observing the speckle movement in the image plane of the object. No special surface treatment is required for surfaces having irregularities of the order of or larger than the wavelength of the incident light. For the JET ECRH launcher it is mainly for the last mirror pointing towards the plasma where the technique may be useful. This mirror has to be steerable in order to reflect the microwave beam in the correct direction towards the plasma. Maximum performance of the microwave heating requires that the beam hits this mirror at its centre and that the mirror is turned in the correct angle. Inaccuracies in the positioning of the pull rods for controlling the mirror turning and thermal effects makes it

  15. Modeled and Measured Partially Coherent Illumination Speckle Effects from Sloped Surfaces for Tactical Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    the number of speckle samples obtained, laser power and coherence length, spot size, target reflectance, speckle size, and pixels per speckle width...gated imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE, 6542: 654218, April 2007. 90 St. Pierre, Randall J. and others. “Active Tracker Laser (ATLAS),” IEEE J. Sel...numerical model developed here and existing theory developed by Hu. A 671 nm diode laser source with coherence length of 259 +/- 7 µm is reflected

  16. A practical approach to optimizing the preparation of speckle patterns for digital-image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionello, Giacomo; Cristofolini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The quality of strain measurements by digital image correlation (DIC) strongly depends on the quality of the pattern on the specimen’s surface. An ideal pattern should be highly contrasted, stochastic, and isotropic. In addition, the speckle pattern should have an average size that exceeds the image pixel size by a factor of 3–5. (Smaller speckles cause poor contrast, and larger speckles cause poor spatial resolution.) Finally, the ideal pattern should have a limited scatter in terms of speckle sizes. The aims of this study were: (i) to define the ideal speckle size in relation to the specimen size and acquisition system; (ii) provide practical guidelines to identify the optimal settings of an airbrush gun, in order to produce a pattern that is as close as possible to the desired one while minimizing the scatter of speckle sizes. Patterns of different sizes were produced using two different airbrush guns with different settings of the four most influential factors (dilution, airflow setting, spraying distance, and air pressure). A full-factorial DOE strategy was implemented to explore the four factors at two levels each: 36 specimens were analyzed for each of the 16 combinations. The images were acquired using the digital cameras of a DIC system. The distribution of speckle sizes was analyzed to calculate the average speckle size and the standard deviation of the corresponding truncated Gaussian distribution. A mathematical model was built to enable prediction of the average speckle size in relation to the airbrush gun settings. We showed that it is possible to obtain a pattern with a highly controlled average and a limited scatter of speckle sizes, so as to match the ideal distribution of speckle sizes for DIC. Although the settings identified here apply only to the specific equipment being used, this method can be adapted to any airbrush to produce a desired speckle pattern. (technical design note)

  17. Measurement of deformation field in CT specimen using laser speckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Moon Chang; Kang, Ki Ju

    2001-01-01

    To obtain A 2 experimentally in the J-A 2 theory, deformation field on the lateral surface of a CT specimen was to be determined using laser speckle method. The crack growth was measured using direct current potential drop method and most procedure of experimental and data reduction was performed according to ASTM Standard E1737-96. Laser speckle images during crack propagation were monitored by two CCD cameras to cancel the effect of rotation and translation of the specimen. An algorithm to pursue displacement of a point from each image was developed and successfully used to measure A 2 continuously as the crack tip was propagated. The effects of specimen thickness on J-R curve and A 2 were explored

  18. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  19. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  20. Optical design of the comet Shoemaker-Levy speckle camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    An optical design is presented in which the Lick 3 meter telescope and a bare CCD speckle camera system was used to image the collision sites of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet with the Planet Jupiter. The brief overview includes of the optical constraints and system layout. The choice of a Risley prism combination to compensate for the time dependent atmospheric chromatic changes are described. Plate scale and signal-to-noise ratio curves resulting from imaging reference stars are compared with theory. Comparisons between un-corrected and reconstructed images of Jupiter`s impact sites. The results confirm that speckle imaging techniques can be used over an extended time period to provide a method to image large extended objects.

  1. Spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, H. T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the distance between the object and the observation plane continuously changes. With the purpose of applying optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics, in order to measure out-of-plane motion in real time......, a rotational symmetric spatial filter is designed. The spatial filter converts the speckle dynamics into a photocurrent with a quasi-sinusoidal response to the out-of-plane motion. The spatial filter is here emulated with a CCD camera, and is tested on speckles arising from a real application. The analysis...

  2. Analysis of the speckle properties in a laser projection system based on a human eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Wang, Anting; Ma, Qianli; Ming, Hai

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the properties of the speckle that is observed by humans in laser projection systems are theoretically analyzed. The speckle pattern on the fovea of the human retina is numerically simulated by introducing a chromatic human eye model. The results show that the speckle contrast experienced by humans is affected by the light intensity of the projected images and the wavelength of the laser source when considering the paracentral vision. Furthermore, the image quality is also affected by these two parameters. We believe that these results are useful for evaluating the speckle noise in laser projection systems.

  3. Laser speckle velocimetry applied to Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, M.P.; Yonte, T.; Quintanilla, M.; Saviron, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    An application of speckle velocimetry technique to Rayleigh-Benard convection is presented. A 5-mW He-Ne laser allows precise determination of the two-dimensional velocity flow field, up to several mm/sec. The digital techniques used to analyze automatically the multiexposed photographs and to generate velocity and vorticity fields are described. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported data. The ability of the technique to cover other experimental conditions is discussed. 14 references

  4. Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector. [Precision Analog Photon Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaliolios, C.; Nisenson, P.; Ebstein, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new 2-D photon-counting camera, the PAPA (precision analog photon address) detector has been built, tested, and used successfully for the acquisition of speckle imaging data. The camera has 512 x 512 pixels and operates at count rates of at least 200,000/sec. In this paper, technical details on the camera are presented and some of the laboratory and astronomical results are included which demonstrate the detector's capabilities.

  5. Speckle photography applied to measure deformations of very large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Edgar; Morgan, Chris K.

    1995-04-01

    Fundamental principles of mechanics have recently been brought to bear on problems concerning very large structures. Fields of study include tectonic plate motion, nuclear waste repository vault closure mechanisms, the flow of glacier and sea ice, and highway bridge damage assessment and residual life prediction. Quantitative observations, appropriate for formulating and verifying models, are still scarce however, so the need to adapt new methods of experimental mechanics is clear. Large dynamic systems often exist in environments subject to rapid change. Therefore, a simple field technique that incorporates short time scales and short gage lengths is required. Further, the measuring methods must yield displacements reliably, and under oft-times adverse field conditions. Fortunately, the advantages conferred by an experimental mechanics technique known as speckle photography nicely fulfill this rather stringent set of performance requirements. Speckle seemed to lend itself nicely to the application since it is robust and relatively inexpensive. Experiment requirements are minimal -- a camera, high resolution film, illumination, and an optically rough surface. Perhaps most important is speckle's distinct advantage over point-by-point methods: It maps the two dimensional displacement vectors of the whole field of interest. And finally, given the method's high spatial resolution, relatively short observation times are necessary. In this paper we discuss speckle, two variations of which were used to gage the deformation of a reinforced concrete bridge structure subjected to bending loads. The measurement technique proved to be easily applied, and yielded the location of the neutral axis self consistently. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using whole field techniques to detect and quantify surface strains of large structures under load.

  6. Speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography of complex turbid medium flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; He, Lian; Kong, Weikai; Yu, Guoqiang [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Developed herein is a three-dimensional (3D) flow contrast imaging system leveraging advancements in the extension of laser speckle contrast imaging theories to deep tissues along with our recently developed finite-element diffuse correlation tomography (DCT) reconstruction scheme. This technique, termed speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography (scDCT), enables incorporation of complex optical property heterogeneities and sample boundaries. When combined with a reflectance-based design, this system facilitates a rapid segue into flow contrast imaging of larger, in vivo applications such as humans. Methods: A highly sensitive CCD camera was integrated into a reflectance-based optical system. Four long-coherence laser source positions were coupled to an optical switch for sequencing of tomographic data acquisition providing multiple projections through the sample. This system was investigated through incorporation of liquid and solid tissue-like phantoms exhibiting optical properties and flow characteristics typical of human tissues. Computer simulations were also performed for comparisons. A uniquely encountered smear correction algorithm was employed to correct point-source illumination contributions during image capture with the frame-transfer CCD and reflectance setup. Results: Measurements with scDCT on a homogeneous liquid phantom showed that speckle contrast-based deep flow indices were within 12% of those from standard DCT. Inclusion of a solid phantom submerged below the liquid phantom surface allowed for heterogeneity detection and validation. The heterogeneity was identified successfully by reconstructed 3D flow contrast tomography with scDCT. The heterogeneity center and dimensions and averaged relative flow (within 3%) and localization were in agreement with actuality and computer simulations, respectively. Conclusions: A custom cost-effective CCD-based reflectance 3D flow imaging system demonstrated rapid acquisition of dense boundary

  7. A Generalized Perturbation Theory Solver In Rattlesnake Based On PETSc With Application To TREAT Steady State Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Wang, Congjian; Wang, Yaqi; Kong, Fande; Ortensi, Javier; Baker, Benjamin; Gleicher, Frederick; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH are the designated TREAT analysis tools currently being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Concurrent with development of the multi-physics, multi-scale capabilities, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (SA/UQ) capabilities are required for predicitive modeling of the TREAT reactor. For steady-state SA/UQ, that is essential for setting initial conditions for the transients, generalized perturbation theory (GPT) will be used. This work describes the implementation of a PETSc based solver for the generalized adjoint equations that constitute a inhomogeneous, rank deficient problem. The standard approach is to use an outer iteration strategy with repeated removal of the fundamental mode contamination. The described GPT algorithm directly solves the GPT equations without the need of an outer iteration procedure by using Krylov subspaces that are orthogonal to the operator’s nullspace. Three test problems are solved and provide sufficient verification for the Rattlesnake’s GPT capability. We conclude with a preliminary example evaluating the impact of the Boron distribution in the TREAT reactor using perturbation theory.

  8. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  9. Laser speckle technology in stomatology. diagnostics of stresses and strains of hard biotissues and orthodontic and orthopedic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Yu. L.; Bazylev, N. B.; Rubnikovich, S. P.; Fomin, N. A.

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the formation and dynamics of speckle biofi elds formed by hard biotissues of the oral cavity irradiated with low-intensity radiation. We present experimental methods for diagnosing the stressed-strained state of the maxillodental system and orthodontic and orthopedic structures based on speckle technologies and crosscorrelation analysis of speckle biofi elds.

  10. 3D shape measurement using deterministic phase retrieval and a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Fourier domain. The local variations of the recorded speckle patterns and the defocus distance approximate the axial intensity derivative which, in turn, is required to recover the wavefront phase via the transport of intensity equation (TIE). The SLM setup reduces the speckle recording time and the TIE...

  11. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, Steffen; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-01-01

    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical

  12. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  13. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry observation of brick–mortar interface behaviour under compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, A.T.; Martens, D.R.W; Zijl, van G.P.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The brick–mortar interaction is important in the mechanical behaviour of masonry. It affects the load transfer considerably, as shown by detailed deformation measurements taken using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a laser speckle interference technique. A companion paper [Canadian

  14. Shift-Invariant Image Reconstruction of Speckle-Degraded Images Using Bispectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    process with the requisite negative exponential pelf. I call this model the Negative Exponential Model ( NENI ). The NENI flowchart is seen in Figure 6...Figure ]3d-g. Statistical Histograms and Phase for the RPj NG EXP FDF MULT METHOD FILuteC 14a. Truth Object Speckled Via the NENI HISTOGRAM OF SPECKLE

  15. Accuracy concerns in digital speckle photography combined with Fresnel digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Zemmamouche, Redouane; Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Georges, Marc P.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) and digital speckle photography (DSP) allows in-plane and out-of-plane displacement measurement between two states of an object. The former can be determined by correlating the two speckle patterns whereas the latter is given by the phase difference obtained from DHI. We show that the amplitude of numerically reconstructed object wavefront obtained from Fresnel in-line digital holography (DH), in combination with phase shifting techniques, can be used as speckle patterns in DSP. The accuracy of in-plane measurement is improved after correcting the phase errors induced by reference wave during reconstruction process. Furthermore, unlike conventional imaging system, Fresnel DH offers the possibility to resize the pixel size of speckle patterns situated on the reconstruction plane under the same optical configuration simply by zero-padding the hologram. The flexibility of speckle size adjustment in Fresnel DH ensures the accuracy of estimation result using DSP.

  16. Rat retinal vasomotion assessed by laser speckle imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y; Postnov, Dmitry D; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Vasomotion is spontaneous or induced rhythmic changes in vascular tone or vessel diameter that lead to rhythmic changes in flow. While the vascular research community debates the physiological and pathophysiological consequence of vasomotion, there is a great need for experimental techniques...... that can address the role and dynamical properties of vasomotion in vivo. We apply laser speckle imaging to study spontaneous and drug induced vasomotion in retinal network of anesthetized rats. The results reveal a wide variety of dynamical patterns. Wavelet-based analysis shows that (i) spontaneous...

  17. Speckle techniques for determining stresses in moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, E. A.; Wilson, T. F.; Ranson, W. F.; Swinson, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Laser speckle interferometry is a relatively new experimental technique which shows promise of alleviating many difficult problems in experimental mechanics. The method utilizes simple high-resolution photographs of the surface which is illuminated by coherent light. The result is a real-time or permanently stored whole-field record of interference fringes which yields a map of displacements in the object. In this thesis, the time-average theory using the Fourier transform is developed to present the application of this technique to measurement of in-plane displacement induced by the vibration of an object.

  18. Digital speckle correlation for nondestructive testing of corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Raul D., Jr.; Soga, Diogo; Muramatsu, Mikiya; Hogert, Elsa N.; Landau, Monica R.; Ruiz Gale, Maria F.; Gaggioli, Nestor G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the use of optical correlation speckle patterns to detect and analyze the metallic corrosion phenomena, and shows the experimental set-up used. We present some new results in the characterization of the corrosion process using a model based in electroerosion phenomena. We also provide valuable information about surface microrelief changes, which is also useful in numerous engineering applications. The results obtained are good enough for showing that our technique is very useful for giving new possibilities to the analysis of the corrosion and oxidation process, particularly in real time.

  19. Speckle tracking echocardiography in mature Irish Wolfhound dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westrup, Ulrik; McEvoy, Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken...... under normal clinical conditions.The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error....

  20. Lensless Photoluminescence Hyperspectral Camera Employing Random Speckle Patterns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídek, Karel; Denk, Ondřej; Hlubuček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 15309. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-26284Y Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : compressed sensing * photoluminescence imaging * laser speckles * single-pixel camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-14443-4

  1. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  2. Optoelectronic imaging of speckle using image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Wang, Pengfei

    2018-01-01

    A detailed image processing of laser speckle interferometry is proposed as an example for the course of postgraduate student. Several image processing methods were used together for dealing with optoelectronic imaging system, such as the partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to reduce the effect of noise, the thresholding segmentation also based on heat equation with PDEs, the central line is extracted based on image skeleton, and the branch is removed automatically, the phase level is calculated by spline interpolation method, and the fringe phase can be unwrapped. Finally, the imaging processing method was used to automatically measure the bubble in rubber with negative pressure which could be used in the tire detection.

  3. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF SECONDARY COMPONENTS IN NEARBY VISUAL BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Horch, Elliott P.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical characterization of secondary subsystems in binaries helps to distinguish between various scenarios of multiple-star formation. The Differential Speckle Survey Instrument was used at the Gemini-N telescope for several hours in 2015 July to probe the binarity of 25 secondary components in nearby solar-type binaries. Six new subsystems were resolved, with meaningful detection limits for the remaining targets. The large incidence of secondary subsystems agrees with other similar studies. The newly resolved subsystem HIP 115417 Ba,Bb causes deviations in the observed motion of the outer binary from which an astrometric orbit of Ba,Bb with a period of 117 years is deduced.

  4. Anthropogenic impacts drive niche and conservation metrics of a cryptic rattlesnake on the Colorado Plateau of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M R; Davis, M A; Amarello, M; Smith, J J; Schuett, G W; Herrmann, H-W; Holycross, A T; Douglas, M E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems transition quickly in the Anthropocene, whereas biodiversity adapts more slowly. Here we simulated a shifting woodland ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau of western North America by using as its proxy over space and time the fundamental niche of the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus cerberus). We found an expansive (= end-of-Pleistocene) range that contracted sharply (= present), but is blocked topographically by Grand Canyon/Colorado River as it shifts predictably northwestward under moderate climate change (= 2080). Vulnerability to contemporary wildfire was quantified from available records, with forested area reduced more than 27% over 13 years. Both 'ecosystem metrics' underscore how climate and wildfire are rapidly converting the Plateau ecosystem into novel habitat. To gauge potential effects on C. cerberus, we derived a series of relevant 'conservation metrics' (i.e. genetic variability, dispersal capacity, effective population size) by sequencing 118 individuals across 846 bp of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-ATPase8/6. We identified five significantly different clades (net sequence divergence = 2.2%) isolated by drainage/topography, with low dispersal (F ST = 0.82) and small sizes (2N ef = 5.2). Our compiled metrics (i.e. small-populations, topographic-isolation, low-dispersal versus conserved-niche, vulnerable-ecosystem, dispersal barriers) underscore the susceptibility of this woodland specialist to a climate and wildfire tandem. We offer adaptive management scenarios that may counterbalance these metrics and avoid the extirpation of this and other highly specialized, relictual woodland clades.

  5. Mechanisms of bacterial membrane permeabilization by crotalicidin (Ctn) and its fragment Ctn(15-34), antimicrobial peptides from rattlesnake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peinado, Clara; Dias, Susana Almeida; Domingues, Marco M; Benfield, Aurélie H; Freire, João Miguel; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Gaspar, Diana; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Craik, David J; Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Veiga, Ana Salomé; Andreu, David

    2018-02-02

    Crotalicidin (Ctn), a cathelicidin-related peptide from the venom of a South American rattlesnake, possesses potent antimicrobial, antitumor, and antifungal properties. Previously, we have shown that its C-terminal fragment, Ctn(15-34), retains the antimicrobial and antitumor activities but is less toxic to healthy cells and has improved serum stability. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of action of Ctn and Ctn(15-34) against Gram-negative bacteria. Both peptides were bactericidal, killing ∼90% of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells within 90-120 and 5-30 min, respectively. Studies of ζ potential at the bacterial cell membrane suggested that both peptides accumulate at and neutralize negative charges on the bacterial surface. Flow cytometry experiments confirmed that both peptides permeabilize the bacterial cell membrane but suggested slightly different mechanisms of action. Ctn(15-34) permeabilized the membrane immediately upon addition to the cells, whereas Ctn had a lag phase before inducing membrane damage and exhibited more complex cell-killing activity, probably because of two different modes of membrane permeabilization. Using surface plasmon resonance and leakage assays with model vesicles, we confirmed that Ctn(15-34) binds to and disrupts lipid membranes and also observed that Ctn(15-34) has a preference for vesicles that mimic bacterial or tumor cell membranes. Atomic force microscopy visualized the effect of these peptides on bacterial cells, and confocal microscopy confirmed their localization on the bacterial surface. Our studies shed light onto the antimicrobial mechanisms of Ctn and Ctn(15-34), suggesting Ctn(15-34) as a promising lead for development as an antibacterial/antitumor agent. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Apparent discrepancy between single-unit activity and [14C]deoxyglucose labeling in optic tectum of the rattlesnake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auker, C.R.; Meszler, R.M.; Carpenter, D.O.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic analysis of [1- 14 C]2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate ([ 14 C]2-DG-P) accumulation in the rattlesnake brain stem and optic tectum was used in an effort to map infrared and visual neuronal pathways. Visual stimulation with a standard stimulus (a heat lamp) resulted in dense labeling of the superficial layers of the optic tectum. Infrared stimulation resulted in labeling at the first synaptic relay, the lateral descending nucleus of the trigeminal tract, but not at higher levels. Responses of infrared units in one hemitectum and visual units in the other were analyzed. There were no clear differences in the number, maximal density, spread, or rates of accommodation of visual units and infrared units, although the locus of maximal density was more superficial for visual units. In general, infrared units generated a greater number of action potentials. All infrared units responded to onset but they varied greatly in their ability to maintain discharge for the duration of the stimulus. Infrared stimuli generated single, large, triphasic on-responses, whereas visual stimulation generated complex multiphasic and long-lasting on- and off-responses. The major infrared-on peak reached maximal amplitude at greater depths and was larger than the major visual-on peak. Amplitude of the infrared peak fell off more rapidly with distance than did amplitude of the visual peak. These observations are consistent with the view that infrared stimulation is effective in discharging neurons but is not associated with intense synaptic excitation. Our observations suggest that 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake is not necessarily correlated with the degree of action potential activation of specific neuronal pathways. The amount of [ 14 C]2-DG-P labeling may reflect the metabolic requirements for support of synaptic depolarization as well as that supporting action potentials

  7. The importance of historical land use in the maintenance of early successional habitat for a threatened rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. McCluskey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how historic habitat changes have impacted species and searching the past for clues to better understand the current plight of threatened species can help inform and improve future conservation efforts. We coupled species distribution modeling with historical imagery analysis to assess how changes in land use/land cover have influenced the distribution of eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus, a federally threatened species, and its habitat in northeastern Ohio over the past ∼75 years. We also examined land use/land cover changes throughout southern Michigan for a broader perspective on the influence of historical processes on contemporary habitat. There was a pronounced shift in northeastern Ohio land cover from 1938 to 2011 with forest cover becoming the predominant land cover type as agricultural fields were abandoned and succession occurred. Most known eastern massasauga locations in the area were at some point used for agriculture and higher habitat suitability values were associated with agricultural fields that were eventually abandoned. We observed more stable habitat conditions across southern Michigan populations indicating agricultural abandonment was not as necessary for habitat creation in this part of their range. We present a new approach for linking historical landscapes to present day habitat suitability models; permitting inferences on how prior land use/land cover states have influenced the current distribution of species and their habitats. We demonstrate how agricultural abandonment was an important source of early successional habitat for a species that requires an open canopy, a finding applicable to a broad array of species with similar habitat requirements. Keywords: Eastern massasauga, Agriculture, Aerial photography, Maxent

  8. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  9. Effects of food supplementation on the physiological ecology of female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily N; Malawy, Michael A; Browning, Dawn M; Lemar, Shea V; DeNardo, Dale F

    2005-06-01

    Food availability is an important factor in the life histories of organisms because it is often limiting and thus can affect growth, mass change, reproduction, and behaviors such as thermoregulation, locomotion, and mating. Experimental studies in natural settings allow researchers to examine the effects of food on these parameters while animals are free to behave naturally. The wide variation among organisms in energy demands and among environmental food resources suggest that responses to changes in food availability may vary among organisms. Since most supplemental feeding field experiments have been conducted on species with high energy demands, we conducted a supplemental feeding study on free-ranging, female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), a species with low energy demands and infrequent reproductive investment. Snakes were offered thawed rodents 1-4 times per week. Over two active seasons, we collected data on surface activity, home range size, growth, mass change, and reproduction of supplementally fed and control snakes. Fed and control snakes did not differ in surface activity levels (proportion of time encountered above versus below ground) or home range size. Fed snakes grew and gained mass faster, and had a dramatically higher occurrence of reproduction than control snakes. Also, fed snakes were in better body condition following reproduction than snakes that were not fed. However, litter characteristics such as offspring number and size were not increased by feeding, suggesting that these characteristics may be fixed. These data experimentally demonstrate that food availability can directly impact some life history traits (i.e., growth and reproduction for C. atrox), but not others (i.e., surface activity and home range size for C. atrox). The relationship between food availability and life history traits is affected in a complex way by ecological traits and physiological constraints, and thus interspecific variation in this

  10. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.

    2018-04-01

    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  11. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  12. Accelerated speckle imaging with the ATST visible broadband imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Friedrich; Ferayorni, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), a 4 meter class telescope for observations of the solar atmosphere currently in construction phase, will generate data at rates of the order of 10 TB/day with its state of the art instrumentation. The high-priority ATST Visible Broadband Imager (VBI) instrument alone will create two data streams with a bandwidth of 960 MB/s each. Because of the related data handling issues, these data will be post-processed with speckle interferometry algorithms in near-real time at the telescope using the cost-effective Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) technology that is supported by the ATST Data Handling System. In this contribution, we lay out the VBI-specific approach to its image processing pipeline, put this into the context of the underlying ATST Data Handling System infrastructure, and finally describe the details of how the algorithms were redesigned to exploit data parallelism in the speckle image reconstruction algorithms. An algorithm re-design is often required to efficiently speed up an application using GPU technology; we have chosen NVIDIA's CUDA language as basis for our implementation. We present our preliminary results of the algorithm performance using our test facilities, and base a conservative estimate on the requirements of a full system that could achieve near real-time performance at ATST on these results.

  13. Real time speckle monitoring to control retinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    Photocoagulation is a treatment modality for several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the retinal absorption as well as ocular transmission and light scattering makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure with one set of laser parameters. To guarantee a uniform damage throughout the therapy a real-time control is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real-time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis in-vivo is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633 nm diode laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. An algorithm is presented that can discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes and that seems to be robust to noise in-vivo. Tissue changes in rabbits during retinal coagulation could be observed for different lesion strengths. This algorithm can run on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage.

  14. Developments In Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry For Automotive Vibration Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jeremy C.; Buckberry, Clive H.; Jones, Julian D. C.; Pannell, Chris N.

    1989-01-01

    The incorporation of monomode fibre optics into an argon ion powered Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI) is reported. The system, consisting of an optics assembly linked to the laser and a CCD camera transceiver, flexibly connected by 40m of monomode fibre optic cable to the optics, has been used to analyse the modal behaviour of structures up to 5m X 3m X 2m in size. Phase modulation of the reference beam in order to operate in a heterodyne mode has been implemented using a piezo-electric crystal operating on the monomode fibre. A new mode of operation - sequential time-average subtraction - and the results of a new processing algorithm are also reported. Their implementation enables speckle free, time-average vibration maps to be generated in real-time on large, unstable structures. Example results for a four cylinder power unit, a vehicle body shell component and an engine oil pan are included. In all cases the analysis was conducted in a general workshop environment without the need for vibration isolation facilities.

  15. Speckle interferometry. Data acquisition and control for the SPID instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarac, S.; Tallon, M.; Thiebaut, E.; Foy, R.

    1998-08-01

    SPID (SPeckle Imaging by Deconvolution) is a new speckle camera currently under construction at CRAL-Observatoire de Lyon. Its high spectral resolution and high image restoration capabilities open new astrophysical programs. The instrument SPID is composed of four main optical modules which are fully automated and computer controlled by a software written in Tcl/Tk/Tix and C. This software provides an intelligent assistance to the user by choosing observational parameters as a function of atmospheric parameters, computed in real time, and the desired restored image quality. Data acquisition is made by a photon-counting detector (CP40). A VME-based computer under OS9 controls the detector and stocks the data. The intelligent system runs under Linux on a PC. A slave PC under DOS commands the motors. These 3 computers communicate through an Ethernet network. SPID can be considered as a precursor for VLT's (Very Large Telescope, four 8-meter telescopes currently built in Chile by European Southern Observatory) very high spatial resolution camera.

  16. Measurement of elasto-plastic deformations by speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Marco; Bruno, Luigi; Poggialini, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    In the paper the authors present an experimental equipment for elasto-plastic characterization of engineering materials by tensile tests. The stress state is imposed to a dog bone shaped specimen by a testing machine fixed on the optical table and designed for optimizing the performance of a speckle interferometer. All three displacement components are measured by a portable speckle interferometer fed by three laser diodes of 50 mW, by which the deformations of a surface of about 6×8 mm2 can be fully analyzed in details. All the equipment is driven by control electronics designed and realized on purpose, by which it is possible to accurately modify the intensity of the illumination sources, the position of a PZT actuator necessary for applying phase-shifting procedure, and the overall displacement applied to the specimen. The experiments were carried out in National Instrument LabVIEW environment, while the processing of the experimental data in Wolfram Mathematica environment. The paper reports the results of the elasto-plastic characterization of a high strength steel specimen.

  17. Speckle reduction for a laser light sectioning sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutsch Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated optical inspection is an important test procedure in electronic circuits assembly. Frequently 3d information is required and laser light sectioning sensors are often applied. However, some effects complicate the reliable automatic detection of the shape of such assemblies and their components. The packages of electronic components often are made of black plastics or ceramics so that the intensity available for the optical detection is quite low, especially in comparison to the surface of the PCBs where the components are mounted on. In addition due to rough surfaces of the components and the coherence length of the laser light speckle structures arise. In the work presented here a piezo actuator is used to oscillate the illuminating laser lines along the direction of the lines. The aim is to reduce the visibility of the speckle structures by averaging while maintaining the geometrical shape of the lines. In addition, image processing methods like segmentation and skeletonization are used to allow the detection of the shape of components and assemblies also if materials with distinct differences in the reflectivity are involved. Investigations include the influence of the parameters amplitude and frequency of the piezo actuator.

  18. Signal-to-noise based local decorrelation compensation for speckle interferometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molimard, Jerome; Cordero, Raul; Vautrin, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Speckle-based interferometric techniques allow assessing the whole-field deformation induced on a specimen due to the application of load. These high sensitivity optical techniques yield fringe images generated by subtracting speckle patterns captured while the specimen undergoes deformation. The quality of the fringes, and in turn the accuracy of the deformation measurements, strongly depends on the speckle correlation. Specimen rigid body motion leads to speckle decorrelation that, in general, cannot be effectively counteracted by applying a global translation to the involved speckle patterns. In this paper, we propose a recorrelation procedure based on the application of locally evaluated translations. The proposed procedure implies dividing the field into several regions, applying a local translation, and calculating, in every region, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the latter is a correlation indicator (the noise increases with the decorrelation) we argue that the proper translation is that which maximizes the locally evaluated SNR. The search of the proper local translations is, of course, an interactive process that can be facilitated by using a SNR optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed recorrelation procedure was tested on two examples. First, the SNR optimization algorithm was applied to fringe images obtained by subtracting simulated speckle patterns. Next, it was applied to fringe images obtained by using a shearography optical setup from a specimen subjected to mechanical deformation. Our results show that the proposed SNR optimization method can significantly improve the reliability of measurements performed by using speckle-based techniques

  19. The Magnetic Nanoparticle Movement in Magnetic Fluid Characterized by the Laser Dynamic Speckle Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual scanning laser speckle interferometry experiment was designed to observe the dynamic behavior of the magnetic fluid actuated by a magnetic field. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the dynamic speckle measurement, the phase delay scanning was used to compensate the additional phase variation which was caused by the transverse scanning. The correlation coefficients corresponding to the temporal dynamic speckle patterns within the same time interval scattering from the nanoparticles were calculated in the experiment on nanoscale magnetic clusters. In the experiment, the speckle of the magnetic nanoparticle fluid movement has been recorded by the lens unmounted CCD within the interferometry strips, although the speckle led to the distinguished annihilation of the light coherence. The results have showed that the nanoparticle fluid dynamic properties appeared synergistically in the fringe speckles. The analyses of the nanoparticle's relative speed and the speckle pattern moving amount in the fringes have proved the nanoparticle’s movement in a laminar flow in the experiment.

  20. Compensation for the signal processing characteristics of ultrasound B-mode scanners in adaptive speckle reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D C; Bell, D S; Bamber, J C

    1993-01-01

    A systematic method to compensate for nonlinear amplification of individual ultrasound B-scanners has been investigated in order to optimise performance of an adaptive speckle reduction (ASR) filter for a wide range of clinical ultrasonic imaging equipment. Three potential methods have been investigated: (1) a method involving an appropriate selection of the speckle recognition feature was successful when the scanner signal processing executes simple logarithmic compressions; (2) an inverse transform (decompression) of the B-mode image was effective in correcting for the measured characteristics of image data compression when the algorithm was implemented in full floating point arithmetic; (3) characterising the behaviour of the statistical speckle recognition feature under conditions of speckle noise was found to be the method of choice for implementation of the adaptive speckle reduction algorithm in limited precision integer arithmetic. In this example, the statistical features of variance and mean were investigated. The third method may be implemented on commercially available fast image processing hardware and is also better suited for transfer into dedicated hardware to facilitate real-time adaptive speckle reduction. A systematic method is described for obtaining ASR calibration data from B-mode images of a speckle producing phantom.

  1. Synchronized renal blood flow dynamics mapped with wavelet analysis of laser speckle flowmetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey R; Marsh, Donald J; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    of rat kidneys. The regulatory mechanism in the renal microcirculation generates oscillations in arterial blood flow at several characteristic frequencies. Our approach to laser speckle image processing allows detection of frequency and phase entrainments, visualization of their patterns, and estimation......Full-field laser speckle microscopy provides real-time imaging of superficial blood flow rate. Here we apply continuous wavelet transform to time series of speckle-estimated blood flow from each pixel of the images to map synchronous patterns in instantaneous frequency and phase on the surface...... of the extent of synchronization in renal cortex dynamics....

  2. Investigation of Portevin-Le Chatelier band with temporal phase analysis of speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2003-04-01

    A new method combining temporal phase analysis with dynamic digital speckle pattern interferometry is proposed to study Portevin-Le Chatelier effect quantitatively. The principle bases on that the phase difference of interference speckle patterns is a time-dependent function related to the object deformation. The interference speckle patterns of specimen are recorded with high sampling rate while PLC effect occurs, and the 2D displacement map of PLC band and its width are obtained by analyzing the displacement of specimen with proposed method.

  3. Computer vision elastography: speckle adaptive motion estimation for elastography using ultrasound sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, James; Mirmehdi, Majid; McNally, Donal

    2005-06-01

    We present the development and validation of an image based speckle tracking methodology, for determining temporal two-dimensional (2-D) axial and lateral displacement and strain fields from ultrasound video streams. We refine a multiple scale region matching approach incorporating novel solutions to known speckle tracking problems. Key contributions include automatic similarity measure selection to adapt to varying speckle density, quantifying trajectory fields, and spatiotemporal elastograms. Results are validated using tissue mimicking phantoms and in vitro data, before applying them to in vivo musculoskeletal ultrasound sequences. The method presented has the potential to improve clinical knowledge of tendon pathology from carpel tunnel syndrome, inflammation from implants, sport injuries, and many others.

  4. Detection of radiation deformation in crystalline polymers using the speckle photography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghandoor, H.; Hashem, A.A.; Sharaf, F.

    1995-01-01

    In order to measure the resulting deformation due to gamma irradiation of polymers, a new optical technique, namely speckle-photography, was established and used. Thin films of tetrafluoroethene, with constant thickness were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays and the diffraction patterns of a laser beam passing through these films were recorded using the speckle photography technique. This technique has been applied to detect the radiation deformation in (Teflon) TFE, which is a crystalline polymer. A diffraction pattern due to the TFE thin layer is obtained and superimposed on the interference pattern displaying the speckle pattern pairs recorded on the same emulsion. (author)

  5. Simulations of multi-contrast x-ray imaging using near-field speckles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE, United Kingdom and Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Thibault, Pierre [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Herzen, Julia; Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zanette, Irene [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    X-ray dark-field and phase-contrast imaging using near-field speckles is a novel technique that overcomes limitations inherent in conventional absorption x-ray imaging, i.e. poor contrast for features with similar density. Speckle-based imaging yields a wealth of information with a simple setup tolerant to polychromatic and divergent beams, and simple data acquisition and analysis procedures. Here, we present a simulation software used to model the image formation with the speckle-based technique, and we compare simulated results on a phantom sample with experimental synchrotron data. Thorough simulation of a speckle-based imaging experiment will help for better understanding and optimising the technique itself.

  6. Software phantom with realistic speckle modeling for validation of image analysis methods in echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yuen C.; Tenbrinck, Daniel; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    Computer-assisted processing and interpretation of medical ultrasound images is one of the most challenging tasks within image analysis. Physical phenomena in ultrasonographic images, e.g., the characteristic speckle noise and shadowing effects, make the majority of standard methods from image analysis non optimal. Furthermore, validation of adapted computer vision methods proves to be difficult due to missing ground truth information. There is no widely accepted software phantom in the community and existing software phantoms are not exible enough to support the use of specific speckle models for different tissue types, e.g., muscle and fat tissue. In this work we propose an anatomical software phantom with a realistic speckle pattern simulation to _ll this gap and provide a exible tool for validation purposes in medical ultrasound image analysis. We discuss the generation of speckle patterns and perform statistical analysis of the simulated textures to obtain quantitative measures of the realism and accuracy regarding the resulting textures.

  7. Speckle evolution with multiple steps of least-squares phase removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available vortex density and scintillation index. Statistical results show that almost all the optical vortices can be removed from a speckle field, which finally decays into a quasiplane wave after such an iterative process....

  8. M2 FILTER FOR SPECKLE NOISE SUPPRESSION IN BREAST ULTRASOUND IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Samundeeswari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, commonly found in women is a serious life threatening disease due to its invasive nature. Ultrasound (US imaging method plays an effective role in screening early detection and diagnosis of Breast cancer. Speckle noise generally affects medical ultrasound images and also causes a number of difficulties in identifying the Region of Interest. Suppressing speckle noise is a challenging task as it destroys fine edge details. No specific filter is designed yet to get a noise free BUS image that is contaminated by speckle noise. In this paper M2 filter, a novel hybrid of linear and nonlinear filter is proposed and compared to other spatial filters with 3×3 kernel size. The performance of the proposed M2 filter is measured by statistical quantity parameters like MSE, PSNR and SSI. The experimental analysis clearly shows that the proposed M2 filter outperforms better than other spatial filters by 2% high PSNR values with regards to speckle suppression.

  9. Evolution of the optical vortex density in phase corrected speckle fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to understand the process whereby the phase modulation due to atmospheric turbulance causes phase singularities (also called optical vortices), the authors investigated the effect of phase perturbations in speckle beams. They perturb...

  10. SPECKLE OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE WIYN TELESCOPE. VII. MEASURES DURING 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Bahi, Lizzie Anne P.; Gaulin, Joseph R.; Howell, Steve B.; Sherry, William H.; Baena Gallé, Roberto; Van Altena, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Five hundred thirty-one speckle measures of binary stars are reported. These data were taken mainly during the period 2008 June through 2009 October at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak and represent the last data set of single-filter speckle observations taken in the WIYN speckle program prior to the use of the current two-channel speckle camera. The astrometric and photometric precision of these observations is consistent with previous papers in this series: we obtain a typical linear measurement uncertainty of approximately 2.5 mas, and the magnitude differences reported have typical uncertainties in the range of 0.1-0.14 mag. In combination with measures already in the literature, the data presented here permit the revision of the orbit of A 1634AB (= HIP 76041) and the first determination of visual orbital elements for HDS 1895 (= HIP 65982).

  11. Fabrication of nanoscale speckle using broad ion beam milling on polymers for deformation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We first report a fabrication technique of nanoscale speckle patterns on polymers using broad ion beam milling. The proposed technique is simple and low-cost to produce speckles ranging from dozens of nanometers to less than three micrometers in a large area of several millimeters. Random patterns were successfully produced with an argon (Ar ion beam on the surfaces of four kinds of polymers: the epoxy matrix of carbon fiber reinforced plastic, polyester, polyvinyl formal-acetal, and polyimide. The speckle morphologies slightly vary with different polymers. The fabricated speckle patterns have good time stability and are promising to be used to measure the nanoscale deformations of polymers using the digital image correlation method.

  12. Nephron blood flow dynamics measured by laser speckle contrast imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Pavlov, Alexey N

    2011-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) has an important role in autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Because of the characteristics of signal transmission in the feedback loop, the TGF undergoes self-sustained oscillations in single-nephron blood flow, GFR, and tubular...... simultaneously. The interacting nephron fields are likely to be more extensive. We have turned to laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the blood flow dynamics of 50-100 nephrons simultaneously on the renal surface of anesthetized rats. We report the application of this method and describe analytic...... pressure and flow. Nephrons interact by exchanging electrical signals conducted electrotonically through cells of the vascular wall, leading to synchronization of the TGF-mediated oscillations. Experimental studies of these interactions have been limited to observations on two or at most three nephrons...

  13. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  14. Speckle Noise Reduction via Nonconvex High Total Variation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of speckle noise removal. The classical total variation is extensively used in this field to solve such problem, but this method suffers from the staircase-like artifacts and the loss of image details. In order to resolve these problems, a nonconvex total generalized variation (TGV regularization is used to preserve both edges and details of the images. The TGV regularization which is able to remove the staircase effect has strong theoretical guarantee by means of its high order smooth feature. Our method combines the merits of both the TGV method and the nonconvex variational method and avoids their main drawbacks. Furthermore, we develop an efficient algorithm for solving the nonconvex TGV-based optimization problem. We experimentally demonstrate the excellent performance of the technique, both visually and quantitatively.

  15. Speckle interferometry application for erosion measurements in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, E.; Roupillard, R. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    In order to measure erosion/redeposition in fusion devices, a new diagnostic based on speckle interferometry is investigated. First experiments performed on carbon fibre composite (CFC) materials have shown that this technique is able to measure a modification of the surface in the range of 1 {mu}m. Further experiments have been performed on different materials using a second wavelength in order to carry out 3-dimensional measurements of the surface and to increase the dynamic range of the depth measurement. A diagnostic, based on two-wavelength TV-holography to measure in situ erosion/redeposition during long duration discharges on the CIEL limiter in Tore Supra, is under development at CEA Cadarache. (authors)

  16. Damage monitoring in historical murals by speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Klaus D.; Gulker, Gerd; Joost, Holger

    2003-11-01

    In the conservation of historical murals it is important to identify loose plaster sections that threaten to fall off. Electronic speckle interferometry in combination with acoustic excitation of the object has been employed to monitor loose areas. To avoid disadvantages of high sound irradiation of the complete building a novel directional audio-sound source based on nonlinear mixing of ultrasound has been introduced. The optical system was revised for optimum performance in the new environment. Emphasis is placed on noise suppression to increase sensitivity. Furthermore, amplitude and phase data of object response over the frequency-range inspected are employed to gain additional information on the state of the plaster or paint. Laboratory studies on sample specimen supplement field campaigns at historical sites.

  17. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshilin, A A [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Semenov, D V [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nippolainen, E [Laboratory of Optical Sensor Technology, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Miridonov, S [Optics Department, CICESE, Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada km 107, C.P. 22860, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements.

  18. Dynamic-speckle profilometer for online measurements of coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamshilin, A A; Semenov, D V; Nippolainen, E; Miridonov, S

    2007-01-01

    Online control of thickness of as-deposited coatings is of great importance because it directly affects the quality of protective coatings. We present a novel approach that enables online, real-time and non-contact measurements thickness of thermally sprayed coatings. The proposed technique uses dynamic speckles generated by rapidly deflecting laser beam. Within 10 ms the system can scan 500 times a small area of the deposited layer thus resulting in measurement accuracy of 5 microns irrespectively of the layer roughness. In comparison with traditional optical triangulation technique of distance measurements, our system has following advantages: (i) much simpler optical scheme that includes conventional photodiode to measure the scattered light, (ii) much simpler electronics for real-time data processing, (iii) much higher speed of measurements

  19. Complex-Valued ABCD Matrices and Speckle Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Harold T.

    2016-01-01

    coherent light sources, optical elements of finite size, and distributed random inhomogeneity along the optical path. In many cases (e.g., laser beam propagation and Gaussian optics) we have been able to derive simple analytical expressions for the optical field quantities at an observation plane. A series......We demonstrate that within the paraxial ray approximation the propagation of light through a complex optical system can be formulated in terms of a Huygens principle expressed with the complete system’s ABCD-matrix elements. As such, propagation through an optical system reduces...... of laser-based optical measurement systems have been analyzed and analytical expressions for their main parameters have been given. Specifically, scattering from rough surfaces not giving rise to a fully developed speckle field, various anemometers and systems for measuring rotational velocity have been...

  20. Laser speckle contrast imaging using light field microscope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Anting; Ma, Fenghua; Wang, Zi; Ming, Hai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) system using light field (LF) microscope approach is proposed. As far as we known, it is first time to combine LSCI with LF. To verify this idea, a prototype consists of a modified LF microscope imaging system and an experimental device was built. A commercially used Lytro camera was modified for microscope imaging. Hollow glass tubes with different depth fixed in glass dish were used to simulate the vessels in brain and test the performance of the system. Compared with conventional LSCI, three new functions can be realized by using our system, which include refocusing, extending the depth of field (DOF) and gathering 3D information. Experiments show that the principle is feasible and the proposed system works well.

  1. Thermal strain measurements in graphite using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamulevicius, S.; Augulis, L.; Augulis, R.; Zabarskas, V.; Levinskas, R.; Poskas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Two 1500 MW(e) RBMK Units are operated at Ignalina NPP in Lithuania. Due to recent decision of the Parliament on the earlier closure of Unit 1, preparatory work for decommissioning have been initiated. Preferred decommissioning strategy is based on delayed dismantling after rather long safe enclosure period. Since graphite is one of the basic and probably the most voluminous components of the reactor internals, a sufficient information on status and behaviour of graphite moderator and reflector during long time safe enclosure period is of special significance. In this context, thermal strain in graphite is one of the parameters requiring particular interest. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been proposed and successfully tested to control this parameter using the real samples of graphite from Ignalina NPP Units. (author)

  2. Analysis of eroded bovine teeth through laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoji, Nelson H.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Bortoletto, Carolina C.; Oliveira, Marcelo T.; Prates, Renato A.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Dental erosion is a non-carious lesion that causes progressive tooth wear of structure through chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. Its origin is related to eating habits or systemic diseases involving tooth contact with substances that pose a very low pH. This work demonstrates a new methodology to quantify the erosion by coherent light scattering of tooth surface. This technique shows a correlation between acid etch duration and laser speckle contrast map (LASCA). The experimental groups presented a relative contrast between eroded and sound tissue of 17.8(45)%, 23.4 (68)% 39.2 (40)% and 44.3 (30)%, for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min and 40 min of acid etching, respectively.

  3. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.

  4. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.

    1975-01-01

    This paper gives details of the defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in phase movement and strain in pressurized components. The new fibre optic technique and system appraisal is included. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tubes defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain. (Auth.)

  5. Single-shot speckle reduction in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapie, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2015-04-15

    A single-shot method to reduce the speckle noise in the numerical reconstructions of electronically recorded holograms is presented. A recorded hologram with the dimensions N×M is split into S=T×T sub-holograms. The uncorrelated superposition of the individually reconstructed sub-holograms leads to an image with the speckle noise reduced proportionally to the 1/S law. The experimental results are presented to support the proposed methodology.

  6. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  7. Modeling laser speckle imaging of perfusion in the skin (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) enables visualization of relative blood flow and perfusion in the skin. It is frequently applied to monitor treatment of vascular malformations such as port wine stain birthmarks, and measure changes in perfusion due to peripheral vascular disease. We developed a computational Monte Carlo simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging to quantify how tissue optical properties, blood vessel depths and speeds, and tissue perfusion affect speckle contrast values originating from coherent excitation. The simulated tissue geometry consisted of multiple layers to simulate the skin, or incorporated an inclusion such as a vessel or tumor at different depths. Our simulation used a 30x30mm uniform flat light source to optically excite the region of interest in our sample to better mimic wide-field imaging. We used our model to simulate how dynamically scattered photons from a buried blood vessel affect speckle contrast at different lateral distances (0-1mm) away from the vessel, and how these speckle contrast changes vary with depth (0-1mm) and flow speed (0-10mm/s). We applied the model to simulate perfusion in the skin, and observed how different optical properties, such as epidermal melanin concentration (1%-50%) affected speckle contrast. We simulated perfusion during a systolic forearm occlusion and found that contrast decreased by 35% (exposure time = 10ms). Monte Carlo simulations of laser speckle contrast give us a tool to quantify what regions of the skin are probed with laser speckle imaging, and measure how the tissue optical properties and blood flow affect the resulting images.

  8. Developing and setting up optical methods to study the speckle patterns created by optical beam smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surville, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed three main optical methods to study the speckles generated by a smoothed laser source. The first method addresses the measurement of the temporal and spatial correlation functions of the source, with a modified Michelson interferometer. The second one is a pump-probe technique created to shoot a picture of a speckle pattern generated at a set time. And the third one is an evolution of the second method dedicated to time-frequency coding, thanks to a frequency chirped probe pulse. Thus, the speckles can be followed in time and their motion can be described. According to these three methods, the average size and duration of the speckles can be measured. It is also possible to measure the size and the duration of each of them and mostly their velocity in a given direction. All the results obtained have been confronted to the different existing theories. We show that the statistical distributions of the measured speckles'size and speckles'intensity agree satisfactorily with theoretical values

  9. Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus alterations in CHO-K1 cell line after Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Tamieti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. Significant structural changes were observed in all analyzed structures. DNA fragmentation was detected suggesting that, at the concentrations used, the venom induced apoptosis.

  10. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurised components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.

    1975-01-01

    This summary gives defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in-plane movement and strain in pressurized components and conclusions. In holography no lens is used, coherent light is reflected from all points of an object to all parts of a photosensitive surface, such as a photographic plate, simultaneously light of the same wave length and coherence is made to illuminate at a different angle the same plate. These two beams, the object and the reference, cause primary fringes. The developed plate when illuminated with the reference reconstructs the original object in three dimensions. If a double exposure is made on the same plate and if parts of the object have moved between exposure the reconstructed object will be lined with secondary fringes, each fringe representing displacement down the line of sight of one wavelength of the light used. Speckle photography is the same as conventional photography excepting, that instead of using daylight or a flash lamp a coherent light beam is used. Minute points on the object illuminated by divergent laser beam act as point sources of light giving the surface a speckled appearance. In speckle photography a camera records on the plate the object and speckles. A double exposure taken on the same plate when the object has moved between exposures will, after development, when illuminated with the laser beam from Youngs fringes. Speckles and fringes are related to points on the object therefore it is possible to obtain movement and strain. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tube defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain

  11. CDKL5 influences RNA splicing activity by its association to the nuclear speckle molecular machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Sara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jacquette, Aurélia; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Broccoli, Vania

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders including infantile spasms, encephalopathy, West-syndrome and an early-onset variant of Rett syndrome. CDKL5 is a serine/threonine kinase whose involvement in Rett syndrome can be inferred by its ability to directly bind and mediate phosphorylation of MeCP2. However, it remains to be elucidated how CDKL5 exerts its function. Here, we report that CDKL5 localizes to specific nuclear foci referred to as nuclear speckles in both cell lines and tissues. These sub-nuclear structures are traditionally considered as storage/modification sites of pre-mRNA splicing factors. Interestingly, we provide evidence that CDKL5 regulates the dynamic behaviour of nuclear speckles. Indeed, CDKL5 overexpression leads to nuclear speckle disassembly, and this event is strictly dependent on its kinase activity. Conversely, its down-regulation affects nuclear speckle morphology leading to abnormally large and uneven speckles. Similar results were obtained for primary adult fibroblasts isolated from CDKL5-mutated patients. Altogether, these findings indicate that CDKL5 controls nuclear speckle morphology probably by regulating the phosphorylation state of splicing regulatory proteins. Nuclear speckles are dynamic sites that can continuously supply splicing factors to active transcription sites, where splicing occurs. Notably, we proved that CDKL5 influences alternative splicing, at least as proved in heterologous minigene assays. In conclusion, we provide evidence that CDKL5 is involved indirectly in pre-mRNA processing, by controlling splicing factor dynamics. These findings identify a biological process whose disregulation might affect neuronal maturation and activity in CDKL5-related disorders.

  12. Prosthetic clone and natural human tooth comparison by speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, Pierre; Corn, Stephane; Fages, Michel; Raynal, Jacques; Cuisinier, Frederic J. G.

    2010-09-01

    New trends in dental prosthodontic interventions tend to preserve the maximum of "body" structure. With the evolution of CAD-CAM techniques, it is now possible to measure "in mouth" the remaining dental tissues. The prosthetic crown is then designed using this shape on which it will be glued on, and also by taking into account the contact surface of the opposite jaw tooth. Several theories discuss on the glue thickness and formulation, but also on the way to evolve to a more biocompatible crown and also new biomechanical concepts. In order to validate these new concepts and materials, and to study the mechanical properties and mechanical integrity of the prosthesis, high resolution optical measurements of the deformations of the glue and the crown are needed. Samples are two intact premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons. The reference sample has no modifications on the tooth while the second sample tooth is shaped to receive a feldspathic ceramic monoblock crown which will be glued. This crown was manufactured with a chairside CAD-CAM system from an intra-oral optical print. The software allows to realize a nearly perfect clone of the reference sample. The necessary space for the glue is also entered with ideal values. This duplication process yields to obtain two samples with identical anatomy for further processing. The glue joint thickness can also be modified if required. The purpose is to compare the behaviour of a natural tooth and its prosthetic clone manufactured with "biomechanical" concepts. Vertical cut samples have been used to deal with planar object observation, and also to look "inside" the tooth. We have developed a complete apparatus enabling the study of the compressive mechanical behaviour of the concerned tooth by speckle interferometry. Because in plane displacements are of great interest for orthodontic measurements1, an optical fiber in-plane sensitive interferometer has been designed. The fibers are wrapped around piezoelectric

  13. Snake venomics of Crotalus tigris: the minimalist toxin arsenal of the deadliest Nearctic rattlesnake venom. Evolutionary Clues for generating a pan-specific antivenom against crotalid type II venoms [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Pérez, Alicia; Lomonte, Bruno; Sánchez, Elda E; Sanz, Libia

    2012-02-03

    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7-8 gene products from 6 toxin families; the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA(2), Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66 and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1-2 PIII-SVMPs each represent 0.1-5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend toward neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by pedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, Crotalus horridus , Crotalus oreganus helleri, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, and Sistrurus catenatus catenatus indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South and North American Crotalus species.

  14. Multi-wavelength speckle reduction for laser pico-projectors using diffractive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Weston H.

    Personal electronic devices, such as cell phones and tablets, continue to decrease in size while the number of features and add-ons keep increasing. One particular feature of great interest is an integrated projector system. Laser pico-projectors have been considered, but the technology has not been developed enough to warrant integration. With new advancements in diode technology and MEMS devices, laser-based projection is currently being advanced for pico-projectors. A primary problem encountered when using a pico-projector is coherent interference known as speckle. Laser speckle can lead to eye irritation and headaches after prolonged viewing. Diffractive optical elements known as diffusers have been examined as a means to lower speckle contrast. Diffusers are often rotated to achieve temporal averaging of the spatial phase pattern provided by diffuser surface. While diffusers are unable to completely eliminate speckle, they can be utilized to decrease the resultant contrast to provide a more visually acceptable image. This dissertation measures the reduction in speckle contrast achievable through the use of diffractive diffusers. A theoretical Fourier optics model is used to provide the diffuser's stationary and in-motion performance in terms of the resultant contrast level. Contrast measurements of two diffractive diffusers are calculated theoretically and compared with experimental results. In addition, a novel binary diffuser design based on Hadamard matrices will be presented. Using two static in-line Hadamard diffusers eliminates the need for rotation or vibration of the diffuser for temporal averaging. Two Hadamard diffusers were fabricated and contrast values were subsequently measured, showing good agreement with theory and simulated values. Monochromatic speckle contrast values of 0.40 were achieved using the Hadamard diffusers. Finally, color laser projection devices require the use of red, green, and blue laser sources; therefore, using a

  15. 3D Characterization of corneal deformation using ultrasound speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyton Clayson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D mechanical response of the cornea to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation has not been previously reported. In this study, we use an ultrasound speckle tracking technique to measure the 3D displacements and strains within the central 5.5mm of porcine corneas during the whole globe inflation. Inflation tests were performed on dextran-treated corneas (treated with a 10% dextran solution and untreated corneas. The dextran-treated corneas showed an inflation response expected of a thin spherical shell, with through-thickness thinning and in-plane stretch, although the strain magnitudes exhibited a heterogeneous spatial distribution from the central to more peripheral cornea. The untreated eyes demonstrated a response consistent with swelling during experimentation, with through-thickness expansion overriding the inflation response. The average volume ratios obtained in both groups was near 1 confirming general incompressibility, but local regions of volume loss or expansion were observed. These results suggest that biomechanical measurements in 3D provide important new insight to understand the mechanical response of ocular tissues such as the cornea.

  16. Application of laser speckle displacement analysis to clinical dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberpatch, G. K. D.; Hood, J. A. A.

    1997-03-01

    Success of dental restorations is dependent on the integrity of the tooth/restoration interface. Distortion of teeth due to operative procedures has previously been measured using LVDT's and strain-gauges and has provided useful but limited information. This paper reports on the verification of a system for laser speckle photography and its use to quantitative distortions in teeth from matrix band application and the use of bonded composite resin restorations. Tightening of matrix bands around teeth results in an inward deformation of the cusps, increasing incrementally as the band is tightened. Deflections of 50 micrometer/cusp were recorded. A delayed recovery was noted consistent with the viscoelastic behavior of dentine. For bonded restorations recovery will place the adhesion interface in a state of tension when the band is released and may cause premature failure. Premolar teeth restored with bonded resin restorations exhibited inward displacement of cusps of 12 - 15 micrometer. Deformation was not within the buccal-lingual axis as suggested by prior studies. Molar teeth bonded with composite resin restoration exhibit complex and variable cusp displacement in both magnitude (0 - 30 micrometer) and direction. Complete and partial debonding could be detected. Interproximal cusp bending could be quantitated and lifting of the restoration from the cavity floor was detectable. Deformations evidenced indicate the tooth/restoration interface is in a stressed state and this may subsequently lead to failure. The technique has the potential to aid in development of restoration techniques that minimize residual stress.

  17. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2014-12-16

    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. A PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SEVENTEEN BINARY STARS USING SPECKLE IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, James W.; Baptista, Brian J.; Horch, Elliott P.; Franz, Otto; Van Altena, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Magnitude differences obtained from speckle imaging are used in combination with other data in the literature to place the components of binary star systems on the H-R diagram. Isochrones are compared with the positions obtained, and a best-fit isochrone is determined for each system, yielding both masses of the components as well as an age range consistent with the system parameters. Seventeen systems are studied, 12 of which were observed with the 0.6 m Lowell-Tololo Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and six of which were observed with the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope (The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories) at Kitt Peak. One system was observed from both sites. In comparing photometric masses to mass information from orbit determinations, we find that the photometric masses agree very well with the dynamical masses, and are generally more precise. For three systems, no dynamical masses exist at present, and therefore the photometrically determined values are the first mass estimates derived for these components.

  19. Optimized digital speckle patterns for digital image correlation by consideration of both accuracy and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; Xu, Xiangyang; He, Xiaoyuan

    2018-02-01

    The technique of digital image correlation (DIC), which has been widely used for noncontact deformation measurements in both the scientific and engineering fields, is greatly affected by the quality of speckle patterns in terms of its performance. This study was concerned with the optimization of the digital speckle pattern (DSP) for DIC in consideration of both the accuracy and efficiency. The root-mean-square error of the inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm and the average number of iterations were used as quality metrics. Moreover, the influence of subset sizes and the noise level of images, which are the basic parameters in the quality assessment formulations, were also considered. The simulated binary speckle patterns were first compared with the Gaussian speckle patterns and captured DSPs. Both the single-radius and multi-radius DSPs were optimized. Experimental tests and analyses were conducted to obtain the optimized and recommended DSP. The vector diagram of the optimized speckle pattern was also uploaded as reference.

  20. ARTIFICIAL INCOHERENT SPECKLES ENABLE PRECISION ASTROMETRY AND PHOTOMETRY IN HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, N.; Guyon, O.; Pathak, P.; Kudo, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI, 96720 (United States); Martinache, F. [Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France); Hagelberg, J., E-mail: jovanovic.nem@gmail.com [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    State-of-the-art coronagraphs employed on extreme adaptive optics enabled instruments are constantly improving the contrast detection limit for companions at ever-closer separations from the host star. In order to constrain their properties and, ultimately, compositions, it is important to precisely determine orbital parameters and contrasts with respect to the stars they orbit. This can be difficult in the post-coronagraphic image plane, as by definition the central star has been occulted by the coronagraph. We demonstrate the flexibility of utilizing the deformable mirror in the adaptive optics system of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system to generate a field of speckles for the purposes of calibration. Speckles can be placed up to 22.5 λ/D from the star, with any position angle, brightness, and abundance required. Most importantly, we show that a fast modulation of the added speckle phase, between 0 and π, during a long science integration renders these speckles effectively incoherent with the underlying halo. We quantitatively show for the first time that this incoherence, in turn, increases the robustness and stability of the adaptive speckles, which will improve the precision of astrometric and photometric calibration procedures. This technique will be valuable for high-contrast imaging observations with imagers and integral field spectrographs alike.

  1. Sound recovery via intensity variations of speckle pattern pixels selected with variance-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Yao, Xu-Ri; Qiu, Peng; Mahmood, Waqas; Yu, Wen-Kai; Sun, Zhi-Bin; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing

    2018-02-01

    In general, the sound waves can cause the vibration of the objects that are encountered in the traveling path. If we make a laser beam illuminate the rough surface of an object, it will be scattered into a speckle pattern that vibrates with these sound waves. Here, an efficient variance-based method is proposed to recover the sound information from speckle patterns captured by a high-speed camera. This method allows us to select the proper pixels that have large variances of the gray-value variations over time, from a small region of the speckle patterns. The gray-value variations of these pixels are summed together according to a simple model to recover the sound with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Meanwhile, our method will significantly simplify the computation compared with the traditional digital-image-correlation technique. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by applying a variety of objects. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to the quality of the speckle patterns and costs more than one-order less time to perform the same number of the speckle patterns. In our experiment, a sound signal of time duration 1.876 s is recovered from various objects with time consumption of 5.38 s only.

  2. Vegetation Detection in Stress of Moisture Shortage Based on Laser Speckle Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Tsukasa; Miki, Takashi

    This paper describes a new measuring method of plant vigor by using Laser speckle pattern. Furthermore, this proposes a practical application of this presented measurement system. The measuring instrument is consisted by a He-Ne Laser as the light source, and a set of optics, such as reflectors, a beam expander. The speckle pattern could be measured by a CCD camera through lenses. A Pothos (Epiremnum aureum) and Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) were used as the sample plant. Their intact leaves were measured the speckle pattern images. Visible but small vigor veins could be clearly observed in the images obtained by the speckle patterns. On the other hand, withered ones have shown different images. The relationship has been obtained between the feature of the images and the chlorophyll degradation. It would be expected that the symptom of plant against some stress could be detected by measuring the Laser speckle pattern. It could be used as the sensor of the field server system at every field monitoring site.

  3. Recruitment of phosphorylated small heat shock protein Hsp27 to nuclear speckles without stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryantsev, A.L.; Chechenova, M.B.; Shelden, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    During stress, the mammalian small heat shock protein Hsp27 enters cell nuclei. The present study examines the requirements for entry of Hsp27 into nuclei of normal rat kidney (NRK) renal epithelial cells, and for its interactions with specific nuclear structures. We find that phosphorylation of Hsp27 is necessary for the efficient entry into nuclei during heat shock but not sufficient for efficient nuclear entry under control conditions. We further report that Hsp27 is recruited to an RNAse sensitive fraction of SC35 positive nuclear speckles, but not other intranuclear structures, in response to heat shock. Intriguingly, Hsp27 phosphorylation, in the absence of stress, is sufficient for recruitment to speckles found in post-anaphase stage mitotic cells. Additionally, pseudophosphorylated Hsp27 fused to a nuclear localization peptide (NLS) is recruited to nuclear speckles in unstressed interphase cells, but wildtype and nonphosphorylatable Hsp27 NLS fusion proteins are not. The expression of NLS-Hsp27 mutants does not enhance colony forming abilities of cells subjected to severe heat shock, but does regulate nuclear speckle morphology. These data demonstrate that phosphorylation, but not stress, mediates Hsp27 recruitment to an RNAse soluble fraction of nuclear speckles and support a site-specific role for Hsp27 within the nucleus

  4. Enhanced diagnostic of skin conditions by polarized laser speckles: phantom studies and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Lee, Tim K.; Markhvida, Igor; Zeng, Haishan; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of the skin melanoma, the most commonly fatal form of skin cancer, is increasing faster than any other potentially preventable cancer. Clinical practice is currently hampered by the lack of the ability to rapidly screen the functional and morphological properties of tissues. In our previous study we show that the quantification of scattered laser light polarization provides a useful metrics for diagnostics of the malignant melanoma. In this study we exploit whether the image speckle could improve skin cancer diagnostic in comparison with the previously used free-space speckle. The study includes skin phantom measurements and computer modeling. To characterize the depolarization of light we measure the spatial distribution of speckle patterns and analyse their depolarization ratio taken into account radial symmetry. We examine the dependences of depolarization ratio vs. roughness for phantoms which optical properties are of the order of skin lesions. We demonstrate that the variation in bulk optical properties initiates the assessable changes in the depolarization ratio. We show that image speckle differentiates phantoms significantly better than free-space speckle. The results of experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Effect of static scatterers in laser speckle contrast imaging: an experimental study on correlation and contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Figueiras, Edite; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João

    2018-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive microvascular blood flow assessment technique with good temporal and spatial resolution. Most LSCI systems, including commercial devices, can perform only qualitative blood flow evaluation, which is a major limitation of this technique. There are several factors that prevent the utilization of LSCI as a quantitative technique. Among these factors, we can highlight the effect of static scatterers. The goal of this work was to study the influence of differences in static and dynamic scatterer concentration on laser speckle correlation and contrast. In order to achieve this, a laser speckle prototype was developed and tested using an optical phantom with various concentrations of static and dynamic scatterers. It was found that the laser speckle correlation could be used to estimate the relative concentration of static/dynamic scatterers within a sample. Moreover, the speckle correlation proved to be independent of the dynamic scatterer velocity, which is a fundamental characteristic to be used in contrast correction.

  6. Intrinsic speckle noise in in-line particle holography due to polydisperse and continuous particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Philip J.; Hobson, Peter R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-08-01

    In-line particle holography is subject to image deterioration due to intrinsic speckle noise. The resulting reduction in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the replayed image can become critical for applications such as holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) and 3D visualisation of marine plankton. Work has been done to extend the mono-disperse model relevant to HPV to include poly-disperse particle fields appropriate for the visualisation of marine plankton. Continuous and discrete particle fields are both considered. It is found that random walk statistics still apply for the poly-disperse case. The speckle field is simply the summation of the individual speckle patters due to each scatter size. Therefor the characteristic speckle parameter (which encompasses particle diameter, concentration and sample depth) is alos just the summation of the individual speckle parameters. This reduces the SNR calculation to the same form as for the mono-disperse case. For the continuous situation three distributions, power, exponential and Gaussian are discussed with the resulting SNR calcuated. The work presented here was performed as part of the Holomar project to produce a working underwater holographic camera for recording plankton.

  7. Laser speckle: theory and applications. January 1970-May 1988 (Citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1970-May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning applications and theoretical considerations pertaining to laser speckle interferometry. Topics include experimental and theoretical investigations, applications in stress and vibrational analysis, velocity and displacement measurement, and surface analysis. Speckle noise-reduction techniques and speckle photography are also treated. (This updated bibliography contains 247 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. An optical sensor for local strain measuring of an object by means of a speckle correlation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, P.; Šmíd, Petr; Hrabovský, M.; Hamarová, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, s3 (2012), s. 425-427 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-contact measurement * strain * speckle * speckle correlation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012

  9. Selectivity and balance of spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Hal T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    We probe the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the axial distance between the object and the observation plane changes. With the purpose of measuring out-of-plane motion in real time, we apply optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics. To achieve this, a rotationally sym...

  10. Phase conjugation of speckle-inhomogeneous radiation in a holographic Nd:YAG laser with a short thermal hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarovoi, V V; Kirsanov, A V

    2002-01-01

    A model of the so-called short hologram, which does not exhibit in-depth diffraction deformation of the fine speckle pattern of the recording fields, is studied. The investigation is performed by the example of a thermal hologram recorded by two speckle waves, which is the output mirror of a ring laser produced as a result of this recording. It is shown that the ability of this short hologram to select a wave conjugated to a speckle signal in the mode of the holographic laser depends both on the degree of mutual mixing of the speckles of recording beams in the hologram volume and on the effects of its saturation by the beams. The maximum accuracy of phase conjugation of speckle radiation in the holographic Nd:YAG laser achieved upon the best selection of the conjugate wave by the short thermal hologram was 93%. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2008-01-01

    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies

  12. Quantitative X-ray dark-field and phase tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-21

    X-ray dark-field contrast tomography can provide important supplementary information inside a sample to the conventional absorption tomography. Recently, the X-ray speckle based technique has been proposed to provide qualitative two-dimensional dark-field imaging with a simple experimental arrangement. In this letter, we deduce a relationship between the second moment of scattering angle distribution and cross-correlation degradation of speckle and establish a quantitative basis of X-ray dark-field tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique. In addition, the phase contrast images can be simultaneously retrieved permitting tomographic reconstruction, which yields enhanced contrast in weakly absorbing materials. Such complementary tomography technique can allow systematic investigation of complex samples containing both soft and hard materials.

  13. Demonstration of a Speckle Based Sensing with Pulse-Doppler Radar for Vibration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Bauer, Reuven; Ashkenazy, Koby; Sasson, Nissim; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2018-05-03

    In previous works, an optical technique for extraction and separation of remote static vibrations has been demonstrated. In this paper, we will describe an approach in which RF speckle movement is used to extract remote vibrations of a static target. The use of conventional radar Doppler methods is not suitable for detecting vibrations of static targets. In addition, the speckle method has an important advantage, in that it is able to detect vibrations at far greater distances than what is normally detected in classical optical methods. The experiment described in this paper was done using a motorized vehicle, which engine was turned on and off. The results showed that the system was able to distinguish between the different engine states, and in addition, was able to determine the vibration frequency of the engine. The first step towards real time detection of human vital signs using RF speckle patterns is presented.

  14. Demonstration of a Speckle Based Sensing with Pulse-Doppler Radar for Vibration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisan Ozana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In previous works, an optical technique for extraction and separation of remote static vibrations has been demonstrated. In this paper, we will describe an approach in which RF speckle movement is used to extract remote vibrations of a static target. The use of conventional radar Doppler methods is not suitable for detecting vibrations of static targets. In addition, the speckle method has an important advantage, in that it is able to detect vibrations at far greater distances than what is normally detected in classical optical methods. The experiment described in this paper was done using a motorized vehicle, which engine was turned on and off. The results showed that the system was able to distinguish between the different engine states, and in addition, was able to determine the vibration frequency of the engine. The first step towards real time detection of human vital signs using RF speckle patterns is presented.

  15. En face speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy by frequency compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, Caroline; Wang, Hui; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2016-05-01

    We report the use of frequency compounding to significantly reduce speckle noise in optical coherence microscopy, more specifically on the en face images. This method relies on the fact that the speckle patterns recorded from different wavelengths simultaneously are independent; hence their summation yields significant reduction in noise, with only a single acquisition. The results of our experiments with microbeads show that the narrow confocal parameter, due to a high numerical aperture objective, restricts the axial resolution loss that would otherwise theoretically broaden linearly with the number of optical frequency bands used. This speckle reduction scheme preserves the lateral resolution since it is performed on individual A-scans. Finally, we apply this technique to images of fixed human brain tissue, showing significant improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio with only moderate loss of axial resolution, in an effort to improve automatic three-dimensional detection of cells and fibers in the cortex.

  16. Complementary Speckle Patterns: Deterministic Interchange of Intrinsic Vortices and Maxima through Scattering Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jérôme; Rigneault, Hervé; Guillon, Marc

    2017-01-27

    Intensity maxima and zeros of speckle patterns obtained behind a diffuser are experimentally interchanged by applying a spiral phase delay of charge ±1 to the impinging coherent beam. This transform arises from the expectation that tightly focused beams, which have a planar wave front around the focus, are so changed into vortex beams and vice versa. The statistics of extrema locations and the intensity distribution of the so-generated "complementary" patterns are characterized by numerical simulations. It is demonstrated experimentally that the incoherent superposition of the three "complementary speckle patterns" yield a synthetic speckle grain size enlarged by a factor of sqrt[3]. A cyclic permutation of optical vortices and intensity maxima is unexpectedly observed and discussed.

  17. Speckle suppression via sparse representation for wide-field imaging through turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwanchol; Yoon, Changhyeong; Chung, Euiheon; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Heung-No

    2014-06-30

    Speckle suppression is one of the most important tasks in the image transmission through turbid media. Insufficient speckle suppression requires an additional procedure such as temporal ensemble averaging over multiple exposures. In this paper, we consider the image recovery process based on the so-called transmission matrix (TM) of turbid media for the image transmission through the media. We show that the speckle left unremoved in the TM-based image recovery can be suppressed effectively via sparse representation (SR). SR is a relatively new signal reconstruction framework which works well even for ill-conditioned problems. This is the first study to show the benefit of using the SR as compared to the phase conjugation (PC) a de facto standard method to date for TM-based imaging through turbid media including a live cell through tissue slice.

  18. MATLAB for laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a practice-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, Eugene B.; Tsoy, Maria O.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2018-04-01

    Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) is one of the most powerful modern methods for revealing blood dynamics. The experimental design and theory for this method are well established, and the computational recipie is often regarded to be trivial. However, the achieved performance and spatial resolution may considerable differ for different implementations. We comprise a minireview of known approaches to the spatial laser speckle contrast data processing and their realization in MATLAB code providing an explicit correspondence to the mathematical representation, a discussion of available implementations. We also present the algorithm based on the 2D Haar wavelet transform, also supplied with the program code. This new method provides an opportunity to introduce horizontal, vertical and diagonal speckle contrasts; it may be used for processing highly anisotropic images of vascular trees. We provide the comparative analysis of the accuracy of vascular pattern detection and the processing times with a special attention to details of the used MATLAB procedures.

  19. Noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometry using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Maria Belen; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method to reduce speckle noise in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) fringes. The BEMD method is based on a sifting process that decomposes the DSPI fringes in a finite set of subimages represented by high and low frequency oscillations, which are named modes. The sifting process assigns the high frequency information to the first modes, so that it is possible to discriminate speckle noise from fringe information, which is contained in the remaining modes. The proposed method is a fully data-driven technique, therefore neither fixed basis functions nor operator intervention are required. The performance of the BEMD method to denoise DSPI fringes is analyzed using computer-simulated data, and the results are also compared with those obtained by means of a previously developed one-dimensional empirical mode decomposition approach. An application of the proposed BEMD method to denoise experimental fringes is also presented

  20. Speckle and fringe dynamics in imagingspeckle-pattern interferometry for spatial-filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Iversen, Theis F. Q.; Yura, Harold T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of laser speckles and fringes, formed in an imaging-speckle-pattern interferometer with the purpose of sensing linear three-dimensional motion and out-of-plane components of rotation in real time, using optical spatial-filtering-velocimetry techniques. The ensemble......-average definition of the cross-correlation function is applied to the intensity distributions, obtained in the observation plane at two positions of the object. The theoretical analysis provides a description for the dynamics of both the speckles and the fringes. The analysis reveals that both the magnitude...... and direction of all three linear displacement components of the object movement can be determined. Simultaneously, out-ofplane rotation of the object including the corresponding directions can be determined from the spatial gradient of the in-plane fringe motion throughout the observation plane. The theory...

  1. Accelerated numerical processing of electronically recorded holograms with reduced speckle noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms suffers from speckle noise. An accelerated method that uses general-purpose computing in graphics processing units to reduce that noise is shown. The proposed methodology utilizes parallelized algorithms to record, reconstruct, and superimpose multiple uncorrelated holograms of a static scene. For the best tradeoff between reduction of the speckle noise and processing time, the method records, reconstructs, and superimposes six holograms of 1024 × 1024 pixels in 68 ms; for this case, the methodology reduces the speckle noise by 58% compared with that exhibited by a single hologram. The fully parallelized method running on a commodity graphics processing unit is one order of magnitude faster than the same technique implemented on a regular CPU using its multithreading capabilities. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposal.

  2. Color quality improvement of reconstructed images in color digital holography using speckle method and spectral estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Onodera, Yusei; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we report color quality improvement of reconstructed images in color digital holography using the speckle method and the spectral estimation. In this technique, an object is illuminated by a speckle field and then an object wave is produced, while a plane wave is used as a reference wave. For three wavelengths, the interference patterns of two coherent waves are recorded as digital holograms on an image sensor. Speckle fields are changed by moving a ground glass plate in an in-plane direction, and a number of holograms are acquired to average the reconstructed images. After the averaging process of images reconstructed from multiple holograms, we use the Wiener estimation method for obtaining spectral transmittance curves in reconstructed images. The color reproducibility in this method is demonstrated and evaluated using a Macbeth color chart film and staining cells of onion.

  3. X-ray speckle contrast variation at a sample-specific absorption edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsch, C. C.; Wang, Y.; Frigo, S. P.; Stephenson, G. B.; McNulty, I.

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured static x-ray speckle contrast variation with the incident photon energy across sample-specific absorption edges. They propose that the variation depends strongly on the spectral response function of the monochromator. Speckle techniques have been introduced to the x-ray regime during recent years. Most of these experiments, however, were done at photon energies above 5 keV. They are working on this technique in the 1 to 4 keV range, an energy range that includes many important x-ray absorption edges, e.g., in Al, Si, P, S, the rare-earths, and others. To their knowledge, the effect of absorption edges on speckle contrast has not yet been studied. In this paper, they present their initial measurements and understanding of the observed phenomena

  4. A New Approach for Speckle Reduction in Holographic 3D printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsugi, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    A Holographic 3D printer produces a high quality 3D image reproduced by a full-color, full-parallax holographic stereogram with high-density light-ray recording. But speckle-pattern noise localized behind the reconstructed image is causing a loss of the display quality. This noise is originated from the speckle generated by a diffuser for equalizing the intensity distribution of the object light on the recording medium. We analyze some conventional ways for speckle reduction using a band-limited diffuser, and it is found that these ways cannot reduce the noise sufficiently. Then we propose two methods, one introduces a moving diffuser and the other introduces multiple exposures and a digital diffuser called as 4L-PRPS.

  5. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind...... of special depolarizer: the random roughness birefringent screen (RRBS) is introduced to meet this requirement. The statistical properties of the field generated by the depolarizer is investigated and illustrated in terms of the 2x2 beam coherence and polarization matrix (BCPM) with the corresponding degree...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  6. Monitoring of bread cooling by statistical analysis of laser speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Tanya; Stoykova, Elena; Nacheva, Elena; Ivanov, Branimir; Panchev, Ivan; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2013-03-01

    The phenomenon of laser speckle can be used for detection and visualization of physical or biological activity in various objects (e.g. fruits, seeds, coatings) through statistical description of speckle dynamics. The paper presents the results of non-destructive monitoring of bread cooling by co-occurrence matrix and temporal structure function analysis of speckle patterns which have been recorded continuously within a few days. In total, 72960 and 39680 images were recorded and processed for two similar bread samples respectively. The experiments proved the expected steep decrease of activity related to the processes in the bread samples during the first several hours and revealed its oscillating character within the next few days. Characterization of activity over the bread sample surface was also obtained.

  7. Analysis of strain in reinforced concrete components by laser speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    Laser speckle photography is an optical process for non-contact measurement of strain in a plane at right angles to the axis of the optical system. The material composition and relief of the surface of a test sample have a great effect on the applicability of the process. Bodies with too smooth or too rough surfaces, and bodies of a transparent structure (salt bearing rocks) cannot be examined by speckle photography without previous surface treatment. The principle of the process and its application to the examination of reinforced concrete components is described. The capability of speckle photography, the accuracy of measurement which can be achieved and possible sources of error are discussed. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Theoretical investigations on dual-beam illumination electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudemand, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to what is found in most of the existing scientific literature,where a specific frame is developed, the theory of speckle interferometry is (conveniently) presented here as a particular case of the more general theory of holographic interferometry. In addition to the intellectual benefit of dealing with a single unified theory, this brings about many advantages when it comes to discuss fundamental topics such as the three-dimensional evolution of the complex amplitude of the diffuse optical wave fronts, the degree of approximation of the leading formulas, the loss of fringe contrast,the decorrelation effects, the real influence of the terms generally neglected in out-of-focus regions. In the same way, the statistical properties of the speckle fields, usually treated as a separate subject matter, are also integrated in the theory, thus providing a comprehensive knowledge of the qualitative features of speckle interferometry methods, otherwise difficult to understand

  9. Theoretical investigations on dual-beam illumination electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudemand, Nicolas

    2006-07-01

    Contrary to what is found in most of the existing scientific literature, where a specific frame is developed, the theory of speckle interferometry is (conveniently) presented here as a particular case of the more general theory of holographic interferometry. In addition to the intellectual benefit of dealing with a single unified theory, this brings about many advantages when it comes to discuss fundamental topics such as the three-dimensional evolution of the complex amplitude of the diffuse optical wavefronts, the degree of approximation of the leading formulas, the loss of fringe contrast, the decorrelation effects, the real influence of the terms generally neglected in out-of-focus regions. In the same way, the statistical properties of the speckle fields, usually treated as a separate subject matter, are also integrated in the theory, thus providing a comprehensive knowledge of the qualitative features of speckle interferometry methods, otherwise difficult to understand.

  10. Comparison of phase unwrapping algorithms for topography reconstruction based on digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Cui, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hongbei; Zhao, Mengge; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) can diagnose the topography evolution in real-time, continuous and non-destructive, and has been considered as a most promising technique for Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) topography diagnostic under the complicated environment of tokamak. It is important for the study of digital speckle pattern interferometry to enhance speckle patterns and obtain the real topography of the ablated crater. In this paper, two kinds of numerical model based on flood-fill algorithm has been developed to obtain the real profile by unwrapping from the wrapped phase in speckle interference pattern, which can be calculated through four intensity images by means of 4-step phase-shifting technique. During the process of phase unwrapping by means of flood-fill algorithm, since the existence of noise pollution, and other inevitable factors will lead to poor quality of the reconstruction results, this will have an impact on the authenticity of the restored topography. The calculation of the quality parameters was introduced to obtain the quality-map from the wrapped phase map, this work presents two different methods to calculate the quality parameters. Then quality parameters are used to guide the path of flood-fill algorithm, and the pixels with good quality parameters are given priority calculation, so that the quality of speckle interference pattern reconstruction results are improved. According to the comparison between the flood-fill algorithm which is suitable for speckle pattern interferometry and the quality-guided flood-fill algorithm (with two different calculation approaches), the errors which caused by noise pollution and the discontinuous of the strips were successfully reduced.

  11. Speckle Filtering of GF-3 Polarimetric SAR Data with Joint Restriction Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinwei; Li, Zhenfang; Zhou, Chaowei; Fang, Yuyuan; Zhang, Qingjun

    2018-05-12

    Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) scattering characteristics of imagery are always obtained from the second order moments estimation of multi-polarization data, that is, the estimation of covariance or coherency matrices. Due to the extra-paths that signal reflected from separate scatterers within the resolution cell has to travel, speckle noise always exists in SAR images and has a severe impact on the scattering performance, especially on single look complex images. In order to achieve high accuracy in estimating covariance or coherency matrices, three aspects are taken into consideration: (1) the edges and texture of the scene are distinct after speckle filtering; (2) the statistical characteristic should be similar to the object pixel; and (3) the polarimetric scattering signature should be preserved, in addition to speckle reduction. In this paper, a joint restriction principle is proposed to meet the requirement. Three different restriction principles are introduced to the processing of speckle filtering. First, a new template, which is more suitable for the point or line targets, is designed to ensure the morphological consistency. Then, the extent sigma filter is used to restrict the pixels in the template aforementioned to have an identical statistic characteristic. At last, a polarimetric similarity factor is applied to the same pixels above, to guarantee the similar polarimetric features amongst the optional pixels. This processing procedure is named as speckle filtering with joint restriction principle and the approach is applied to GF-3 polarimetric SAR data acquired in San Francisco, CA, USA. Its effectiveness of keeping the image sharpness and preserving the scattering mechanism as well as speckle reduction is validated by the comparison with boxcar filters and refined Lee filter.

  12. Wavelet tree structure based speckle noise removal for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    We report a new speckle noise removal algorithm in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Though wavelet domain thresholding algorithms have demonstrated superior advantages in suppressing noise magnitude and preserving image sharpness in OCT, the wavelet tree structure has not been investigated in previous applications. In this work, we propose an adaptive wavelet thresholding algorithm via exploiting the tree structure in wavelet coefficients to remove the speckle noise in OCT images. The threshold for each wavelet band is adaptively selected following a special rule to retain the structure of the image across different wavelet layers. Our results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional wavelet thresholding, with significant advantages in preserving image features.

  13. Dynamic laser speckle to detect motile bacterial response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendra, H; Murialdo, S; Passoni, L

    2007-01-01

    This proposal deals with the technique for detection of motile response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using dynamic laser speckle or biospeckle as an alternative method. The study of bacterial displacement plays an essential role in biocatalysts processes and biodegradation. Hence, some biodegrading enzymes are benign catalytic that could be used for the production of industrially useful compounds as well as in wastewater treatments. This work presents an experimental set up and a computational process using frame sequences of dynamic laser speckle as a novel application. The objective was the detection of different levels of motility in bacteria. The encouraging results were achieved through a direct and non invasive observation method of the phenomenon

  14. Influence of the number of cones on speckle patterns in the Laser MegaJoule configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cain, A.; Riazuelo, G.; Sajer, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates statistical properties of hot spots when speckle patterns are generated by the superimposition of multiple laser beams in a 2 cone and a 3 cone Laser MegaJoule configuration in the zone where all the beams overlap. Three different cases of polarizations are investigated: P polarization, S polarization and the case of Double Polarization Smoothing (DPS). It is found that the sizes of the speckles depend on the choice of the polarization and that DPS seems to be the best option in both configurations. It is shown that the longitudinal radius of the hot spots in a 2 cone configuration is bigger than in a 3 cone configuration. (authors)

  15. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J [Optics Department, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Huang, Y C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Choi, B, E-mail: jcram@inaoep.m [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2010-11-21

    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  16. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J; Huang, Y C; Choi, B

    2010-01-01

    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  17. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  18. Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsantis, Stavros [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); Skouroliakou, Aikaterini [Department of Energy Technology Engineering, Technological Education Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece); Hazle, John D. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Kagadis, George C., E-mail: gkagad@gmail.com, E-mail: George.Kagadis@med.upatras.gr, E-mail: GKagadis@mdanderson.org [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504, Greece and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Speckle suppression in ultrasound (US) images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. Methods: The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means (EFCM) clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. Results: A total of 34 thyroid, liver, and breast US examinations were performed on a Logiq 9 US system. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging (SRI) software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method. The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index (SSI) with results of 0.61, 0.71, and 0.73 for EFCM, SRI, and Pizurica's methods, respectively. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.12, 33.95, and 29.78 and edge preservation indices of 0.94, 0.93, and 0.86 were found for the EFCM, SIR, and Pizurica's method, respectively, demonstrating that the proposed method achieves superior speckle reduction performance and edge preservation properties. Based on two independent radiologists’ qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method. Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures. Conclusions: A

  19. Elastic modulus measurements of LDEF glasses and glass-ceramics using a speckle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedlocher, D.E.; Kinser, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Elastic moduli of five glass types and the glass-ceramic Zerodur, exposed to a near-earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), were compared to that of unexposed samples. A double exposure speckle photography technique utilizing 633 nm laser light was used in the production of the speckle pattern. Subsequent illumination of a double exposed negative using the same wavelength radiation produces Young's fringes from which the in-plane displacements are measured. Stresses imposed by compressive loading produced measurable strains in the glasses and glass-ceramic

  20. Single-shot speckle reduction in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Jonathan; Hennelly, Bryan; McDonald, John

    2015-09-01

    We comment on a recent Letter by Hincapie et al. [Opt. Lett.40, 1623 (2015)], in which the authors proposed a method to reduce the speckle noise in digital holograms. This method was previously published by us in Maycock ["Improving reconstructions of digital holograms," Ph.D. thesis (National University of Ireland, 2012)] and Maycock and Hennelly [Improving Reconstructions of Digital Holograms: Speckle Reduction and Occlusions in Digital Holography (Lambert Academic, 2014)]. We also wish to highlight an important limitation of the method resulting from the superposition of different perspectives of the object/scene, which was not addressed in their Letter.

  1. Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Hazle, John D.; Kagadis, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speckle suppression in ultrasound (US) images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. Methods: The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means (EFCM) clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. Results: A total of 34 thyroid, liver, and breast US examinations were performed on a Logiq 9 US system. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging (SRI) software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method. The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index (SSI) with results of 0.61, 0.71, and 0.73 for EFCM, SRI, and Pizurica's methods, respectively. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.12, 33.95, and 29.78 and edge preservation indices of 0.94, 0.93, and 0.86 were found for the EFCM, SIR, and Pizurica's method, respectively, demonstrating that the proposed method achieves superior speckle reduction performance and edge preservation properties. Based on two independent radiologists’ qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method. Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures. Conclusions: A

  2. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  3. Diameter of the useful diffraction halo in double-exposure speckle photographs recorded under various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Marti, L.; Moreno, A.; Ostrovskii, Iu. I.; Serra, R.

    1985-06-01

    Consideration is given to the relationship between the diffraction halo radius Theta(h) and the displacement (Delta) of the object in double exposed speckle photographs taken in various conditions. The numerical values of Theta(h)/Delta were obtained for several speckle recordings having exposure times in the range 0.5-3.8 s. It is shown that long exposure times did not significantly decrease the minimum measureable displacement of the object. The radii of the diffraction halo were the same in the case of both long and short exposure times.

  4. Dynamic Corneal Surface Mapping with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S.; Gualini, M. M. S.

    2013-06-01

    In view of the fast advancement in ophthalmic technology and corneal surgery, there is a strong need for the comprehensive mapping and characterization techniques for corneal surface. Optical methods with precision non-contact approaches have been found to be very useful for such bio measurements. Along with the normal mapping approaches, elasticity of corneal surface has an important role in its characterization and needs to be appropriately measured or estimated for broader diagnostics and better prospective surgical results, as it has important role in the post-op corneal surface reconstruction process. Use of normal corneal topographic devices is insufficient for any intricate analysis since these devices operate at relatively moderate resolution. In the given experiment, Pulsed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been utilized along with an excitation mechanism to measure the dynamic response of the sample cornea. A Pulsed ESPI device has been chosen for the study because of its micron-level resolution and other advantages in real-time deformation analysis. A bovine cornea has been used as a sample in the subject experiment. The dynamic response has been taken on a chart recorder and it is observed that it does show a marked deformation at a specific excitation frequency, which may be taken as a characteristic elasticity parameter for the surface of that corneal sample. It was seen that outside resonance conditions the bovine cornea was not that much deformed. Through this study, the resonance frequency and the corresponding corneal deformations are mapped and plotted in real time. In these experiments, data was acquired and processed by FRAMES plus computer analysis system. With some analysis of the results, this technique can help us to refine a more detailed corneal surface mathematical model and some preliminary work was done on this. Such modelling enhancements may be useful for finer ablative surgery planning. After further experimentation

  5. Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Nowacka, Małgorzata; Dadan, Magdalena; Wiktor, Artur; Rybak, Katarzyna; Witrowa-Rajchert, Dorota; Zdunek, Artur

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle) method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma). Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε) provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes. PMID:29617343

  6. Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma. Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes.

  7. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margres, Mark J.; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches. PMID:27179420

  8. The unequal influences of the left and right vagi on the control of the heart and pulmonary artery in the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, E.W.; Andrade, Denis V.; Abe, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in reptiles includes sympathetic components but heart rate (fH), pulmonary blood flow ( pul) and cardiac shunt patterns are primarily controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus innervates both the heart and a sphincter on the pulmona....... This paves the way for an investigation of the role of the cardiac shunt in regulating metabolic rate, as chronic left vagotomy will cause a pronounced left–right shunt in recovered animals, whilst leaving intact control of the heart, via the right vagus....... artery. The present study reveals that whereas both the left and right vagi influence fH, it is only the left vagus that influences pulmonary vascular resistance. This is associated with the fact that rattlesnakes, in common with some other species of snakes, have a single functional lung, as the other...... lung regresses during development. Stimulation of the left cervical vagus in anaesthetised snakes slowed the heart and markedly reduced blood flow in the pulmonary artery whereas stimulation of the right cervical vagus slowed the heart and caused a small increase in stroke volume (VS) in both...

  9. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  10. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  11. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...

  12. Detection of white spot lesions by segmenting laser speckle images using computer vision methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavinho, Luciano G; Araujo, Sidnei A; Bussadori, Sandra K; Silva, João V P; Deana, Alessandro M

    2018-05-05

    This paper aims to develop a method for laser speckle image segmentation of tooth surfaces for diagnosis of early stages caries. The method, applied directly to a raw image obtained by digital photography, is based on the difference between the speckle pattern of a carious lesion tooth surface area and that of a sound area. Each image is divided into blocks which are identified in a working matrix by their χ 2 distance between block histograms of the analyzed image and the reference histograms previously obtained by K-means from healthy (h_Sound) and lesioned (h_Decay) areas, separately. If the χ 2 distance between a block histogram and h_Sound is greater than the distance to h_Decay, this block is marked as decayed. The experiments showed that the method can provide effective segmentation for initial lesions. We used 64 images to test the algorithm and we achieved 100% accuracy in segmentation. Differences between the speckle pattern of a sound tooth surface region and a carious region, even in the early stage, can be evidenced by the χ 2 distance between histograms. This method proves to be more effective for segmenting the laser speckle image, which enhances the contrast between sound and lesioned tissues. The results were obtained with low computational cost. The method has the potential for early diagnosis in a clinical environment, through the development of low-cost portable equipment.

  13. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  14. Superpositions of higher-order bessel beams and nondiffracting speckle fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available speckle fields. The paper reports on illuminating a ring slit aperture with light which has an azimuthal phase dependence, such that the field produced is a superposition of two higher-order Bessel beams. In the case that the phase dependence of the light...

  15. [Speckle tracking--a new ultrasound tool for the assessment of fetal myocardial function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willruth, A; Geipel, A; Merz, W; Gembruch, U

    2012-06-01

    Speckle tracking is a new ultrasound tool to assess 2D ventricular global and segmental myocardial velocity and deformation (strain, strain rate). Multiple factors such as fetal motion, high heart rates, low blood pressure, small size of the heart, physiological cardiac translation, filling and maturational changes of myocardium, polyhydramnion, maternal obesity and aortic pulsation can degrade the image quality and result in artifacts and measurement errors which may have an impact on the final analysis. Therefore deformation indices such as strain and strain rate offer a quantitative technique for the estimation of global and segmental myocardial function and contractility. At present longitudinal peak systolic strain is the most commonly applied deformation parameter used to analyse segmental and global myocardial contractility in adults. When obtained using Doppler methods, these measurements are angle dependent, whereas speckle tracking techniques overcome the limitations of Doppler echocardiography which is a particular advantage in foetal echocardiography. Nevertheless, the time and training necessary to acquire high-quality video clips limit the implementation of speckle tracking into clinical routine. It is not yet clear whether this new technique will identify subclinical myocardial impairment earlier than with current techniques or allow for better discrimination between healthy fetuses and fetuses with congenital heart disease. The clinical use of speckle tracking will have to be demonstrated in larger groups of complicated pregnancies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Functional assessment of the diaphragm by speckle tracking ultrasound during inspiratory loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Hatam, Nima; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Marx, Gernot; Goetzenich, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Bruells, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of diaphragmatic effort is challenging, especially in critically ill patients in the phase of weaning. Fractional thickening during inspiration assessed by ultrasound has been used to estimate diaphragm effort. It is unknown whether more sophisticated ultrasound techniques such as speckle

  17. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Liu, Gangjun; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique, which is based on low-coherence interferometry. OCT images suffer from speckle noise, which reduces image contrast. A shrinkage filter based on wave atoms transform is proposed for speckle reduction in OCT images. Wave atoms transform is a new multiscale geometric analysis tool that offers sparser expansion and better representation for images containing oscillatory patterns and textures than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Cycle spinning-based technology is introduced to avoid visual artifacts, such as Gibbs-like phenomenon, and to develop a translation invariant wave atoms denoising scheme. The speckle suppression degree in the denoised images is controlled by an adjustable parameter that determines the threshold in the wave atoms domain. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove the speckle noise and improve the OCT image quality. The signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, average equivalent number of looks, and cross-correlation (XCOR) values are obtained, and the results are also compared with the wavelet and curvelet thresholding techniques. PMID:24825507

  18. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. I. INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Veillette, Daniel R.; Shah, Sagar C.; O'Rielly, Grant V.; Baena Galle, Roberto; Van Altena, William F.

    2009-01-01

    First results of a new speckle imaging system, the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, are reported. The instrument is designed to take speckle data in two filters simultaneously with two independent CCD imagers. This feature results in three advantages over other speckle cameras: (1) twice as many frames can be obtained in the same observation time which can increase the signal-to-noise ratio for astrometric measurements, (2) component colors can be derived from a single observation, and (3) the two colors give substantial leverage over atmospheric dispersion, allowing for subdiffraction-limited separations to be measured reliably. Fifty-four observations are reported from the first use of the instrument at the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m Telescope 9 The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. in 2008 September, including seven components resolved for the first time. These observations are used to judge the basic capabilities of the instrument.

  19. Strain localization band width evolution by electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel; Montay, Guillaume [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurements are used to quantify the width of the strain localization band, which occurs when a sheet specimen is submitted to tension. It is shown that the width of this band decreases with increasing strain. Just before fracture, this measured width is about five times wider than the shear band and the initial sheet thickness.

  20. Speckle Reduction on Ultrasound Liver Images Based on a Sparse Representation over a Learned Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yaseen Jabarulla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound images are corrupted with multiplicative noise known as speckle, which reduces the effectiveness of image processing and hampers interpretation. This paper proposes a multiplicative speckle suppression technique for ultrasound liver images, based on a new signal reconstruction model known as sparse representation (SR over dictionary learning. In the proposed technique, the non-uniform multiplicative signal is first converted into additive noise using an enhanced homomorphic filter. This is followed by pixel-based total variation (TV regularization and patch-based SR over a dictionary trained using K-singular value decomposition (KSVD. Finally, the split Bregman algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem and estimate the de-speckled image. The simulations performed on both synthetic and clinical ultrasound images for speckle reduction, the proposed technique achieved peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.537 dB for the dictionary trained on noisy image patches and 35.033 dB for the dictionary trained using a set of reference ultrasound image patches. Further, the evaluation results show that the proposed method performs better than other state-of-the-art denoising algorithms in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality assessment.

  1. Temperature mapping of sunspots and pores from speckle reconstructed three colour photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, P.; Wiehr, E.

    1998-01-01

    The two-dimensional temperature distribution in a highly structured sunspot and in two small umbrae is determined from a three-colour photometry in narrow spectral continua. Disturbing influences from the earth’s atmosphere are removed by speckle masking techniques, yielding a spatial resolution

  2. Speckle Noise Reduction for the Enhancement of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Nowshiravan Rahatabad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important pre-processing steps in optical coherence tomography (OCT is reducing speckle noise, resulting from multiple scattering of tissues, which degrades the quality of OCT images. Materials and Methods The present study focused on speckle noise reduction and edge detection techniques. Statistical filters with different masks and noise variances were applied on OCT and test images. Objective evaluation of both types of images was performed, using various image metrics such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, root mean square error, correlation coefficient and elapsed time. For the purpose of recovery, Kuan filter was used as an input for edge enhancement. Also, a spatial filter was applied to improve image quality. Results The obtained results were presented as statistical tables and images. Based on statistical measures and visual quality of OCT images, Enhanced Lee filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 43.6735 in low noise variance and Kuan filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 37.2850 in high noise variance showed superior performance over other filters. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, by using speckle reduction filters such as Enhanced Lee and Kuan filters on OCT images, the number of compounded images, required to achieve a given image quality, could be reduced. Moreover, use of Kuan filters for promoting the edges allowed smoothing of speckle regions, while preserving image tissue texture.

  3. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a

  4. Superpositions of higher-order bessel beams and nondiffracting speckle fields - (SAIP 2009)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available speckle fields. The paper reports on illuminating a ring slit aperture with light which has an azimuthal phase dependence, such that the field produced is a superposition of two higher-order Bessel beams. In the case that the phase dependence of the light...

  5. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    pattern is formed in the observation plane of the imaging system due to reflection from an area of the object illuminated by a coherent light source. The speckle pattern translates in response to in-plane translation of the object, and the presence of an angular offset reference wave coinciding...

  6. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore.

  7. NESSI and `Alopeke: Two new dual-channel speckle imaging instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    NESSI and `Alopeke are two new speckle imagers built at NASA's Ames Research Center for community use at the WIYN and Gemini telescopes, respectively. The two instruments are functionally similar and include the capability for wide-field imaging in additional to speckle interferometry. The diffraction-limited imaging available through speckle effectively eliminates distortions due to the presence of Earth's atmosphere by `freezing out' changes in the atmosphere by taking extremely short exposures and combining the resultant speckles in Fourier space. This technique enables angular resolutions equal to the theoretical best possible for a given telescope, effectively giving space-based resolution from the ground. Our instruments provide the highest spatial resolution available today on any single aperture telescope.A primary role of these instruments is exoplanet validation for the Kepler, K2, TESS, and many RV programs. Contrast ratios of 6 or more magnitudes are easily obtained. The instrument uses two emCCD cameras providing simultaneous dual-color observations help to characterize detected companions. High resolution imaging enables the identification of blended binaries that contaminate many exoplanet detections, leading to incorrectly measured radii. In this way small, rocky systems, such as Kepler-186b and the TRAPPIST-1 planet family, may be validated and thus the detected planets radii are correctly measured.

  8. Analysis of error functions in speckle shearing interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2001-01-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (ESPSI) or shearography has successfully been used in NDT for slope (∂w/ (∂x and / or (∂w/ (∂y) measurement while strain measurement (∂u/ ∂x, ∂v/ ∂y, ∂u/ ∂y and (∂v/ (∂x) is still under investigation. This method is well accepted in industrial applications especially in the aerospace industry. Demand of this method is increasing due to complexity of the test materials and objects. ESPSI has successfully performed in NDT only for qualitative measurement whilst quantitative measurement is the current aim of many manufacturers. Industrial use of such equipment is being completed without considering the errors arising from numerous sources, including wavefront divergence. The majority of commercial systems are operated with diverging object illumination wave fronts without considering the curvature of the object illumination wavefront or the object geometry, when calculating the interferometer fringe function and quantifying data. This thesis reports the novel approach in quantified maximum phase change difference analysis for derivative out-of-plane (OOP) and in-plane (IP) cases that propagate from the divergent illumination wavefront compared to collimated illumination. The theoretical of maximum phase difference is formulated by means of three dependent variables, these being the object distance, illuminated diameter, center of illuminated area and camera distance and illumination angle. The relative maximum phase change difference that may contributed to the error in the measurement analysis in this scope of research is defined by the difference of maximum phase difference value measured by divergent illumination wavefront relative to the maximum phase difference value of collimated illumination wavefront, taken at the edge of illuminated area. Experimental validation using test objects for derivative out-of-plane and derivative in-plane deformation, using a single illumination wavefront

  9. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND SPECKLE REDUCTION OF FULL POLARIMETRIC SAR DATA BY GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR data in different applications dramatically has been increased. In SAR imagery an interference phenomenon with random behavior exists which is called speckle noise. The interpretation of data encounters some troubles due to the presence of speckle which can be considered as a multiplicative noise affecting all coherent imaging systems. Indeed, speckle degrade radiometric resolution of PolSAR images, therefore it is needful to perform speckle filtering on the SAR data type. Markov Random Field (MRF has proven to be a powerful method for drawing out eliciting contextual information from remotely sensed images. In the present paper, a probability density function (PDF, which is fitted well with the PolSAR data based on the goodness-of-fit test, is first obtained for the pixel-wise analysis. Then the contextual smoothing is achieved with the MRF method. This novel speckle reduction method combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual information for PolSAR data. These two parts of information are combined based on weighted summation of pixel-wise and contextual models. This approach not only preserves edge information in the images, but also improves signal-to-noise ratio of the results. The method maintains the mean value of original signal in the homogenous areas and preserves the edges of features in the heterogeneous regions. Experiments on real medium resolution ALOS data from Tehran, and also high resolution full polarimetric SAR data over the Oberpfaffenhofen test-site in Germany, demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with well-known despeckling methods.

  10. Dynamic laser speckle for non-destructive quality evaluation of bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykova, E.; Ivanov, B.; Shopova, M.; Lyubenova, T.; Panchev, I.; Sainov, V.

    2010-10-01

    Coherent illumination of a diffuse object yields a randomly varying interference pattern, which changes over time at any modification of the object. This phenomenon can be used for detection and visualization of physical or biological activity in various objects (e.g. fruits, seeds, coatings) through statistical description of laser speckle dynamics. The present report aims at non-destructive full-field evaluation of bread by spatial-temporal characterization of laser speckle. The main purpose of the conducted experiments was to prove the ability of the dynamic speckle method to indicate activity within the studied bread samples. In the set-up for acquisition and storage of dynamic speckle patterns an expanded beam from a DPSS laser (532 nm and 100mW) illuminated the sample through a ground glass diffuser. A CCD camera, adjusted to focus the sample, recorded regularly a sequence of images (8 bits and 780 x 582 squared pixels, sized 8.1 × 8.1 μm) at sampling frequency 0.25 Hz. A temporal structure function was calculated to evaluate activity of the bread samples in time using the full images in the sequence. In total, 7 samples of two types of bread were monitored during a chemical and physical process of bread's staling. Segmentation of images into matrixes of isometric fragments was also utilized. The results proved the potential of dynamic speckle as effective means for monitoring the process of bread staling and ability of this approach to differentiate between different types of bread.

  11. Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.

  12. Simulations of x-ray speckle-based dark-field and phase-contrast imaging with a polychromatic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie-christine.zdora@diamond.ac.uk [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Thibault, Pierre [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zanette, Irene [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-21

    Following the first experimental demonstration of x-ray speckle-based multimodal imaging using a polychromatic beam [I. Zanette et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(25), 253903 (2014)], we present a simulation study on the effects of a polychromatic x-ray spectrum on the performance of this technique. We observe that the contrast of the near-field speckles is only mildly influenced by the bandwidth of the energy spectrum. Moreover, using a homogeneous object with simple geometry, we characterize the beam hardening artifacts in the reconstructed transmission and refraction angle images, and we describe how the beam hardening also affects the dark-field signal provided by speckle tracking. This study is particularly important for further implementations and developments of coherent speckle-based techniques at laboratory x-ray sources.

  13. Estimation of individual response in finger blood concentration change under occlusion on human arm using speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Shinohara, Tomomi; Okazaki, Syunya; Funamizu, Hideki; Kyoso, Masaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-01

    We have developed the method for imaging blood flow and blood concentration change by using laser speckle in fiber illumination. We experimentally discuss the relationship of blood occlusion condition and individual response of blood concentration change measured by the method.

  14. Airplane wing deformation and flight flutter detection method by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yu, Zhijing; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang; Ji, Yue; Xue, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Airplane wing deformation is an important element of aerodynamic characteristics, structure design, and fatigue analysis for aircraft manufacturing, as well as a main test content of certification regarding flutter for airplanes. This paper presents a novel real-time detection method for wing deformation and flight flutter detection by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. Speckle patterns whose positions are determined through the vibration characteristic of the aircraft are coated on the wing; then the speckle patterns are imaged by CCD cameras which are mounted inside the aircraft cabin. In order to reduce the computation, a matching technique based on Geodetic Systems Incorporated coded points combined with the classical epipolar constraint is proposed, and a displacement vector map for the aircraft wing can be obtained through comparing the coordinates of speckle points before and after deformation. Finally, verification experiments containing static and dynamic tests by using an aircraft wing model demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Spectral OCT with speckle contrast reduction for evaluation of the healing process after PRK and transepithelial PRK

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bukowska, Danuta M.; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate Spectral OCT (SOCT) with a speckle contrast reduction technique using resonant scanner for assessment of corneal surface changes after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and we compare healing process between conventional PRK and transepithelial PRK. The measurements were performed before and after the surgery. Obtained results show that SOCT with a resonant scanner speckle contrast reduction is capable of providing information regarding the healing process after PRK....

  16. Close Binary Star Speckle Interferometry on the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Edward; Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Branston, Detrick; Boyce, Patrick; Rowe, David; Ridgely, John; Estrada, Reed; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Observations were made in April 2014 to assess the utility of the 0.8-meter solar telescope at the McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory for performing speckle interferometry observations of close binary stars. Several configurations using science cameras, acquisition cameras, eyepieces, and flip mirrors were evaluated. Speckle images were obtained and recommendations for further improvement of the acquisition system are presented.

  17. Application of virtual phase-shifting speckle-interferometry for detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.

    2018-04-01

    Method of phase-shifting speckle-interferometry has been used as a new tool with high potency for modern bioinformatics. Virtual phase-shifting speckle-interferometry has been applied for detection of polymorphism in the of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene. It has been shown, that suggested method is very sensitive to natural genetic mutations as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Effectiveness of proposed method has been compared with effectiveness of the newest bioinformatic tools, based on nucleotide sequence alignment.

  18. Changes in speckle patterns induced by load application onto an optical fiber and its possible application for sensing purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Okumura, Jyun-ya; Hyuga, Akio

    2015-08-01

    Speckle patterns to be observed in an output light spot from an optical fiber are known to be changed due to external disturbances applied onto the optical fiber. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing such changes in speckle patterns for sensing application, a certain load was applied onto a jacket-covered communication-grade multi-mode glass optical fiber through which laser beams emitted from a laser diode were propagating, and observed changes in speckle patterns in the output light spot from the optical fiber were investigated both as image data via a CCD camera and as an output voltage from a photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot. The load was applied via a load application mechanism in which several ridges were provided onto opposite flat plates and a certain number of weights were placed there so that corrugated bending of the optical fiber was intentionally induced via load application due to the ridges. The obtained results showed that the number of speckles in the observed pattern in the output light spot as well as the output voltage from the photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot showed decreases upon load application with relatively satisfactory repeatability. When the load was reduced, i.e., the weights were removed, the number of speckles then showed recovery. These results indicate there is a certain possibility of utilizing changes in speckle patterns for sensing of load application onto the optical fiber.

  19. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S.R.; Perkins, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water fights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  20. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  1. Intraspecies variation in the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus simus from Mexico: different expression of crotoxin results in highly variable toxicity in the venoms of three subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Edgar Neri; Lomonte, Bruno; del Carmen Gutiérrez, María; Alagón, Alejandro; Gutiérrez, José María

    2013-07-11

    The composition and toxicological profile of the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus simus in Mexico was analyzed at the subspecies and individual levels. Venoms of the subspecies C. s. simus, C. s. culminatus and C. s. tzabcan greatly differ in the expression of the heterodimeric neurotoxin complex 'crotoxin', with highest concentrations in C. s. simus, followed by C. s. tzabcan, whereas the venom of C. s. culminatus is almost devoid of this neurotoxic PLA2. This explains the large variation in lethality (highest in C. s. simus, which also exerts higher myotoxicity). Coagulant activity on plasma and fibrinogen occurs with the venoms of C. s. simus and C. s. tzabcan, being absent in C. s. culminatus which, in turn, presents higher crotamine-like activity. Proteomic analysis closely correlates with toxicological profiles, since the venom of C. s. simus has high amounts of crotoxin and of serine proteinases, whereas the venom of C. s. culminatus presents higher amounts of metalloproteinases and crotamine. This complex pattern of intraspecies venom variation provides valuable information for the diagnosis and clinical management of envenoming by this species in Mexico, as well as for the preparation of venom pools for the production and quality control of antivenoms. This study describes the variation in venom composition and activities of the three subspecies of Crotalus simus from Mexico. Results demonstrate that there is a notorious difference in these venoms, particularly regarding the content of the potent neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex 'crotoxin'. In addition, other differences were observed regarding myotoxic and coagulant activities, and expression of the myotoxin 'crotamine'. These findings have implications in, at least, three levels: (a) the adaptive role of variations in venom composition; (b) the possible differences in the clinical manifestations of envenomings by these subspecies in Mexico; and (c) the design of venom mixtures for the preparation of

  2. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  3. Patterns of circulating corticosterone in a population of rattlesnakes afflicted with snake fungal disease: Stress hormones as a potential mediator of seasonal cycles in disease severity and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Akçay, Çağlar; Vernasco, Ben J.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2018-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes. To test the hypothesis that SFD is associated with increased HPA activity and to identify potential environmental or physiological drivers of seasonal infection, we monitored baseline corticosterone, SFD infection severity, foraging success, body condition, and reproductive status in a field-active population of pigmy rattlesnakes. Both plasma corticosterone and the severity of clinical signs of SFD peaked in the winter. Corticosterone levels were also elevated in the fall before the seasonal rise in SFD severity. Severely symptomatic snakes were in low body condition and had elevated corticosterone levels compared to moderately infected and uninfected snakes. The monthly mean severity of SFD in the population was negatively related to population-wide estimates of body condition and temperature measured in the precedent month and positively correlated with corticosterone levels measured in the precedent month. Symptomatic females were less likely to enter reproductive bouts compared to asymptomatic females. We propose the hypothesis that the seasonal interplay among environment, host energetics, and HPA activity initiates trade-offs in the fall that drive the increase in SFD prevalence, symptom severity, and decline in condition observed in the population through winter.

  4. Activity cycles and foraging behaviors of free-ranging sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes): the ontogeny of hunting in a precocial vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Dorr, Scott W; Whitford, Malachi D; Freymiller, Grace A; Putman, Breanna J

    2016-06-01

    Predators often employ a complex series of behaviors to overcome antipredator defenses and effectively capture prey. Although hunting behaviors can improve with age and experience, many precocial species are necessarily effective predators from birth. Additionally, many predators experience innate ontogenetic shifts in predatory strategies as they grow, allowing them to adapt to prey more appropriate for their increased size and energetic needs. Understanding how the relative roles of innate age-specific adaptation and learning have evolved requires information on how predation behavior develops in situ, in free-ranging predators. However, most of the research on the ontogeny of predation behavior is based on laboratory studies of captive animals, largely due to the difficulty of following newborn individuals in nature. Here, we take advantage of the unique tracks left by juveniles of a precocial viperid, the sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), which we used to follow free-ranging snakes in the field. We recorded details of their ambush hunting behavior, and compared the behaviors of these juveniles to adult snakes that we monitored in the field via radio telemetry. Although juvenile and adult behaviors were similar in most respects, we did find that adults chose more effective ambush sites, which may be due to their increased experience. We also found that juveniles (but typically not adults) perform periodic tail undulations while in ambush, and that juveniles displayed slightly different activity cycles. Both of these latter differences are likely the result of age-specific adaptations for juveniles' greater reliance on lizards versus small mammals as prey. We also compared the general predatory behavior of sidewinders to that of other species in the genus Crotalus. These findings will provide important baseline field information for more detailed empirical research on the ontogeny of predation behavior in precocial vertebrates. Copyright © 2016

  5. Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [ed.

    1995-09-22

    Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

  6. Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar Perumal Samy

    Full Text Available Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW, and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. CaTx-II was not cytotoxic on lung (MRC-5, skin fibroblast (HEPK cells and in mice. CaTx-II-treated mice showed significant wound closure and complete healing by 16 days as compared to untreated controls (**P<0.01. Histological examination revealed enhanced collagen synthesis and neovascularization after treatment with CaTx-II versus 2% Fusidic Acid ointment (FAO treated controls. Measurement of tissue cytokines revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β expression in CaTx-II treated mice was significantly suppressed versus untreated controls. In contrast, cytokines involved in wound healing and cell migration i.e., monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-b, chemokine (KC, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF were significantly enhanced in CaTx-II treated mice, but not in the controls. CaTx-II also modulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation during skin wound healing. The CaTx-II protein highlights distinct snake proteins as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents with significant therapeutic application for bacterial skin infections.

  7. Development of principles of two-cascaded laser speckle-microscopy with implication to high-precision express diagnostics of chlamydial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega; Moiseeva, Yulia; Filonova, Nadezhda; Subbotina, Irina; Zaitsev, Sergey; Saltykov, Yury; Polyanina, Tatiana; Lyapina, Anna; Ulyanov, Sergey; Larionova, Olga; Utz, Sergey; Feodorova, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Principles of two-cascaded laser speckle-microscopy prospect for application to express diagnostics of chlamydial infection are developed. Prototype of two-cascaded speckle-microscope is designed and tested. Specific case of illumination of bacterial cells by dynamic speckles is considered. Express method of detection of epithelial cells, containing defects, which are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria, is suggested. Results of improved recognition of C. trachomatis bacteria are discussed.

  8. Integration of instrumentation and processing software of a laser speckle contrast imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Jacob J.

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has the potential to be a powerful tool in medicine, but more research in the field is required so it can be used properly. To help in the progression of Michigan Tech's research in the field, a graphical user interface (GUI) was designed in Matlab to control the instrumentation of the experiments as well as process the raw speckle images into contrast images while they are being acquired. The design of the system was successful and is currently being used by Michigan Tech's Biomedical Engineering department. This thesis describes the development of the LSCI GUI as well as offering a full introduction into the history, theory and applications of LSCI.

  9. KNOW THE STAR, KNOW THE PLANET. II. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak; Subasavage, John P.; Roberts, Lewis C.; Turner, Nils H.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the host stars to exoplanets is important for understanding their environment. To that end, we report new speckle observations of a sample of exoplanet host primaries. The bright exoplanet host HD 8673 (= HIP 6702) is revealed to have a companion, although at this time we cannot definitively establish the companion as physical or optical. The observing lists for planet searches and for these observations have for the most part been pre-screened for known duplicity, so the detected binary fraction is lower than what would otherwise be expected. Therefore, a large number of double stars were observed contemporaneously for verification and quality control purposes, to ensure that the lack of detection of companions for exoplanet hosts was valid. In these additional observations, 10 pairs are resolved for the first time and 60 pairs are confirmed. These observations were obtained with the USNO speckle camera on the NOAO 4 m telescopes at both KPNO and CTIO from 2001 to 2010.

  10. Impact of atmospheric turbulence on Van Cittert-Zernike speckle cell area estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of laser beam propagation at 3.5 microns wavelength through atmospheric turbulence are used to characterize on-target irradiance profiles and the Van Cittert-Zemike speckle cell areas associated therewith. Results for a 3 km horizontal path with C N 2 values between 2.5 x 10 -14 and 5 x 10 -13 m -2/3 are compared with those for a 20 km near-vertical slant path for a C N 2 versus altitude with a near-ground value of 5 x 10 --13 m -2/3 and a Huffnagel-Valley type shape. The irradiance fluctuations for the slant path are much smaller than for the shorter horizontal path. The speckle cell area for the slant path is approximately the vacuum-path value; for the 3 km horizontal path it is at most 3 times the vacuum-path value

  11. Holographic interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology for 3D deformations in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Kemper, Björn; Kröger, Elke; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical loading of dental restorations and hard tissue is often investigated numerically. For validation and optimization of such simulations, comparisons with measured deformations are essential. We combine digital holographic interferometry and digital speckle photography for the determination of microscopic deformations with a photogrammetric method that is based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. This multimodal workstation allows the simultaneous acquisition of the specimen's macroscopic 3D shape and thus a quantitative comparison of measured deformations with simulation data. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of our system, two applications are presented: the quantitative determination of (1) the deformation of a mandible model due to mechanical loading of an inserted dental implant and of (2) the deformation of a (dental) bridge model under mechanical loading. The results were compared with data from finite element analyses of the investigated applications. The experimental results showed close agreement with those of the simulations.

  12. A Study on Residual Stress Measurements by Using Laser Speckle Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Kyung Wan; Kang, Young June; Hong, Seong Jin; Kang, Hyung Soo

    1999-01-01

    Residual stress is one of the causes which make defects in engineering components and materials. And interest in the measurement of residual stress exists in many industries. There are commonly used methods by which residual stresses are currently measured. But these methods have a little demerits: time consumption and other problems. Therefore we devised a new experimental technique to measure residual stress in materials with a combination of laser speckle pattern interferometry, finite element method and spot heating. The speckle pattern interferometer measures in-plane deformations while the heating provides for very localized stress relief. FEM is used for determining heat temperature and other parameters. The residual stresses are determined by the amount of strain that is measured subsequent to the heating and cool-down of the region being interrogated. A simple model is presented to provide a description of the method. In this paper, the ambiguity problem for the fringe patterns has solved by a phase shifting method

  13. Local scattering property scales flow speed estimation in laser speckle contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Peng; Chao, Zhen; Feng, Shihan; Ji, Yuanyuan; Yu, Hang; Thakor, Nitish V; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has been widely used in in vivo blood flow imaging. However, the effect of local scattering property (scattering coefficient µ s ) on blood flow speed estimation has not been well investigated. In this study, such an effect was quantified and involved in relation between speckle autocorrelation time τ c and flow speed v based on simulation flow experiments. For in vivo blood flow imaging, an improved estimation strategy was developed to eliminate the estimation bias due to the inhomogeneous distribution of the scattering property. Compared to traditional LSCI, a new estimation method significantly suppressed the imaging noise and improves the imaging contrast of vasculatures. Furthermore, the new method successfully captured the blood flow changes and vascular constriction patterns in rats’ cerebral cortex from normothermia to mild and moderate hypothermia. (letter)

  14. A Nonlinear Diffusion Equation-Based Model for Ultrasound Speckle Noise Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Zhichang; Zhang, Dazhi; Wu, Boying

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound images are contaminated by speckle noise, which brings difficulties in further image analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we address this problem in the view of nonlinear diffusion equation theories. We develop a nonlinear diffusion equation-based model by taking into account not only the gradient information of the image, but also the information of the gray levels of the image. By utilizing the region indicator as the variable exponent, we can adaptively control the diffusion type which alternates between the Perona-Malik diffusion and the Charbonnier diffusion according to the image gray levels. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed model with respect to the theoretical and numerical properties. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves much better speckle suppression and edge preservation when compared with the traditional despeckling methods, especially in the low gray level and low-contrast regions.

  15. CCD SPECKLE OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE WIYN TELESCOPE. VI. MEASURES DURING 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Anderson, Lisa M.; DeSousa, Michael D.; Miniter, Craig M.; Ahmed, Tasmia; Falta, David; Van Altena, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Results of 974 speckle observations of 546 binary stars are presented. Observations were obtained at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory during the time interval from 2007 January to 2008 June. In all cases, the relative separation and position angle of the components are measured, and the magnitude difference is determined in 809 cases. The precision of the results as judged from repeat observations and objects with very well-determined orbits is similar to previous papers in this series, namely ∼3 mas in separation and <1 deg. in position angle in most cases. Similarly, the photometric precision remains consistent with previous WIYN speckle data, on average ∼0.1 mag per observation. Six systems of special interest are discussed.

  16. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  17. Speckle-illuminated fluorescence confocal microscopy, using a digital micro-mirror device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shi-Hong; Walker, John G

    2009-01-01

    An implementation of a speckle-illuminated fluorescence confocal microscope using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is described. The DMD not only projects a sequence of imaged binary speckle patterns onto the specimen at a very high frame rate but also operates as a spatial light modulator to perform real-time optical data processing. Frame averaging is accomplished by CCD charge accumulation during a single exposure. The recorded time-averaged image is a confocal image plus an unwanted non-confocal image which can be removed by recording a separate image. Experimental results with image acquisition within a fraction of a second are shown. Images of a thin biological sample are also shown to demonstrate practical application of the technique

  18. A Speckle survey of Southern Hipparcos Visual Doubles and Geneva-Copenhagen Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, R. A.; Tokovinin, A.; Horch, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present a speckle survey of Hipparcos visual doubles and spectroscopic binary stars identified by the Geneva-Copenhagen spectroscopic survey with the SOAR 4m telescope + HRCam. These systems represent our best chance to take advantage of Gaia parallaxes for the purpose of stellar mass determinations. Many of these systems already have mass fractions (although generally no spectroscopic orbit - an astrometric orbit will determine individual masses), metallicity information, and Hipparcos distances. They will be used to improve our knowledge of the mass-luminosity relation, particularly for lower-metallicity stars. Our survey will create the first all-sky, volume-limited, speckle archive for the two primary samples, complementing a similar effort that has been recently been completed at the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. This extension to the Southern Hemisphere will fill out the picture for a wider metallicity range.

  19. The mechanical measurement for reactor grid spacers by the laser speckle photography methd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoping; Chen Shitong.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the process of displacement, which was measured by laser speckle photography method, of reactor grid spacers during the vertical loading time. (from starting loading up to buckling). The internal forces and critical stresses were calculated by measured displacement. The effect of initial processed eccentric was considered by adding an internal force. The value of theoretical buckling load was in good agreement with the experimental result

  20. Kalman filtering techniques for reducing variance of digital speckle displacement measurement noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ Target dynamics are assumed to be known in measuring digital speckle displacement. Use is made of a simple measurement equation, where measurement noise represents the effect of disturbances introduced in measurement process. From these assumptions, Kalman filter can be designed to reduce variance of measurement noise. An optical and analysis system was set up, by which object motion with constant displacement and constant velocity is experimented with to verify validity of Kalman filtering techniques for reduction of measurement noise variance.

  1. Analysis of Minute Features in Speckled Imagery with Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro C. Frery

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with numerical problems arising when performing maximum likelihood parameter estimation in speckled imagery using small samples. The noise that appears in images obtained with coherent illumination, as is the case of sonar, laser, ultrasound-B, and synthetic aperture radar, is called speckle, and it can neither be assumed Gaussian nor additive. The properties of speckle noise are well described by the multiplicative model, a statistical framework from which stem several important distributions. Amongst these distributions, one is regarded as the universal model for speckled data, namely, the 𝒢0 law. This paper deals with amplitude data, so the 𝒢A0 distribution will be used. The literature reports that techniques for obtaining estimates (maximum likelihood, based on moments and on order statistics of the parameters of the 𝒢A0 distribution require samples of hundreds, even thousands, of observations in order to obtain sensible values. This is verified for maximum likelihood estimation, and a proposal based on alternate optimization is made to alleviate this situation. The proposal is assessed with real and simulated data, showing that the convergence problems are no longer present. A Monte Carlo experiment is devised to estimate the quality of maximum likelihood estimators in small samples, and real data is successfully analyzed with the proposed alternated procedure. Stylized empirical influence functions are computed and used to choose a strategy for computing maximum likelihood estimates that is resistant to outliers.

  2. Speckle tracking analysis: a new tool for left atrial function analysis in systemic hypertension: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Ciccone, Marco M; Maiello, Maria; Modesti, Pietro A; Muiesan, Maria L; Scicchitano, Pietro; Novo, Salvatore; Palmiero, Pasquale; Saba, Pier S; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is an imaging technique applied to the analysis of left atrial function. STE provides a non-Doppler, angle-independent and objective quantification of left atrial myocardial deformation. Data regarding feasibility, accuracy and clinical applications of left atrial strain are rapidly gathering. This review describes the fundamental concepts of left atrial STE, illustrates its pathophysiological background and discusses its emerging role in systemic arterial hypertension.

  3. Waveguide generated mitigation of speckle and scintillation on an actively illuminated target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Trevor D.; Raynor, Robert A.; Spencer, Mark F.; Schmidt, Jason D.

    2016-09-01

    Active illumination is often used when passive illumination cannot produce enough signal intensity to be a reliable imaging method. However, an increase in signal intensity is often achieved by using highly coherent laser sources, which produce undesirable effects such as speckle and scintillation. The deleterious effects of speckle and scintillation are often so immense that the imaging camera cannot receive intelligible data, thereby rendering the active illumination technique useless. By reducing the spatial coherence of the laser beam that is actively illuminating the object, it is possible to reduce the corruption of the received data caused by speckle and scintillation. The waveguide method discussed in this paper reduces spatial coherence through multiple total internal reflections, which create multiple virtual sources of diverse path lengths. The differing path lengths between the virtual sources and the target allow for the temporal coherence properties of the laser to be translated into spatial coherence properties. The resulting partial spatial coherence helps to mitigate the self-interference of the beam as it travels through the atmosphere and reflects off of optically rough targets. This mitigation method results in a cleaner, intelligible image that may be further processed for the intended use, unlike its unmitigated counterpart. Previous research has been done to independently reduce speckle or scintillation by way of spatial incoherence, but there has been no focus on modeling the waveguide, specifically the image plane the waveguide creates. Utilizing a ray-tracing method we can determine the coherence length of the source necessary to create incoherent spots in the image plane, as well as accurately modeling the image plane.

  4. Real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: technical aspects and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorrentino R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regina Sorrentino, Roberta Esposito, Enrica Pezzullo, Maurizio Galderisi Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Interdepartmental Laboratory of Cardiac Imaging, Federico II University Hospital, Naples, Italy Abstract: Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D STE is a novel technique for the quantification of cardiac deformation based on tracking of ultrasonic speckles in gray scale full-volume 3D images. Developments in ultrasound technologies have made 3D speckle tracking widely available. Two-dimensional echocardiography has intrinsic limitations regarding estimation of left ventricular (LV volumes, ejection fraction, and LV mechanics, due to its inherent foreshortening errors and dependency on geometric models. The development of 3D echocardiography has improved reproducibility and accuracy. Data regarding the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical applications of 3D STE are rapidly assembling. From the tracking results, 3D STE derives several parameters, including longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain, as well as a combined assessment of longitudinal and circumferential strain, termed area strain. 3D STE can also quantify LV rotational movements such as rotation, twist, and torsion. 3D STE provides a better insight on global and regional myocardial deformation. Main applications include detection of subclinical myocardial involvement in heart failure, arterial hypertension, dyssynchrony, and ischemic heart disease. Emerging areas of application include a large spectrum of heart-involving systemic conditions, such as prediction of rejection in heart transplant patients, early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer, and deeper physiological understanding of LV contraction mechanics in different types of athletes. Aim of this review is to discuss background, technical acquisition and processing aspects as well as recognized and developing clinical applications of this emerging

  5. Speckle correlation resolution enhancement of wide-field fluorescence imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Structured illumination enables high-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanostructures [1]. We demonstrate a new high-resolution fluorescence imaging method that uses a scattering layer with a high-index substrate as a solid immersion lens [2]. Random scattering of coherent light enables a speckle pattern with a very fine structure that illuminates the fluorescent nanospheres on the back surface of the high-index substrate. The speckle pattern is raster-scanned over the fluorescent nanospheres using a speckle correlation effect known as the optical memory effect. A series of standard-resolution fluorescence images per each speckle pattern displacement are recorded by an electron-multiplying CCD camera using a commercial microscope objective. We have developed a new phase-retrieval algorithm to reconstruct a high-resolution, wide-field image from several standard-resolution wide-field images. We have introduced phase information of Fourier components of standard-resolution images as a new constraint in our algorithm which discards ambiguities therefore ensures convergence to a unique solution. We demonstrate two-dimensional fluorescence images of a collection of nanospheres with a deconvolved Abbe resolution of 116 nm and a field of view of 10 µm × 10 µm. Our method is robust against optical aberrations and stage drifts, therefore excellent for imaging nanostructures under ambient conditions. [1] M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82-87 (2000). [2] H. Yilmaz, E. G. van Putten, J. Bertolotti, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Optica 2, 424-429 (2015).

  6. Speckle reduction process based on digital filtering and wavelet compounding in optical coherence tomography for dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valverde, Juan J.; Ortuño, Juan E.; Guerra, Pedro; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Rubio-Guivernau, José L.; Santos, Andrés.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we propose a new speckle reduction process and compare it with various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential, using several sets of dermatological OCT B-scans. To validate the performance we used a custom-designed spectral domain OCT and two different data set groups. The first group consisted in five datasets of a single B-scan captured N times (with N<20), the second were five 3D volumes of 25 Bscans. As quality metrics we used signal to noise (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR) and equivalent number of looks (ENL) ratios. Our results show that a process based on a combination of a 2D enhanced sigma digital filter and a wavelet compounding method achieves the best results in terms of the improvement of the quality metrics. In the first group of individual B-scans we achieved improvements in SNR, CNR and ENL of 16.87 dB, 2.19 and 328 respectively; for the 3D volume datasets the improvements were 15.65 dB, 3.44 and 1148. Our results suggest that the proposed enhancement process may significantly reduce speckle, increasing SNR, CNR and ENL and reducing the number of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

  7. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-08-01

    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  8. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography based on adaptive 2D dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongli; Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming; Zhai, Lin

    2018-05-01

    As a high-resolution biomedical imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in medical sciences. However, OCT images often suffer from speckle noise, which can mask some important image information, and thus reduce the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Taking full advantage of nonlocal self-similarity and adaptive 2D-dictionary-based sparse representation, in this work, a speckle noise reduction algorithm is proposed for despeckling OCT images. To reduce speckle noise while preserving local image features, similar nonlocal patches are first extracted from the noisy image and put into groups using a gamma- distribution-based block matching method. An adaptive 2D dictionary is then learned for each patch group. Unlike traditional vector-based sparse coding, we express each image patch by the linear combination of a few matrices. This image-to-matrix method can exploit the local correlation between pixels. Since each image patch might belong to several groups, the despeckled OCT image is finally obtained by aggregating all filtered image patches. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art despeckling methods, in terms of objective metrics and visual inspection.

  9. Singular trajectories: space-time domain topology of developing speckle fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, Vasiliy; Soskin, Marat S.

    2010-02-01

    It is shown the space-time dynamics of optical singularities is fully described by singularities trajectories in space-time domain, or evolution of transverse coordinates(x, y) in some fixed plane z0. The dynamics of generic developing speckle fields was realized experimentally by laser induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe photorefractive crystal. The space-time trajectories of singularities can be divided topologically on two classes with essentially different scenario and duration. Some of them (direct topological reactions) consist from nucleation of singularities pair at some (x, y, z0, t) point, their movement and annihilation. They possess form of closed loops with relatively short time of existence. Another much more probable class of trajectories are chain topological reactions. Each of them consists from sequence of links, i.e. of singularities nucleation in various points (xi yi, ti) and following annihilation of both singularities in other space-time points with alien singularities of opposite topological indices. Their topology and properties are established. Chain topological reactions can stop on the borders of a developing speckle field or go to infinity. Examples of measured both types of topological reactions for optical vortices (polarization C points) in scalar (elliptically polarized) natural developing speckle fields are presented.

  10. Estudo da Mecânica Cardíaca pelo Speckle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Donadio Abduch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speckles, ou marcadores naturais do miocárdio, originam se da interferência construtiva e destrutiva do feixe de ultrassom que incide sobre os tecidos, podem fornecer um diagnóstico precoce das alterações miocárdicas e atuar na predição de certos eventos cardíacos. Devido à sua relativa estabilidade temporal, os speckles podem ser rastreados durante o ciclo cardíaco por software dedicados, promovendo a análise da função sistólica e diastólica. São identificados tanto pela escala de cinza da ecocardiografia 2D convencional quanto pela ecocardiografia 3D, sendo independentes do ângulo de incidência do ultrassom, permitindo assim a avaliação da mecânica cardíaca nos três planos espaciais: longitudinal, circunferencial e radial. O objetivo do presente artigo é discutir o papel e o significado da deformação cardíaca obtida por meio do speckle tracking durante a avaliação da fisiologia cardíaca, e discutir as aplicações clínicas desta tecnologia ecocardiográfica inovadora.

  11. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Fayet, Annette L.; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits. PMID:22815730

  12. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Cloutier, Guy; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging. (paper)

  13. Clinical utility of speckle-tracking echocardiography in cardiac resynchronisation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sitara G; Klettas, Dimitris; Kapetanakis, Stam; Monaghan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) can profoundly improve outcome in selected patients with heart failure; however, response is difficult to predict and can be absent in up to one in three patients. There has been a substantial amount of interest in the echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular dyssynchrony, with the ultimate aim of reliably identifying patients who will respond to CRT. The measurement of myocardial deformation (strain) has conventionally been assessed using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), which is limited by its angle dependence and ability to measure in a single plane. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a technique that provides measurements of strain in three planes, by tracking patterns of ultrasound interference ('speckles') in the myocardial wall throughout the cardiac cycle. Since its initial use over 15 years ago, it has emerged as a tool that provides more robust, reproducible and sensitive markers of dyssynchrony than TDI. This article reviews the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in the assessment of dyssynchrony, including the identification of echocardiographic parameters that may hold predictive potential for the response to CRT. It also reviews the application of these techniques in guiding optimal LV lead placement pre-implant, with promising results in clinical improvement post-CRT. © 2016 The authors.

  14. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  15. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  16. Strain measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysm with real-time 3D ultrasound speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, P; Shelke, A; Nwe, T H; Mularczyk, M; Nelson, K; Schmandra, T; Knez, P; Schmitz-Rixen, T

    2013-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is caused by mechanical vascular tissue failure. Although mechanical properties within the aneurysm vary, currently available ultrasound methods assess only one cross-sectional segment of the aorta. This study aims to establish real-time 3-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking ultrasound to explore local displacement and strain parameters of the whole abdominal aortic aneurysm. Validation was performed on a silicone aneurysm model, perfused in a pulsatile artificial circulatory system. Wall motion of the silicone model was measured simultaneously with a commercial real-time 3D speckle tracking ultrasound system and either with laser-scan micrometry or with video photogrammetry. After validation, 3D ultrasound data were collected from abdominal aortic aneurysms of five patients and displacement and strain parameters were analysed. Displacement parameters measured in vitro by 3D ultrasound and laser scan micrometer or video analysis were significantly correlated at pulse pressures between 40 and 80 mmHg. Strong local differences in displacement and strain were identified within the aortic aneurysms of patients. Local wall strain of the whole abdominal aortic aneurysm can be analysed in vivo with real-time 3D ultrasound speckle tracking imaging, offering the prospect of individual non-invasive rupture risk analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SPECKLE CAMERA OBSERVATIONS FOR THE NASA KEPLER MISSION FOLLOW-UP PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Ciardi, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results from a speckle imaging survey of stars classified as candidate exoplanet host stars discovered by the Kepler mission. We use speckle imaging to search for faint companions or closely aligned background stars that could contribute flux to the Kepler light curves of their brighter neighbors. Background stars are expected to contribute significantly to the pool of false positive candidate transiting exoplanets discovered by the Kepler mission, especially in the case that the faint neighbors are eclipsing binary stars. Here, we describe our Kepler follow-up observing program, the speckle imaging camera used, our data reduction, and astrometric and photometric performance. Kepler stars range from R = 8 to 16 and our observations attempt to provide background non-detection limits 5-6 mag fainter and binary separations of ∼0.05-2.0 arcsec. We present data describing the relative brightness, separation, and position angles for secondary sources, as well as relative plate limits for non-detection of faint nearby stars around each of 156 target stars. Faint neighbors were found near 10 of the stars.

  18. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell Stoddard

    Full Text Available Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.

  19. Acute myocarditis with normal wall motion detected with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sturmberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 26-year-old male with acute tonsillitis who was referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and biphasic T waves. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factors. Echocardiography showed no wall motion abnormalities and no pericardial effusion. 2D speckle tracking revealed distinct decreased regional peak longitudinal systolic strain in the lateral and posterior walls. Ischemic disease was extremely unlikely in view of his young age, negative family history regarding coronary artery disease, and lack of regional wall motion abnormalities on the conventional 2D echocardiogram. Coronary angiography was deferred as myocarditis was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance tomography (MRT was performed, showing subepicardial delayed hyperenhancement in the lateral and posterior walls correlating closely with the strain pattern obtained by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. With a working diagnosis of acute myocarditis associated with acute tonsillitis, we prescribed antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient’s clinical signs resolved along with normalization of serum creatine kinase (CK levels, and the patient was discharged on the third day after admission. Learning points: • Acute myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndromes. • Conventional 2D echocardiography lacks specific features for detection of subtle regional wall motion abnormalities. • 2D speckle tracking expands the scope of echocardiography in identifying myocardial dysfunction derived from edema in acute myocarditis.

  20. Non-moving Hadamard matrix diffusers for speckle reduction in laser pico-projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Weston; Middlebrook, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Personal electronic devices such as cell phones and tablets continue to decrease in size while the number of features and add-ons keep increasing. One particular feature of great interest is an integrated projector system. Laser pico-projectors have been considered, but the technology has not been developed enough to warrant integration. With new advancements in diode technology and MEMS devices, laser-based projection is currently being advanced for pico-projectors. A primary problem encountered when using a pico-projector is coherent interference known as speckle. Laser speckle can lead to eye irritation and headaches after prolonged viewing. Diffractive optical elements known as diffusers have been examined as a means to lower speckle contrast. This paper presents a binary diffuser known as a Hadamard matrix diffuser. Using two static in-line Hadamard diffusers eliminates the need for rotation or vibration of the diffuser for temporal averaging. Two Hadamard diffusers were fabricated and contrast values measured showing good agreement with theory and simulated values.

  1. Algorithmic processing of intrinsic signals in affixed transmission speckle analysis (ATSA) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghijsen, Michael T.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-03-01

    Affixed Transmission Speckle Analysis (ATSA) is a method recently developed to measure blood flow that is based on laser speckle imaging miniaturized into a clip-on form factor the size of a pulse-oximeter. Measuring at a rate of 250 Hz, ATSA is capable or obtaining the cardiac waveform in blood flow data, referred to as the Speckle-Plethysmogram (SPG). ATSA is also capable of simultaneously measuring the Photoplethysmogram (PPG), a more conventional signal related to light intensity. In this work we present several novel algorithms for extracting physiologically relevant information from the combined SPG-PPG waveform data. First we show that there is a slight time-delay between the SPG and PPG that can be extracted computationally. Second, we present a set of frequency domain algorithms that measure harmonic content on pulse-by-pulse basis for both the SPG and PPG. Finally, we apply these algorithms to data obtained from a set of subjects including healthy controls and individuals with heightened cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that the time-delay and frequency content are correlated with cardiovascular health; specifically with vascular stiffening.

  2. Evaluation of Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Chronic Asymptomatic Alcoholics by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murathan Kucuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, we aimed to investigate the structural and functional changes on myocardium in chronic asymptomatic alcoholics without any cardiovascular disease. Forty-one consecutive asymptomatic male alcoholics who were admitted to the outpatient alcoholism unit and 30 age matched healthy male volunteers selected as the control group were enrolled in the study. The study group were investigated by using standard two-dimensional echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography. The left ventricular (LV global longitudinal strain and LV global circumferential strain were significantly lower in alcoholics when compared with control subjects. There was no difference in global radial strain between the two groups. To demonstrate the effect of total life time dose of ethanol (TLDE on echocardiographic abnormalities, we assessed the correlation analysis. There was a nonsignificant weak correlation between global LV circumferential strain and TLDE (r=0.27, p=0.083. Speckle tracking echocardiography derived left ventricular systolic function was impaired in chronic alcoholic patients when compared with healthy controls.

  3. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging.

  4. The MUC1 extracellular domain subunit is found in nuclear speckles and associates with spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available MUC1 is a large transmembrane glycoprotein and oncogene expressed by epithelial cells and overexpressed and underglycosylated in cancer cells. The MUC1 cytoplasmic subunit (MUC1-C can translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression. It is frequently assumed that the MUC1 extracellular subunit (MUC1-N does not enter the nucleus. Based on an unexpected observation that MUC1 extracellular domain antibody produced an apparently nucleus-associated staining pattern in trophoblasts, we have tested the hypothesis that MUC1-N is expressed inside the nucleus. Three different antibodies were used to identify MUC1-N in normal epithelial cells and tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The results of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analyses as well as subcellular fractionation, Western blotting, and siRNA/shRNA studies, confirm that MUC1-N is found within nuclei of all cell types examined. More detailed examination of its intranuclear distribution using a proximity ligation assay, subcellular fractionation, and immunoprecipitation suggests that MUC1-N is located in nuclear speckles (interchromatin granule clusters and closely associates with the spliceosome protein U2AF65. Nuclear localization of MUC1-N was abolished when cells were treated with RNase A and nuclear localization was altered when cells were incubated with the transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-b-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB. While MUC1-N predominantly associated with speckles, MUC1-C was present in the nuclear matrix, nucleoli, and the nuclear periphery. In some nuclei, confocal microscopic analysis suggest that MUC1-C staining is located close to, but only partially overlaps, MUC1-N in speckles. However, only MUC1-N was found in isolated speckles by Western blotting. Also, MUC1-C and MUC1-N distributed differently during mitosis. These results suggest that MUC1-N translocates to the nucleus where it is expressed in nuclear speckles and that MUC1-N and MUC

  5. DEPENDENCE OF THE SPECKLE-PATTERNS SIZE AND THEIR CONTRAST ON THE BIOPHYSICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Abramovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle fields are widely used in optical diagnostics of biotissues and evaluation of the functional state of bioobjects. The speckle field is formed by laser radiation scattered from the object under study. It bears information about the average dimensions of the scatterers, the degree of surface roughness makes it possible to judge the structural and biophysical characteristics of individual tissue cells (particles, on the one hand, and the integral optical characteristics of the entire biological tissue. The aim of the study was – the determination of connections between the biophysical and structural characteristics of the biotissue and the light fields inside the biotissues.The model developed of the medium gives a direct relationship between the optical and biophysical parameters of the biotissue. Calculations were carried out using known solutions of the radiation transfer equation, taking into account the multilayer structure of the tissue, multiple scattering in the medium, and multiple reflection of irradiation between the layers.With the increase wavelength, the size of speckles formed by the non-scattered component (direct light of laser radiation increases by a factor of 2 from 400 to 800 μm in the stratum corneum and 5 times from 0.6 to 3 μm for the epidermis and from 0.27 to 1.4 μm to the dermis. Typical values of sizes of speckles formed by the diffraction component of laser radiation for the stratum corneum and epidermis range from 0.02 to 0.15 μm. For the dermis typical spot sizes are up to 0.03 μm. The speckle-spot size of the diffusion component in the dermis can vary from ±10 % at 400 nm and up to ±23 % for 800 nm when the volume concentration of blood capillaries changes. Characteristic dependencies are obtained and biophysical factors associated with the volume concentration of blood and the degree of it’s oxygenation that affect the contrast of the speckle structure in the dermis are discussed.The of speckles

  6. Visual Detection of Speckles in the Fish Xenotoca variata by the Predatory Snake Thamnophis melanogaster in Water of Different Turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez, Javier; Rivas-González, Eric; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S; Moyaho, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Semi-aquatic snakes integrate visual and chemical stimuli, and prey detection and capture success are therefore linked to the display of visual predatory behavior. The snake Thamnophis melanogaster responds preferentially to individuals of the fish Xenotoca variata with a greater number of bright, colorful spots (lateral speckles) compared with those with a smaller number; however, water turbidity can reduce underwater visibility and effect the vulnerability of fish. In this study, we tested whether the presence of iridescent speckles on the flanks of male X. variata interacted with water turbidity to modify the predatory behavior displayed by the snake T. melanogaster. We predicted that in an experimental laboratory test, the snakes would increase the frequency of their predatory behavior to the extent that the water turbidity decreases. The snakes were tested at six different levels of water turbidity, in combination with three categories of male fish (with few, a median number of, or many speckles). The results showed that in a pool with high or zero turbidity, the number of speckles is not a determining factor in the deployment of the predatory behavior of the snake T. melanogaster toward X. variata. Our findings suggest that snakes can view the fish at intermediate percentages of turbidity, but the number of speckles in male X. variata is irrelevant as an interspecific visual signal in environments with insufficient luminosity. The successful capture of aquatic prey is influenced by integration between chemical and visual signals, according to environmental factors that may influence the recognition of individual traits.

  7. Quantitative, depth-resolved determination of particle motion using multi-exposure, spatial frequency domain laser speckle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Tyler B; Kwan, Elliott; Hayakawa, Carole K; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    Laser Speckle Imaging (LSI) is a simple, noninvasive technique for rapid imaging of particle motion in scattering media such as biological tissue. LSI is generally used to derive a qualitative index of relative blood flow due to unknown impact from several variables that affect speckle contrast. These variables may include optical absorption and scattering coefficients, multi-layer dynamics including static, non-ergodic regions, and systematic effects such as laser coherence length. In order to account for these effects and move toward quantitative, depth-resolved LSI, we have developed a method that combines Monte Carlo modeling, multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI), spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), and careful instrument calibration. Monte Carlo models were used to generate total and layer-specific fractional momentum transfer distributions. This information was used to predict speckle contrast as a function of exposure time, spatial frequency, layer thickness, and layer dynamics. To verify with experimental data, controlled phantom experiments with characteristic tissue optical properties were performed using a structured light speckle imaging system. Three main geometries were explored: 1) diffusive dynamic layer beneath a static layer, 2) static layer beneath a diffuse dynamic layer, and 3) directed flow (tube) submerged in a dynamic scattering layer. Data fits were performed using the Monte Carlo model, which accurately reconstructed the type of particle flow (diffusive or directed) in each layer, the layer thickness, and absolute flow speeds to within 15% or better.

  8. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minz, Preeti D; Nirala, A K

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry. (paper)

  9. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minz, Preeti D.; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry.

  10. A simulation analysis of an extension of one-dimensional speckle correlation method for detection of general in-plane translation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamarová, Ivana; Šmíd, Petr; Horváth, P.; Hrabovský, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 1 (2014), "704368-1"-"704368-12" ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12301S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : one-dimensional speckle correlation * speckle * general In-plane translation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2013

  11. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  12. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  13. Characterization of hidden defects of an original XVI century painting on wood by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry survey on a wooden painting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, a non-contact and nondestructive optical diagnostic technique, was employed for evaluating the conservation state of a XVI century painting on wood. The whole structure alterations, induced by the laboratory temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Long-term analysis, by sequential recording and subsequent off-line processing of the fringes progression, was carried out. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which could not be recognized by traditional art-restorer survey methods, were also easily revealed. In such a case, a simple measurement approach was utilized, with the aim to get a user-friendly method for art conservators. The results demonstrate that the interferometry method can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  14. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured.

  15. Surface modeling method for aircraft engine blades by using speckle patterns based on the virtual stereo vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijing; Ma, Kai; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Jun; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang

    2018-03-01

    A blade is one of the most important components of an aircraft engine. Due to its high manufacturing costs, it is indispensable to come up with methods for repairing damaged blades. In order to obtain a surface model of the blades, this paper proposes a modeling method by using speckle patterns based on the virtual stereo vision system. Firstly, blades are sprayed evenly creating random speckle patterns and point clouds from blade surfaces can be calculated by using speckle patterns based on the virtual stereo vision system. Secondly, boundary points are obtained in the way of varied step lengths according to curvature and are fitted to get a blade surface envelope with a cubic B-spline curve. Finally, the surface model of blades is established with the envelope curves and the point clouds. Experimental results show that the surface model of aircraft engine blades is fair and accurate.

  16. Pseudo-stokes vector from complex signal representation of a speckle pattern and its applications to micro-displacement measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Ishijima, R.; Matsuda, A.

    2010-01-01

    As an improvement of the intensity correlation used widely in conventional electronic speckle photography, we propose a new technique for displacement measurement based on correlating Stokes-like parameters derivatives for transformed speckle patterns. The method is based on a Riesz transform of ...... are presented that demonstrate the validity and advantage of the proposed pseudo-Stokes vector correlation technique over conventional intensity correlation technique....... of the intensity speckle pattern, which converts the original real-valued signal into a complex signal. In closest analogy to the polarisation of a vector wave, the Stokes-like vector constructed from the spatial derivative of the generated complex signal has been applied for correlation. Experimental results...

  17. Speckle-tracking echocardiography for predicting outcome in chronic aortic regurgitation during conservative management and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; Søgaard, Peter; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to test myocardial deformation imaging using speckle-tracking echocardiography for predicting outcomes in chronic aortic regurgitation. Background In chronic aortic regurgitation, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction must be detected early to allow timely surgery....... Speckle-tracking echocardiography has been proposed for this purpose, but the clinical value of this method in aortic regurgitation has not been established. Methods A longitudinal study was performed in 64 patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. Thirty-five patients were managed...... conservatively with frequent clinical visits and sequential echocardiography and followed for an average of 19 ± 8 months, while 29 patients underwent surgery for the valve lesion and were followed for 6 months post-operatively. Baseline LV function by speckle-tracking and conventional echocardiography...

  18. A Novel Sub-pixel Measurement Algorithm Based on Mixed the Fractal and Digital Speckle Correlation in Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangfang Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital speckle correlation is a non-contact in-plane displacement measurement method based on machine vision. Motivated by the facts that the low accuracy and large amount of calculation produced by the traditional digital speckle correlation method in spatial domain, we introduce a sub-pixel displacement measurement algorithm which employs a fast interpolation method based on fractal theory and digital speckle correlation in frequency domain. This algorithm can overcome either the blocking effect or the blurring caused by the traditional interpolation methods, and the frequency domain processing also avoids the repeated searching in the correlation recognition of the spatial domain, thus the operation quantity is largely reduced and the information extracting speed is improved. The comparative experiment is given to verify that the proposed algorithm in this paper is effective.

  19. Boundary element and speckle photography method for solving elasto-plastic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikov, L.; Kavardjikov, V.; Valeva, V.

    1985-01-01

    The stress-strain state of metal specimens in the vicinity of a stress concentrator (circular hole) is investigated in case of a quasistatic loading. The displacements are evaluated numerically by the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and they are estimated experimentally by speckle photography. The experimentally and theoretically obtained results are compared and considered. A unified method for a simultaneous employment of both techniques is suggested. The experimental and theoretical techniques complement each other which results in an enhanced capability of the method proposed. (orig.)

  20. A polarized digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry system based on temporal wavelet transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ziang; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Shengjia; Yang, Dong; Yuan, Hao; Qin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) has been recognized as a practical tool in testing strain. The DSSPI system which is based on temporal analysis is attractive because of its ability to measure strain dynamically. In this paper, such a DSSPI system with Wollaston prism has been built. The principles and system arrangement are described and the preliminary experimental result of the displacement-derivative test of an aluminum plate is shown with the wavelet transformation method and the Fourier transformation method. The simulations have been conducted with the finite element method. The comparison of the results shows that quantitative measurement of displacement-derivative has been realized.

  1. SPECKLE IMAGING EXCLUDES LOW-MASS COMPANIONS ORBITING THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR TRAPPIST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nicholas J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT, 06515 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Hirsch, Lea [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, 510 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Nusdeo, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  2. Microfluidic volumetric flow determination using optical coherence tomography speckle: An autocorrelation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pretto, Lucas R., E-mail: lucas.de.pretto@usp.br; Nogueira, Gesse E. C.; Freitas, Anderson Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, Avenida Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-04-28

    Functional modalities of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) based on speckle analysis are emerging in the literature. We propose a simple approach to the autocorrelation of OCT signal to enable volumetric flow rate differentiation, based on decorrelation time. Our results show that this technique could distinguish flows separated by 3 μl/min, limited by the acquisition speed of the system. We further perform a B-scan of gradient flow inside a microchannel, enabling the visualization of the drag effect on the walls.

  3. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  4. Wholefield displacement measurements using speckle image processing techniques for crash tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, P.; Hanagud, S.; Ranson, W. F.

    The digital correlation scheme of Peters et al. (1983) was extended to measure out-of-plane deformations, using a white light projection speckle technique. A simple ray optic theory and the digital correlation scheme are outlined. The technique was applied successfully to measure out-of-plane displacements of initially flat rotorcraft structures (an acrylic circular plate and a steel cantilever beam), using a low cost video camera and a desktop computer. The technique can be extended to measurements of three-dimensional deformations and dynamic deformations.

  5. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  6. The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in the crack propagation analysis of epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, D. P.; Al-Hassani, A. H. M.; Richardson, M. O. W.

    The ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry) technique at high magnification levels is demonstrated to be of considerable value in interpreting the fracture behaviour of epoxy resins. The fracture toughness of powder coating system at different thicknesses has been measured using a TDCB (tapered double cantilever beam) technique and the deformation zone at the tip of the moving crack monitored. Initial indications are that a mechanistic changeover occurs at a critical bond (coating) thickness and that this is synonymous with the occurence of a fracture toughness maximum, which in turn is associated with a deformation zone of specific diameter.

  7. SPECKLE IMAGING EXCLUDES LOW-MASS COMPANIONS ORBITING THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR TRAPPIST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Everett, Mark E.; Horch, Elliott P.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  8. Myocardial function in long distance runners: Assessment by echocardiography, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Jaume; Forteza, Josep Francesc; Riverso, Daniel; Aceña, Marta; Rodriguez, Antonio; Gómez, Alfredo; Fernández-Palomeque, Carlos; Bethencourt, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: El ejercicio físico provoca respuestas adaptativas y cambios morfológico-funcionales en el corazón del atleta. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar dichos cambios mediante ecocardiografía convencional y las nuevas técnicas de deformación miocárdica mediante speckle tracking. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron prospectivamente a 68 varones, 38 corredores de fondo (42±8 años), y 30 controles (40±7 años). Se les realizó estudio ecocardiográfico convencional m...

  9. Speckle noise reduction on a laser projection display via a broadband green light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, Ju Won; Kang, Heejong; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Fu, Shih-Hao; Liou, Jiun-Wei; Kung, Andy H; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Peng, Lung-Han

    2014-02-10

    A broadband green light source was demonstrated using a tandem-poled lithium niobate (TPLN) crystal. The measured wavelength and temperature bandwidth were 6.5 nm and 100 °C, respectively, spectral bandwidth was 36 times broader than the periodically poled case. Although the conversion efficiency was smaller than in the periodic case, the TPLN device had a good figure of merit owing to the extremely large bandwidth for wavelength and temperature. The developed broadband green light source exhibited speckle noise approximately one-seventh of that in the conventional approach for a laser projection display.

  10. Real-time monitoring of corks' water absorption using laser speckle temporal correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Rana; Abou Nader, Christelle; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of cork allow it solving many types of problems and make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Our objective consists into studying cork's water absorption by analyzing the dynamic speckle field using the temporal correlation method. Experimental results show that the medium was inert at first with the absence of activity, and as the cap cork was more and more immersed into water, the presence of the activity becomes more significant. This temporal parameter revealed the sensibility of biospeckle method to monitor the amount of absorbed water by cork caps.

  11. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Speckle-based off-axis holographic detection for non-contact photoacoustic tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buj C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A very fast innovative holographic off-axis non-contact detection method for Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT is introduced. It overcomes the main problems of most state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging approaches that are long acquisition times and the requirement of acoustic contact. In order to increase the acquisition speed significantly, the surface displacements of the object, caused by the photoacoustic pressure waves, are measured interferometrically in two dimensions. Phase alterations in the observed speckle field are used to identify changes in the object’s topography. A sampling rate of up to 80 MHz is feasible, which reduces the occurrence of motion artefacts.

  13. Feasibility of speckle variance OCT for imaging cutaneous microvasculature regeneration during healing of wounds in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Kumawat, J.; Kumar, S.; Sahu, K.; Verma, Y.; Gupta, P. K.; Rao, K. D.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a study to assess the feasibility of a swept source-based speckle variance optical coherence tomography setup for monitoring cutaneous microvasculature. Punch wounds created in the ear pinnae of diabetic mice were monitored at different times post wounding to assess the structural and vascular changes. It was observed that the epithelium thickness increases post wounding and continues to be thick even after healing. Also, the wound size assessed by vascular images is larger than the physical wound size. The results show that the developed speckle variance optical coherence tomography system can be used to monitor vascular regeneration during wound healing in diabetic mice.

  14. Spectral OCT with speckle contrast reduction for evaluation of the healing process after PRK and transepithelial PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bukowska, Danuta M; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    We evaluate Spectral OCT (SOCT) with a speckle contrast reduction technique using resonant scanner for assessment of corneal surface changes after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and we compare healing process between conventional PRK and transepithelial PRK. The measurements were performed before and after the surgery. Obtained results show that SOCT with a resonant scanner speckle contrast reduction is capable of providing information regarding the healing process after PRK. The main difference between the healing processes of PRK and TransPRK, assessed by SOCT, was the time to cover the stroma with epithelium, which was shorter in the TransPRK group.

  15. Second-order oriented partial-differential equations for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Han, Lin; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Dongjian; Chang, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohang; Cui, Xiaolong

    2008-10-01

    We derive the second-order oriented partial-differential equations (PDEs) for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringe patterns from two points of view. The first is based on variational methods, and the second is based on controlling diffusion direction. Our oriented PDE models make the diffusion along only the fringe orientation. The main advantage of our filtering method, based on oriented PDE models, is that it is very easy to implement compared with the published filtering methods along the fringe orientation. We demonstrate the performance of our oriented PDE models via application to two computer-simulated and experimentally obtained speckle fringes and compare with related PDE models.

  16. Influência da temperatura corporal de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus submetidas à anestesia com cetamina Influence of body temperature on rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus anesthetized with ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar a influência da temperatura corporal nos parâmetros fisiológicos e nos períodos de indução e recuperação anestésicos de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus anestesiadas com cetamina. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à hipotermia (HIPO (The aim of the study was to verify the influence of the body temperature under physiological values and latency and recovery times on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were previously submitted to hypothermia (HYPO (<22°C and normothermia (30°C (NORMO and then, anesthetized with 80 mg/kg IM of ketamine. Latency and recovery times were evaluated by head tonus, muscular tonus and righting reflex. Heart rate (HR, time of apnea and body temperature were measured before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ketamine administration. Blood gases parameters were measured before, 30 and 60 minutes. It was not observed difference on latency time in both groups. The recovery time was higher on HYPO (5,5 hours compared to NORMO (3,5 hours. HR was higher on NORMO compared to HYPO. Time of apnea was the same pattern on both groups. Compared to basal levels, time of apnea was shorter between 5 to 30 min on both groups. Respiratory acidosis was observed only at 0 min in NORMO. SvO2 was higher after 30 min, the same as with PvO2 in both groups. PvCO2 reduced after 30 min in both groups. It was evident that body temperature exerts intense influence on the recovery time on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine.

  17. Exploiting the speckle-correlation scattering matrix for a compact reference-free holographic image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun

    2016-10-31

    The word 'holography' means a drawing that contains all of the information for light-both amplitude and wavefront. However, because of the insufficient bandwidth of current electronics, the direct measurement of the wavefront of light has not yet been achieved. Though reference-field-assisted interferometric methods have been utilized in numerous applications, introducing a reference field raises several fundamental and practical issues. Here we demonstrate a reference-free holographic image sensor. To achieve this, we propose a speckle-correlation scattering matrix approach; light-field information passing through a thin disordered layer is recorded and retrieved from a single-shot recording of speckle intensity patterns. Self-interference via diffusive scattering enables access to impinging light-field information, when light transport in the diffusive layer is precisely calibrated. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate direct holographic measurements of three-dimensional optical fields using a compact device consisting of a regular image sensor and a diffusor.

  18. Low Dose X-Ray Speckle Visibility Spectroscopy Reveals Nanoscale Dynamics in Radiation Sensitive Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwohlt, Jan; Reiser, Mario; Randolph, Lisa; Matic, Aleksandar; Medina, Luis Aguilera; Madsen, Anders; Sprung, Michael; Zozulya, Alexey; Gutt, Christian

    2018-04-01

    X-ray radiation damage provides a serious bottleneck for investigating microsecond to second dynamics on nanometer length scales employing x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. This limitation hinders the investigation of real time dynamics in most soft matter and biological materials which can tolerate only x-ray doses of kGy and below. Here, we show that this bottleneck can be overcome by low dose x-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy. Employing x-ray doses of 22-438 kGy and analyzing the sparse speckle pattern of count rates as low as 6.7 ×10-3 per pixel, we follow the slow nanoscale dynamics of an ionic liquid (IL) at the glass transition. At the prepeak of nanoscale order in the IL, we observe complex dynamics upon approaching the glass transition temperature TG with a freezing in of the alpha relaxation and a multitude of millisecond local relaxations existing well below TG . We identify this fast relaxation as being responsible for the increasing development of nanoscale order observed in ILs at temperatures below TG .

  19. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  20. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: kawal.sawhney@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  1. Non-linear joint transform correlator for micro-displacement measurement using speckle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Valdivieso González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un procedimiento para medir desplazamiento en el rango de micrones, en una y dos dimensiones, basado en la correlación conjunta de patrones de speckle (moteado característico de la superficie iluminada por un láser. Para este propósito, dos patrones de speckle por propagación libre, registrados por una cámara digital, uno antes y otro después del movimiento de la superficie objeto, se colocan en el plano de entrada de un correlador de transformada conjunta. Una transformación no lineal de la densidad espectral de energía logra una alta razón señal a ruido en el plano de salida del correlador. Las coordenadas del pico de autocorrelación, del primer patrón se colocan como origen para medir los desplazamientos sucesivos del pico de correlación cruzada. Se propone un criterio para determinar el rango de medida confiable y se presentan algunos resultados para diferentes distancias superficie-sensor y longitud de onda del láser.

  2. Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, Kirk W; Smith, Cynthia M; Kanter, Elizabeth M; Hariri, Lida P; Stone, Alice L; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Williams, Stuart K; Barton, Jennifer K

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality capable of acquiring cross-sectional images of tissue using back-reflected light. Conventional OCT images have a resolution of 10-15 μm, and are thus best suited for visualizing tissue layers and structures. OCT images of collagen (with and without endothelial cells) have no resolvable features and may appear to simply show an exponential decrease in intensity with depth. However, examination of these images reveals that they display a characteristic repetitive structure due to speckle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of statistical and spectral texture analysis techniques for differentiating living and non-living tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers based on speckle content in OCT images. Statistically significant differences between texture parameters and excellent classification rates were obtained when comparing various endothelial cell concentrations ranging from 0 cells/ml to 25 million cells/ml. Statistically significant results and excellent classification rates were also obtained using various sizes of microspheres with concentrations ranging from 0 microspheres/ml to 500 million microspheres/ml. This study has shown that texture analysis of OCT images may be capable of differentiating tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers

  3. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  4. Noncontact 3-D Speckle Contrast Diffuse Correlation Tomography of Tissue Blood Flow Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; Zhao, Mingjun; Shang, Yu; Agochukwu, Nneamaka; Wong, Lesley; Yu, Guoqiang

    2017-10-01

    Recent advancements in near-infrared diffuse correlation techniques and instrumentation have opened the path for versatile deep tissue microvasculature blood flow imaging systems. Despite this progress there remains a need for a completely noncontact, noninvasive device with high translatability from small/testing (animal) to large/target (human) subjects with trivial application on both. Accordingly, we discuss our newly developed setup which meets this demand, termed noncontact speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography (nc_scDCT). The nc_scDCT provides fast, continuous, portable, noninvasive, and inexpensive acquisition of 3-D tomographic deep (up to 10 mm) tissue blood flow distributions with straightforward design and customization. The features presented include a finite-element-method implementation for incorporating complex tissue boundaries, fully noncontact hardware for avoiding tissue compression and interactions, rapid data collection with a diffuse speckle contrast method, reflectance-based design promoting experimental translation, extensibility to related techniques, and robust adjustable source and detector patterns and density for high resolution measurement with flexible regions of interest enabling unique application-specific setups. Validation is shown in the detection and characterization of both high and low contrasts in flow relative to the background using tissue phantoms with a pump-connected tube (high) and phantom spheres (low). Furthermore, in vivo validation of extracting spatiotemporal 3-D blood flow distributions and hyperemic response during forearm cuff occlusion is demonstrated. Finally, the success of instrument feasibility in clinical use is examined through the intraoperative imaging of mastectomy skin flap.

  5. Investigation of the ripeness of oil palm fresh fruit bunches using bio-speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salambue, R.; Adnan, A.; Shiddiq, M.

    2018-03-01

    The ripeness of the oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) determines the yield of the oil produced. Traditionally there are two ways to determine FFB ripeness which are the number of loose fruits and the color changes. Nevertheless, one drawback of visual determination is subjective and qualitative judgment. In this study, the FFB ripeness was investigated using laser based image processing technique. The advantages of using this technique are non-destructive, simple and quantitative. The working principle of the investigation is that a FFB is inserted into a light tight box which contains a laser diode and a CMOS camera, the FFB is illuminated, and then an image is recorded. The FFB image recorder was performed on four FFB fractions i.e. F0, F3, F4 and F5 on the front and rear surfaces at three sections. The recorded images are speckled granules that have light intensity variation (bio-speckle imaging). The feature extracted from the specked image is the contrast value obtained from the average gray value intensity and the standard deviation. Based on the contrast values, the four fractions of FFB can be grouped into three levels of ripeness of unripe (F0), ripe (F3) and overripe (F4 and F5) on the front surface of base section of FFB by 75%.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orbits based on SOAR speckle interferometry. II. (Tokovinin, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present new or updated orbits of 44 binary systems or subsystems. It is based on speckle interferometric measurements made at the 4.1m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (Tokovinin et al. 2010, Cat. J/AJ/139/743; 2014, Cat. J/AJ/147/123; 2015, Cat. J/AJ/150/50; 2016, Cat. J/AJ/151/153; 2010PASP..122.1483T; Tokovinin 2012, Cat. J/AJ/144/56) combined with archival data collected in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS; Mason et al. 2001-2014, Cat. B/wds). It continues previous work on binary orbits resulting from the SOAR speckle program and follows the template of the Paper I (Tokovinin 2016, Cat. J/AJ/152/138), where the motivation is discussed. Briefly, the calculation of binary orbits is part of the astronomical infrastructure, and visual orbital elements are used in many areas. The state of the art is reflected in the Sixth Catalog of Visual Binary Orbits (VB6; Hartkopf et al. 2001AJ....122.3472H; http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astrometry/optical-IR-prod/wds/orb6.html). (5 data files).

  7. Clinical utility of speckle-tracking echocardiography in cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara G Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT can profoundly improve outcome in selected patients with heart failure; however, response is difficult to predict and can be absent in up to one in three patients. There has been a substantial amount of interest in the echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular dyssynchrony, with the ultimate aim of reliably identifying patients who will respond to CRT. The measurement of myocardial deformation (strain has conventionally been assessed using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, which is limited by its angle dependence and ability to measure in a single plane. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a technique that provides measurements of strain in three planes, by tracking patterns of ultrasound interference (‘speckles’ in the myocardial wall throughout the cardiac cycle. Since its initial use over 15 years ago, it has emerged as a tool that provides more robust, reproducible and sensitive markers of dyssynchrony than TDI. This article reviews the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in the assessment of dyssynchrony, including the identification of echocardiographic parameters that may hold predictive potential for the response to CRT. It also reviews the application of these techniques in guiding optimal LV lead placement pre-implant, with promising results in clinical improvement post-CRT.

  8. Basic Technology and Clinical Applications of the Updated Model of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy to Ocular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Sugiyama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG allows for quantitative estimation of blood flow in the optic nerve head (ONH, choroid and retina, utilizing the laser speckle phenomenon. The basic technology and clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI, the updated model of LSFG, are summarized in this review. For developing a commercial version of LSFG, the special area sensor was replaced by the ordinary charge-coupled device camera. In LSFG-NAVI, the mean blur rate (MBR has been introduced as a new parameter. Compared to the original LSFG model, LSFG-NAVI demonstrates a better spatial resolution of the blood flow map of human ocular fundus. The observation area is 24 times larger than the original system. The analysis software can separately calculate MBRs in the blood vessels and tissues (capillaries of an entire ONH and the measurements have good reproducibility. The absolute values of MBR in the ONH have been shown to linearly correlate with the capillary blood flow. The Analysis of MBR pulse waveform provides parameters including skew, blowout score, blowout time, rising and falling rates, flow acceleration index, acceleration time index, and resistivity index for comparing different eyes. Recently, there have been an increasing number of reports on the clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI to ocular diseases, including glaucoma, retinal and choroidal diseases.

  9. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  10. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  11. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  12. Residual stress measurement of PMMA by combining drilling-hole with digital speckle correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X. F.; Xiong, T. C.; Xu, H. M.; Wan, J. P.; Long, G. R.

    2008-11-01

    The residual stresses of the PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) specimens after being drilled, reamed and polished respectively are investigated using the digital speckle correlation experimental method,. According to the displacement fields around the correlated calculated region, the polynomial curve fitting method is used to obtain the continuous displacement fields, and the strain fields can be obtained from the derivative of the displacement fields. Considering the constitutive equation of the material, the expression of the residual stress can be presented. During the data processing, according to the fitting effect of the data, the calculation region of the correlated speckles and the degree of the polynomial fitting curve is decided. These results show that the maximum stress is at the hole-wall of the drilling hole specimen and with the increasing of the diameter of the drilled hole, the residual stress resulting from the hole drilling increases, whereas the process of reaming and polishing hole can reduce the residual stress. The relative large discrete degree of the residual stress is due to the chip removal ability of the drill bit, the cutting feed of the drill and other various reasons.

  13. Speckle noise reduction for computer generated holograms of objects with diffuse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ahar, Ayyoub; Schretter, Colas; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is mainly used today for metrology and microscopic imaging and is emerging as an important potential technology for future holographic television. To generate the holographic content, computer-generated holography (CGH) techniques convert geometric descriptions of a 3D scene content. To model different surface types, an accurate model of light propagation has to be considered, including for example, specular and diffuse reflection. In previous work, we proposed a fast CGH method for point cloud data using multiple wavefront recording planes, look-up tables (LUTs) and occlusion processing. This work extends our method to account for diffuse reflections, enabling rendering of deep 3D scenes in high resolution with wide viewing angle support. This is achieved by modifying the spectral response of the light propagation kernels contained by the look-up tables. However, holograms encoding diffuse reflective surfaces depict significant amounts of speckle noise, a problem inherent to holography. Hence, techniques to improve the reduce speckle noise are evaluated in this paper. Moreover, we propose as well a technique to suppress the aperture diffraction during numerical, viewdependent rendering by apodizing the hologram. Results are compared visually and in terms of their respective computational efficiency. The experiments show that by modelling diffuse reflection in the LUTs, a more realistic yet computationally efficient framework for generating high-resolution CGH is achieved.

  14. Controlling the evolution of nondiffracting speckle by complex amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available for both a uniform and a normal distribution is investigated. We find that we are able to engineer whether the nondiffracting field will appear as speckle or a structured zero-order Bessel beam by adjusting the standard deviation in the distribution. Having...

  15. The ISWI chromatin remodeler organizes the hsrω ncRNA-containing omega speckle nuclear compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Onorati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in composition and function of the eukaryotic nucleus is achieved through its organization in specialized nuclear compartments. The Drosophila chromatin remodeling ATPase ISWI plays evolutionarily conserved roles in chromatin organization. Interestingly, ISWI genetically interacts with the hsrω gene, encoding multiple non-coding RNAs (ncRNA essential, among other functions, for the assembly and organization of the omega speckles. The nucleoplasmic omega speckles play important functions in RNA metabolism, in normal and stressed cells, by regulating availability of hnRNPs and some other RNA processing proteins. Chromatin remodelers, as well as nuclear speckles and their associated ncRNAs, are emerging as important components of gene regulatory networks, although their functional connections have remained poorly defined. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence showing that the hsrω ncRNA interacts in vivo and in vitro with ISWI, regulating its ATPase activity. Remarkably, we found that the organization of nucleoplasmic omega speckles depends on ISWI function. Our findings highlight a novel role for chromatin remodelers in organization of nucleoplasmic compartments, providing the first example of interaction between an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler and a large ncRNA.

  16. Speckle noise reduction technique for Lidar echo signal based on self-adaptive pulse-matching independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhu, Daiyin; Tu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Speckle noise has always been a particularly tricky problem in improving the ranging capability and accuracy of Lidar system especially in harsh environment. Currently, effective speckle de-noising techniques are extremely scarce and should be further developed. In this study, a speckle noise reduction technique has been proposed based on independent component analysis (ICA). Since normally few changes happen in the shape of laser pulse itself, the authors employed the laser source as a reference pulse and executed the ICA decomposition to find the optimal matching position. In order to achieve the self-adaptability of algorithm, local Mean Square Error (MSE) has been defined as an appropriate criterion for investigating the iteration results. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the self-adaptive pulse-matching ICA (PM-ICA) method could effectively decrease the speckle noise and recover the useful Lidar echo signal component with high quality. Especially, the proposed method achieves 4 dB more improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than a traditional homomorphic wavelet method.

  17. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Hind as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... under the U.S. Endangered Species Act'' because NatureServe assessments ``have different criteria...

  18. The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) to determine the displacements in thin adhesive layers under increasing loads (Posterpresentatie)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botter, H.; Wijen, H.L.M.; Berg, A. van den; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van; Vlot, A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in hardware and software have allowed traditional speckle pattern. interferom.etry using photographic film to be replaced by digital video CCD cameras and sophisticated analysing software. Real-time in-situ displacement measurement of specimens under static or cyclic loads is now

  19. Development of an optimized algorithm for the characterization of microflow using speckle patterns present in optical coherence tomography signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretto, Lucas Ramos de

    2015-01-01

    This work discusses the Optical Coherence Tomography system (OCT) and its application to the microfluidics area. To this end, physical characterization of microfluidic circuits were performed using 3D (three-dimensional) models constructed from OCT images of such circuits. The technique was thus evaluated as a potential tool to aid in the inspection of microchannels. Going further, this work paper studies and develops analytical techniques for microfluidic flow, in particular techniques based on speckle pattern. In the first instance, existing methods were studied and improved, such as Speckle Variance - OCT, where a gain of 31% was obtained in processing time. Other methods, such as LASCA (Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis), based on speckle autocorrelation, are adapted to OCT images. Derived from LASCA, the developed analysis technique based on intensity autocorrelation motivated the development of a custom OCT system as well as an optimized acquisition software, with a sampling rate of 8 kHz. The proposed method was, then, able to distinguish different flow rates, and limits of detection were tested, proving its feasibility for implementation on Brownian motion analysis and flow rates below 10 μl/min. (author)

  20. Laser speckle imaging identification of increases in cortical microcirculatory blood flow induced by motor activity during awake craniotomy ; Clinical article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Klijn (Elko); M.E.J.L. Hulscher (Marlies); R.K. Balvers (Rutger); W.P.J. Holland (Wim); J. Bakker (Jan); A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud); C.M.F. Dirven (Clemens); C. Ince (Can)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObject. The goal of awake neurosurgery is to maximize resection of brain lesions with minimal injury to functional brain areas. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive macroscopic technique with high spatial and temporal resolution used to monitor changes in capillary perfusion. In

  1. Laser speckle imaging identification of increases in cortical microcirculatory blood flow induced by motor activity during awake craniotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Eva; Hulscher, Hester C.; Balvers, Rutger K.; Holland, Wim P. J.; Bakker, Jan; Vincent, Arnaud J. P. E.; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Ince, Can

    2013-01-01

    The goal of awake neurosurgery is to maximize resection of brain lesions with minimal injury to functional brain areas. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive macroscopic technique with high spatial and temporal resolution used to monitor changes in capillary perfusion. In this study, the

  2. Constellation of phase singularities in a speckle-like pattern for optical vortex metrology applied to biological kinematic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Qiao, Yu; Ishijima, Reika

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for biological kinematic analysis is proposed that makes use of the pseudophase singularities in a complex signal generated from a speckle-like pattern. In addition to the information about the locations and the anisotropic core structures of the pseudophase singularities, we al...... are presented, which demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America....

  3. Co-localisation studies of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors reveal different types of speckles in plant cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorkovic, Zdravko J.; Hilscher, Julia; Barta, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    SR proteins are multidomain splicing factors which are important for spliceosome assembly and for regulation of alternative splicing. In mammalian nuclei these proteins localise to speckles from where they are recruited to transcription sites. By using fluorescent protein fusion technology and different experimental approaches it has been shown that Arabidopsis SR proteins, in addition to diffuse nucleoplasmic staining, localise into an irregular nucleoplasmic network resembling speckles in mammalian cells. As Arabidopsis SR proteins fall into seven conserved sub-families we investigated co-localisation of members of the different sub-families in transiently transformed tobacco protoplast. Here we demonstrate the new finding that members of different SR protein sub-families localise into distinct populations of nuclear speckles with no, partial or complete co-localisation. This is particularly interesting as we also show that these proteins do interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in pull-down and in co-immunopreciptiation assays. Our data raise the interesting possibility that SR proteins are partitioned into distinct populations of nuclear speckles to allow a more specific recruitment to the transcription/pre-mRNA processing sites of particular genes depending on cell type and developmental stage

  4. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  5. Small founding number and low genetic diversity in an introduced species exhibiting limited invasion success (speckled dace, Rhinichthys ocsulus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Kinziger; Rodney Nakamoto; Eric Anderson; Bret Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Molecular evaluations of successful invaders are common, however studies of introduced species that have had limited invasion success, or have died out completely, are rare. We studied an introduced population of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) from northern California, USA that has rapidly increased in abundance but remained restricted to a 25-km stretch of river...

  6. Measurements of 427 Double Stars With Speckle Interferometry: The Winter/Spring 2017 Observing Program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the winter and spring of 2017, an aggressive observing program of measuring close double stars with speckle interferometry and CCD imaging was undertaken at Brilliant Sky Observatory, my observing site in Cave Creek, Arizona. A total of 596 stars were observed, 8 of which were rejected for various reasons, leaving 588 pairs. Of these, 427 were observed and measured with speckle interferometry, while the remaining 161 were measured with a CCD. This paper reports the results of the observations of the 427 speckle cases. A separate paper in this issue will report the CCD measurements of the 161 other pairs.

  7. Strain dyssynchrony index determined by three-dimensional speckle area tracking can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onishi Tetsuari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported strain dyssynchrony index assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking strain, and a marker of both dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility, can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. A newly developed three-dimensional (3-D speckle tracking system can quantify endocardial area change ratio (area strain, which coupled with the factors of both longitudinal and circumferential strain, from all 16 standard left ventricular (LV segments using complete 3-D pyramidal datasets. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that strain dyssynchrony index using area tracking (ASDI can quantify dyssynchrony and predict response to CRT. Methods We studied 14 heart failure patients with ejection fraction of 27 ± 7% (all≤35% and QRS duration of 172 ± 30 ms (all≥120 ms who underwent CRT. Echocardiography was performed before and 6-month after CRT. ASDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic area strain of LV endocardium obtained from 3-D speckle tracking imaging using 16 segments. Conventional dyssynchrony measures were assessed by interventricular mechanical delay, Yu Index, and two-dimensional radial dyssynchrony by speckle-tracking strain. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume 6-month after CRT. Results ASDI ≥ 3.8% was the best predictor of response to CRT with a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 100% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.93 (p Conclusions ASDI can predict responders and LV reverse remodeling following CRT. This novel index using the 3-D speckle tracking system, which shows circumferential and longitudinal LV dyssynchrony and residual endocardial contractility, may thus have clinical significance for CRT patients.

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. III. MEASURES BELOW THE DIFFRACTION LIMIT OF THE WIYN TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Van Altena, William F.; Howell, Steve B.; Sherry, William H.; Ciardi, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the ability of CCD- and electron-multiplying-CCD-based speckle imaging to obtain reliable astrometry and photometry of binary stars below the diffraction limit of the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope. We present a total of 120 measures of binary stars, 75 of which are below the diffraction limit. The measures are divided into two groups that have different measurement accuracy and precision. The first group is composed of standard speckle observations, that is, a sequence of speckle images taken in a single filter, while the second group consists of paired observations where the two observations are taken on the same observing run and in different filters. The more recent paired observations were taken simultaneously with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which is a two-channel speckle imaging system. In comparing our results to the ephemeris positions of binaries with known orbits, we find that paired observations provide the opportunity to identify cases of systematic error in separation below the diffraction limit and after removing these from consideration, we obtain a linear measurement uncertainty of 3-4 mas. However, if observations are unpaired or if two observations taken in the same filter are paired, it becomes harder to identify cases of systematic error, presumably because the largest source of this error is residual atmospheric dispersion, which is color dependent. When observations are unpaired, we find that it is unwise to report separations below approximately 20 mas, as these are most susceptible to this effect. Using the final results obtained, we are able to update two older orbits in the literature and present preliminary orbits for three systems that were discovered by Hipparcos.

  9. Suppressed speckle contrast of blue light emission out of white lamp with phosphors excited by blue laser diodes for high-brightness lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yuji; Ueno, Misaki; Kawasaki, Yoji; Matsuba, Yoshiaki; Heike, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    The speckle contrast of blue light emission out of high-brightness white lamps using phosphors excited by InGaN/GaN blue laser diodes is evaluated as a measure of coherence. As a result, speckle contrast of as low as 1.7%, the same level as a blue light emitting diode, is obtained. This implies that the original blue laser light can be converted into incoherent light through lamp structures without any dynamic mechanisms. This unique speckle-free performance is considered to be realized by multiple scattering inside the lamp structure, the multi-longitudinal mode operation of the blue laser diodes, and the use of multiple laser diodes. Such almost-incoherent white lamps can be applied for general lighting without any nuisance of speckle noise and should be categorized as lamps rather than lasers in terms of laser safety regulation.

  10. Checking in on the Neighbors: Speckle Interferometry of Red Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian; Hartkopf, William; Miles, Korie; Subasavage, John P.; Raghavan, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2018-01-01

    High resolution optical speckle observations of M dwarf stars are reported which result in 113 resolved measurements of 80 systems and 256 other stars with no indications of duplicity. Nineteen of these had their first measures here, although all but two of those have later measures reported elsewhere. Included are six orbits, two revised and four reported for the first time. For one of the systems with a new orbit, G 161-7, we determine masses of 0.127+/-0.011 and 0.0961+/-0.0085 \\msun ~ for A and B, respectively. All of the orbit pairs have short periods of between five and thirty-eight years and hold the promise of accurate masses in the near future. For many other pairs we can establish their nature as physical or not depending on their relative motion. Of the 80 systems, 32 have orbits, 25 others are physical, 4 are optical and 19 are currently unknown.

  11. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Deformation Measurements Using Stereoscopic Imaging and Digital Speckle Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, H. J.; Proud, W. G.

    2006-01-01

    A technique has been developed to determine experimentally the three-dimensional displacement field on the rear surface of a dynamically deforming plate. The technique combines speckle analysis with stereoscopy, using a modified angular-lens method: this incorporates split-frame photography and a simple method by which the effective lens separation can be adjusted and calibrated in situ. Whilst several analytical models exist to predict deformation in extended or semi-infinite targets, the non-trivial nature of the wave interactions complicates the generation and development of analytical models for targets of finite depth. By interrogating specimens experimentally to acquire three-dimensional strain data points, both analytical and numerical model predictions can be verified more rigorously. The technique is applied to the quasi-static deformation of a rubber sheet and dynamically to Mild Steel sheets of various thicknesses

  12. GPC light shaper for speckle-free one- and two-photon contiguous pattern excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions useful in diverse applications such as static beam shaping, optical manipulation and recently, for excitation in two-photon optogenetics. To fully utilize typical Gaussian lasers...... in such applications, we analytically derive conditions for photon efficient light shaping with GPC. When combined with the conditions for optimal contrast developed in previous works, our analysis further simplifies GPCx2019;s implementation. The results of our analysis are applied to practical illumination shapes......, such as a circle and different rectangles commonly used in industrial or commercial applications. We also show simple and efficient beam shaping of arbitrary shapes geared towards biophotonics research and other contemporary applications. Optimized GPC configurations consistently give ~84% efficiency and ~3x...

  13. Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo OPTIMO : Ultimos desarrollos en el campo del SPECKLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rabal, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    La UID Optimo (Óptica y Metrología Óptica), perteneciente al Dpto. Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, desarrolla sus tareas de investigación en el campo de la óptica y la metrología en el marco de los Proyectos: I150 "Interacción de la luz con materiales orgánicos mediante técnicas de speckle láser y reflectancia espectral: aplicaciones en biotecnología, agronomía e ingeniería" e I125 “Procesamiento opto-digital de la información empleando portadores aleatorios”. En ambos casos, el ...

  14. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deana, A M; Jesus, S H C; Koshoji, N H; Bussadori, S K; Oliveira, M T

    2013-01-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture. (paper)

  15. Analysis of neutron reflectivity data: maximum entropy, Bayesian spectral analysis and speckle holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.; Hamilton, W.A.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of neutron reflectivity data to obtain nuclear scattering length density profiles is akin to the notorious phaseless Fourier problem, well known in many fields such as crystallography. Current methods of analysis culminate in the refinement of a few parameters of a functional model, and are often preceded by a long and laborious process of trial and error. We start by discussing the use of maximum entropy for obtained 'free-form' solutions of the density profile, as an alternative to the trial and error phase when a functional model is not available. Next we consider a Bayesian spectral analysis approach, which is appropriate for optimising the parameters of a simple (but adequate) type of model when the number of parameters is not known. Finally, we suggest a novel experimental procedure, the analogue of astronomical speckle holography, designed to alleviate the ambiguity problems inherent in traditional reflectivity measurements. (orig.)

  16. Infrared speckle observations of Io - an eruption in the Loki region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.R.; Mcginn, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Speckle observations of Jupiter's satellite Io at a wavelength of 5 micrometers during July 1984 resolved the disk and showed emission from a hot spot in the Loki region. The hot spot contributed a flux approximately equal to 60 percent of that from the disk.Images reconstructed by means of the Knox-Thompson algorithm showed the spot moving across the disk as the satellite rotated. It was located at 301 deg + or - 6 deg west longitude, 10 deg + or - 6 deg north latitude, and had a radiance of (2.96 + or - 0.54) x 10 to the 22nd ergs/sec cm sr/A where A is the area of the spot. For an assumed temperature of 400 K, the area of the source would be 11,400 square kilometers. An active lava lake similar to that seen by Voyager may be the source of the infrared emission. 10 references

  17. Measuring object shape by using in-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry with divergent illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra-Michel, Jorge; Martínez, Amalia; Rayas, J A; Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is a useful technique for displacement, deformation and contouring measurements. Traditionally, for contouring measurements, collimated illumination with a constant sensitivity vector is used, and the surface area analysis is limited to the illuminated area. In some industrial applications, large surfaces require to be analyzed in restricted space conditions. Considering this situation, an optical system with divergent illumination for whole-field measurements can be used. It is known that displacement fields and the optical phase are related by the sensitivity vector. Therefore, to compute the sensitivity vector, illumination position and superficial shape need to be considered, a condition that becomes an impediment for surface contouring if the superficial shape is unknown. In this work, a simple iterative algorithm based on the Gauss–Seidel technique is presented to compute contouring measurements. Contouring measurements from both ESPI and a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) are compared. In addition, a measurement comparison considering supposed collimated and divergent illumination is presented

  18. Dynamic speckle interferometry of microscopic processes in solid state and thin biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.

    2015-08-01

    Modernized theory of dynamic speckle interferometry is considered. It is shown that the time-average radiation intensity has the parameters characterizing the wave phase changes. It also brings forward an expression for time autocorrelation function of the radiation intensity. It is shown that with the vanishing averaging time value the formulas transform to the prior expressions. The results of experiments with high-cycle material fatigue and cell metabolism analysis conducted using the time-averaging technique are discussed. Good reproducibility of the results is demonstrated. It is specified that the upgraded technique allows analyzing accumulation of fatigue damage, detecting the crack start moment and determining its growth velocity with uninterrupted cyclic load. It is also demonstrated that in the experiments with a cell monolayer the technique allows studying metabolism change both in an individual cell and in a group of cells.

  19. Speckle reduction in echocardiography by temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Porto-Solano, Oscar; Cadena-Bonfanti, Alberto; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is a medical imaging technique based on ultrasound signals that is used to evaluate heart anatomy and physiology. Echocardiographic images are affected by speckle, a type of multiplicative noise that obscures details of the structures, and reduces the overall image quality. This paper shows an approach to enhance echocardiography using two processing techniques: temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering. We used twenty echocardiographic videos that include one or three cardiac cycles to test the algorithms. Two images from each cycle were aligned in space and averaged to obtain the compound images. These images were then processed using anisotropic diffusion filters to further improve their quality. Resultant images were evaluated using quality metrics and visual assessment by two medical doctors. The average total improvement on signal-to-noise ratio was up to 100.29% for videos with three cycles, and up to 32.57% for videos with one cycle.

  20. Breast cancer early detection via tracking of skin back-scattered secondary speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Aviya; Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer has become a major cause of death among women. The lifetime risk of a woman developing this disease has been established as one in eight. The most useful way to reduce breast cancer death is to treat the disease as early as possible. The existing methods of early diagnostics of breast cancer are mainly based on screening mammography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) periodically conducted at medical facilities. In this paper the authors proposing a new approach for simple breast cancer detection. It is based on skin stimulation by sound waves, illuminating it by laser beam and tracking the reflected secondary speckle patterns. As first approach, plastic balls of different sizes were placed under the skin of chicken breast and detected by the proposed method.

  1. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage.

  2. Mobile phone based laser speckle contrast imager for assessment of skin blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Saknite, Inga; Krievina, Gita; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of skin blood flow is of interest for evaluation of skin viability as well as for reflection of the overall condition of the circulatory system. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LASCI) are optical techniques used for assessment of skin perfusion. However, these systems are still too expensive and bulky to be widely available. Implementation of such techniques as connection kits for mobile phones have a potential for primary diagnostics. In this work we demonstrate simple and low cost LASCI connection kit for mobile phone and its comparison to laser Doppler perfusion imager. Post-occlusive hyperemia and local thermal hyperemia tests are used to compare both techniques and to demonstrate the potential of LASCI device.

  3. Experimental study on nonlinear vibrating of aluminum foam using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fujun; Ma, Yinhang; Tao, Nan; He, Xiaoyuan

    2017-06-01

    Due to its multi properties, including excellent stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios, closed-cell aluminum and its alloy foams become candidate materials for use in many high-technology industries, such as the automotive and aerospace industries. For the efficient use of closed-cell foams in structural applications, it is necessary and important to detailly understand their mechanical characteristics. In this paper, the nonlinear vibration responses of the cantilever beams of closed-cell aluminum foams were investigated by use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The nonlinear resonant mode shapes of testing specimens under harmonic excitation were measured. It is first time to obtain from the experimental results that there exist super-harmonic responses when the cantilever beams of closed-cell aluminum foam were forced to vibrate, which was caused by its specific cellular structures.

  4. Intraoperative laser speckle contrast imaging improves the stability of rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Li, Yao; Li, Hangdao; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-09-01

    Rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is commonly used in stroke research. Creating a stable infarct volume has always been challenging for technicians due to the variances of animal anatomy and surgical operations. The depth of filament suture advancement strongly influences the infarct volume as well. We investigated the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the affected cortex using laser speckle contrast imaging when advancing suture during MCAO surgery. The relative CBF drop area (CBF50, i.e., the percentage area with CBF less than 50% of the baseline) showed an increase from 20.9% to 69.1% when the insertion depth increased from 1.6 to 1.8 cm. Using the real-time CBF50 marker to guide suture insertion during the surgery, our animal experiments showed that intraoperative CBF-guided surgery could significantly improve the stability of MCAO with a more consistent infarct volume and less mortality.

  5. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelorget, Bruno; Francois, Manuel; Vial-Edwards, Cristian; Montay, Guillaume; Daniel, Laurent; Lu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force (ε t ≅ 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements

  6. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  7. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-06

    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  8. Archeological Echocardiography: Digitization and Speckle Tracking Analysis of Archival Echocardiograms in the HyperGEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Frank G; Selvaraj, Senthil; Martinez, Eva E; Katz, Daniel H; Beussink, Lauren; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Ping, Jie; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Goyal, Amita; Sha, Jin; Irvin, Marguerite R; Arnett, Donna K; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2016-03-01

    Several large epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have included echocardiography, but images were stored in analog format and these studies predated tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). We hypothesized that digitization of analog echocardiograms, with subsequent quantification of cardiac mechanics using STE, is feasible, reproducible, accurate, and produces clinically valid results. In the NHLBI HyperGEN study (N = 2234), archived analog echocardiograms were digitized and subsequently analyzed using STE to obtain tissue velocities/strain. Echocardiograms were assigned quality scores and inter-/intra-observer agreement was calculated. Accuracy was evaluated in: (1) a separate second study (N = 50) comparing prospective digital strain versus post hoc analog-to-digital strain, and (2) in a third study (N = 95) comparing prospectively obtained TDI e' velocities with post hoc STE e' velocities. Finally, we replicated previously known associations between tissue velocities/strain, conventional echocardiographic measurements, and clinical data. Of the 2234 HyperGEN echocardiograms, 2150 (96.2%) underwent successful digitization and STE analysis. Inter/intra-observer agreement was high for all STE parameters, especially longitudinal strain (LS). In accuracy studies, LS performed best when comparing post hoc STE to prospective digital STE for strain analysis. STE-derived e' velocities correlated with, but systematically underestimated, TDI e' velocity. Several known associations between clinical variables and cardiac mechanics were replicated in HyperGEN. We also found a novel independent inverse association between fasting glucose and LS (adjusted β = -2.4 [95% CI -3.6, -1.2]% per 1-SD increase in fasting glucose; P echocardiography, the digitization and speckle tracking analysis of archival echocardiograms, is feasible and generates indices of cardiac mechanics similar to contemporary studies. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. New methods for the investigation of phase objects by digital Speckle-pattern-interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliesser, W.

    1996-11-01

    This work shows new possibilities for spatially resolved interferometric investigations of transparent objects (phase-objects) applying the method of Digital-Speckle-Pattern-Interferometry (DSPI). A feedback-system using an additional MICHELSON-interferometer in the reference-arm of the Speckle-interferometer was installed for computer-controlled digitalization of the primary interferograms at defined phase-shifts. A special program for interferogram analysis allows the evaluation of two-dimensional phase distributions using different phase-stepping algorithms as 3-Frame-, 4-Frame-, CARRE-, 4+1-Frame- and 6+1-Frame technique. Special DSPI-setups with modified MACH-ZEHNDER-interferometers were used to check the system. In some basic experiments the temperature distribution in a cross section of convective heat-flows of air was measured. As an application on plasma-diagnostics the space-resolved electron density in a high pressure mercury lamp was determined using two-wavelength-DSPI. To increase the sensitivity of the method a Nd-YAG-laser at 1064 nm was employed in addition to an Ar + -laser at 488 Nm. The electron density in one cross-section of the lamp could be calculated by ABEL-inversion of the measured phase data. A multi-directional optical setup with a special mirror system was developed to investigate asymmetric phase-objects by DSPI. The setup allows to store six primary interferograms from different directions in one step, while using a single reference-beam only. Helium flows in air with different flow geometries were used as phase-objects. Tomographic reconstruction procedures such as the convolution-method yield the distributions of the refractive-index and the related helium concentrations in selected cross sections of the flow. (author)

  10. Variability of global left ventricular deformation analysis using vendor dependent and independent two-dimensional speckle-tracking software in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Ali, Sophia; Olsen, Niels T

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of myocardial deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking is useful for clinical and research purposes. However, differences may exist among different ultrasound machines, software packages, frame rates, and observers.......Evaluation of myocardial deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking is useful for clinical and research purposes. However, differences may exist among different ultrasound machines, software packages, frame rates, and observers....

  11. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity

  12. Spatial correlations and probability density function of the phase difference in a developed speckle-field: numerical and natural experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysina, N Yu; Maksimova, L A; Ryabukho, V P; Gorbatenko, B B

    2015-01-01

    Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. II. HIPPARCOS STARS OBSERVED IN 2010 JANUARY AND JUNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Gomez, Shamilia C.; Anderson, Lisa M.; Sherry, William H.; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Van Altena, William F.

    2011-01-01

    The results of 497 speckle observations of Hipparcos stars and selected other targets are presented. Of these, 367 were resolved into components and 130 were unresolved. The data were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope. (The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.) Since the first paper in this series, the instrument has been upgraded so that it now uses two electron-multiplying CCD cameras. The measurement precision obtained when comparing to ephemeris positions of binaries with very well known orbits is approximately 1-2 mas in separation and better than 0. 0 6 in position angle. Differential photometry is found to be in very good agreement with Hipparcos measures in cases where the comparison is most relevant. We derive preliminary orbits for two systems.

  14. Momentum transfer Monte Carlo for the simulation of laser speckle imaging and its application in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole; Choi, Bernard

    2017-12-01

    Due to its simplicity and low cost, laser speckle imaging (LSI) has achieved widespread use in biomedical applications. However, interpretation of the blood-flow maps remains ambiguous, as LSI enables only limited visualization of vasculature below scattering layers such as the epidermis and skull. Here, we describe a computational model that enables flexible in-silico study of the impact of these factors on LSI measurements. The model uses Monte Carlo methods to simulate light and momentum transport in a heterogeneous tissue geometry. The virtual detectors of the model track several important characteristics of light. This model enables study of LSI aspects that may be difficult or unwieldy to address in an experimental setting, and enables detailed study of the fundamental origins of speckle contrast modulation in tissue-specific geometries. We applied the model to an in-depth exploration of the spectral dependence of speckle contrast signal in the skin, the effects of epidermal melanin content on LSI, and the depth-dependent origins of our signal. We found that LSI of transmitted light allows for a more homogeneous integration of the signal from the entire bulk of the tissue, whereas epi-illumination measurements of contrast are limited to a fraction of the light penetration depth. We quantified the spectral depth dependence of our contrast signal in the skin, and did not observe a statistically significant effect of epidermal melanin on speckle contrast. Finally, we corroborated these simulated results with experimental LSI measurements of flow beneath a thin absorbing layer. The results of this study suggest the use of LSI in the clinic to monitor perfusion in patients with different skin types, or inhomogeneous epidermal melanin distributions.

  15. State of the Art of X-ray Speckle-Based Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Zdora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging have evolved to be invaluable tools for non-destructive sample visualisation, delivering information inaccessible by conventional absorption imaging. X-ray phase-sensing techniques are furthermore increasingly used for at-wavelength metrology and optics characterisation. One of the latest additions to the group of differential phase-contrast methods is the X-ray speckle-based technique. It has drawn significant attention due to its simple and flexible experimental arrangement, cost-effectiveness and multimodal character, amongst others. Since its first demonstration at highly brilliant synchrotron sources, the method has seen rapid development, including the translation to polychromatic laboratory sources and extension to higher-energy X-rays. Recently, different advanced acquisition schemes have been proposed to tackle some of the main limitations of previous implementations. Current applications of the speckle-based method range from optics characterisation and wavefront measurement to biomedical imaging and materials science. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the X-ray speckle-based technique. Its basic principles and different experimental implementations as well as the the latest advances and applications are illustrated. In the end, an outlook for anticipated future developments of this promising technique is given.

  16. Early detection of myocardial dysfunction using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a young cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-month-old intact female Scottish Fold cat was presented for cardiac evaluation. Careful auscultation detected a slight systolic murmur (Levine I/VI. The findings of electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, non-invasive blood pressure measurements and conventional echocardiographic studies were unremarkable. However, two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography revealed abnormalities in myocardial deformations, including decreased early-to-late diastolic strain rate ratios in longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions, and deteriorated segmental systolic longitudinal strain. At the follow-up examinations, the cat exhibited echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using conventional echocardiography. Relevance and novel information This is the first report on the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction in a cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the myocardial dysfunction was detected before the development of hypertrophy. The findings from this case suggest that two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography can be useful for myocardial assessment when conventional echocardiographic and Doppler findings are ambiguous.

  17. Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wong, Kevin; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we describe a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated processing platform for real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast images with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) in mouse and human eyes in vivo. Motion contrast from blood flow is processed using the speckle variance OCT (svOCT) technique, which relies on the acquisition of multiple B-scan frames at the same location and tracking the change of the speckle pattern. Real-time mouse and human retinal imaging using two different custom-built OCT systems with processing and display performed on GPU are presented with an in-depth analysis of performance metrics. The display output included structural OCT data, en face projections of the intensity data, and the svOCT en face projections of retinal microvasculature; these results compare projections with and without speckle variance in the different retinal layers to reveal significant contrast improvements. As a demonstration, videos of real-time svOCT for in vivo human and mouse retinal imaging are included in our results. The capability of performing real-time svOCT imaging of the retinal vasculature may be a useful tool in a clinical environment for monitoring disease-related pathological changes in the microcirculation such as diabetic retinopathy.

  18. General filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe images with various densities based on variational image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biyuan; Tang, Chen; Gao, Guannan; Chen, Mingming; Tang, Shuwei; Lei, Zhenkun

    2017-06-01

    Filtering off speckle noise from a fringe image is one of the key tasks in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). In general, ESPI fringe images can be divided into three categories: low-density fringe images, high-density fringe images, and variable-density fringe images. In this paper, we first present a general filtering method based on variational image decomposition that can filter speckle noise for ESPI fringe images with various densities. In our method, a variable-density ESPI fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise. A low-density fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes and noise. A high-density fringe image is decomposed into high-density fringes and noise. We give some suitable function spaces to describe low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise, respectively. Then we construct several models and numerical algorithms for ESPI fringe images with various densities. And we investigate the performance of these models via our extensive experiments. Finally, we compare our proposed models with the windowed Fourier transform method and coherence enhancing diffusion partial differential equation filter. These two methods may be the most effective filtering methods at present. Furthermore, we use the proposed method to filter a collection of the experimentally obtained ESPI fringe images with poor quality. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

  19. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Carmen; van Essen, Fabian; Linnhoff, Fabian; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Weber, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro(®) device were performed. Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (-13.3%±5.4% vs -17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04). On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003) and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02). With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001) that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01). Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08). As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and did not significantly vary either in comparison to controls (P=0.07) or throughout the COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.49). COPD-OSA overlap solely correlated with nocturnal hypoxemic events, whereas LV performance status was unrelated to coexisting OSA. To conclude, COPD itself seems to be

  20. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Dan M J; Ince, Can; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Boateng, Kofi B; Geerts, Bart F; Hollmann, Markus W; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Veelo, Denise P

    2016-06-01

    Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood perfusion areas may provide information on the risks of future anastomotic leakage and could be essential for improving surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to generate a method for gastric microvascular perfusion analysis using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and to test the hypothesis that LSCI is able to identify ischemic regions on GTRs.Patients requiring elective laparoscopy-assisted GTR participated in this single-center observational investigation. A method for intraoperative evaluation of blood perfusion and postoperative analysis was generated and validated for reproducibility. Laser speckle measurements were performed at 3 different time pointes, baseline (devascularized) stomach (T0), after GTR (T1), and GTR at 20° reverse Trendelenburg (T2).Blood perfusion analysis inter-rater reliability was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients for each time point approximating 1 (P < 0.0001). Baseline (T0) and GTR (T1) mean blood perfusion profiles were highest at the base of the stomach and then progressively declined towards significant ischemia at the most cranial point or anastomotic tip (P < 0.01). After GTR, a statistically significant improvement in mean blood perfusion was observed in the cranial gastric regions of interest (P < 0.05). A generalized significant decrease in mean blood perfusion was observed across all GTR regions of interest during 20° reverse Trendelenburg (P < 0.05).It was feasible to implement LSCI intraoperatively to produce blood perfusion assessments on intact and reconstructed whole stomachs. The analytical design presented in this study resulted in good reproducibility of gastric perfusion measurements

  1. Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) applied to the study of mechanical behavior of human jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan F.; Moreno de las Cuevas, Vincente; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Suarez, David; Fernandez, Paula; Gallas, Mercedes; Blanchard, Alain

    1996-01-01

    The study of the mechanical behavior of the human jaw during chewing is helpful in several specific medical fields that cover the maxillo-facial area. In this work, electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been applied to study dead jaw bones under external stress which simulates the deformations induced during chewing. Fringes obtained after subtraction of two images of the jaw, the image of the relaxed jaw and that of the jaw under stress, give us information about the most stressed zones. The interferometric analysis proposed here is attractive as it can be done in real time with the jaw under progressive stress. Image processing can be applied for improving the quality of fringes. This research can be of help in orthognathic surgery, for example in diagnosis and treatment of fractured jaws, in oral surgery, and in orthodontics because it would help us to know the stress dispersion when we insert an osseointegrated implant or place an orthodontic appliance, respectively. Studying fragments of human jaw some results about its elasticity and flexibility were obtained.

  2. Overcoming turbulence-induced space-variant blur by using phase-diverse speckle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian J; Paxman, Richard G; Carrara, David A; Seldin, John H

    2009-01-01

    Space-variant blur occurs when imaging through volume turbulence over sufficiently large fields of view. Space-variant effects are particularly severe in horizontal-path imaging, slant-path (air-to-ground or ground-to-air) geometries, and ground-based imaging of low-elevation satellites or astronomical objects. In these geometries, the isoplanatic angle can be comparable to or even smaller than the diffraction-limited resolution angle. We report on a postdetection correction method that seeks to correct for the effects of space-variant aberrations, with the goal of reconstructing near-diffraction-limited imagery. Our approach has been to generalize the method of phase-diverse speckle (PDS) by using a physically motivated distributed-phase-screen model. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the reconstruction of near-diffraction-limited imagery under both matched and mismatched model assumptions. In addition, we present evidence that PDS could be used as a beaconless wavefront sensor in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system when imaging extended scenes.

  3. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  4. Automated analysis of art object surfaces using time-averaged digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michal; Krzemien, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    Technical development and practical evaluation of a laboratory built, out-of-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) are reported. The instrument was used for non-invasive, non-contact detection and characterization of early-stage damage, like fracturing and layer separation, of painted objects of art. A fully automated algorithm was developed for recording and analysis of vibrating objects utilizing continuous-wave laser light. The algorithm uses direct, numerical fitting or Hilbert transformation for an independent, quantitative evaluation of the Bessel function at every point of the investigated surface. The procedure does not require phase modulation and thus can be implemented within any, even the simplest, DSPI apparatus. The proposed deformation analysis is fast and computationally inexpensive. Diagnosis of physical state of the surface of a panel painting attributed to Nicolaus Haberschrack (a late-mediaeval painter active in Krakow) from the collection of the National Museum in Krakow is presented as an example of an in situ application of the developed methodology. It has allowed the effectiveness of the deformation analysis to be evaluated for the surface of a real painting (heterogeneous colour and texture) in a conservation studio where vibration level was considerably higher than in the laboratory. It has been established that the methodology, which offers automatic analysis of the interferometric fringe patterns, has a considerable potential to facilitate and render more precise the condition surveys of works of art.

  5. Comparison of cerebral microcirculation of alloxan diabetes and healthy mice using laser speckle contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshina, Polina A.; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Dan; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Luo, Qingming

    2015-03-01

    The study of blood microcirculation is one of the most important problems of the medicine. This paper presents results of experimental study of cerebral blood flow microcirculation in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes using Temporal Laser Speckle Imaging (TLSI). Additionally, a direct effect of glucose water solution (concentration 20% and 45%) on blood flow microcirculation was studied. In the research, 20 white laboratory mice weighing 20-30 g were used. The TLSI method allows one to investigate time dependent scattering from the objects with complex dynamics, since it possesses greater temporal resolution. Results show that in brain of animal diabetic group diameter of sagittal vein is increased and the speed of blood flow reduced relative to the control group. Topical application of 20%- or 45%-glucose solutions also causes increase of diameter of blood vessels and slows down blood circulation. The results obtained show that diabetes development causes changes in the cerebral microcirculatory system and TLSI techniques can be effectively used to quantify these alterations.

  6. Notch root strain measurement of WE43-T6 magnesium alloy using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, H.L.; Ahmad, A.; Ramesh, S.; Purbolaksono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of ESPI for measuring total strains at the notch root of specimens. • Fine meshing in micron scale at the notch root regions. • The maximum elastic strain is shifted to be further away from the notch root tip. - Abstract: The notch root elasto-plastic strains of circumferentially grooved round specimen of cast magnesium WE43-T6 were experimentally measured using the electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and numerically evaluated using the finite element analysis (FEA). The specimens have notch radii of 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm and an opening angle of 60°. The technique of ESPI showed its accuracy in measuring three-dimensional surface deformations on large negatively curved manifolds. The measured nominal stress for rupture is well beyond the ultimate strength, suggesting the existence of significant biaxial stress at the notch root region. The ESPI-based strains on the notch tips were shown to be in agreement with those evaluated by the FEA. The FEA also showed that the maximum elastic strain is shifted away from the notch root surface as the plastic strain is predominant

  7. Speckled eggs: water-loss and incubation behaviour in the great tit Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Gosler, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Many small passerine birds worldwide lay white eggs speckled with red, brown and black protoporphyrin pigment spots (maculation). Unlike some patterns of avian eggshell pigmentation which clearly serve a crypsis or signalling function, the ubiquity of maculation among passerines suggests that its origins lie in another function, not specific to any particular ecological or behavioural group. Elsewhere, we have presented evidence that protoporphyrin pigments serve a structural function related to eggshell thickness and calcium availability: eggshell maculation in the great tit Parus major increases with decreasing soil calcium levels, pigments demarcate thinner areas of shell, and both the pigment intensity and distribution are related to shell thickness. Here we show that maculation also affects the rate of water loss from the egg during incubation (approximately Mass Loss per Day or MLD, which is critical to egg viability), but not that of unincubated eggs. We also demonstrate, both by observation and experiment, that the effect of female incubation behaviour on MLD compensates in some way for variation in egg characteristics, and that differences between females in the degree of such compensation are related to differences in clutch maculation. Our results suggest that, while a principal function of maculation in this species may be to strengthen the eggshell, it may also reduce eggshell permeability when large amounts of pigment are used, and that this necessitates a behavioural adjustment from the female during incubation. We discuss these findings and make further testable predictions from our model.

  8. Laser speckle flowgraphy for differentiating between nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy and anterior optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekubo, Tomoyuki; Chuman, Hideki; Nao-I, Nobuhisa

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the differentiation of acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from anterior optic neuritis (ON). To investigate blood flow in the optic disc under normal conditions, NAION, and anterior ON, we compared the tissue blood flow of the right eye with that of the left eye in the control group, and that of the affected eye with that of the unaffected eye in the NAION and anterior ON groups. In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had decreased optic disc blood flow in the NAION eye when compared with the unaffected eye. By contrast, in the anterior ON group, all 6 patients had increased optic disc blood flow in the anterior ON eye when compared with the unaffected eye. In the NAION group, the mean blur rate (MBR) of the affected eyes was 29.5 % lower than that of the unaffected eyes. In the anterior ON group, the MBR of the affected eyes was 15.9 % higher than that of the unaffected eyes. LSFG could be useful in differentiating between NAION and anterior ON. In addition, this imaging technique saves time and is noninvasive.

  9. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9/Jupiter collision observed with a high resolution speckle imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    During the week of July 16, 1994, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, broken into 20 plus pieces by tidal forces on its last orbit, smashed into the planet Jupiter, releasing the explosive energy of 500 thousand megatons. A team of observers from LLNL used the LLNL Speckle Imaging Camera mounted on the University of California`s Lick Observatory 3 Meter Telescope to capture continuous sequences of planet images during the comet encounter. Post processing with the bispectral phase reconstruction algorithm improves the resolution by removing much of the blurring due to atmospheric turbulence. High resolution images of the planet surface showing the aftermath of the impact are probably the best that were obtained from any ground-based telescope. We have been looking at the regions of the fragment impacts to try to discern any dynamic behavior of the spots left on Jupiter`s cloud tops. Such information can lead to conclusions about the nature of the comet and of Jupiter`s atmosphere. So far, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed expanding waves from the G impact whose mechanism is enigmatic since they appear to be too slow to be sound waves and too fast to be gravity waves, given the present knowledge of Jupiter`s atmosphere. Some of our data on the G and L impact region complements the Hubble observations but, so far, is inconclusive about spot dynamics.

  10. Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K C; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yu, Joe X Z; Cadotte, David W; Wilson, Brian C; Standish, Beau A; Yang, Victor X D

    2012-07-01

    Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second.

  11. Speckle imaging of active galactic nuclei: NGC 1068 and NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebstein, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution images of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O III) 5007A line the nearby continuum produced from data taken with the PAPA photon-counting imaging detector using the technique of speckle imaging are presented. The images show an unresolved core of [O III] 5007A emission in the middle of an extended emission region. The extended emission tends to lie alongside the subarcsecond radio structure. In NGC 4151, the extended emission comes from a nearly linear structure extending on both sides of the unresolved core. In NGC 1068, the extended emission is also a linear structure centered on the unresolved core but the emission is concentrated in lobes lying to either side of the major axis. The continuum of NGC 4151 is spatially unresolved. The continuum of NGC 1068 is extended ∼1'' to the SW of the center of the [O III] 5007A emission. Certain aspects of the PAPA detector are discussed, including the variable-threshold discriminators that track the image intensifier pulse height and the camera artifacts. The data processing is described in detail

  12. Integration of wings and their eyespots in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuker, Casper J; Gibbs, Melanie; Van Dyck, Hans; Brakefield, Paul M; Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Van Dongen, Stefan

    2007-07-15

    We investigated both the phenotypic and developmental integration of eyespots on the fore- and hindwings of speckled wood butterflies Pararge aegeria. Eyespots develop within a framework of wing veins, which may not only separate eyespots developmentally, but may at the same time also integrate them by virtue of being both signalling sources and barriers during eyespot development. We therefore specifically investigated the interaction between wing venation patterns and eyespot integration. Phenotypic covariation among eyespots was very high, but only eyespots in neighbouring wing cells and in homologous wing cells on different wing surfaces were developmentally integrated. This can be explained by the fact that the wing cells of these eyespots share one or more wing veins. The wing venation patterns of fore- and hindwings were highly integrated, both phenotypically and developmentally. This did not affect overall developmental integration of the eyespots. The adaptive significance of integration patterns is discussed and more specifically we stress the need to conduct studies on phenotypic plasticity of integration.

  13. Development of a measurement technique to characterize erosion and redeposition in a tokamak by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, P.

    2006-11-01

    This work aims at proving the feasibility of temporal phase shifting speckle interferometry to make erosion/redeposition measurements on plasma facing components in situ on a tokamak. Results show clearly that the interferometric technique can be implemented on a tokamak to provide erosion/redeposition measurements. The optical setup and the interferograms acquisition and processing have been developed and tested in laboratory before being suited to the complex tokamak environment. We finally have an optical technique able to characterize erosion/redeposition mechanisms (amount of eroded/redeposited material, location) on optically rough plasma facing components (carbon fibre composite, tungsten). These components, suffering from random displacements (as vibrations) during acquisition, are relatively large (∼ 50 x 50 cm 2 ) and could be situated far away from the CCD camera (∼ 3 m). Now, we need to define the regions of plasma facing components where we want to make erosion and redeposition measurements. After that, we propose a diagnostic to validate the optical technique in situ on a tokamak, allowing us to develop a diagnostic for ITER. (author)

  14. Imaging Inelastic Fracture Processes in Biomimetic Nanocomposites and Nacre by Laser Speckle for Better Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verho, Tuukka; Karppinen, Pasi; Gröschel, André H; Ikkala, Olli

    2018-01-01

    Mollusk nacre is a prototypical biological inorganic-organic composite that combines high toughness, stiffness, and strength by its brick-and-mortar microstructure, which has inspired several synthetic mimics. Its remarkable fracture toughness relies on inelastic deformations at the process zone at the crack tip that dissolve stress concentrations and stop cracks. The micrometer-scale structure allows resolving the size and shape of the process zone to understand the fracture processes. However, for better scalability, nacre-mimetic nanocomposites with aligned inorganic or graphene nanosheets are extensively pursued, to avoid the packing problems of mesoscale sheets like in nacre or slow in situ biomineralization. This calls for novel methods to explore the process zone of biomimetic nanocomposites. Here the fracture of nacre and nacre-inspired clay/polymer nanocomposite is explored using laser speckle imaging that reveals the process zone even in absence of changes in optical scattering. To demonstrate the diagnostic value, compared to nacre, the nacre-inspired nanocomposite develops a process zone more abruptly with macroscopic crack deflection shown by a flattened process zone. In situ scanning electron microscopy suggests similar toughening mechanisms in nanocomposite and nacre. These new insights guide the design of nacre-inspired nanocomposites toward better mechanical properties to reach the level of synergy of their biological model.

  15. Off-axis holographic laser speckle contrast imaging of blood vessels in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurashitov, Arkady; Bragina, Olga; Sindeeva, Olga; Sergey, Sindeev; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-09-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has become one of the most common tools for functional imaging in tissues. Incomplete theoretical description and sophisticated interpretation of measurement results are completely sidelined by a low-cost and simple hardware, fastness, consistent results, and repeatability. In addition to the relatively low measuring volume with around 700 μm of the probing depth for the visible spectral range of illumination, there is no depth selectivity in conventional LSCI configuration; furthermore, in a case of high NA objective, the actual penetration depth of light in tissues is greater than depth of field (DOF) of an imaging system. Thus, the information about these out-of-focus regions persists in the recorded frames but cannot be retrieved due to intensity-based registration method. We propose a simple modification of LSCI system based on the off-axis holography to introduce after-registration refocusing ability to overcome both depth-selectivity and DOF problems as well as to get the potential possibility of producing a cross-section view of the specimen.

  16. Skin perfusion evaluation between laser speckle contrast imaging and laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahe, Guillaume; Durand, Sylvain; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    In the biomedical field, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) are two optical techniques aiming at monitoring - non-invasively - the microvascular blood perfusion. LDF has been used for nearly 40 years whereas LSCI is a recent technique that overcomes some drawbacks of LDF. Both LDF and LSCI give perfusion assessments in arbitrary units. However, the possible relationship existing between perfusions given by LDF and by LSCI over large blood flow values has not been completely studied yet. We therefore herein evaluate the relationship between the LDF and LSCI perfusion values across a broad range of skin blood flows. For this purpose, LDF and LSCI data were acquired simultaneously on the forearm of 12 healthy subjects, at rest, during different durations of vascular occlusion and during reactive hyperemia. For the range of skin blood flows studied, the power function fits the data better than the linear function: powers for individual subjects go from 1.2 to 1.7 and the power is close to 1.3 when all the subjects are studied together. We thus suggest distinguishing perfusion values given by the two optical systems.

  17. Determining the mechanical properties of rat skin with digital image speckle correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, E; Smilow, Sarah; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the mechanical properties of skin has numerous implications in surgical repair, dermal disorders and the diagnosis and treatment of trauma to the skin. Investigation of facial wrinkle formation, as well as research in the areas of skin aging and cosmetic product assessment can also benefit from alternative methodologies for the measurement of mechanical properties. A noncontact, noninvasive technique, digital image speckle correlation (DISC), has been successfully introduced to measure the deformation field of a skin sample loaded by a material test machine. With the force information obtained from the loading device, the mechanical properties of the skin, such as Young's modulus, linear limitation and material strength, can be calculated using elastic or viscoelastic theory. The DISC method was used to measure the deformation of neonatal rat skin, with and without a glycerin-fruit-oil-based cream under uniaxial tension. Deformation to failure procedure of newborn rat skin was recorded and analyzed. Single skin layer failures were observed and located by finding the strain concentration. Young's moduli of freshly excised rat skin, cream-processed rat skin and unprocessed rat skin, 24 h after excision, were found with tensile tests to be 1.6, 1.4 and 0.7 MPa, respectively. Our results have shown that DISC provides a novel technique for numerous applications in dermatology and reconstructive surgeries. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Evaluation of digital image correlation techniques using realistic ground truth speckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofaru, C; Philips, W; Van Paepegem, W

    2010-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been acknowledged and widely used in recent years in the field of experimental mechanics as a contactless method for determining full field displacements and strains. Even though several sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms have been proposed in the literature, little is known about their accuracy and limitations in reproducing complex underlying motion fields occurring in real mechanical tests. This paper presents a new method for evaluating sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms using ground truth speckle images that are realistically warped using artificial motion fields that were obtained following two distinct approaches: in the first, the horizontal and vertical displacement fields are created according to theoretical formulas for the given type of experiment while the second approach constructs the displacements through radial basis function interpolation starting from real DIC results. The method is applied in the evaluation of five DIC algorithms with results indicating that the gradient-based DIC methods generally have a quality advantage when using small sized blocks and are a better choice for calculating very small displacements and strains. The Newton–Raphson is the overall best performing method with a notable quality advantage when large block sizes are employed and in experiments where large strain fields are of interest

  19. Fabrication of Random Microwell Arrays as Pseudo-Thermal Speckle Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axiu Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum correlated imaging using the intensity fluctuations of thermal light possesses advantages of high resolution and strong anti-interference ability. The common method to produce pseudo-thermal light source is using a rotary ground glass and transmission of laser beam. In the present work, we propose a method for the fabrication of microwell arrays with randomly varied diameters, which could be used as a new structural element for pseudo-thermal speckle light source. If these are etched with random sizes then they may also have random and complex varying curvatures (diffusion limited etching leading to random destructive interference of the coherent beam which could be a good thing. The microwell arrays, with diameters randomly varying from 5 μm to 40 μm, height varying from 200 nm to 20 μm, were fabricated by photolithography combined with acid etching. The experimental conditions are simple and can be scaled up to for large structures. The produced microwell arrays can transform the laser beam to a pseudo-thermal light source with a certain divergent angle by rational designing of mask and adjustable process parameters.

  20. Non invasive blood flow assessment in diabetic foot ulcer using laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthy, A. K.; Sujatha, N.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba; Narayanamoorthy, V. B.

    2014-03-01

    Measuring microcirculatory tissue blood perfusion is of interest for both clinicians and researchers in a wide range of applications and can provide essential information of the progress of treatment of certain diseases which causes either an increased or decreased blood flow. Diabetic ulcer associated with alterations in tissue blood flow is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. A technique which can detect the onset of ulcer and provide essential information on the progress of the treatment of ulcer would be of great help to the clinicians. A noninvasive, noncontact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique has been described in this paper which is used to assess the changes in blood flow in diabetic ulcer affected areas of the foot. The blood flow assessment at the wound site can provide critical information on the efficiency and progress of the treatment given to the diabetic ulcer subjects. The technique may also potentially fulfill a significant need in diabetic foot ulcer screening and management.